WorldWideScience

Sample records for voluntary behavior change

  1. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  2. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for changing HIV-related risk behavior in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A; Denison, Julie; Kennedy, Caitlin E; O'Reilly, Kevin; Sweat, Michael

    2012-09-12

    Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) continues to play a critical role in HIV prevention, care and treatment. In recent years, different modalities of VCT have been implemented, including clinic-, mobile- and home-based testing and counseling. This review assesses the effects of all VCT types on HIV-related risk behaviors in low- and middle-income countries. The primary objective of this review is to systematically review the literature examining the efficacy of VCT in changing HIV-related risk behaviors in developing countries across various populations. Five electronic databases - PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) - were searched using predetermined key words and phrases. Hand-searching was conducted in four key journals including AIDS, AIDS and Behavior, AIDS Education and Prevention, and AIDS Care; the tables of contents of these four journals during the included time period were individually screened for relevant articles. The reference lists of all articles included in the review were screened to identify any additional studies; this process was iterated until no additional articles were found. To be included in the review, eligible studies had to meet the following inclusion criteria: 1) Take place in a low- or middle-income country as defined by the World Bank, 2) Published in a peer-reviewed journal between January 1, 1990 and July 6, 2010, 3) Involve client-initiated VCT, including pre-test counseling, HIV-testing, and post-test counseling, and 4) Use a pre/post or multi-arm design that compares individuals before and after receiving VCT or individuals who received VCT to those who did not, and 5) Report results pertaining to behavioral, psychological, biological, or social HIV-related outcomes. All citations were initially screened and all relevant citations were independently screened by two reviewers to assess eligibility. For all

  3. Using water to cool cattle: behavioral and physiological changes associated with voluntary use of cow showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, A; Schütz, K E; Tucker, C B

    2011-07-01

    Water is commonly used to cool cattle in summer either at milking or over the feed bunk, but little research has examined how dairy cows voluntarily use water separate from these locations. The objectives were to describe how and when dairy cattle voluntarily used an overhead water source separate from other resources, such as feed, and how use of this water affected behavioral and physiological indicators of heat stress. Half of the 24 nonlactating cattle tested had access to a "cow shower" composed of 2 shower heads activated by a pressure-sensitive floor. All animals were individually housed to prevent competition for access to the shower. Over 5 d in summer (air temperature=25.3±3.3°C, mean ± standard deviation), cattle spent 3.0±2.1 h/24h in the shower, but considerable variability existed between animals (individual daily values ranged from 0.0 to 8.2 h/24h). A portion of this variation can be explained by weather; shower use increased by 0.3h for every 1°C increase in ambient temperature. Cows preferentially used the shower during the daytime, with 89±12% of the time spent in the shower between 1000 and 1900 h. Respiration rate and skin temperature did not differ between treatments [53 vs. 61 breaths/min and 35.0 vs. 35.4°C in shower and control cows, respectively; standard error of the difference (SED)=5.6 breaths/min and 0.49°C]. In contrast, body temperature of cows provided with a shower was 0.2°C lower than control cows in the evening (i.e., 1800 to 2100h; SED=0.11°C). Cows with access to a shower spent half as much time near the water trough than control animals, and this pattern became more pronounced as the temperature-humidity index increased. In addition, cattle showed other behavioral changes to increasing heat load; they spent less time lying when heat load index increased, but the time spent lying, feeding, and standing without feeding did not differ between treatments. Cows had higher respiration rate, skin temperature, and body

  4. SEA Screening of voluntary Climate Change Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...

  5. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated......The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  6. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  7. Behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief entry presents the mediating-moderating variable model as a conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in regard to physical activity/exercise and adiposity. The ideas are applied to real world situations....

  8. Fermented soymilk increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kaneko, Daisuke; Nishimura, Ikuko; Matsuyama, Asahi

    2010-12-01

    Wheel running by rodents is thought to reflect voluntary exercise in humans. The present study examined the effect of fermented soymilk (FSM) on voluntary wheel running in rats. FSM was prepared from soymilk (SM) using the bacteria Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The rats were fed a normal diet for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week administration of diet containing FSM or SM (5% w/w), and then the diets were switched back to a normal diet for 3 weeks. The voluntary wheel running activity was increased by FSM administration, although no changes were observed by SM administration. This effect was observed 2 weeks after FSM administration and lasted 1 week after deprivation of FSM. Then we evaluated the effect of FSM on sexual behavior in male rats. FSM administration for 10 days significantly increased the number of mounts. The protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased in the hippocampus by FSM administration and it is suggested that FSM may change norepinephrine or dopamine signaling in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence that FSM increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior and suggests that TH may be involved in these effects.

  9. The development of involuntary and voluntary attention from childhood to adulthood: a combined behavioral and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Nicole; Widmann, Andreas; Berti, Stefan; Schröger, Erich

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated auditory involuntary and voluntary attention in children aged 6-8, 10-12 and young adults. The strength of distracting stimuli (20% and 5% pitch changes) and the amount of allocation of attention were varied. In an auditory distraction paradigm event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral data were measured from subjects either performing a sound duration discrimination task or watching a silent video. Pitch changed sounds caused prolonged reaction times and decreased hit rates in all age groups. Larger distractors (20%) caused stronger distraction in children, but not in adults. The amplitudes of mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON) were modulated by age and by voluntary attention. P3a was additionally affected by distractor strength. Maturational changes were also observed in the amplitudes of P1 (decreasing with age) and N1 (increasing with age). P2-modulation by voluntary attention was opposite in young children and adults. Results suggest quantitative and qualitative changes in auditory voluntary and involuntary attention and distraction during development. The processing steps involved in distraction (pre-attentive change detection, attention switch, reorienting) are functional in children aged 6-8 but reveal characteristic differences to those of young adults. In general, distractibility as indicated by behavioral and ERP measures decreases from childhood to adulthood. Behavioral and ERP markers for different processing stages involved in voluntary and involuntary attention reveal characteristic developmental changes from childhood to young adulthood.

  10. Nucleus accumbens shell moderates preference bias during voluntary choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeran; Jung, Kanghoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang Ki; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-09-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell lies anatomically at a critical intersection within the brain's reward system circuitry, however, its role in voluntary choice behavior remains unclear. Rats with electrolytic lesions in the NAc shell were tested in a novel foraging paradigm. Over a continuous two-week period they freely chose among four nutritionally identical but differently flavored food pellets by pressing corresponding levers. We examined the lesion's effects on three behavioral dynamics components: motivation (when to eat), preference bias (what to choose) and persistence (how long to repeat the same choice). The lesion led to a marked increase in the preference bias: i.e., increased selection of the most-preferred choice option, and decreased selection of the others. We found no effects on any other behavioral measures, suggesting no effect on motivation or choice persistence. The results implicate the NAc shell in moderating the instrumental valuation process by inhibiting excessive bias toward preferred choice options. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, R.Parrish; Pringle, R.B.; Forster, G.L.; Renner, K.J.; Malisch, J.L.; Garland, T.; Swallow, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  12. Timing of changes from a primitive reflex to a voluntary behavior in infancy as a potential predictor of socio-psychological and physical development during juvenile stages among common marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Karino

    2015-07-01

    Consequently, we found that both subjects expressed climbing-up behavior in the initial early period, but only the female who developed typically later, switched to jumping-down behavior with pre-facing to ‘down’ direction. Meanwhile, the male who would have developmental delay later, clearly did not show the switching pattern. The results suggest that the switch timing from involuntary to voluntary movement may be a possible predictor of juvenile and adolescent physiological and psychological retardation. The results also suggest that the primate model allows more methods to be developed for early detection of developmental disabilities that could be utilized in humans to pave the way for interventions and possible psychological or psychiatric treatment.

  13. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  14. [Changes and disorders in voluntary saccades during development and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, O

    1997-05-01

    We examined age-dependent changes in voluntary eye movements in normal subjects (age : 5-76) using a visually guided saccade (V-saccade) task and a memory guided saccade (M-saccade) task. Changes were more evident in M-saccades. The latencies were long in children (people (> 50 y.o.). Both young children and elderly people tended to break fixation by making a saccade to the cue stimulus that indicated the future target position. On the other hand, both young children and elderly people tended to be slow in making M-saccade promptly after the central fixation point went off. Thus, they had difficulties both in suppressing unnecessary saccades and in initiating saccades based on memory. Interestingly, similar difficulties were observed, in exaggerated forms, in patients in basal ganglia disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, juvenile parkinsonism, dopa-responsive dystonia, and hereditary progressive dystonia with marked diurnal fluctuation. These findings were consistent with the known functions of the basal ganglia which have been revealed by physiological studies using trained monkeys. The substantia nigra pars reticulata exerts tonic inhibitory influences over the superior colliculus, thereby preventing excitatory inputs from triggering unnecessary saccades. The tonic inhibition, however, is removed by a phasic inhibition largely originating in the caudate nucleus. Thus, inhibition and disinhibition are key mechanisms of the basal ganglia. In fact, experimental manipulations of these serial inhibitory pathway in the basal ganglia led either to the difficulty in initiation of saccades, especially M-saccades, or to the difficulty in suppressing unnecessary saccades. These comparisons suggest that the functions of the basal ganglia are immature in young children while they become deteriorated in elderly people.

  15. A neural population model incorporating dopaminergic neurotransmission during complex voluntary behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Fürtinger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing brain activity during complex voluntary motor behaviors that require the recruitment of multiple neural sites is a field of active research. Our current knowledge is primarily based on human brain imaging studies that have clear limitations in terms of temporal and spatial resolution. We developed a physiologically informed non-linear multi-compartment stochastic neural model to simulate functional brain activity coupled with neurotransmitter release during complex voluntary behavior, such as speech production. Due to its state-dependent modulation of neural firing, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in the organization of functional brain circuits controlling speech and language and thus has been incorporated in our neural population model. A rigorous mathematical proof establishing existence and uniqueness of solutions to the proposed model as well as a computationally efficient strategy to numerically approximate these solutions are presented. Simulated brain activity during the resting state and sentence production was analyzed using functional network connectivity, and graph theoretical techniques were employed to highlight differences between the two conditions. We demonstrate that our model successfully reproduces characteristic changes seen in empirical data between the resting state and speech production, and dopaminergic neurotransmission evokes pronounced changes in modeled functional connectivity by acting on the underlying biological stochastic neural model. Specifically, model and data networks in both speech and rest conditions share task-specific network features: both the simulated and empirical functional connectivity networks show an increase in nodal influence and segregation in speech over the resting state. These commonalities confirm that dopamine is a key neuromodulator of the functional connectome of speech control. Based on reproducible characteristic aspects of empirical data, we suggest a number

  16. A process model of voluntary travel behavior modification and effects of Travel Feedback Programs (TFPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Ayako

    2007-01-01

    This study tested an integrated process model of travel behavior modification. We used a model that combined the theory of planned behavior (TPB), norm activation theory (NAT), a theory of implementation intention, and theories of habit. To test the integrated model, we used panel data (n = 208) obtained before and after travel feedback programs (TFPs); the TFP is a communication program aimed at voluntary travel behavior modification, from automobile use to non-auto means of travel such as p...

  17. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  18. Voluntary business activities to mitigate climate change: Case studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary business activities, such as the voluntary action plans conducted by comprehensive business associations in Japan to reduce environmental damage, are viable policy instruments alongside regulations and economic incentives (e.g. taxes and emissions trading schemes). This paper examines three case studies in which voluntary activities have played a successful role in mitigating climate change. Based on interviews with business organisations together with a literature review and data analysis, we show why businesses are motivated to take socially responsible actions and describe the major benefits of such activities. One of the important benefits of voluntary activities is their flexibility in phasing measures. This flexibility is greatly appreciated, since industries are able to retain control of their responses to future uncertainties, which allows them to tackle climate change issues aggressively. We conclude that voluntary activities have been more environmentally effective than alternative policy measures under a proper institutional framework, which consists of effective motivation mechanisms for businesses, governmental measures to encourage their compliance, and capable industrial associations that can lessen the transaction costs both of the government and of industry. - Highlights: • Businesses are well motivated to take suitable, technologically feasible actions. • Capability of industrial associations is a key to successful voluntary activities. • Flexibility allows businesses to manage uncertainty and aim for ambitious goals

  19. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  20. Decision Making in Voluntary Career Change: An Other-than-Rational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Lopes, Paulo N.; Lyons, Evanthia

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a qualitative study of voluntary career change, which highlighted the importance of positive emotions, unplanned action, and building certainty and perceiving continuity in the realization of change. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to broaden theoretical understanding of real-life career decision making. The…

  1. Decision Making in Voluntary Career Change: An Other-Than-Rational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, N.; Lopes, P. N.; Lyons, E.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study of voluntary career change highlighted the importance of positive emotions, unplanned action, and the construction of certainty and continuity in the realization of change. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to broaden theoretical understanding of real-life career decision making. The accounts of eight women who had changed careers were explored and the analysis supported other-than-rational perspectives of career decision making. An action-affect-cognition ...

  2. Risk assessment for infectious disease and its impact on voluntary vaccination behavior in social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Kokubo, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model a vaccination game from the standpoint of network reciprocity on 2 × 2 game. • We investigate the impacts of public information for infectious disease. • Effect of risk assessment based on public information depends on network structure. • Use of public information yields positive effect if vaccination cost is small. - Abstract: Achievement of the herd immunity is essential for preventing the periodic spreading of an infectious disease such as the flu. If vaccination is voluntary, as vaccination coverage approaches the critical level required for herd immunity, there is less incentive for individuals to be vaccinated; this results in an increase in the number of so-called “free-riders” who craftily avoid infection via the herd immunity and avoid paying any cost. We use a framework originating in evolutionary game theory to investigate this type of social dilemma with respect to epidemiology and the decision of whether to be vaccinated. For each individual in a population, the decision on vaccination is associated with how one assesses the risk of infection. In this study, we propose a new risk-assessment model in a vaccination game when an individual updates her strategy, she compares her own payoff to a net payoff obtained by averaging a collective payoff over individuals who adopt the same strategy as that of a randomly selected neighbor. In previous studies of vaccination games, when an individual updates her strategy, she typically compares her payoff to the payoff of a randomly selected neighbor, indicating that the risk for changing her strategy is largely based on the behavior of one other individual, i.e., this is an individual-based risk assessment. However, in our proposed model, risk assessment by any individual is based on the collective success of a strategy and not on the behavior of any one other individual. For strategy adaptation, each individual always takes a survey of the degree of success of a certain

  3. Canadian Energy Pipeline Association - second report to the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the Canadian pipeline industry's initiatives to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was presented. The commitment of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) and its 11 member companies to the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge Program which aims to stabilize GHG emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000, was reaffirmed. At the same time, questions were raised about whether the absolute reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels is a realistic or desirable goal for the Canadian transmission pipeline industry, given the increased demand for Canadian gas and petroleum products both domestically and internationally. it was argued that the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge Program must recognize the differing abilities of Canada's economic sectors to achieve absolute reductions in greenhouse gas emissions

  4. Knowledge and behavior towards voluntary blood donation among students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, A G; Odeh, E

    2011-01-01

    Blood donation is the only way of acquiring blood to meet emergency requirements in cases of road traffic accidents, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, various anemic disorders and surgical emergencies among others. Globally, 80 million units of blood are donated each year, but only two million units are donated in sub-Saharan Africa where the need is enormous. The objective of this study was to determine the behavior of the students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria towards voluntary blood donation. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, which involved students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the participants for this study. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and factors affecting voluntary blood donation. The data obtained were analyzed using EPI-INFO 2005 software Version 3.3.2. Less than two-thirds (61%) of total respondents had good knowledge of blood donation. More than three quarters (85%) of the respondents had never donated blood. Of the 15% that had donated, only 3% donated voluntarily. Among those that had ever donated, males (57%) were more than females. Many of the donors donated for relatives (57%). The majority of the respondents were compelled to donate because of emergency situations (75%). The reasons why many did not donate were lack of opportunity (45%) due to tight lecture schedule and inadequate knowledge (24%). Gift items such as hematinics, T-shirts and wrist bands (29%) would motivate respondents to donate. The Students' Union body and other Organizations in the University should include a blood donation drive in their monthly/annual activities. The University authorities, the University health service centre and the Hematology Department of the Teaching hospital should collaborate in promoting voluntary blood donation among the students.

  5. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats selectively bred for low and high voluntary running behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob D; Green, Caroline L; Arthur, Ian M; Booth, Frank W; Miller, Dennis K

    2015-02-01

    The rewarding effects of physical activity and abused drugs are caused by stimulation of similar brain pathways. Low (LVR) and high (HVR) voluntary running lines were developed by selectively breeding Wistar rats on running distance performance on postnatal days 28-34. We hypothesized that LVR rats would be more sensitive to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than HVR rats due to their lower motivation for wheel running. We investigated how selection for LVR or HVR behavior affects inherited activity responses: (a) open field activity levels, (b) habituation to an open field environment, and (c) the locomotor response to cocaine. Open field activity was measured for 80 min on three successive days (days 1-3). Data from the first 20 min were analyzed to determine novelty-induced locomotor activity (day 1) and the habituation to the environment (days 1-3). On day 3, rats were acclimated to the chamber for 20 min and then received saline or cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) injection. Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens was measured via Western blot. Selecting for low and high voluntary running behavior co-selects for differences in inherent (HVR > LVR) and cocaine-induced (LVR > HVR) locomotor activity levels. The differences in the selected behavioral measures do not appear to correlate with DAT protein levels. LVR and HVR rats are an intriguing physical activity model for studying the interactions between genes related to the motivation to run, to use drugs of abuse, and to exhibit locomotor activity.

  6. Positive demonstration of initiatives under the voluntary climate change challenge program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, J.; Hare, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions that have built up over a century is a long-term challenge which requires long-term, sustainable solutions. The solutions include the increasing need for Canadians to use less carbon intensive fuels, such as natural gas. There are no economically and socially acceptable quick fixes that will produce dramatic results on a large scale. The endorsement of the Voluntary Climate Change Challenge and Registry Program (VCR) by the Canadian Gas Association (CGA), and subsequent approval of the Memorandum of Understanding, are indicative of commitments by the Association and its member companies to environmentally responsible actions and measures to ensure efficient energy usage. While CGA and members continue to reduce emissions, it must be recognized that significant progress will take time. Given the benefits of a long-term sustainable approach, the Voluntary Challenge represents the most logical way to proceed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian sources without causing severe economic dislocation. (au) 26 refs

  7. Epartners supporting behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Keulen, H. van; Janssen, J.B.; Nunen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on developing a comprehensive framework that guides the design of ePartners that support behavior change to promote health. An ePartner is an interactive, virtual or embodied computer assistant to which one can communicate and that assists persons through tailored advice,

  8. Does Information Change Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.

  9. Building Alliances with (In)Voluntary Clients: A Study Focused on Therapists' Observable Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Luciana; Cunha, Diana; da Silva, José Tomás; Escudero, Valentín; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare therapists' observable behaviors to promote alliances with involuntary and voluntary clients during brief family therapy. The therapists' contributions to fostering alliances were rated in sessions 1 and 4 using videotapes of 29 families who were observed in brief therapy. Using the System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances, trained raters searched for specific therapist behaviors that contributed to or detracted from the four alliance dimensions: engagement in the therapeutic process, an emotional connection with the therapist, safety within the therapeutic system, and a shared sense of purpose within the family. The results showed that when working with involuntary clients, therapists presented more behaviors to foster the clients' engagement and to promote a shared sense of purpose within the family. However, in the fourth session, the therapists in both groups contributed to the alliance in similar ways. The results are discussed in terms of (a) the therapists' alliance-building behaviors, (b) the specificities of each client group, and (c) the implications for clinical practice, training, and research. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. Time of day influences the voluntary intake and behavioral response to methamphetamine and food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Diana R; Hart, Carl L; Robotham, Margaret; Tariq, Maliha; Le Sauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae

    2013-09-01

    The circadian timing system influences a vast array of behavioral responses. Substantial evidence indicates a role for the circadian system in regulating reward processing. Here we explore time of day effects on drug anticipation, locomotor activity, and voluntary methamphetamine (MA) and food intake in animals with ad libitum food access. We compared responses to drug versus a palatable treat during their normal sleep times in early day (zeitgeber time (ZT) 0400) or late day (ZT 1000). In the first study, using a between-subjects design, mice were given daily 1-h access to either peanut butter (PB-Alone) or to a low or high concentration of MA mixed in PB (MA+PB). In study 2, we repeated the experiment using a within-subjects design in which mice could choose between PB-Alone and MA+PB at either ZT 0400 or 1000. In study 3, the effects of MA-alone were investigated by evaluating anticipatory activity preceding exposure to nebulized MA at ZT 0400 vs. ZT 1000. Time of day effects were observed for both drug and palatable treat, such that in the between groups design, animals showed greater intake, anticipatory activity, and post-ingestional activity in the early day. Furthermore, there were differences among mice in the amount of MA ingested but individuals were self-consistent in their daily intake. The results for the within-subjects experiment also revealed robust individual differences in preference for MA+PB or PB-Alone. Interestingly, time of day effects on intake were observed only for the preferred substance. Anticipatory activity preceding administration of MA by nebulization was also greater at ZT 0400 than ZT 1000. Finally, pharmacokinetic response to MA administered intraperitoneally did not vary as a function of time of administration. The results indicate that time of day is an important variable mediating the voluntary intake and behavioral effects of reinforcers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in voluntary activation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation during prolonged cycling exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jubeau

    Full Text Available Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS, corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP. Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13 ± 9%, P<0.01 and was further decreased (25 ± 11%, P<0.001 at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (∼ 8%, P<0.05 and ∼ 14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body but also on exercise intensity and/or duration.

  12. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  13. Rational behavior is a ‘double-edged sword’ when considering voluntary vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Wenyao; Wang, Binghong

    2012-10-01

    Of particular importance for public health is how to understand strategic vaccination behavior in social networks. Social learning is a central aspect of human behavior, and it thus shapes vaccination individuals’ decision-making. Here, we study two simple models to address the impact of the more rational decision-making of individuals on voluntary vaccination. In the first model, individuals are endowed with memory capacity for their past experiences of dealing with vaccination. In addition to their current payoffs, they also take account of the historical payoffs that are discounted by a memory-decaying factor. They use such overall payoffs (weighing the current payoffs and historical payoffs) to reassess their vaccination strategies. Those who have higher overall payoffs are more likely imitated by their social neighbors. In the second model, individuals do not blindly learn the strategies of neighbors; they also combine the fraction of infection in the past epidemic season. If the fraction of infection surpasses the perceived risk threshold, individuals will increase the probability of taking vaccination. Otherwise, they will decrease the probability of taking vaccination. Then we use evolutionary game theory to study the vaccination behavior of people during an epidemiological process. To do this, we propose a two-stage model: individuals make vaccination decisions during a yearly vaccination campaign, followed by an epidemic season. This forms a feedback loop between the vaccination decisions of individuals and their health outcomes, and thus payoffs. We find that the two more rational decision-making models have nontrivial impacts on the vaccination behavior of individuals, and, as a result, on the final fraction of infection. Our results highlight that, from an individual’s viewpoint, the decisions are optimal and more rational. However, from the social viewpoint, the strategies of individuals can give rise to distinct outcomes. Namely, the rational

  14. SEA screening of voluntary climate change plans: A story of non-compliant discretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk; Wejs, Anja

    2013-07-15

    Screening within Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the first critical stage involving considerations on whether an assessment is carried out or not. Although legislation and guidance offer practitioners a legal and logical approach to the screening process, it is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation and adaptation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon rests upon a documentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical analysis of mandatory SEA and/or obligation to screen CCPs according to significance criteria, the authors find that 18 out of the 48 CCPs are mandatory to SEA and 9 would require a screening of significance and thereby potentially be followed by a SEA. In practice only one plan was screened and one was environmentally assessed. The legal, democratic and environmental consequences of this SEA practice are critically discussed. Hereunder is the missed opportunity to use the broad environmental scope of SEA to avoid a narrow focus on energy and CO{sub 2} in CCPs, and the question whether this practice in Denmark complies with the EU Directive. -- Highlights: ► It is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. ► The article hereby

  15. SEA screening of voluntary climate change plans: A story of non-compliant discretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Screening within Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the first critical stage involving considerations on whether an assessment is carried out or not. Although legislation and guidance offer practitioners a legal and logical approach to the screening process, it is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation and adaptation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon rests upon a documentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical analysis of mandatory SEA and/or obligation to screen CCPs according to significance criteria, the authors find that 18 out of the 48 CCPs are mandatory to SEA and 9 would require a screening of significance and thereby potentially be followed by a SEA. In practice only one plan was screened and one was environmentally assessed. The legal, democratic and environmental consequences of this SEA practice are critically discussed. Hereunder is the missed opportunity to use the broad environmental scope of SEA to avoid a narrow focus on energy and CO 2 in CCPs, and the question whether this practice in Denmark complies with the EU Directive. -- Highlights: ► It is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. ► The article hereby calls

  16. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  17. Are voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior correlated in mice? Different answers from comparative and artificial selection approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Ordonez, Genesis; Garland, Theodore

    2012-09-01

    Voluntary wheel running and open-field behavior are probably the two most widely used measures of locomotion in laboratory rodents. We tested whether these two behaviors are correlated in mice using two approaches: the phylogenetic comparative method using inbred strains of mice and an ongoing artificial selection experiment on voluntary wheel running. After taking into account the measurement error and phylogenetic relationships among inbred strains, we obtained a significant positive correlation between distance run on wheels and distance moved in the open-field for both sexes. Thigmotaxis was negatively correlated with distance run on wheels in females but not in males. By contrast, mice from four replicate lines bred for high wheel running did not differ in either distance covered or thigmotaxis in the open field as compared with mice from four non-selected control lines. Overall, results obtained in the selection experiment were generally opposite to those observed among inbred strains. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  18. Suncor Energy Inc. seventh annual progress report : Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This document detailed the various initiatives implemented by Suncor Energy Inc. in light of Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. Project Millennium, which represents a 3.25 billion dollar expansion expected to lead to an increase production capacity for Oil Sands operations, was consolidated during 2000, along with the completion of restructuring, which led to the divestiture of conventional oil properties and the joint venture interest held by Suncor in the Stuart Oil Shale Project. In addition, there were some improvements made to the greenhouse gas management and reporting systems. Suncor is expected to invest funding in the order of 100 million dollars for the period 2000-2005 in the field of alternative and renewable energy. The reductions in greenhouse gas emissions achieved for the year 2000 were 404,000 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent. Each of these major endeavours was discussed in the document. tabs

  19. Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces, Center of Pressure and Body Center of Mass Changes in the Voluntary, Semi-Voluntary and Involuntary Gait Termination in Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behrooz teymourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was comparing the ground reaction forces, center of pressure and body center of mass changes in voluntary, semi-voluntary and involuntary gait termination in healthy young men. Methods: In this study, 12 young men performed termination of gait in three different patterns. The variable of peak antero-posterior and vertical forces in two directions at both limbs, the time to reach peak and average forces in every limb in both directions, the center of pressure displacement of medio-lateral and antero-posterior direction for each limb and the net center of pressure and the displacement of the center of mass motion in all three motion plates were recorded using motion analysis system and force plate.The repeated measurements test was used to compare three patterns of gait termination at significance level of p&le0.5. Results: The results showed a significant difference in variables of peak antero-posterior force, the time to reach peak antero-posterior force and mean antero-posterior forces of the leading limb, the peak antero-posterior force of the trialing limbs, the depth force of leading limbs, medio-lateral cop of leading limbs displacement and vertical displacement of the center of mass, among different patterns of gait termination. Conclusion: While walking, the probability of a fall or collision damage, when a sudden or unexpected stop is required, increases. Therefore, more coordination between neuromuscular systems is required.

  20. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  1. Dopamine release dynamics change during adolescence and after voluntary alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palm

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with high impulsivity and risk taking, making adolescent individuals more inclined to use drugs. Early drug use is correlated to increased risk for substance use disorders later in life but the neurobiological basis is unclear. The brain undergoes extensive development during adolescence and disturbances at this time are hypothesized to contribute to increased vulnerability. The transition from controlled to compulsive drug use and addiction involve long-lasting changes in neural networks including a shift from the nucleus accumbens, mediating acute reinforcing effects, to recruitment of the dorsal striatum and habit formation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis of increased dopamine release after a pharmacological challenge in adolescent rats. Potassium-evoked dopamine release and uptake was investigated using chronoamperometric dopamine recordings in combination with a challenge by amphetamine in early and late adolescent rats and in adult rats. In addition, the consequences of voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence on these effects were investigated. The data show a gradual increase of evoked dopamine release with age, supporting previous studies suggesting that the pool of releasable dopamine increases with age. In contrast, a gradual decrease in evoked release with age was seen in response to amphetamine, supporting a proportionally larger storage pool of dopamine in younger animals. Dopamine measures after voluntary alcohol intake resulted in lower release amplitudes in response to potassium-chloride, indicating that alcohol affects the releasable pool of dopamine and this may have implications for vulnerability to addiction and other psychiatric diagnoses involving dopamine in the dorsal striatum.

  2. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  3. What menu changes do restaurants make after joining a voluntary restaurant recognition program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kaur, Mandip; Dunning, Lauren; Montes, Christine; Kuo, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Programs that recognize restaurants for offering healthful options have emerged as a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic; however, program fidelity and business responses to such programs are rarely assessed. This study sought to examine how retail restaurants in Los Angeles County chose to comply with participation criteria required by the Choose Health LA Restaurants initiative in the region; the program recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size portions and healthy children's meals. Menus of all restaurants that joined within 1 year of program launch (n = 17 restaurant brands) were assessed for changes. Nine of the 17 brands made changes to their menus to meet participation criteria for reduced-size portions while 8 of the 10 restaurant brands that offered children's menus made changes to improve the healthfulness of children's meals. Results of this comparative assessment lend support to restaurant compliance with program criteria and menu improvements, even though they are voluntary, representing an important step toward implementing this strategy in the retail environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Petro-Canada's 2001 report in support of Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    One of the leading oil and gas companies in Canada, Petro-Canada is committed to the Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. In this document, the major initiatives undertaken by Petro-Canada with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were highlighted. The successes in improving energy efficiency in the process of reducing greenhouse gas emissions were reviewed. A major accomplishment in 2000 was the total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the operations of Petro-Canada that were below the level of 1990, even in the face of a one-third increase in production over the last ten years. As a result, a reduction in excess of 45,000 tonnes of ongoing annual emissions was achieved. The targets that were set are a one per cent reduction every year from 2000 to 2005 through reductions in fuel consumption. The Production Energy Intensity (PEI) of the upstream was improved in 2000 by 11 per cent when compared to 1999 value. Energy efficiency projects have been allocated a total of 4 million dollars in capital funds, and emerging technologies in alternate fuels are being monitored to enable Petro-Canada to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Several education projects are being funded to enhance public awareness of climate change issues. 4 tabs., 7 figs

  7. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, BB; Lähteenmäki, L; Grunert, KG; Brown, KA; Timotijevic, L; Barnett, J; Shepherd, R; Raats, MM

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social...

  8. Fifth annual progress report for Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    will be greatly improved by access to the flexibility mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, and the implementation of a meaningful credit for early action programs in Canada. Suncor's emission control achievements to date are summarized, as well as the continued improvements in GHG emission performance that are planned for 2002. Data are summarized for the years: 1980-1998, 1998, 1999-2002, and 1999-2010, as well as its GHG control methods and management practices. The Voluntary Challenges and Initiatives and Registry Program complements Suncor's comprehensive and voluntary seven point action plan to address climate change which includes: management of their own greenhouse gas emissions, development of alternative and renewable energy sources of energy, environmental and economic growth, domestic and international offsets, constructive policy input, employee and public education, and measurement and public reporting on progress

  9. Ninth report to Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the concrete actions that the oil and gas pipeline industry has taken to limit the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canada's transmission pipeline network, which is a vital component of Canada's energy infrastructure. It outlines the technical and economic expertise that has been acquired by the industry over its 9 year implication in Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. The industry has modified operating procedures, conducted research and development work and implemented innovative technologies to manage GHG emissions produced by pipeline operations. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) believes that Canada and the international community should consider the development of frameworks other than the Kyoto Protocol for reducing global GHG emissions and that all targets and actions for reducing GHG emissions should be credible and achievable. Carbon dioxide is the major target for the pipeline industry, because it is the largest component of direct GHG emissions. Other targets include methane, nitrous oxide and indirect emissions produced by thermal power plants that sell electricity to pipeline companies. CEPA emphasized that these targets should not put Canada at a competitive disadvantage with major trading partners in the United States. This report described emerging technologies aimed at reducing or offsetting GHG emissions. Flexible mechanisms such as emissions trading that will help companies achieve cost-effective and verifiable GHG emissions reductions were also described. 2 figs

  10. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change. The case of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Birger B; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from "rational model of man", behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in behaviour and the possible alternatives that require no or only minor changes in behaviour. Dissecting the theories provides new approaches to food-related behaviour that will aid the development of batteries of policy options when targeting nutritional problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program : 6. annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    A Canadian integrated energy company, Suncor Energy Inc. comprises a corporate group, three operating business units, and two emerging businesses. This annual Progress Report for Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program represents the sixth for this company. Suncor is committed to sustainable development. Some initiatives undertaken in 1999 by Suncor included: Oil Sands Project Millennium, which will more than double the actual production of crude oil and fuel products by 2002. Suncor is divesting of conventional oil properties in order to concentrate on exploration and production of natural gas. Alternative and renewable energy will see an investment of 100 million over the next five years. The money will be allocated to research and development, the production of fuels from biomass, and conversion of municipal solid waste to energy through the recovery of methane from landfills. Since 1990, the emissions of carbon dioxide have been reduced to 14 per cent below 1990 levels, and reductions of 622, 000 tonnes of greenhouse gases. A comprehensive tracking, reporting, and management system for greenhouse gases was implemented. Ongoing improvements in quality and comprehensiveness have validated the methodology used to monitor emissions inventories and sources. Initiatives in internal and external awareness of greenhouse gases education were implemented, such as speaking engagements at climate change activities, the retrofit of schools with advanced energy-efficient technology, education programs, employee suggestion programs, etc. Collaboration with external partners on research and development projects represents a major building block in this approach. Some of the research and development projects involve the development of advanced carbon dioxide capture and geologic sequestration technologies, work on the production of alternative and renewable energy from Canadian municipal landfills, and the study of a new process to extract heavy

  13. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  14. [Health behavior change: motivational interviewing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz

    2017-08-01

    Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.

  15. Health behaviors of mandated and voluntary students in a motivational intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.

  16. Voluntary physical exercise alters attentional orienting and social behavior in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E; Sharma, Mita; Evans, Gretchen C; Bucci, David J

    2009-06-01

    The effects of voluntary physical exercise on attentional function and social behavior were examined in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rats in the exercise groups had free access to a running wheel for 2 weeks and then all rats received nonreinforced presentations of a visual stimulus (light) during the 1st training session, followed by daily sessions in which the light was paired with food. Nonexercising male and female SHR rats exhibited more unconditioned orienting behavior than Wistar-Kyoto rats. SHRs also exhibited impaired conditioning when the light was paired with food. Exercise reduced orienting in female SHRs but not in male SHRs. In the social interaction task, nonexercising male and female SHRs interacted more with an unfamiliar rat than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Exercise reduced the number of social interactions in female SHRs but not male SHRs. There were no differences in general locomotor activity observed between the nonexercising and exercising SHRs. These data indicate that exercise may preferentially benefit female SHRs, and has implications for using exercise as an intervention for ADHD and for understanding sex differences in the effects of exercise on behavior. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Propensity to Leave versus Probability of Leaving: The Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction in the Voluntary Leaving Behavior of IT Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative analysis of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and the voluntary leaving behavior of IT professionals. In addition, the study adds to the validity and reliability of the Udechukwu and Mujtaba Mathematical Turnover Model. Surveyed within the study for their intrinsic and…

  18. Voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Thurstan B

    1986-05-10

    Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.

  19. Voluntary fluid intake and palatability change with two-drink availability during cycling training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Scaglioni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how voluntary drinking is affected by the simultaneous presence of two different beverages (plain water and a sports drink compared to the availability of just one beverage at a time. Methods: Twenty recreational cyclists and triathletes (22.8 ± 6.9 years old were recruited. Subjects completed three laboratory sessions each (DB=23°C, RH=70% in randomly assigned order, with at least one week between sessions: one session, only water available (WAonly; another session, only sports drink (SDonly; and another session, both beverages (BOTH. Drinking was ad libitum. Each exercise session lasted 100 min.: a 20 min. warm-up, followed by eight 5-min. high-intensity intervals (85-95% HRmax alternating with 2.5 min. recovery time (60-70% HRmax and a final 20 min. recovery (60-70% HRmax. Fluid ingestion was measured each 20 min. Taste scores for both fluids (W and SD and body weight were also measured before and after each exercise session. Results: No significant differences were found for total fluid ingestion when comparing BOTH and SDonly (846.1 ñ 382.7 vs. 827.9 ñ 365.6 mL, respectively, p > 0.05. However, subjects consumed less water (WAonly, 633.4 ñ 400.5 mL compared with the other two conditions (p = 0.009. Subjects drank more sports drink than plain water during the BOTH condition (659.2 ñ 349.8 vs 186.9 ñ 128.0, p < 0.0005. Voluntary drinking was not enough to prevent a minor but statistically significant (p < 0.003 average reduction in body mass (voluntary dehydration of 0.5% BM for all experimental conditions. Sensory tests showed a preference for the sports drink flavor (7.49±1.1 vs. water (5.41±1.5 (p<0.0005. Conclusions: Sports drink enhances voluntary fluid intake more than when only water is available. Ad libitum drinking was greater when a sports drink was available. Sensory scores obtained support this preference for a sports drink vs. water.

  20. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance following the presentation of short video clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual images can produce rapid changes in testosterone concentrations. We explored the acute effects of video clips on salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance in highly trained male athletes (n=12). Saliva samples were collected on 6 occasions immediately before and 15 min after watching a brief video clip (approximately 4 min in duration) on a computer screen. The watching of a sad, erotic, aggressive, training motivational, humorous or a neutral control clip was randomised. Subjects then performed a squat workout aimed at producing a 3 repetition maximum (3RM) lift. Significant (Psquats across all video sessions (Pfree hormone concentrations and the relative changes in testosterone closely mapped 3RM squat performance in a group of highly trained males. Thus, speculatively, using short video presentations in the pre-workout environment offers an opportunity for understanding the outcomes of hormonal change, athlete behaviour and subsequent voluntary performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. B. F. SKINNER: THE SEEK OF ORDER IN THE VOLUNTARY BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELBERTO ANTONIO PLAZAS

    Full Text Available This writing is an homage to the work of B. F. Skinner, now that we recently celebrate a century of hisbirthday. Most of current psychology texts are centered in the author’s experimental discoveries withoutputting them in the epistemological context position that sustains them, generating a deformed image ofhis ideas. This writing searches to clarify some of the aspects of Skinner’s work that are more misinterpreted,in particular his epistemology, his scientific behavior and his position in front of the complex humanbehavior, with the purpose of fomenting a precise image of his work and his science: the ExperimentalAnalysis of the Behavior.

  3. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C; de Geus, Eco J C; Koenis, Marinka M G; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kan, Kees-Jan

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  4. Domain dependent associations between cognitive functioning and regular voluntary exercise behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, S.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Koenis, M.M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kan, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise has often been suggested to have beneficial effects on cognition, but empirical findings are mixed because of heterogeneity in sample composition (age and sex); the cognitive domain being investigated; the definition and reliability of exercise behavior measures; and study design

  5. Effects of environmental enrichment during abstinence in morphine dependent parents on anxiety, depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooriamehr, Alireza; Sabahi, Parviz; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-08-24

    Chronic morphine exposure during puberty increased morphine-induced rewarding effects and sensitization in the next generation. Given the well-known beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on the severity of physical and psychological dependence on morphine, we examined effects of enriched environment during morphine abstinence in morphine dependent parental rats before mating on the anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, and voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring. Paternal and/or maternal rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, 12h intervals) of morphine for 14days followed by rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during 30days of morphine abstinence before mating. The pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for anxiety (the elevated plus maze- EPM) and depression (sucrose preference test-SPT), and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that EE experience in morphine-dependent both parents result in an increase in the percentage of time spent into open arms/time spent on both arms using EPM in male offspring, higher levels of sucrose preference in female offspring and lower levels of voluntary morphine consumption in male and female offspring. Thus, EE experience in morphine-dependent both parents reduced anxiety, depressive-like behavior and also the voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring during puberty which may prevent the vulnerability of the next generation to drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy attenuates anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female rat offspring born from morphine dependent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Masoumeh; Pooriamehr, Alireza; Bigdeli, Imanollah; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2017-10-17

    This study was designed to examine whether maternal swimming exercise during pregnancy would attenuate prenatally morphine-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary consumption of morphine in the pubertal male and female rat offspring. Pregnant rats during the development of morphine dependence were allowed to swim (30-45min/d, 3days per a week) on gestational days 11-18. Then, the pubertal male and female rat offspring were tested for the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries, higher levels of sucrose preference than their sedentary control mothers. Voluntary consumption of morphine was less in the male and female rat offspring born of the swimmer morphine-dependent mothers as compared with their sedentary control mothers during three periods of the intake of drug. Thus, swimming exercise in pregnant morphine dependent mothers decreased anxiety, depressive-like behavior and also the voluntary morphine consumption in the pubertal male and female offspring, which may prevent prenatally morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between a voluntary restaurant menu designation initiative and patron purchasing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Erica T; Biediger-Friedman, Lesli; Banda, Martha

    2014-03-01

    Restaurant initiatives provide an efficient opportunity to impact large numbers of patrons. The purpose of this study is to measure patron purchasing behaviors during the ¡Por Vida! menu designation initiative. This study used a cross-sectional design and survey data to assess 23 restaurants throughout Bexar County and 152 restaurant patrons. The Patron Awareness Questionnaire assessed if patrons noticed the logo; believed nutrition, cost, and taste were important in making purchasing decisions; and purchased a ¡Por Vida! item. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Most (93.4%) patrons considered taste very important when deciding what to eat. Cost was very important to 63.8% and nutrition was very important to 55.9% of the sample. The strongest predictors of purchasing a ¡Por Vida! item were the patrons' ages being between 18 and 35 years (odds ratio = 1.474; confidence interval = 0.017, 0.812; p designation initiatives can potentially influence patron purchasing behaviors among a segment of the population when the logo is visible.

  8. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  9. How Sequential Changes in Reward Magnitude Modulate Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from Voluntary Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence that the prospect of reward modulates cognitive control in terms of more stable behavior. Increases in expected reward magnitude, however, have been suggested to increase flexible behavior as evidenced by reduced switch costs. In a series of experiments, the authors provide evidence that this increased cognitive flexibility…

  10. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changing physician behavior: what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofian, Fargoi; Ruban, Cynthiya; Simunovic, Nicole; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    There are various interventions for guideline implementation in clinical practice, but the effects of these interventions are generally unclear. We conducted a systematic review to identify effective methods of implementing clinical research findings and clinical guidelines to change physician practice patterns, in surgical and general practice. Systematic review of reviews. We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed) for systematic reviews published in English that evaluated the effectiveness of different implementation methods. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and methodological quality, and extracted relevant data. Fourteen reviews covering a wide range of interventions were identified. The intervention methods used include: audit and feedback, computerized decision support systems, continuing medical education, financial incentives, local opinion leaders, marketing, passive dissemination of information, patient-mediated interventions, reminders, and multifaceted interventions. Active approaches, such as academic detailing, led to greater effects than traditional passive approaches. According to the findings of 3 reviews, 71% of studies included in these reviews showed positive change in physician behavior when exposed to active educational methods and multifaceted interventions. Active forms of continuing medical education and multifaceted interventions were found to be the most effective methods for implementing guidelines into general practice. Additionally, active approaches to changing physician performance were shown to improve practice to a greater extent than traditional passive methods. Further primary research is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in a surgical setting.

  12. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    Mapping of cortical and subcortical grey matter active during voluntary movements by means of measurements of local increases of CBF or CMR-Glucose is reviewed. Most of the studies concern observations in man during hand movements using the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection technique, an approach...... that only allows to image the cortex of the hemisphere on one side (the injected side) of the brain. The results show that simple static or repetitive movements mainly activate the contralateral primary hand area (MI and SI); complex preprogrammed or spontaneous purposeful movements the supplementary motor...... area SMA on both sides increase in CBF/CMR-glucose and even internally ("mentally") going through the trained movements, causes such changes; complex purposeful movements also activate the premotor cortex, a response that is bilateral with greatest response contralaterally. Studies in patients...

  13. Voluntary low-force contraction elicits prolonged low-frequency fatigue and changes in surface electromyography and mechanomyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Madeleine, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Controversies exist regarding objective documentation of fatigue development with low-force contractions. We hypothesized that non-exhaustive, low-force muscle contraction may induce prolonged low-frequency fatigue (LFF) that in the subsequent recovery period is detectable by electromyography (EMG......) and in particular mechanomyography (MMG) during low-force rather than high-force test contractions. Seven subjects performed static wrist extension at 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 10 min (10%MVC10 min). Wrist force response to electrical stimulation of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) quantified...... LFF. EMG and MMG were recorded from ECR during static test contractions at 5% and 80% MVC. Electrical stimulation, MVC, and test contractions were performed before 10%MVC10 min and at 10, 30, 90 and 150 min recovery. In spite of no changes in MVC, LFF persisted up to 150 min recovery but did...

  14. Behavior changes after minor emergency procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, Holly; Iyer, Srikant

    2013-10-01

    Procedures are common in pediatric emergency departments and frequently cause distress from pain and/or anxiety. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, types, and magnitude of long-term behavior changes after procedures in the emergency setting. This is a descriptive pilot study to determine if children display negative behavioral changes after a minor emergency department procedure (abscess drainage or laceration repair). Behavior change was measured at 1 week by telephone follow-up using the 27-item Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire, a well-validated instrument that measures behavior changes across 6 categories: general anxiety, separation anxiety, anxiety about sleep, eating disturbances, aggression toward authority, and apathy/withdrawal. Significant behavior change was defined as 5 or more negative behavior changes on the 27-item questionnaire. Twenty percent of children who underwent abscess drainage (n = 30) and 20% who underwent laceration repair (n = 30) displayed significant negative behavior change at 1 week. Children who displayed significant negative behavior change tended to be younger (3.6 vs 5.9 years) and trended toward being more likely to have received anxiolysis or sedation (16.7% vs 8.3%). Separation anxiety, sleep difficulties, and aggression toward authority were the most common behavior changes. In this pilot study, a significant percentage of children undergoing common emergency procedures exhibited an appreciable burden of negative behavior change at 1 week; these results demonstrate the need for further rigorous investigation of predictors of these changes and interventions, which can ameliorate these changes.

  15. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estrogen and voluntary exercise interact to attenuate stress-induced corticosterone release but not anxiety-like behaviors in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexis B; Gupton, Rebecca; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2016-09-15

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise to reduce anxiety and depression and to alleviate stress are increasingly supported in research studies. The role of ovarian hormones in interactions between exercise and anxiety/stress has important implications for women's health, given that women are at increased risk of developing anxiety-related disorders, particularly during and after the menopausal transition. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen enhances the positive impact of exercise on stress responses by investigating the combined effects of exercise and estrogen on anxiety-like behaviors and stress hormone levels in female rats after an acute stressor. Ovariectomized female rats with or without estrogen were given access to running wheels for one or three days of voluntary running immediately after or two days prior to being subjected to restraint stress. We found that voluntary running was not effective at reducing anxiety-like behaviors, whether or not rats were subjected to restraint stress. In contrast, stress-induced elevations of stress hormone levels were attenuated by exercise experience in estrogen-treated rats, but were increased in rats without estrogen. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may be more effective at reducing stress hormone levels if estrogen is present. Additionally, exercise experience, or the distance run, may be important in reducing stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkala, Essi A E; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%). Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%), the Semi-active (63%) and the Active (11%) and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72%) and the Active (28%). The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  18. Voluntary climate change mitigation actions of young adults: a classification of mitigators through latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi A E Korkala

    Full Text Available Encouraging individuals to take action is important for the overall success of climate change mitigation. Campaigns promoting climate change mitigation could address particular groups of the population on the basis of what kind of mitigation actions the group is already taking. To increase the knowledge of such groups performing similar mitigation actions we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. The study population comprised 1623 young adults who returned a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 64%. Our aims were to identify groups of people engaged in similar climate change mitigation actions and to study the gender differences in the grouping. We also determined if socio-demographic characteristics can predict group membership. We performed latent class analysis using 14 mitigation actions as manifest variables. Three classes were identified among men: the Inactive (26%, the Semi-active (63% and the Active (11% and two classes among women: the Semi-active (72% and the Active (28%. The Active among both genders were likely to have mitigated climate change through several actions, such as recycling, using environmentally friendly products, preferring public transport, and conserving energy. The Semi-Active had most probably recycled and preferred public transport because of climate change. The Inactive, a class identified among men only, had very probably done nothing to mitigate climate change. Among males, being single or divorced predicted little involvement in climate change mitigation. Among females, those without tertiary degree and those with annual income €≥16801 were less involved in climate change mitigation. Our results illustrate to what extent young adults are engaged in climate change mitigation, which factors predict little involvement in mitigation and give insight to which segments of the public could be the audiences of targeted mitigation campaigns.

  19. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  20. Changes in hippocampal theta rhythm and their correlations with speed during different phases of voluntary wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J-Y; Kuo, T B J; Hsieh, I-T; Yang, C C H

    2012-06-28

    Hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12 Hz) can be observed during locomotor behavior, but findings on the relationship between locomotion speed and theta frequency are inconsistent if not contradictory. The inconsistency may be because of the difficulties that previous analyses and protocols have had excluding the effects of behavior training. We recorded the first or second voluntary wheel running each day, and assumed that theta frequency and activity are correlated with speed in different running phases. By simultaneously recording electroencephalography, physical activity, and wheel running speed, this experiment explored the theta oscillations during spontaneous running of the 12-h dark period. The recording was completely wireless and allowed the animal to run freely while being recorded in the wheel. Theta frequency and theta power of middle frequency were elevated before running and theta frequency, theta power of middle frequency, physical activity, and running speed maintained persistently high levels during running. The slopes of the theta frequency and theta activity (4-9.5 Hz) during the initial running were different compared to the same values during subsequent running. During the initial running, the running speed was positively correlated with theta frequency and with theta power of middle frequency. Over the 12-h dark period, the running speed did not positively correlate with theta frequency but was significantly correlated with theta power of middle frequency. Thus, theta frequency was associated with running speed only at the initiation of running. Furthermore, theta power of middle frequency was associated with speed and with physical activity during running when chronological order was not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting intention to use voluntary HIV counseling and testing services among health professionals in Jimma, Ethiopia, using the theory of planned behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abamecha F

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fira Abamecha,1 Ameyu Godesso,2 Eshetu Girma3 1Department of Nursing, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan, 2Department of Sociology, Jimma University, Jimma, 3Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT, it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. Results: The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R2 adjusted = 0.27. The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P < 0.0005 followed by attitude (β = 0.21, P < 0.002. Perceived behavioral control was not a significant predictor of intention to use VCT among the study group (P = 0.12. Conclusion: The study revealed the possibility of describing the intention to use VCT among health professionals using TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals’ ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to

  2. Promoting Behavioral Change in Psychoanalytic Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Fredric N

    2017-01-01

    One of the shibboleths of psychoanalysis is that treatment should not target behavioral change, focusing instead on gaining insight and the therapeutic relationship (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). Such an approach is believed to be accompanied by disruptions of exploration or problematic distortions of the transference (Freud, 1917; 1923; Gabbard, 2014; Greenson, 1967). However, ignoring behavioral change can put patients at increased risk for stalemates in treatment and persistent problematic behaviors that interfere with improvement and impair relationships. This article suggests that rather than being at odds or disruptive, efforts at behavioral change can be part of the development and employment of a psychodynamic formulation, and can be used to enhance self-understanding and exploration of the transference. Psychoanalytic approaches provide strategies for behavioral change not included in other psychotherapeutic treatments. This article describes a variety of ways in which efforts at behavioral change can be integrated with and enhanced by psychodynamic exploration.

  3. Treadmill exercise attenuates the severity of physical dependence, anxiety, depressive-like behavior and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Maryam; Zahedi-Khorasani, Mahdi; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2018-05-30

    This study was designed to examine whether treadmill exercise would attenuate the severity of physical dependence, methadone-induced anxiety, depression and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice (TBC) paradigm. The results showed that naloxone- precipitated opioid withdrawal signs were decreased in exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT than sedentary rats. Also, the exercising morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT exhibited an increased time on open arms, preference for sucrose and a lower morphine preference ratio than sedentary rats. We conclude that treadmill exercise decreased the severity of physical dependence, anxiety/depressive-like behaviors and also the voluntary morphine consumption in morphine withdrawn rats receiving MMT. Thus, exercise may benefit in the treatment of addicts during MMT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Beneficial effects of fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, and voluntary running exercise in stressed male rats with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-08-01

    Rodents exposed to mild but repetitive stress may develop anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Whether this stress response could be alleviated by pharmacological treatments or exercise interventions, such as wheel running, was unknown. Herein, we determined anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in restraint stressed rats (2h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) subjected to acute diazepam treatment (30min prior to behavioral test), chronic treatment with fluoxetine, reboxetine or venlafaxine (10mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and/or 4-week voluntary wheel running. In elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST), stressed rats spent less time in the open arms and had less swimming duration than the control rats, respectively, indicating the presence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Stressed rats also developed learned fear as evaluated by elevated T-maze test (ETM). Although wheel running could reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both EPM and ETM, only diazepam was effective in the EPM, while fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine were effective in the ETM. Fluoxetine, reboxetine, and wheel running, but not diazepam and venlafaxine, also reduced depression-like behavior in FST. Combined pharmacological treatment and exercise did not further reduce anxiety-like behavior in stressed rats. However, stressed rats treated with wheel running plus reboxetine or venlafaxine showed an increase in climbing duration in FST. In conclusion, regular exercise (voluntary wheel running) and pharmacological treatments, especially fluoxetine and reboxetine, could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program : Suncor Energy Inc. eighth annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    A corporate profile of Suncor Energy, a Canadian integrated energy company placing the emphasis on the development of the Athabasca oil sands in northern Alberta, is provided. A message from the president reiterates the company's commitment to improving both the environmental and economic performance through innovative policies and strategic management plans. A sustainable approach to climate change has meant an effort toward reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving energy use. Suncor has lowered its greenhouse gas emission intensity by 11 per cent below 1990 levels in 2001. Total reductions of 12.9 million tonnes have been achieved during the period 1990-2001. The total absolute emissions are above 1990 levels, which can be explained by tremendous production growth at Suncor Energy. Suncor has developed a seven-point plan to address the issue of climate change as follows: manage its greenhouse gas emissions, develop renewable sources of energy, invest in environmental and economic research, use domestic and foreign offsets, collaborate with governments and other stakeholder groups on policy development, educate its employees and the public on ways to respond to the risk posed by climate change, and measure and report its progress from that perspective. The document is divided into sections. The first section provides an organization profile, and section two discusses senior management support. In section three, a review of base year methodology and quantification is provided, followed by projection in section four. Target setting is the topic of section five, while section six deals with measures to achieve targets. The results achieved are highlighted in section seven. Education, training and awareness is broached in section eight, and the final section includes the statistical summary. tabs., figs

  6. Voluntary wheel running reverses age-induced changes in hippocampal gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Kohman

    Full Text Available Normal aging alters expression of numerous genes within the brain. Some of these transcription changes likely contribute to age-associated cognitive decline, reduced neural plasticity, and the higher incidence of neuropathology. Identifying factors that modulate brain aging is crucial for improving quality of life. One promising intervention to counteract negative effects of aging is aerobic exercise. Aged subjects that exercise show enhanced cognitive performance and increased hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Currently, the mechanisms behind the anti-aging effects of exercise are not understood. The present study conducted a microarray on whole hippocampal samples from adult (3.5-month-old and aged (18-month-old male BALB/c mice that were individually housed with or without running wheels for 8 weeks. Results showed that aging altered genes related to chromatin remodeling, cell growth, immune activity, and synapse organization compared to adult mice. Exercise was found to modulate many of the genes altered by aging, but in the opposite direction. For example, wheel running increased expression of genes related to cell growth and attenuated expression of genes involved in immune function and chromatin remodeling. Collectively, findings show that even late-onset exercise may attenuate age-related changes in gene expression and identifies possible pathways through which exercise may exert its beneficial effects.

  7. Lipid droplet-associated proteins in high-fat fed mice with the effects of voluntary running and diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Reunanen, Hilkka; Kujala, Urho M; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2014-08-01

    The relation between lipid accumulation and influence of exercise on insulin sensitivity is not straightforward. A proper balance between lipid droplet synthesis, lipolysis, and oxidative metabolism would ensure low local intramyocellular fatty acid levels, thereby possibly protecting against lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance. This study investigated whether the accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets in response to high availability of fatty acids after high-fat feeding would parallel the abundance of intramyocellular perilipin proteins, especially PLIN5. The effects on these variables after diet change or voluntary running exercise intervention in skeletal muscle were also investigated. During a 19-week experiment, C57BL/6J mice were studied in six different groups: low-fat diet sedentary, low-fat diet active, high-fat diet sedentary, high-fat diet active and two groups which were high-fat sedentary for nine weeks, after which divided into low-fat sedentary or low-fat active groups. Myocellular triglyceride concentration and perilipin protein expression levels were assessed. We show that, concurrently with impaired insulin sensitivity, the expression level of PLIN5 and muscular triglyceride concentration increased dramatically after high-fat diet. These adaptations were reversible after the diet change intervention with no additional effect of exercise. After high-fat diet, lipid droplets become larger providing more surface area for PLIN5. We suggest that PLIN5 is an important regulator of lipid droplet turnover in altered conditions of fatty acid supply and consumption. Imbalances in lipid droplet metabolism and turnover might lead to lipotoxicity-related insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, m...

  9. Endogenous opiates mediate radiogenic behavioral change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to ionizing radiation caused stereotypical locomotor hyperactivity similar to that produced by morphine. Naloxone administration prevented this radiation-induced behavioral activation. These results support the hypothesis that endorphins are involved in some aspects of radiogenic behavioral change

  10. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  11. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  12. Health behavior change: can genomics improve behavioral adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Bryan, Angela D; Bray, Molly S; Swan, Gary E; Green, Eric D

    2012-03-01

    The National Human Genome Research Institute recommends pursuing "genomic information to improve behavior change interventions" as part of its strategic vision for genomics. The limited effectiveness of current behavior change strategies may be explained, in part, by their insensitivity to individual variation in adherence responses. The first step in evaluating whether genomics can inform customization of behavioral recommendations is evidence reviews to identify adherence macrophenotypes common across behaviors and individuals that have genetic underpinnings. Conceptual models of how biological, psychological, and environmental factors influence adherence also are needed. Researchers could routinely collect biospecimens and standardized adherence measurements of intervention participants to enable understanding of genetic and environmental influences on adherence, to guide intervention customization and prospective comparative effectiveness studies.

  13. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  14. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  15. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  16. Future directions of multiple behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly; Lippke, Sonia; Nigg, Claudio R

    2017-02-01

    Non-communicable diseases (i.e., chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes and obesity) result in 36 million deaths each year. Individuals' habitual participation in a single health-risk behaviors substantially contribute to morbidity and mortality (e.g., tobacco use, daily fast food intake, etc.); however, more concerning is the impact of typically co-occurring or clustering of multiple health-risk behaviors. This burden can be minimized through successful cessation of health-risk behaviors and adoption of healthy behaviors; namely healthy lifestyle adoption or multiple health behavior change (MHBC). MHBC is a developing field and future research recommendations are provided to advance MHBC research. A valid measure of MHBC (i.e., lifestyle) is warranted to provide the needed basis for MHBC investigations and evaluations. MHBC is thought to occur through shared co-variation of underlying motivating mechanisms, but how these relationships influence behavior remains unclear. A better understanding of the relationship between behaviors and the related motivating mechanisms (and potential cross-relationship of influences) is needed. Future research should also aim to improve lifestyles through understanding how to change multiple health behaviors. Finally, MHBC research should target the development of sustainable interventions which result in lasting effects (e.g., capacity, systems, policy and environmental changes), with dissemination considered during development. Focusing MHBC research in these areas will increase our understanding and maximize the impact on the health of populations.

  17. Consumer behavior changing: methods of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elīna Gaile-Sarkane

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methods of analyses of consumer buying behavior as well as to evaluation of most important factors what influences consumer behavior. This research aims at investigations about the changes in consumer behavior caused by globalization and development of information technologies; it helps to understand the specific factors what should be taken into account in evaluation of consumer behavior. The authors employ well-established quantitative and qualitative methods of research: grouping, analysis, synthesis, expert method, statistic method, etc. Research findings disclosed that there is possibility to introduce new methods for evaluation of changing consumer behavior.

  18. Three empirical essays on consumer behavior related to climate change and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Grant Douglas

    This dissertation consists of three essays. All of the chapters address a topic in the area of household and consumer behavior related to climate change or energy. The first chapter is titled "The Al Gore Effect: An Inconvenient Truth and Voluntary Carbon Offsets". This chapter examines the relationship between climate change awareness and household behavior by testing whether Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth caused an increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The analysis shows that in the two months following the film's release, zip codes within a 10-mile radius of a zip code where the film was shown experienced a 50 percent relative increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The second chapter is titled "Are Building Codes Effective at Saving Energy? Evidence from Residential Billing Data in Florida". The analysis shows that Florida's energy-code change that took effect in 2002 is associated with a 4-percent decrease in electricity consumption and a 6-percent decrease in natural-gas consumption in Gainesville, FL. The estimated private payback period for the average residence is 6.4 years and the social payback period ranges between 3.5 and 5.3 years. The third chapter in this dissertation is titled "Do Environmental Offsets Increase Demand for Dirty Goods? Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand". This study evaluates the relationship between green products and existing patterns of consumer behavior by examining the relationship between household enrollment in a green electricity program and consumption of residential electricity. The results suggest there are two different types of green consumers. One type makes a small monthly donation and partially views the donation as a substitute for a previously existing pattern of green behavior, in this case, energy conservation. The other type makes a larger monthly donation and views the donation as a way to make strictly additional improvements in environmental quality.

  19. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Matthew; Larzelere, Michele McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Family physicians play an important role in identifying and treating the behavioral etiologies of morbidity and mortality. Changing behavior is a challenging process that begins with identifying a patient's readiness to change. Interventions, such as motivational interviewing, are used to increase a patient's desire to change, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be initiated to increase a patient's likelihood of change, particularly if barriers are identified. After patients embark on change, family physicians are uniquely positioned to connect them to self-help programs, more intensive psychotherapy, and newer technology-based support programs, and to provide repeated, brief, positive reinforcement. Specific behavioral interventions that can be effective include computerized smoking cessation programs; electronic reminders and support delivered by family physicians or other clinicians for weight loss; linkage to community-based programs for seniors; increased length and demands of in-school programs to support exercise participation by children; and access reduction education to prevent firearm injury. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  20. Mobilization for HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services in Vietnam: Clients' Risk Behaviors, Attitudes and Willingness to Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Nhung Phuong; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Bui, Trang Thu; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-04-01

    A multi-site survey was conducted on a sample of 365 clients to assess their willingness to pay for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services in Ha Noi and Nam Dinh province, two epicenters of Vietnam. By using contingent valuation technique, the results showed that most of respondents (95.1 %) were willing to pay averagely 155 (95 % CI 132-177) thousands Vietnam Dong (~US $7.75, 2013) for a VCT service. Clients who were female, had middle income level, and current opioid users were willing to pay less; meanwhile clients who had university level of education were willing to pay more for a VCT service. The results highlighted the high rate of willingness to pay for the service at a high amount by VCT clients. These findings contribute to the implementation of co-payment scheme for VCT services toward the financial sustainability of HIV/AIDS programs in Vietnam.

  1. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Mathijssen, Jolanda J.P.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J.; Prast, Henriëtte M.

    2018-01-01

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals

  2. Emotional Responses to Behavioral Economic Incentives for Health Behavior Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan; Prast, Henriette

    2018-01-01

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals

  3. Wilderness management through voluntary behavior change: an evaluation of the Pemigewasset Wilderness Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Halstead; Cindy M. Brown; Albert E. Luloff; Bruce E. Lindsay

    1992-01-01

    The management plan for the Pemigewasset Wilderness Area of New Hampshire represents a departure from traditional plans. Results of this study indicate limited evidence of the Pemigewasset Wilderness Management Plan (PWMP), as currently implemented, having a large direct impact on diverting hikers from their planned destinations and promoting dispersed usage and low...

  4. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing ...

  5. Spacing extinction sessions as a behavioral technique for preventing relapse in an animal model of voluntary actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Gámez, A Matías; Nieto, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Instrumental extinction has been proposed as a model for understanding the suppression of problematic voluntary actions. Consequently, it has been suggested that response recovery after extinction could model relapse. Four experiments with rats used a free operant procedure to explore the impact of spacing extinction sessions on spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, and rapid reacquisition of extinguished lever-pressing. Initially, in all experiments, hungry rats were trained to perform two responses (R1 and R2) for food. Then, all responses underwent extinction. For R1, rats experienced a longer intersession interval (72 h) than for R2 (24 h). During the final restoration test, it was observed that using spaced extinction sessions reduced spontaneous recovery, renewal, and reinstatement. However, implementing a longer intersession interval throughout extinction exposure did not slow the rate of reacquisition of operant responses. The present findings suggest that in most cases extinction is more enduring when the extinction sessions are spaced. Since expanding the intersession interval during extinction might be interpreted as conducting extinction in multiple temporal contexts, the overall pattern of results was explained based on contextual modulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Repeat HIV Testing at Voluntary Testing and Counseling Centers in Croatia: Successful HIV Prevention or Failure to Modify Risk Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković Puljić, Vlatka; Kosanović Ličina, Mirjana Lana; Kavić, Marija; Nemeth Blažić, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing plays a critical role in preventing the spread of the virus and identifying infected individuals in need of care. Voluntary counseling and testing centers (VCTs) not only conduct testing but they also provide counseling. Since a proportion of people who test negative for HIV on their previous visit will return for retesting, the frequency of retesting and the characteristics of those who retest may provide insights into the efficacy of testing and counseling strategies. In this cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1,482 VCT clients in Croatia in 2010, 44.3% had been tested for HIV before. The rate of repeat HIV testing is lower in Croatia than in other countries. Men who have sex with men (MSM) clients, those with three or more sexual partners in the last 12 months, consistent condom users with steady partners, and intravenous drug users were more likely to be repeat testers. This finding suggests that clients presenting for repeat HIV testing are those who self-identify as being at a higher risk of infection. Our data showed that testing positive for HIV was not associated with repeat testing. However, the effects of repeat testing on HIV epidemiology needs to be explored. PMID:24705595

  7. Sudden behavior change in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B

    2013-11-01

    A 5-year-old, spayed female, domestic short-haired cat had a 10-day history of sudden behavioral changes followed by seizures. Blood parameters were in the reference ranges, and radiographs failed to detect a mass lesion in the brain. Euthanasia was followed by rabies testing, which was negative. Gross lesions were absent. Histologic changes were present only in the brain and consisted of foci of hippocampal pyramidal cell loss, mild gliosis, pallor of the associated neuropil, and neovascularization.

  8. Enhancing reporting of behavior change intervention evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, C.; Johnson, B.T.; de Bruin, M.; Luszczynska, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many behavior change interventions for the prevention and treatment of HIV have been evaluated, but suboptimal reporting of evaluations hinders the accumulation of evidence and the replication of interventions. In this article, we address 4 practices contributing to this problem. First, detailed

  9. Models of behavioral change and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explains and summarizes models of behavioral change and adaptation, which have received less application in the life choice analysis associated with urban policy. Related to various life choices, life trajectory events are major decisions with a relatively long-lasting impact, such as

  10. Somatic And Behavioral Changes Associated With Difuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The effects of diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation on somatic and behavioral changes in anaesthetized and unanaesthetized normal male and female Wister rats was studied. Method: Diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation (0-25v, frequency 90Hz,pulse width 1ms) was administered via two electrodes clipped ...

  11. Self-Concept Change in Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Victor L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Changes in self-concept as a function of behavioral treatment for test anxiety are investigated. Test-anxious subjects (N=72) were randomly assigned to systematic desensitization, relaxation-training only, or no-treatment control conditions. Results indicate that the desensitization and relaxation treatments were both effective in reducing test…

  12. Changing health behaviors with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2011-08-01

    Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.

  13. Voluntary stepping behavior under single- and dual-task conditions in chronic stroke survivors: A comparison between the involved and uninvolved legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Goldring, Melissa; Melzer, Yehudit; Green, Elad; Tzedek, Irit

    2010-12-01

    If balance is lost, quick step execution can prevent falls. Research has shown that speed of voluntary stepping was able to predict future falls in old adults. The aim of the study was to investigate voluntary stepping behavior, as well as to compare timing and leg push-off force-time relation parameters of involved and uninvolved legs in stroke survivors during single- and dual-task conditions. We also aimed to compare timing and leg push-off force-time relation parameters between stroke survivors and healthy individuals in both task conditions. Ten stroke survivors performed a voluntary step execution test with their involved and uninvolved legs under two conditions: while focusing only on the stepping task and while a separate attention-demanding task was performed simultaneously. Temporal parameters related to the step time were measured including the duration of the step initiation phase, the preparatory phase, the swing phase, and the total step time. In addition, force-time parameters representing the push-off power during stepping were calculated from ground reaction data and compared with 10 healthy controls. The involved legs of stroke survivors had a significantly slower stepping time than uninvolved legs due to increased swing phase duration during both single- and dual-task conditions. For dual compared to single task, the stepping time increased significantly due to a significant increase in the duration of step initiation. In general, the force time parameters were significantly different in both legs of stroke survivors as compared to healthy controls, with no significant effect of dual compared with single-task conditions in both groups. The inability of stroke survivors to swing the involved leg quickly may be the most significant factor contributing to the large number of falls to the paretic side. The results suggest that stroke survivors were unable to rapidly produce muscle force in fast actions. This may be the mechanism of delayed execution

  14. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  15. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Rodriguez, Alison C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  16. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  17. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-03-05

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.

  18. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  19. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  20. Voluntary work, a diversity of forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Joep de Hart

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Vrijwilligerswerk in meervoud. By international standards, the level of participation in voluntary work in the Netherlands is high, and the signs are that this will continue. On the other hand, the type of voluntary work and the groups in which it is concentrated are changing.

  1. Voluntary Certification of Agricultural Products in Competitive Markets: The Consideration of Boundedly Rational Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujin Pu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market competition creates strategic incentives for firms to communicate private information about their own product quality through certification. Although voluntary certification has recently gained importance in the agricultural industry, information asymmetry is not always completely addressed. This study analyzes how the relative proportion of boundedly rational consumers in the market influences the effectiveness of voluntary certification mechanisms by using a duopoly game model of high- and low-quality firms. The presented results show that a change in the proportion of boundedly rational consumers leads to different certification behaviors and a different market equilibrium. We also find that the existence of boundedly rational consumers is an important factor in the failure of voluntary certification. Indeed, when the relative proportion of such consumers is very high, voluntary certification is ineffective at improving market efficiency.

  2. Applying behavioral science to behavior change communication: the pathways to change tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Joseph; Galavotti, Christine; Harford, Nicola; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A; Mooki, Maungo

    2007-10-01

    Entertainment-education (EE) is a popular vehicle for behavior change communication (BCC) in many areas of public health, especially in the developing world where soap operas and other serial drama formats play a central role in encouraging people to avoid risky behavior. Yet BCC/EE developers have been largely unable to integrate behavioral theory and research systematically into storylines and scripts, depending instead on external, technical oversight of what should be an essentially local, creative process. This article describes how the Modeling and Reinforcement to Combat HIV/AIDS project at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a set of tools through which creative writers can exercise greater control over the behavioral content of their stories. The Pathways to Change tools both guide scriptwriters as they write BCC/EE storylines and help project managers monitor BCC/EE products for theoretical fidelity and sensitivity to research.

  3. Change in Frictional Behavior during Olivine Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, T.; Zhu, W.; French, M. E.; Belzer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydration of mantle peridotites (serpentinization) is pervasive at plate boundaries. It is widely accepted that serpentinization is intrinsically linked to hydromechanical processes within the sub-seafloor, where the interplay between cracking, fluid supply and chemical reactions is responsible for a spectrum of fault slip, from earthquake swarms at the transform faults, to slow slip events at the subduction zone. Previous studies demonstrate that serpentine minerals can either promote slip or creep depend on many factors that include sliding velocity, temperature, pressure, interstitial fluids, etc. One missing link from the experimental investigation of serpentine to observations of tectonic faults is the extent of alteration necessary for changing the frictional behaviors. We quantify changes in frictional behavior due to serpentinization by conducting experiments after in-situ serpentinization of olivine gouge. In the sample configuration a layer of powder is sandwiched between porous sandstone blocks with 35° saw-cut surface. The starting material of fine-grained (63 120 µm) olivine powder is reacted with deionized water for 72 hours at 150°C before loading starts. Under the conventional triaxial configuration, the sample is stressed until sliding occurs within the gouge. A series of velocity-steps is then performed to measure the response of friction coefficient to variations of sliding velocity from which the rate-and-state parameters are deduced. For comparison, we measured the frictional behavior of unaltered olivine and pure serpentine gouges.Our results confirm that serpentinization causes reduced frictional strength and velocity weakening. In unaltered olivine gouge, an increase in frictional resistance with increasing sliding velocity is observed, whereas the serpentinized olivine and serpentine gouges favor velocity weakening behaviors at the same conditions. Furthermore, we observed that high pore pressures cause velocity weakening in olivine but

  4. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-04-01

    Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  5. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.

  6. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Choy Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9% clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9% as medium risk, 36 (8.5% as high risk, and 168 (39.7% were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4% clients tested HIV positive (4 (4% low risk, 9 (7.6% medium risk, 11 (30.6% high risk, and 13 (7.7% unsure risk. We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.

  7. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  8. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  9. Behavioral Economics and Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Gowdy

    2007-01-01

    The policy recommendations of most economists are based on the rational actor model of human behavior. Behavior is assumed to be self-regarding, preferences are assumed to be stable, and decisions are assumed to be unaffected by social context or frame of reference. The related fields of behavioral economics, game theory, and neuroscience have confirmed that human behavior is other regarding, and that people exhibit systematic patterns of decision-making that are "irrational" according to the...

  10. Prioritizing multiple health behavior change research topics: expert opinions in behavior change science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katie; Park, Eunhee; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    Multiple health behavior change (MHBC) approaches are understudied. The purpose of this study is to provide strategic MHBC research direction. This cross-sectional study contacted participants through the Society of Behavioral Medicine email listservs and rated the importance of 24 MHBC research topics (1 = not at all important, 5 = extremely important) separately for general and underserved populations. Participants (n = 76) were 79 % female; 76 % White, 10 % Asian, 8 % African American, 5 % Hispanic, and 1 % Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. Top MHBC research priorities were predictors of behavior change and the sustainability, long-term effects, and dissemination/translation of interventions for both populations. Recruitment and retention of participants (t(68) = 2.17, p = 0.000), multi-behavioral indices (t(68) = 3.54, p = 0.001), and measurement burden (t(67) = 5.04, p = 0.001) were important for the underserved. Results identified the same top research priorities across populations. For the underserved, research should emphasize recruitment, retention, and measurement burden.

  11. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change: How to indentify the barriers that inhibit change

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers.

  12. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  13. Risky HIV sexual behavior and utilization of voluntary counseling and HIV testing and associated factors among undergraduate students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Woldeyohannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Of the total 602 students selected, an overall response rate of 557 (92.6% were registered. Among the participants 361 (60% were males. The student ages’ were ranged from 17 up to 25 years with mean age of 20.3 ± 1.6. Around 385 (64% of them were in the age group of 17 up to 20 years. Among the study participants, 161 (26.8% had sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3 years. About 443 (76% of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs. Among sexually active students, 74 (46% had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4% had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments

  14. Risky HIV sexual behavior and utilization of voluntary counseling and HIV testing and associated factors among undergraduate students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Asmamaw, Yehenew; Sisay, Solomon; Hailesselassie, Werissaw; Birmeta, Kidist; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2017-01-25

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. University students are often a young and sexually active group that is at risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. We assessed risky HIV sexual behaviors and utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services among undergraduate students at Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June, 2013. Standardized semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Simple random sampling technique was use to select departments from each school. All students in the selected departments were the study participants. Data were entered into EPI-Info and analyzed using SPPS statistical packages. P-value sexual contact and the mean age of first sexual encounter was 17.4 (SD =2.3) years. About 443 (76%) of students knew that condoms can prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Among sexually active students, 74 (46%) had not used condom during first time sex. Among those responded, 488 (83.4%) had heard information about VCT; however, 52% had not ever used VCT service. The overall mean score of knowledge and attitude of students towards risk perception on HIV was around 66% and 57%, respectively. Students who enrolled in health science departments had almost three time more knowledge [AOR(95%CI) = 2.83 (1.67, 4.80)] and two and half times more favorable [AOR (95% CI) = 2.55 (1.60, 4.06)] attitudes towards HIV risk reduction strategies than students in non-health related departments. Some students were engaged in risky sexual behaviour even though they had heard about HIV/AIDS. The perception of risk for acquisition of HIV infection and utilization of VCT were low. HIV prevention and control strategies including education in the areas of HIV/AIDS as part of university programs curriculum, specially non-health students, and strengthening health institutions to provide youth-friendly VCT services for HIV with "know

  15. "Causes" of pesticide safety behavior change in Latino farmworker families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Talton, Jennifer W; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Trejo, Grisel; Mirabelli, Maria C; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-07-01

    To identify the source of behavior change resulting from a health education intervention focused on pesticide safety. Data were from the La Familia Sana demonstration project, a promotora-delivered pesticide safety education intervention conducted with immigrant Latinos (N = 610). The La Familia Sana program produced changes in 3 sets of pesticide safety behaviors. Changes in the conceptual targets of the intervention and promotora attributes explained 0.45-6% and 0.5-3% of the changes in pesticide-related behavior, respectively. The conceptual targets of the La Familia Sana program explained the greatest amount of change in pesticide-related behavior. Promotora attributes also contributed to intervention success.

  16. Predicting Persuasion-Induced Behavior Change from the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Mann, Traci; Harrison, Brittany; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Although persuasive messages often alter people’s self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Additionally, an iterative cross-validation approach using activity in this MPFC ROI predicted an average 23% of the variance in behavior change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance. PMID:20573889

  17. A stage model as an analysis framework for studying voluntary change in food choices - The case of beef consumption reduction in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the application of a stage-based model of consumer behavior change on describing the processes behind the reduction of beef consumption in two Norwegian samples (N = 746, N = 2967). The way to reduce beef consumption is modeled through a progression through four stages (predecision, decision, action, and postaction) with a chain of first forming goal intentions, then more concrete behavioral intentions and finally implementation intentions. The analyzes show that general goal intentions to reduce beef consumption are determined by perceived social norms and awareness of a behaviors negative consequences through the activation of personal norms. Attitudes are the main determinant of choosing the alternative behavior (reduction of portion size, substitution of beef with other meats or seafood, or vegetarian meals), but perceived difficulty of behavior also has an impact for some alternatives. Not all alternative behaviors correspond to reduced beef consumption. The pattern of means in beef consumption and intentions for consumers in different stages of change mostly matched predictions by the model, most importantly, showing beef consumption reduction only for consumers in the last stage of change. Implications for interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  19. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dreibelbis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%, increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  20. Making progress: Petro-Canada's 1999 report in support of Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    In 1998, Petro-Canada improved energy efficiency in both downstream and upstream sectors by 2% and 8% respectively, exceeding the 1998 targets. Petro-Canada is committed to maintaining a target of improved efficiency by 1% per year to 2005. Even though the company's production of crude oil, natural gas and refined products rose slightly in 1998, it succeeded in reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% from 1997. Actions taken in 1998 cut more than 70,000 tonnes from its ongoing annual gas emissions and saved 1.3 million Gigajoules of energy. In total since 1990, Petro-Canada's initiatives have eliminated more than 1,300,000 tonnes of annual ongoing emissions, reducing the total greenhouse gas emissions to within 1% of its emissions in 1990, despite growth in production. Petro-Canada has allocated $4 million in capital funds specifically for energy efficiency projects in 2000. The company is continuing its initiatives in alternate fuels, and actively working with others seeking solutions. To enhance public awareness, it is funding a number of education projects related to climate change

  1. Preventing skin cancer through behavior change. Implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, J S; Blais, L M; Redding, C A; Weinstock, M A

    1995-07-01

    Sun exposure is the only major causative factor for skin cancer for which prevention is feasible. Both individual and community-based interventions have been effective in changing sun exposure knowledge and attitudes but generally have not been effective in changing behaviors. An integrative model of behavior change is described that has been successful in changing behavior across a wide range of health conditions. This model holds promise for developing a rational public health approach to skin cancer prevention based on sound behavioral science.

  2. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change.

  3. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change. PMID:29696059

  4. Behavioral flexibility as a mechanism for coping with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik; Hall, L. Embere; Varner, Johanna; Loosen, Anne E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gahl, Megan K.; Smith, Felisa A.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2017-01-01

    Of the primary responses to contemporary climate change – “move, adapt, acclimate, or die” – that are available to organisms, “acclimate” may be effectively achieved through behavioral modification. Behavioral flexibility allows animals to rapidly cope with changing environmental conditions, and behavior represents an important component of a species’ adaptive capacity in the face of climate change. However, there is currently a lack of knowledge about the limits or constraints on behavioral responses to changing conditions. Here, we characterize the contexts in which organisms respond to climate variability through behavior. First, we quantify patterns in behavioral responses across taxa with respect to timescales, climatic stimuli, life-history traits, and ecology. Next, we identify existing knowledge gaps, research biases, and other challenges. Finally, we discuss how conservation practitioners and resource managers can incorporate an improved understanding of behavioral flexibility into natural resource management and policy decisions.

  5. Associations between change in sedentary behavior and outcome in standard behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Call, Christine; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behavior, particularly in prolonged periods, is an important determinant of health. Little research exploring changes in sedentary behavior during behavioral weight loss programs exists. This study evaluated the magnitude of changes in total and prolonged sedentary behavior and how these changes related to changes in weight and cardiovascular outcomes during a behavioral weight loss program. Participants (n = 450) in two lifestyle modification programs underwent assessments of sedentary behavior (by accelerometry), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and resting heart rate at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sedentary behavior was defined as both total and prolonged (≥30 continuous minutes) sedentary minutes/day. Reductions in total and prolonged sedentary time were significant and were accounted for by increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only changes in MVPA significantly predicted change in weight when entered into a model simultaneously with changes in sedentary behavior. Changes in total and prolonged sedentary time were not associated with changes in waist circumference, heart rate, or blood pressure. Change in sedentary time was not independently associated with change in health outcomes during a behavioral weight loss treatment. High variability in changes in sedentary time indicate that individual differences may be important to examine. Reducing sedentary time may not be powerful enough to impact these health outcomes above the effects of other changes made during these programs; alternatively, it may be that increasing focus in treatment on reducing sedentary time may engender greater decreases in sedentariness, which could lead to better health outcomes.

  6. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  7. Predicting persuasion-induced behavior change from the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Berkman, Elliot T; Mann, Traci; Harrison, Brittany; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-23

    Although persuasive messages often alter people's self-reported attitudes and intentions to perform behaviors, these self-reports do not necessarily predict behavior change. We demonstrate that neural responses to persuasive messages can predict variability in behavior change in the subsequent week. Specifically, an a priori region of interest (ROI) in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) was reliably associated with behavior change (r = 0.49, p change beyond the variance predicted by self-reported attitudes and intentions. Thus, neural signals can predict behavioral changes that are not predicted from self-reported attitudes and intentions alone. Additionally, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that a neural signal can predict complex real world behavior days in advance.

  8. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7....

  9. Changes in Illegal Behavior During Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiah Haffejee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging adulthood marks a critical developmental juncture during which some individuals disengage from the illegal behavior of their adolescence while others continue to use substances and commit crimes. While risk factors for delinquency during adolescence are well studied, factors that influence persisting or desisting from illegal activities during emerging adulthood have not been fully explored. This mixed methods study utilizes a sample of college students aged 18-25 (N=74 and examines factors differentiating those who abstained from illegal behaviors, desisted from illegal behaviors, and persisted in illegal behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated peers offending and hours spent studying predicted desisting and peers offending predicted persisting (compared to the abstaining group. Three qualitative themes: family and peer bonds, morals and values, and fear of consequences further explained factors influencing emerging adults’ persisting and desisting choices. Implications for social work practice are explored.

  10. Complex systems and health behavior change: insights from cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Plaut, David C

    2014-05-01

    To provide proof-of-concept that quantum health behavior can be instantiated as a computational model that is informed by cognitive science, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and quantum health behavior theory. We conducted a synthetic review of the intersection of quantum health behavior change and cognitive science. We conducted simulations, using a computational model of quantum health behavior (a constraint satisfaction artificial neural network) and tested whether the model exhibited quantum-like behavior. The model exhibited clear signs of quantum-like behavior. Quantum health behavior can be conceptualized as constraint satisfaction: a mitigation between current behavioral state and the social contexts in which it operates. We outlined implications for moving forward with computational models of both quantum health behavior and health behavior in general.

  11. Creating Lasting Behavioral Change through the Generalization Analysis Worksheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John; Kotkin, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The goal of any behavioral program is to facilitate lasting change. A significant criticism of behavioral programs is that they work in the clinical setting but do not generalize once the clinical program is stopped. The authors suggest that behavioral programs often do not generalize because clinicians fail to plan for generalization to occur…

  12. Teachable moments for health behavior change and intermediate patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocke, Susan A; Clark, Elizabeth; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Mason, Mary Jane; Lawson, Peter J; Smith, Samantha; Cohen, Deborah J

    2014-07-01

    Teachable moments (TM) are opportunities created through physician-patient interaction and used to encourage patients to change unhealthy behaviors. We examine the effectiveness of TMs to increase patients' recall of advice, motivation to modify behavior, and behavior change. A mixed-method observational study of 811 patient visits to 28 primary care clinicians used audio-recordings of visits to identify TMs and other types of advice in health behavior change talk. Patient surveys assessed smoking, exercise, fruit/vegetable consumption, height, weight, and readiness for change prior to the observed visit and 6-weeks post-visit. Compared to other identified categories of advice (i.e. missed opportunities or teachable moment attempts), recall was greatest after TMs occurred (83% vs. 49-74%). TMs had the greatest proportion of patients change in importance and confidence and increase readiness to change; however differences were small. TMs had greater positive behavior change scores than other categories of advice; however, this pattern was statistically non-significant and was not observed for BMI change. TMs have a greater positive influence on several intermediate markers of patient behavior change compared to other categories of advice. TMs show promise as an approach for clinicians to discuss behavior change with patients efficiently and effectively. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  14. Expanding the research area of behavior change support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own

  15. Changes in fire weather distributions: effects on predicted fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy A. Salazar; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1984-01-01

    Data that represent average worst fire weather for a particular area are used to index daily fire danger; however, they do not account for different locations or diurnal weather changes that significantly affect fire behavior potential. To study the effects that selected changes in weather databases have on computed fire behavior parameters, weather data for the...

  16. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  17. Designing, Modeling and Evaluating Influence Strategiesfor Behavior Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öörni, Anssi; Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Behavior change support systems (BCSS) research is an evolving area. While the systems have been demonstrated to work to the effect, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand the influence mechanisms of behavior change, and work out their influence on the systems architecture. The

  18. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work follow...

  19. The Client's Perspective on Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.

  20. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...

  1. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  2. U.S. landowner behavior, land use and land cover changes, and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig

    2003-01-01

    Landowner behavior is a major determinant of land use and land cover changes. an important consideration for policy analysts concerned with global change. Study of landowner behavior aids in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change by reducing net greenhouse gas emissions. Afforestation,...

  3. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  4. Selecting effective persuasive strategies in behavior change support systems: Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kelders, Saskia; Kulyk, Olga; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    The Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems provides a place to discuss recent advances in BCSS research. The selected papers show that research into behavior change support systems is expanding: not only by trying to reach more and other people, but also by expanding the

  5. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  6. Ethnicity and parental report of postoperative behavioral changes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Michelle A; Tan, Edwin T; Mayes, Linda C; Wahi, Aditi; Rosenbaum, Abraham; Strom, Suzanne; Santistevan, Ricci; Kain, Zeev N

    2013-05-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and language in parent report of children's postoperative behavioral recovery. To compare incidence of new onset negative behavior change in English- and Spanish-speaking White and Hispanic children following outpatient surgery. Postoperative behavioral change in children is common; however, it is unknown whether cultural variables including ethnicity and language may influence parent report of children's behavioral recovery. Participants included 288 parents (English-speaking White, English-speaking Hispanic, Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents) of children undergoing outpatient elective surgery. Parents completed the post-hospitalization behavior questionnaire (PHBQ) and parents' postoperative pain measure (PPPM) on postoperative days one, three, and seven at home. Most parents (83%) reported onset of new negative behavioral change in children postoperatively. Generalized estimating equations revealed significant group differences in overall behavior change [Wald χ(2)(12) = 375.69, P children compared to English-speaking White (ESW) parents (day 1: P children's postoperative behavioral recovery may be influenced by cultural variables, such as ethnicity and language. The present results contribute to a growing body of evidence that highlights the need for culturally sensitive assessment and care of families in the medical setting. The findings may reflect differences in cultural values such as stoicism; however, future studies would benefit from examination of the factors that may account for the differences in reported behavior change after surgery (i.e., report bias, cultural values). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Mass Counseling: Effective Tool to Improve Knowledge,. Attitude and Behavior ... of mobile counseling units by blood banks may help to create a voluntary blood donor. Changes in ..... How to cite this article: Kulkarni PY, Kulkarni AD.

  8. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  9. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  10. The bible and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-03-15

    Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  11. Behavior Management and Behavioral Change: How Can We Tell Them Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the differences between behavior management and behavior change helps adults identify the differences between the two and teaches them what they can do to be effective in the use of both. This article introduces Positive Behavior Facilitation (PBF) Tool #3 which aims to support adults in understanding the differences between behavior…

  12. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.

  13. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  14. Stages of driving behavior change within the Transtheoretical Model (TM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kristina; Jeznach, Anna; Tuokko, Holly Anna

    2014-09-01

    Many older adults voluntarily restrict their driving or stop driving of their own accord. Driving behavior change may occur in stages, as predicted by the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TM). This study explored the process of older driver behavior change within the TM framework using interviews/focus groups with drivers and former drivers aged 71-94 years. Within those groups of drivers, driving behavior was divided into two classes: those who changed their driving with age and those who did not. Those who changed their driving as they aged included people gradually imposing restrictions ("gradual restrictors") and those making plans in anticipation of stopping driving ("preparers"). Participants who did not change their driving included those who employed lifelong driving restrictions ("consistent") and those who made no changes ("non-changers"). Preliminary support for TM within the driving context was found; however, further exploration of driving behavior change within this framework is warranted. It is important to continue to investigate the factors that might influence driving behavior in older adults. By promoting self-regulation in individuals, it may be possible to help older adults continue to drive, thereby improving older adult's mobility and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    . The choice of strategy depends on whether the target groups: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards what is socially desired, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in socially desired action During the last 30 years, entrepreneurship has become what most nations would call a socially desirable action...... and Frazier's (1982) model of planned social change, examining whether initiatives can be a means of creating change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? The basic idea underlying Sheth and Frazier's model is that different strategies can be used to bring about socially desirable attitudes and behaviour...... and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude...

  16. Comparing strategies to assess multiple behavior change in behavioral intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bettina F; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Sapp, Amy L; Li, Yi; Harley, Amy E; Emmons, Karen M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-03-01

    Alternatives to individual behavior change methods have been proposed, however, little has been done to investigate how these methods compare. To explore four methods that quantify change in multiple risk behaviors targeting four common behaviors. We utilized data from two cluster-randomized, multiple behavior change trials conducted in two settings: small businesses and health centers. Methods used were: (1) summative; (2) z-score; (3) optimal linear combination; and (4) impact score. In the Small Business study, methods 2 and 3 revealed similar outcomes. However, physical activity did not contribute to method 3. In the Health Centers study, similar results were found with each of the methods. Multivitamin intake contributed significantly more to each of the summary measures than other behaviors. Selection of methods to assess multiple behavior change in intervention trials must consider study design, and the targeted population when determining the appropriate method/s to use.

  17. Stakeholders of Voluntary Forest Carbon Offset Projects in China: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the defining challenges facing the planet. Voluntary forest carbon offset project which has the potential to boost forest carbon storage and mitigate global warming has aroused the global concern. The objective of this paper is to model the game situation and analyze the game behaviors of stakeholders of voluntary forest carbon offset projects in China. A stakeholder model and a Power-Benefit Matrix are constructed to analyze the roles, behaviors, and conflicts of stakeholders including farmers, planting entities, communities, government, and China Green Carbon Foundation. The empirical analysis results show that although the stakeholders have diverse interests and different goals, a win-win solution is still possible through their joint participation and compromise in the voluntary forest carbon offset project. A wide governance structure laying emphasis on benefit balance, equality, and information exchanges and being regulated by all stakeholders has been constructed. It facilitates the agreement among the stakeholders with conflicting or different interests. The joint participation of stakeholders in voluntary forest carbon offset projects might change the government-dominated afforestation/reforestation into a market, where all participators including government are encouraged to cooperate with each other to improve the condition of fund shortage and low efficiency.

  18. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  19. Voluntary Becomes Mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, William

    Voluntary bench-bar press guidelines have evolved over the past 15 years as a way of resolving the conflict between the right of the accused to a fair trial and the right of the press to cover such a trial. In 1980, however, a Washington state judge required reporters to sign an affidavit stating that they would follow the state's guidelines.…

  20. Identifying indicators of behavior change: insights from wildfire education programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Shruti Agrawal; Pamela J. Jakes; Linda E. Kruger; Kristen C. Nelson; Victoria Sturtevant

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community change. Agency-sponsored...

  1. Can Big Pharma Behavior Change to Benefit Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Saul; Chu, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Professors Rosenberg and Chu will discuss how the behavior of large pharmaceutical companies can sometimes compromise the needs of patients. The behavior includes strategies for lobbying Congress, exploiting patent law, targeting large consumer markets, creating demand from patients, and influencing physicians. In some cases, this behavior has created ethical and legal problems. The talk will conclude with a discussion of possible ways to encourage changes that will benefit patients.

  2. Determining intervention thresholds that change output behavior patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a semi-automated method that can calculate intervention thresholds—that is, the minimum required intervention sizes, over a given time frame, that result in a desired change in a system’s output behavior pattern. The method exploits key differences in atomic behavior profiles that

  3. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webinar series on communications strategies and methods addresses how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  4. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  5. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  6. Advancing Models and Theories for Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Michie, Susan; Pavel, Misha; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Jimison, Holly B; Garnett, Claire; Parral, Skye; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-11-01

    To be suitable for informing digital behavior change interventions, theories and models of behavior change need to capture individual variation and changes over time. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations for development of models and theories that are informed by, and can inform, digital behavior change interventions based on discussions by international experts, including behavioral, computer, and health scientists and engineers. The proposed framework stipulates the use of a state-space representation to define when, where, for whom, and in what state for that person, an intervention will produce a targeted effect. The "state" is that of the individual based on multiple variables that define the "space" when a mechanism of action may produce the effect. A state-space representation can be used to help guide theorizing and identify crossdisciplinary methodologic strategies for improving measurement, experimental design, and analysis that can feasibly match the complexity of real-world behavior change via digital behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigirci, Ozge; Rockmore, Marc; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences - such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster - change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat) exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00). Trauma, such as combat, may change one's decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  8. How Traumatic Violence Permanently Changes Shopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Sigirci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences – such as combat, living in a conflict country or war-torn nation, or experiencing a violent crime or natural disaster – change social relationships and may also influence a life-time of consumer relationships with brands and shopping. Our focus on this previously overlooked area is centered on an analysis of the long-term shopping habits of 355 combat veterans. We show that those who experienced heavy trauma (e.g., heavy combat exhibited similar disconnection from brands as others have experienced in social relationships. They became more transactional in that they were more open to switching brands, to trying new products, and buying the least expensive alternative (p < 0.01. In contrast, those who had experienced a light trauma were more influenced by ads and more open to buying brands even when they cost more (p < 0.00. Trauma, such as combat, may change one’s decision horizon. Functionality and price become more important, which is consistent with the idea that they are more focused on the present moment than on building on the past or saving for the future.

  9. Eating Behaviors and Dietary Changes in Patients With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Carlesi, Cecilia; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Eating problems and dietary changes have been reported in patients with dementia. The aim of this article is to explore the generalized problems with nutrition, diet, feeding, and eating reported among patients with dementia. Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published before 2016. Search terms used included behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, dementia, dietary changes, eating behavior. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Abnormal eating behaviors, eating problems, and dietary changes are present in most people with dementia, especially in the later stages of the condition. Individuals with dementia frequently develop serious feeding difficulties and changes in eating and dietary habits. The changes may be secondary to cognitive impairment or apraxia, or the result of insufficient caregiving, or the consequence of metabolic or neurochemical abnormalities occurring as part of the dementing process.

  10. The Soft Underbelly of System Change: The Role of Leadership and Organizational Climate in Turnover during Statewide Behavioral Health Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sommerfeld, David H; Willging, Cathleen E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined leadership, organizational climate, staff turnover intentions, and voluntary turnover during a large-scale statewide behavioral health system reform. The initial data collection occurred nine months after initiation of the reform with a follow-up round of data collected 18 months later. A self-administered structured assessment was completed by 190 participants (administrators, support staff, providers) employed by 14 agencies. Key variables included leadership, organizational climate, turnover intentions, turnover, and reform-related financial stress ("low" versus "high") experienced by the agencies. Analyses revealed that positive leadership was related to a stronger empowering climate in both high and low stress agencies. However, the association between more positive leadership and lower demoralizing climate was evident only in high stress agencies. For both types of agencies empowering climate was negatively associated with turnover intentions, and demoralizing climate was associated with stronger turnover intentions. Turnover intentions were positively associated with voluntary turnover. Results suggest that strong leadership is particularly important in times of system and organizational change and may reduce poor climate associated with turnover intentions and turnover. Leadership and organizational context should be addressed to retain staff during these periods of systemic change.

  11. Applied behavior analysis: understanding and changing behavior in the community-a representative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.

  12. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of habitual anger on employees' behavior during organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönigk, Mareike; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-11-25

    Organizational change is a particularly emotional event for those being confronted with it. Anger is a frequently experienced emotion under these conditions. This study analyses the influence of employees' habitual anger reactions on their reported behavior during organizational change. It was explored whether anger reactions conducive to recovering or increasing individual well-being will enhance the likelihood of functional change behavior. Dysfunctional regulation strategies in terms of individual well-being are expected to decrease the likelihood of functional change behavior-mediated by the commitment to change. Four hundred and twelve employees of different organizations in Luxembourg undergoing organizational change participated in the study. Findings indicate that the anger regulation strategy venting, and humor increase the likelihood of deviant resistance to change. Downplaying the incident's negative impact and feedback increase the likelihood of active support for change. The mediating effect of commitment to change has been found for humor and submission. The empirical findings suggest that a differentiated conceptualization of resistance to change is required. Specific implications for practical change management and for future research are discussed.

  14. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  15. Identifying Indicators of Behavior Change: Insights from Wildfire Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Agrawal, Shruti; Jakes, Pamela J.; Kruger, Linda E.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Sturtevant, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Environmental educators are challenged to document behavior changes, because change rarely depends solely on outcomes of education programs, but on many factors. An analysis of 15 communities in the United States that have increased their preparedness for wildfire allowed us to explore how education programs encouraged individual and community…

  16. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposure factor data for this population of women, and highlights data gaps. Background Exposures to environmental contaminants can pose a risk to pregnant women’s health, the developing fetus, children, and adults later in their lives. Assessing risks to this potentially susceptible population requires an understanding of the physiological and behavioral changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation. Many physiological and anatomical changes occur in a woman’s organ systems during the course of pregnancy and lactation. For example, blood volume and cardiac output increase during pregnancy, and other metabolic functions are altered to provide for the demands of the fetus. Nutritional demands are greater during pregnancy and lactation. There also are changes in behavior during both pregnancy and lactation. For example, water consumption during pregnancy and lactation increases. These behavioral and physiological changes can lead to different environmental exposures than these women might otherwise experience in the absence of pregnancy or lactation. The purpose of the issue paper is to provide a summary of data available on physiological and behavioral changes in pregnant a

  17. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  18. Voluntary exercise increases resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Rody C; Smith, Michael; Lacey, Tiara; Edwards, Malcolm; Best, Janae N; Markham, Chris M

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects. Although several studies have investigated the resilience-inducing effects of voluntary exercise after exposure to physical stressors, such as restraint and electric shock, few studies have examined whether exercise can impart resilience in response to ethologically-based stressors, such as social defeat. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise can have anxiolytic-like effects in socially defeated hamsters. In the elevated plus maze, the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in risk assessment, a commonly used index of anxiety, compared to the no-exercise group. In the open-field test, animals in the exercise group exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor behavior and rearing, also an indication of an anxiolytic-like effect of exercise. In Experiment 2, we examined whether exercise can reverse the defeat-induced potentiation of defensive behaviors using the CD model. Socially defeated hamsters in the exercise group exhibited significantly lower levels of defensive/submissive behaviors compared to the no-exercise group upon exposure to the resident aggressor. Taken together, these results are among the first to suggest that voluntary exercise may promote resilience to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  20. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  1. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior.

  2. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  3. Development of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A

    2018-03-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.

  4. Human behavioral contributions to climate change: psychological and contextual drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact, primarily through patterns of reproduction and consumption. We identify and distinguish individual, societal, and behavioral predictors of environmental impact. Relevant research in these areas (as well as areas that would be aided by greater attention by psychologists) are reviewed. We conclude by highlighting ethical issues that emerge when considering how to address human behavioral contributions to climate change.

  5. Possible Solutions as a Concept in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Diane E

    2018-04-24

    Nurses are uniquely positioned to implement behavior change interventions. Yet, nursing interventions have traditionally resulted from nurses problem-solving rather than allowing the patient to self-generate possible solutions for attaining specific health outcomes. The purpose of this review is to clarify the meaning of possible solutions in behavior change interventions. Walker and Avant's method on concept analysis serves as the framework for examination of the possible solutions. Possible solutions can be defined as continuous strategies initiated by patients and families to overcome existing health problems. As nurses engage in behavior change interventions, supporting patients and families in problem-solving will optimize health outcomes and transform clinical practice. © 2018 NANDA International, Inc.

  6. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  8. Behavioral Disinhibition Can Foster Intentions to Healthy Lifestyle Change by Overcoming Commitment to Past Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennis, Bob M; Andreassen, Tor W; Lervik-Olsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to change lifestyles is a sense of commitment to past behavior. However we also found that the contribution of commitment was attenuated for individuals with a stronger tendency for behavioral disinhibition thus underscoring the "bright side" of this individual difference characteristic that traditionally has been mainly associated with impulsive and indulging behavior. Overall, the present findings add to our understanding of factors inhibiting and promoting healthy behavior change.

  9. Self-guided Change: The most common form of long-term, maintained health behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, F Michler

    2018-01-01

    Millions of people change risky, health-related behaviors and maintain those changes. However, they often take years to change, and their unhealthy behaviors may harm themselves and others and constitute a significant cost to society. A review—similar in nature to a scoping review—was done of the literature related to long-term health behavior change in six areas: alcohol, cocaine and heroin misuse, gambling, smoking, and overeating. Based on the limited research available, reasons for change and strategies for changing and for maintaining change were also reviewed. Fifty years of research clearly indicate that as people age, in the case of alcohol, heroin and cocaine misuse, smoking, and gambling, 80–90 percent moderate or stop their unhealthy behaviors. The one exception is overeating; only 20 percent maintain their weight loss. Most of these changes, when they occur, appear to be the result of self-guided change. More ways to accelerate self-guided, health-related behavior change need to be developed and disseminated. PMID:29375888

  10. Disincentives to voluntary transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations

  11. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy of adding voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to information dissemination in reducing HIV-related risk behaviors among Hong Kong male cross-border truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, Hi Yi; Cheng, Shannon; Pang, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Mobile populations are vulnerable to contracting HIV. The present study aims to evaluate the relative efficacy of the voluntary counseling and testing plus information dissemination (VCT-ID) approach versus the information dissemination (ID) approach for promoting HIV preventive behaviors in a mobile population, cross-border truck drivers. A total of 301 adult male cross-border truck drivers who self-reported having had sex with female sex workers (FSW) or non-regular sex partners (NRPs) in mainland China in the last 12 months were recruited and randomized into the VCT-ID intervention group (Group I) or ID control group (Group C). Anonymous structured questionnaires, administered through a computer-assisted method, were used to collect data. At the follow-up survey (about 8-9 weeks since the baseline survey), Group I participants, as compared to Group C participants, were more likely to be consistent condom users when having sex with FSW (85.5% versus 68.5%, p<0.05) and with NRP (54.8% versus 36.4%, p<0.1), more knowledgeable about HIV, and were less likely to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the last two months. The VCT-ID approach is shown to be more efficacious than the ID approach in promoting safer sex and HIV-related knowledge among local cross-border truck drivers. Feasibility of providing voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at locations which are convenient to the target population is demonstrated. It also shows that VCT services can be used as a means of HIV prevention. The findings of this study resulted in up-scaled VCT services for the local target population.

  12. Cognitive and behavioral changes in Huntington disease before diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jane S; Miller, Amanda C; Hayes, Terry; Shaw, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic manifestations of Huntington disease (HD) can be detected at least 15 years prior to the time when a motor diagnosis is given. Advances in clinical care and future research will require consistent use of HD definitions and HD premanifest (prodromal) stages being used across clinics, sites, and countries. Cognitive and behavioral (psychiatric) changes in HD are summarized and implications for ongoing advancement in our knowledge of prodromal HD are suggested. The earliest detected cognitive changes are observed in the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Stroop Interference, Stroop Color and Word Test-interference condition, and Trail Making Test. Cognitive changes in the middle and near motor diagnostic stages of prodromal HD involve nearly every cognitive test administered and the greatest changes over time (i.e., slopes) are found in those prodromal HD participants who are nearest to motor diagnosis. Psychiatric changes demonstrate significant worsening over time and remain elevated compared with healthy controls throughout the prodromal disease course. Psychiatric and behavior changes in prodromal HD are much lower than that obtained using cognitive assessment, although the psychiatric and behavioral changes represent symptoms most debilitating to independent capacity and wellness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  14. On the pilot's behavior of detecting a system parameter change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizumi, N.; Kimura, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reaction of a human pilot, engaged in compensatory control, to a sudden change in the controlled element's characteristics is described. Taking the case where the change manifests itself as a variance change of the monitored signal, it is shown that the detection time, defined to be the time elapsed until the pilot detects the change, is related to the monitored signal and its derivative. Then, the detection behavior is modeled by an optimal controller, an optimal estimator, and a variance-ratio test mechanism that is performed for the monitored signal and its derivative. Results of a digital simulation show that the pilot's detection behavior can be well represented by the model proposed here.

  15. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  16. Modeling behavioral thermoregulation in a climate change sentinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Mathewson, Paul D; Jones, Gavin M; Kearney, Michael R; Porter, Warren P

    2015-12-01

    When possible, many species will shift in elevation or latitude in response to rising temperatures. However, before such shifts occur, individuals will first tolerate environmental change and then modify their behavior to maintain heat balance. Behavioral thermoregulation allows animals a range of climatic tolerances and makes predicting geographic responses under future warming scenarios challenging. Because behavioral modification may reduce an individual's fecundity by, for example, limiting foraging time and thus caloric intake, we must consider the range of behavioral options available for thermoregulation to accurately predict climate change impacts on individual species. To date, few studies have identified mechanistic links between an organism's daily activities and the need to thermoregulate. We used a biophysical model, Niche Mapper, to mechanistically model microclimate conditions and thermoregulatory behavior for a temperature-sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Niche Mapper accurately simulated microclimate conditions, as well as empirical metabolic chamber data for a range of fur properties, animal sizes, and environmental parameters. Niche Mapper predicted pikas would be behaviorally constrained because of the need to thermoregulate during the hottest times of the day. We also showed that pikas at low elevations could receive energetic benefits by being smaller in size and maintaining summer pelage during longer stretches of the active season under a future warming scenario. We observed pika behavior for 288 h in Glacier National Park, Montana, and thermally characterized their rocky, montane environment. We found that pikas were most active when temperatures were cooler, and at sites characterized by high elevations and north-facing slopes. Pikas became significantly less active across a suite of behaviors in the field when temperatures surpassed 20°C, which supported a metabolic threshold predicted by Niche Mapper. In general

  17. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  18. Hemiballismus, Hyperphagia, and Behavioral Changes following Subthalamic Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of subthalamic nucleus (STN which is a part of the basal ganglia system is not clear, but it is hypothesized that this component might be involved in action selection. Unilateral damage to STN, which can commonly occur due to the small vessel stroke mainly, causes hemiballismus and sometimes hemichorea-hemiballismus. This paper deals with a 60-year-old patient with sudden onset of abnormal movements in his right limbs. He had increased appetite and hyperphagia and also developed mood and behavioral changes (aggressiveness, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes obscene speech. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct area in left subthalamus. In our case, hemiballismus is caused by infarction in left subthalamic area. Occurrence of irritability, anxiety, and some behavioral changes such as aggressiveness and obscene speech can be explained by impairment of STN role in nonmotor behavior and cognitive function as a result of infarct.

  19. Using Regrets to Elicit Behavior Change in Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Leilani A.; Robbins, Jamie E.; Stanley, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to support the notion of regret as a useful tool rather than merely a negative emotion. The article introduces means for using feelings of regret to change past behaviors, increase motivation to reach goals, and minimize future regrets in athletes and teams.

  20. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  1. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  2. Religion Does Matter for Climate Change Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mark; Duncan, Roderick; Parton, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on the relationship between religion and climate change attitudes and behavior. Further, while there have been some studies examining the relationship between environmental attitudes and religion, most are focused on Christian denominations and secularism, and few have examined other religions such as Buddhism. Using an online survey of 1,927 Australians we examined links between membership of four religious groupings (Buddhists, Christian literalists and non-literalists, and Secularists) and climate change attitudes and behaviors. Differences were found across religious groups in terms of their belief in: (a) human induced climate change, (b) the level of consensus among scientists, (c) their own efficacy, and (d) the need for policy responses. We show, using ordinal regression, that religion explains these differences even after taking into account socio-demographic factors, knowledge and environmental attitude, including belief in man's dominion over nature. Differences in attitude and behavior between these religious groups suggest the importance of engaging denominations to encourage change in attitudes and behavior among their members.

  3. Behavior Change Support Systems for Privacy and Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Kelders, S.; van Gemert-Pijnen, L.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes to use Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSSs) to improve the security of IT applications and the privacy of its users. We discuss challenges specific to BCSSs applied to information security, list research questions to be answered in order to meet these challenges, and propose

  4. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  5. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  6. Social gaming rules : Changing people's behavior through games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, N.J.H.; Visch, V.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach towards designing social games or game elements for changing people’s social behavior for serious applications. We use the concept of the magic circle, which outlines the experience of a game world as different from the real world. We can design a connection

  7. Anger Management Program Participants Gain Behavioral Changes in Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly

    2016-01-01

    RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…

  8. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  9. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  10. Persuasion: Attitude/Behavior Change. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    Designed for teachers, students and researchers of the psychological dimensions of attitude and behavior change, this annotated bibliography lists books, bibliographies and articles on the subject ranging from general introductions and surveys through specific research studies, and from theoretical position essays to literature reviews. The 42…

  11. A Behavior Change Framework of Health Socialization and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christopher T.; Stanley, Lauren H. K.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's identity related to health is critically important in terms of the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors, and guides approaches to health change across the lifespan. This article presents a review of the literature and proposes a health socialization and health identity framework, which may be used to clarify challenges in…

  12. Energy Challenges: Isolating Results Due to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kelly; Pallant, Eric; Bradshaw-Wilson, Casey; Choate, Beth; Carbone, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 700 colleges and universities have committed to climate neutrality, which will require significant reductions in energy consumption. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of an Annual Energy Challenge in curtailing electricity use by changing consumption behaviors at one liberal arts college.…

  13. Behavior Change after Adventure Education Courses: Do Work Colleagues Notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, a mixed-method approach is used to examine the extent and type of changes in workplace attitudes and behavior, as self-reported by soldiers who had participated in 6- to 10-day "Experiential Leadership Development Activities" (ELDAs) delivered by the New Zealand Army Leadership Centre. Observations made by workplace…

  14. Watershed Outreach Professionals' Behavior Change Practices, Challenges, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…

  15. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  16. Online Interventions for Social Marketing Health Behavior Change Campaigns: A Meta-Analysis of Psychological Architectures and Adherence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Background Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet’s reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. Objectives This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Methods Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence

  17. Online interventions for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: a meta-analysis of psychological architectures and adherence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Phil

    2011-02-14

    Researchers and practitioners have developed numerous online interventions that encourage people to reduce their drinking, increase their exercise, and better manage their weight. Motivations to develop eHealth interventions may be driven by the Internet's reach, interactivity, cost-effectiveness, and studies that show online interventions work. However, when designing online interventions suitable for public campaigns, there are few evidence-based guidelines, taxonomies are difficult to apply, many studies lack impact data, and prior meta-analyses are not applicable to large-scale public campaigns targeting voluntary behavioral change. This meta-analysis assessed online intervention design features in order to inform the development of online campaigns, such as those employed by social marketers, that seek to encourage voluntary health behavior change. A further objective was to increase understanding of the relationships between intervention adherence, study adherence, and behavioral outcomes. Drawing on systematic review methods, a combination of 84 query terms were used in 5 bibliographic databases with additional gray literature searches. This resulted in 1271 abstracts and papers; 31 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 29 papers describing 30 interventions were included in the primary meta-analysis, with the 2 additional studies qualifying for the adherence analysis. Using a random effects model, the first analysis estimated the overall effect size, including groupings by control conditions and time factors. The second analysis assessed the impacts of psychological design features that were coded with taxonomies from evidence-based behavioral medicine, persuasive technology, and other behavioral influence fields. These separate systems were integrated into a coding framework model called the communication-based influence components model. Finally, the third analysis assessed the relationships between intervention adherence and behavioral outcomes. The

  18. Changing Climate, Changing Behavior: Adaptive Economic Behavior and Housing Markets Responses to Flood Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatova, Tatiana; Bin, Okmyung; Kaminski, Bogumil; Koloch, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Spatial econometrics and analytical spatial economic modeling advanced significantly in the recent years. Yet, methodologically they are designed to tackle marginal changes in the underlying dynamics of spatial urban systems. In the world with climate change, however, abrupt sudden non-marginal

  19. Empiric validation of a process for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; MacKinnon, David P; Ranby, Krista W; Kuehl, Kerry S; Moe, Esther L

    2016-09-01

    Most behavior change trials focus on outcomes rather than deconstructing how those outcomes related to programmatic theoretical underpinnings and intervention components. In this report, the process of change is compared for three evidence-based programs' that shared theories, intervention elements and potential mediating variables. Each investigation was a randomized trial that assessed pre- and post- intervention variables using survey constructs with established reliability. Each also used mediation analyses to define relationships. The findings were combined using a pattern matching approach. Surprisingly, knowledge was a significant mediator in each program (a and b path effects [pbehavior change.

  20. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Verbal Bullying Changes Among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-11-01

    Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among grade 10 students in 16 urban and rural schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2013. Baseline and postintervention questionnaires, developed using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change theoretical model, were used to assess changes in verbal bullying. Postintervention there were reduced verbal bullying experiences. Improved social norms and awareness of verbal bullying were associated with reduced verbal bullying experiences and behavior. Although less likely to bully others verbally, girls were more likely to experience verbal bullying. Students with no living father were more likely to bully others verbally. The study findings indicate that a school-based intervention can positively impact on verbal bullying experiences and behavior. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  2. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  3. Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M

    2018-02-01

    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Beliefs-Behavior Connection: Leading Teachers Toward Change. The Key to Changing Teachers' Behavior is to Change their Basic Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2004-01-01

    The author examines some of the reasons why teachers resist change and cites three main factors: lack of motivation; low levels of knowledge, experience, and comfort; and poor moral and ego development. She offers research-based suggestions for changing teacher behaviors through staff development focused on changing their beliefs over time.

  5. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  6. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  7. Changing automatic behavior through self-monitoring: Does overt change also imply implicit change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Hietbrink, L.; Rinck, M.; Keijsers, G.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Self-monitoring of unwanted behavior is a common component of effective cognitive-behavioral therapy. Self-monitoring has often shown to lead to decreases in undesirable behavior. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these ‘reactive effects’, we investigated whether

  8. Building new computational models to support health behavior change and maintenance: new opportunities in behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.

  9. Anesthesia, brain changes, and behavior: Insights from neural systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Elisabeth; Bittner, Edward A; Kussman, Barry; McCann, Mary Ellen; Soriano, Sulpicio; Borsook, David

    2017-06-01

    Long-term consequences of anesthetic exposure in humans are not well understood. It is possible that alterations in brain function occur beyond the initial anesthetic administration. Research in children and adults has reported cognitive and/or behavioral changes after surgery and general anesthesia that may be short lived in some patients, while in others, such changes may persist. The changes observed in humans are corroborated by a large body of evidence from animal studies that support a role for alterations in neuronal survival (neuroapoptosis) or structure (altered dendritic and glial morphology) and later behavioral deficits at older age after exposure to various anesthetic agents during fetal or early life. The potential of anesthetics to induce long-term alterations in brain function, particularly in vulnerable populations, warrants investigation. In this review, we critically evaluate the available preclinical and clinical data on the developing and aging brain, and in known vulnerable populations to provide insights into potential changes that may affect the general population of patients in a more, subtle manner. In addition this review summarizes underlying processes of how general anesthetics produce changes in the brain at the cellular and systems level and the current understanding underlying mechanisms of anesthetics agents on brain systems. Finally, we present how neuroimaging techniques currently emerge as promising approaches to evaluate and define changes in brain function resulting from anesthesia, both in the short and the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. KOREAN STUDENTS' BEHAVIORAL CHANGE TOWARD NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION THROUGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUN OK HAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of conducting a 45 minute-long seminar on the principles, state of use, advantages, and disadvantages of nuclear power generation for Korean elementary, middle, and high school students, the levels of perception including the necessity (p<0.017, safety (p<0.000, information acquisition (p<0.000, and subjective knowledge (p<0.000, objective knowledge (p<0.000, attitude (p<0.000, and behavior (p<0.000 were all significantly higher. This indicates that education can be effective in promoting widespread social acceptance of nuclear power and its continued use. In order to induce behavior change toward positive judgments on nuclear power generation, it is necessary to focus on attitude improvement while providing the information in all areas related to the perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Here, the positive message on the convenience and the safety of nuclear power generation should be highlighted.

  11. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Annalisa; Liccardo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1) epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI). We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious diseases.

  12. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Fierro

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1 epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI. We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious

  13. The gap between behavioral risk status and willingness to change behavior among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasila, K; Hallman, M; Kautiainen, H; Vanhala, M; Kettunen, T

    2018-01-01

    This study explored behavioral health risk factors among healthcare professionals and investigated the at-risk persons' satisfaction with their health habits and ongoing change attempts. The study was based on a cross-sectional web-based survey directed at the nurses and physicians ( N = 1233) in Finnish healthcare. Obesity, low physical activity, smoking, and risky alcohol drinking were used as behavioral health risk factors. In all, 70% of the participants had at least one behavioral risk factor, and a significant number of at-risk persons were satisfied with their health habits and had no ongoing change process. Good self-rated health and good self-rated work ability were significantly associated with whether a participant had a behavioral health risk factor. Overall, unhealthy behaviors and a lack of ongoing change attempts were commonly observed among healthcare professionals. Work in healthcare is demanding, and healthy lifestyles can support coping. Thus, healthy lifestyle programs should also be targeted to healthcare professionals.

  14. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldi, Robson; Polari, Daniel; Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Silva, Priscila F; Lobao-Soares, Bruno; Yonamine, Mauricio; Freire, Fulvio A M; Luchiari, Ana C

    2017-01-01

    The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N , N -dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L ( n = 14 each group), and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.

  16. Behavioral Changes Over Time Following Ayahuasca Exposure in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Savoldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations. We exposed adult zebrafish to five concentrations of the ayahuasca infusion: 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 3 ml/L (n = 14 each group, and behavior was recorded for 60 min. We evaluated swimming speed, distance traveled, freezing and bottom dwelling every min for 60 min. Swimming speed and distance traveled decreased with an increase in ayahuasca concentration while freezing increased with 1 and 3 ml/L. Bottom dwelling increased with 1 and 3 ml/L, but declined with 0.1 ml/L. Our data suggest that small amounts of ayahuasca do not affect locomotion and reduce anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish, while increased doses of the drug lead to crescent anxiogenic effects. We conclude that the temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of ayahuasca-induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.

  17. Changes in motor unit behavior following isometric fatigue of the first dorsal interosseous muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, William Z.; Lowery, Madeleine M.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromuscular strategies employed to compensate for fatigue-induced muscle force deficits are not clearly understood. This study utilizes surface electromyography (sEMG) together with recordings of a population of individual motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) to investigate potential compensatory alterations in motor unit (MU) behavior immediately following a sustained fatiguing contraction and after a recovery period. EMG activity was recorded during abduction of the first dorsal interosseous in 12 subjects at 20% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), before and directly after a 30% MVC fatiguing contraction to task failure, with additional 20% MVC contractions following a 10-min rest. The amplitude, duration and mean firing rate (MFR) of MUAPs extracted with a sEMG decomposition system were analyzed, together with sEMG root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude and median frequency (MPF). MUAP duration and amplitude increased immediately postfatigue and were correlated with changes to sEMG MPF and RMS, respectively. After 10 min, MUAP duration and sEMG MPF recovered to prefatigue values but MUAP amplitude and sEMG RMS remained elevated. MU MFR and recruitment thresholds decreased postfatigue and recovered following rest. The increase in MUAP and sEMG amplitude likely reflects recruitment of larger MUs, while recruitment compression is an additional compensatory strategy directly postfatigue. Recovery of MU MFR in parallel with MUAP duration suggests a possible role for metabolically sensitive afferents in MFR depression postfatigue. This study provides insight into fatigue-induced neuromuscular changes by examining the properties of a large population of concurrently recorded single MUs and outlines possible compensatory strategies involving alterations in MU recruitment and MFR. PMID:25761952

  18. Behavioral, neurophysiological, and descriptive changes after occupation-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubik-Peplaski, Camille; Carrico, Cheryl; Nichols, Laurel; Chelette, Kenneth; Sawaki, Lumy

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of occupation-based intervention on poststroke upper-extremity (UE) motor recovery, neuroplastic change, and occupational performance in 1 research participant. A 55-yr-old man with chronic stroke and moderately impaired UE motor function participated in 15 sessions of occupation-based intervention in a hospital setting designed to simulate a home environment. We tested behavioral motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Stroke Impact Scale, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and neuroplasticity (transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]) at baseline and at completion of intervention. We collected descriptive data on occupational participation throughout the study. All behavioral outcomes indicated clinically relevant improvement. TMS revealed bihemispheric corticomotor reorganization. Descriptive data revealed enhanced occupational performance. Occupation-based intervention delivered in a hospital-based, homelike environment can lead to poststroke neuroplastic change, increased functional use of the affected UE, and improved occupational performance. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Antioxidants and Autism: Teachers' Perceptions of Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Amy; Berk, Lee S; Mainess, Karen; Daher, Noha S

    2018-06-05

    BACKGROUND- Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate a physiological imbalance between free radicals, resultant from oxidative stress, and antioxidants. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathogenesis of this neurocognitive disorder. The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to examine the effect of consumption of high concentration antioxidant cacao on behavior of children with ASD. METHODS- This was a 4-week pre-test post-test experimental pilot study of high antioxidant cacao and children with ASD. Participants consumed 8 squares (or 16 grams) per day of the dark chocolate which had a concentration of 70% cacao and 30% organic cane sugar (total antioxidant concentration was 8,320). The two main behavioral measures were the Aberrant Behavior Checklist- 2nd Edition and the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale which were completed by the child's teacher at baseline and end of week four. RESULTS- Sixteen participants were recruited for this study. Follow up data was available on 12 participants (9 males, 3 females, mean age of 10.9 ±3.9 years). Significant improvements on the Autism Spectrum Rating Scale were noted in Social/Communication (p=0.03, η2=0.79), Unusual Behaviors (p=0.02, η2=0.70), and Self-Regulation (p=0.04, η2=0.59). No significant changes were noted on any of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-2 subscales (p>.05). CONCLUSION- Results from this study support the potential therapeutic benefit of antioxidants in improving social communication, unusual behaviors, and self-regulation behaviors of children with ASD. Further robust randomized controlled trials are now necessary to elaborate the validity of these findings.

  1. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  2. Folkbiology Meets Microbiology: A Study of Conceptual and Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-fong; Chan, Carol K. K.; Chan, Tsz-kit; Cheung, Mike W. L.; Ho, Johnson Y. S.; Ip, Grace W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Health education can offer a valuable window onto conceptual and behavioral change. In Study 1, we mapped out 3rd-grade Chinese children's beliefs about causes of colds and flu and ways they can be prevented. We also explored older adults' beliefs as a possible source of the children's ideas. In Study 2, we gave 3rd- and 4th-grade Chinese children…

  3. Developing Interventions to Change Recycling Behaviors: A Case Study of Applying Behavioral Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainforth, Heather L.; Sheals, Kate; Atkins, Lou; Jackson, Richard; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and the Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) are frameworks that can be used to develop recycling interventions. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of these frameworks for developing recycling interventions. 20 semistructured interviews with university building users were analyzed using the TDF and…

  4. Decrease Risk Behavior HIV Infected on Construction Laborers with Behavior Change Communication (BCC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of BCC approach to the reduction of contracting HIV risk behavior in the construction laborers. Method: This study used operational research design. In this study measures the effectiveness of behavior change of construction workers on the prevention of HIV transmission by comparing the behavior of the construction workers before and after the intervention. The subjects of this study were 150 people risk group of construction workers who work and are spread throughout the city of Surabaya. This research was carried out into three phases, namely, phase preintervention research, intervention research, and post-intervention phase of the study. Implemented in the first year and second year praintervensi stage implemented intervention and post-intervention phases. Result: The results of this study showed that 72% of construction workers is productive (18–35 years and visit his family more than once a month (38%. There is 20% of construction workers had sex with commercial sex workers and no one was using drugs. By 50% of construction workers never get information about HIV/AIDS and as many as 48% never use the services of HIV/AIDS. Discussion: External motivation construction workers associated with the utilization of behavioral HIV/AIDS services with sufficient correlation. Strong external motivation is influenced by risk behaviors of HIV/AIDS were conducted and the desire to get help. Weak external motivation is influenced by a lack of exposure to information related to HIV/AIDS services. The results of the FGD stakeholders have the perception is the same if a construction worker is a high risk group of contracting HIV. Most of the construction workers not have enough knowledge for the prevention of HIV transmission because they do not have access to HIV care and behavior are at risk of contracting HIV by construction workers. Keywords: construction workers, behavior change communication, behavior

  5. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  6. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    important events in their reproductive history with structural traits of the total population of women of same age and parity who induce abortion, the representativeness of samples was confirmed and thus generalization of results. The results indicate that a target group is clearly distinct which would decide on sterilization as a contraceptive method. Not only do more than half of the surveyed women who induce abortion believe that voluntary sterilization as a method of contraception should be available in Serbia, but also a large number of surveyed women, almost a half, would subject themselves to voluntary sterilization after having given birth to the desired number of children and when they would be convinced that sterilization does not influence health, sex potency, nor quality of sex life. Younger women, respondents with secondary education, those who gave birth to the desired number of children, as well as those who have a good relationship with their partner, and confronted themselves with a large number of induced abortions, namely those who wish to use contraception in future, are more open to voluntary sterilization. The reasons for individual non acceptance, namely undetermined standpoint towards sterilization as a contraception method, indicate that many of the registered ambivalent or negative opinions could be changed by knowledge spreading on the characteristics of voluntary sterilization.

  7. Comparisons of mandatory and discretionary lane changing behavior on freeways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Vechione

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research performs comparative analyses on drivers’ behavior during mandatory and discretionary lane changes. We do this by examining the statistical properties of four lane changing decision variables that describe the gaps between the subject vehicle and the surrounding vehicles. Mandatory and discretionary lane changes in NGSIM’s I-80 Freeway and U.S. Highway 101 data collection sites were identified. First, for each variable at the same site, descriptive statistics for the two types of lane changes were compared, and hypothesis tests on the difference between two means were conducted. Then, for each decision variable at the same site, the observed cumulative distributions between the mandatory and discretionary lane changes were compared by means of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. This test was repeated for the fitted distributions of the same decision variable at the same site. The results show that, for the three decision variables associated with gaps in the target lane, the means and distributions between the two types of lane changes are not significantly different. The only variable found to have significant differences in means and distributions is the gap between the subject vehicle and the preceding vehicle in the original lane. This may be because this variable is not an important input in mandatory lane change decisions. This finding provides statistical justification for researchers to develop models with different inputs for mandatory and discretionary lane changes in driver assist systems, in autonomous vehicles, and in microscopic traffic simulation tools.

  8. Help Preferences Among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-08-01

    To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e., wellness service). Respondents to an electronic questionnaire who acknowledged wishing to change health behaviors in relation to smoking (n = 845), alcohol (n = 684), eating (n = 4,431), and physical activity (n = 5,179) were asked to choose up to three help alternatives on a predefined list. In descending order, smokers preferred help from nicotine gum, no help, and help and support from family and friends. Alcohol consumers preferred no help or help and support from family and friends or "other" forms. Employees who wanted to change eating habits preferred a free fruit bowl, free nutritional guidance, and healthy food at work. Employees who wanted to change physical activity patterns preferred exercise at work, offers of free exercise, and exercise in a social/collegial context. Wishing to change health behaviors is not always accompanied by perceiving a need for assistance. The no-help option was selected fairly frequently and mostly in relation to alcohol and smoking. A fruit bowl was the most preferred option for help, followed by exercise at work and free exercise. Help from traditional health services was ranked low, possibly reflecting that they are primarily viewed as a solution for stopping disease rather than promoting health. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as "sufficiency") and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens' heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials-that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens' heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective.

  10. Reinventing the wheel: comparison of two wheel cage styles for assessing mouse voluntary running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, T; Harfmann, B D; Esser, K A; Schroder, E A

    2018-04-01

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different laboratories. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differ depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs. magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to greater running distance per day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used, suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus investigators need to report wheel cage type/wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The results of this study highlight that mice will run different distances per day and average speed based on the inherent resistance present in the switch mechanism used to record data. Rapid changes in running behavior for the same mouse in the different cages demonstrate that a strong behavioral factor contributes to classic exercise outcomes in mice. Caution needs to be taken when interpreting mouse voluntary wheel running activity to

  11. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead, they grow up in single-parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence, it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1985 is used...... for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s health, behavior, and educational outcomes. These results are con.rmed by a differences-in-differences analysis of health outcomes. This suggests...

  12. Unusual crystallization behavior in Ga-Sb phase change alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Putero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ X-ray scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the crystallization behavior of Sb-rich Ga-Sb alloys. Measurements of the sheet resistance during heating indicated a reduced crystallization temperature with increased Sb content, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The electrical contrast increased with increasing Sb content and the resistivities in both the amorphous and crystalline phases decreased. It was found that by tuning the composition between Ga:Sb = 9:91 (in at.% and Ga:Sb = 45:55, the change in mass density upon crystallization changes from an increase in mass density which is typical for most phase change materials to a decrease in mass density. At the composition of Ga:Sb = 30:70, no mass density change is observed which should be very beneficial for phase change random access memory (PCRAM applications where a change in mass density during cycling is assumed to cause void formation and PCRAM device failure.

  13. Ethanol-Induced Changes in PKCε: From Cell to Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakri Mohamed, Rashidi M; Mokhtar, Mohd H; Yap, Ernie; Hanim, Athirah; Abdul Wahab, Norhazlina; Jaffar, Farah H F; Kumar, Jaya

    2018-01-01

    The long-term binge intake of ethanol causes neuroadaptive changes that lead to drinkers requiring higher amounts of ethanol to experience its effects. This neuroadaptation can be partly attributed to the modulation of numerous neurotransmitter receptors by the various protein kinases C (PKCs). PKCs are enzymes that control cellular activities by regulating other proteins via phosphorylation. Among the various isoforms of PKC, PKCε is the most implicated in ethanol-induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Ethanol exposure causes changes to PKCε expression and localization in various brain regions that mediate addiction-favoring plasticity. Ethanol works in conjunction with numerous upstream kinases and second messenger activators to affect cellular PKCε expression. Chauffeur proteins, such as receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs), cause the translocation of PKCε to aberrant sites and mediate ethanol-induced changes. In this article, we aim to review the following: the general structure and function of PKCε, ethanol-induced changes in PKCε expression, the regulation of ethanol-induced PKCε activities in DAG-dependent and DAG-independent environments, the mechanisms underlying PKCε-RACKε translocation in the presence of ethanol, and the existing literature on the role of PKCε in ethanol-induced neurobehavioral changes, with the goal of creating a working model upon which further research can build.

  14. Ethanol-Induced Changes in PKCε: From Cell to Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi M. Pakri Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term binge intake of ethanol causes neuroadaptive changes that lead to drinkers requiring higher amounts of ethanol to experience its effects. This neuroadaptation can be partly attributed to the modulation of numerous neurotransmitter receptors by the various protein kinases C (PKCs. PKCs are enzymes that control cellular activities by regulating other proteins via phosphorylation. Among the various isoforms of PKC, PKCε is the most implicated in ethanol-induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Ethanol exposure causes changes to PKCε expression and localization in various brain regions that mediate addiction-favoring plasticity. Ethanol works in conjunction with numerous upstream kinases and second messenger activators to affect cellular PKCε expression. Chauffeur proteins, such as receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs, cause the translocation of PKCε to aberrant sites and mediate ethanol-induced changes. In this article, we aim to review the following: the general structure and function of PKCε, ethanol-induced changes in PKCε expression, the regulation of ethanol-induced PKCε activities in DAG-dependent and DAG-independent environments, the mechanisms underlying PKCε-RACKε translocation in the presence of ethanol, and the existing literature on the role of PKCε in ethanol-induced neurobehavioral changes, with the goal of creating a working model upon which further research can build.

  15. Changing beliefs and behavior through experience-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Geoff F; Libby, Lisa K

    2012-07-01

    The present research introduces the concept of experience-taking-the imaginative process of spontaneously assuming the identity of a character in a narrative and simulating that character's thoughts, emotions, behaviors, goals, and traits as if they were one's own. Six studies investigated the degree to which particular psychological states and features of narratives cause individuals, without instruction, to engage in experience-taking and investigated how the merger between self and other that occurs during experience-taking produces changes in self-judgments, attitudes, and behavior that align with the character's. Results from Studies 1-3 showed that being in a reduced state of self-concept accessibility while reading a brief fictional work increased-and being in a heightened state of self-concept accessibility decreased-participants' levels of experience-taking and subsequent incorporation of a character's personality trait into their self-concepts. Study 4 revealed that a first-person narrative depicting an ingroup character elicited the highest levels of experience-taking and produced the greatest change in participants' behavior, compared with versions of the narrative written in 3rd-person voice and/or depicting an outgroup protagonist. The final 2 studies demonstrated that whereas revealing a character's outgroup membership as a homosexual or African American early in a narrative inhibited experience-taking, delaying the revelation of the character's outgroup identity until later in the story produced higher levels of experience-taking, lower levels of stereotype application in participants' evaluation of the character, and more favorable attitudes toward the character's group. The implications of these findings in relation to perspective-taking, self-other overlap, and prime-to-behavior effects are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Measuring Motivation: Change Talk and Counter-Change Talk in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Diana R.; Button, Melissa; Westra, Henny A.

    2013-01-01

    How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. The present study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early...

  17. Fertility and marriage behavior in Israel: Diversity, change, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Okun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Based on aggregate statistics, the population of Israel, as compared to all or most other developed societies, has very high levels of fertility and marriage (e.g. TFR of 2.96 in 2009 and only 9.7Š never married among women aged 40-44 in 2009. However, studying aggregate demographic measures is problematic, because Israel is an extremely heterogeneous society, with family formation patterns differing greatly across numerically important social groups. Until now, little has been documented about the basic fertility and marriage behavior of different population groups. OBJECTIVE We describe the fertility and marriage behavior of populations in Israel, broken down by nationality, religion, religiosity and nativity-status. Although our main focus is on a detailed presentation of fertility patterns, we also look at marriage behavior, as it is closely related to fertility in Israel. METHODS We analyze recently available annual data from the Israel Social Surveys for 2002-2009, which, for the first time in several decades,, provides detailed information on family and household demographic behavior and direct information on level of religiosity. We focus primarily on comparisons across cohorts born from the late 1940s to the late 1960s and between periods in the early and late 2000s. RESULTS We provide a detailed portrait of striking diversity in fertility and marriage behavior across population groups, along with important patterns of change and stability across cohorts and over time. We document findings and differential patterns, some unexpected, regarding comparisons across groups and across cohorts. CONCLUSIONS The descriptive findings form the basis for a clearer understanding of fertility and marriage patterns in different population subgroups in Israel. In addition, the reported results suggest many questions for future research, which are outlined in the paper.

  18. Changing Patterns in Consumer Behavior Engendered by the Changing Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda G.

    A review of research suggests that female participation in the work force in the United States creates change in the socioeconomic status of women and thus in their consumer behavior. In 1950, 25 percent of married women were in the labor force; in 1975, 44 percent worked outside the home. The increasing number of married working women has led to…

  19. Leaders and Change: Leadership Behaviors and Influence on Subordinates' Reaction to Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic-Miller, Olivia V.

    2017-01-01

    Within the educational arena today, leaders face many problems ranging from shifts in governmental mandates and regulations, to increased expectations for teachers and administrators in order to improve academic outcomes. Combining facets of leadership behaviors with organizational changes, the educational arena has become more complex compared to…

  20. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  1. Switching behavior of resistive change memory using oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Takashige; Sugawa, Kosuke; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Takase, Kouichi

    2018-06-01

    Resistive change random access memory (ReRAM), which is expected to be the next-generation nonvolatile memory, often has wide switching voltage distributions due to many kinds of conductive filaments. In this study, we have tried to suppress the distribution through the structural restriction of the filament-forming area using NiO nanowires. The capacitor with Ni metal nanowires whose surface is oxidized showed good switching behaviors with narrow distributions. The knowledge gained from our study will be very helpful in producing practical ReRAM devices.

  2. Environment-behavior relations, behavior therapy and the process of persuasion and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, S L; Chase, P N; Hawkins, R P

    1997-03-01

    The phenomena described by the cognitive dissonance literature, especially to explain attitude change, have important relevance to understanding certain aspects of therapy. Contrary to popular beliefs, these phenomena can be described in behavior-analytic terms. To do so requires an analysis of learning histories that select and maintain consistency in what individuals say and do. An understanding of the environmental variables that produce consistency can then be applied to the kinds of attitude change and stability found in the cognitive dissonance literature that have therapeutic importance.

  3. Changing Attitudes, Changing Behaviors. Conceptual Change as a Model for Teaching Freedom of Religion or Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Ramirez, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to demonstrate that conceptual change theory and strategies can be applied to areas of the social science, such as human rights education on FORB. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical scope of this paper is conceptual change theory and is intended to introduce the theory and practice of conceptual change in teaching…

  4. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized both in the short and the long run by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985...... is used for the analysis. The empirical cross-sectional analysis indicates a negative relation between the number of family structure changes and children.s educational outcomes. Children experiencing many family structure changes also seem to have worse health outcomes....

  5. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Gerjo; Lo, Siu Hing; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  6. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  7. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: g.kok@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: siu-hing.lo@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: gj.peters@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: r.ruiter@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  8. Increasing public awareness and facilitating behavior change: Two guiding heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, E.

    2016-12-01

    If there is a single aspiration that unifies the professionals who work on the challenges associated with global change, it is likely their desire to see policy makers, business managers and members of the public make decisions that are better informed by the realities of what we know about how to stabilize the climate and prevent needless harm to people and eco-systems. This calls an obvious question: What can we - as scientists and science organizations - to do more effectively promote evidence-based decision-making and actions by important decision-makers? In this talk I will distinguish between two related challenges: more effectively sharing what we know (i.e., improving our communication); and more effectively helping decision-makers take helpful actions (i.e., improving our efforts to facilitate behavior change). Drawing on both theory and empirical evidence in communication science, behavioral science and other related social sciences, I suggest two guiding heurstics - one for each of the two challenges - that will help scientists and science organizations improve the impact of their outreach efforts. To more effectively share what we know, we need "simple clear messages, repeated often, by a variety of trusted sources." To help people convert their good intentions into effective actions, we need to do more to "make the behaviors we are promoting easy, fun and popular." I refer to each of these as "heuristics" in the sense that they organize a relatively large amount of prescriptive information into a relatively easy to use method or process. In this talk, I will unpack each of these heurtistics with the aim of making them practical for all in attendance.

  9. 77 FR 66777 - Time Limit for Completion of Voluntary Self-Disclosures and Revised Notice of the Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    .... 120207107-2565-01] RIN 0694-AF59 Time Limit for Completion of Voluntary Self-Disclosures and Revised Notice... narrative account required in voluntary self-disclosures (VSDs) of violations of the Export Administration... voluntary self-disclosures in connection with OEE's conduct of investigations. The other two changes address...

  10. Measuring motivation: change talk and counter-change talk in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Diana R; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    How clients talk about change early in treatment has been found to be a potent predictor of their subsequent treatment success. Studies examining such client motivational language (arguments for and against change) have typically been conducted in the context of motivational interviewing for addictions. This study examined the capacity of client motivational language to predict treatment outcomes in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety. Client early in-session statements against change (counter-change talk) were found to be robust predictors of post-treatment worry scores and differentiated treatment responders from nonresponders. Moreover, client motivational language predicted outcomes beyond initial symptom severity and self-report measures of motivation. These results strongly support the relevance of client motivational language outcomes in CBT and provide a foundation for advancing research on motivation for change in a CBT context.

  11. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  12. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez LP

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leivy Patricia Gonzalez-Ramirez,1,2 Jose Maria De la Roca-Chiapas,2 Cecilia Colunga-Rodriguez,3,4 Maria de Lourdes Preciado-Serrano,3 Adrian Daneri-Navarro,5 Francisco Javier Pedroza-Cabrera,6 Reyna Jazmin Martinez-Arriaga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University Centre of Tonala, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 2Department of Psychology, Division of Health Sciences, Campus Leon, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, 3Department of Public Health, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, 4Paediatric Hospital, Western National Medical Centre, Mexican Social Security Institute, 5Departament of Physiology, University Centre for Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 6Department of Psychology, Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico Background: The transtheoretical model (TTM has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer.Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ, which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods: Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative. Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used.Results: Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the

  13. BEHAVIOUR CHANGE AND COMMUNICATION : - a descriptive literature review of behavior change and communication in Sub-Saharan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Susanna Kauppi. Behavior change and communication. Descriptive literature review. 63 pages 2 appendices. Language: English. Fall 2015. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Master’s Degree in Global Health Care. Degree: Master of Health Care. The great majority of the diseases are preventable and human behavior plays a central role in the prevention of disease and in the maintenance. By understanding behavior and barriers of behavior change as well as used communication chan...

  14. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Translational behavioral medicine for population and individual health: gaps, opportunities, and vision for practice-based translational behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.

  16. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  17. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  20. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E

    2009-12-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user's individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals' motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article's approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster.

  1. Behavioral, demographic, psychosocial, and sociocultural concomitants of stage of change for physical activity behavior in a mixed-culture sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J; Lee, Jong-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyo; Li, Kin-Kit; Si, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Examine behavioral, demographic, psychosocial, and sociocultural concomitants of the stages of change for physical activity behavior among college students in South Korea (n = 221) and the United States (n = 166). Measures obtained in this cross-sectional study included age; body mass index; nationality; gender; exercise behavior; processes of change; decisional balance; self-efficacy; stage of change; and predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors. The amount of variance explained for stage of change by the transtheoretical model constructs (i.e., decisional balance, processes of change, self-efficacy) ranged from 11% to 29% (all p behavior (OR = 1.04; p behavioral processes of change (OR = 1.12; p change. In terms of physical activity behavior, South Korean women were more likely than South Korean men to be in the early stages, whereas American men were slightly more likely to be in the early stages than American women when all the concomitants were accounted for. Among the psychosocial stage of change concomitants, only the behavioral processes of change were found to be important.

  2. Causes and consequences of voluntary anorexia during the parental care period of wild male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kyle C; Abizaid, Alfonso; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-11-01

    By definition, parental care behaviors increase offspring survival, and individual fitness, at some cost to the parent. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), parental males provide sole care for the developing brood that includes an increase in activity during brood defense and decreased foraging resulting in a decline in endogenous energy reserves. No mechanisms have been proposed for cessation of voluntary foraging, though regulation of appetite hormones such as ghrelin have been documented to affect feeding behavior in other fishes. We documented baseline fluctuations in plasma ghrelin concentrations across parental care. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were lowest during the early stages of parental care before increasing as the brood developed to independence. Additionally, we performed an intervention experiment whereby plasma ghrelin levels were artificially increased through an injection of rodent ghrelin at the onset of parental care. Despite measuring a significant increase in plasma ghrelin approximately 1 week after injection, we noted no differences in plasma-borne indicators of recent foraging activity indicating that voluntary anorexia is possibly reinforced by receptor insensitivity to appetite hormones. Finally, we assessed the ultimate consequences of foraging during parental care by feeding fish to satiation and measuring post-prandial changes in swimming performance and aggression. Fish fed to satiation showed significant decreases in burst swimming ability and aggressiveness towards potential brood predators. Voluntary anorexia during smallmouth bass parental care is an adaptive behavior that avoids potentially deleterious declines in swimming performance and aggression apparently through a modulation of production and reception of appetite hormones including ghrelin.

  3. The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science through a focus on mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Riddle, Melissa; King, Jonathan W; Aklin, Will M; Chen, Wen; Clark, David; Collier, Elaine; Czajkowski, Susan; Esposito, Layla; Ferrer, Rebecca; Green, Paige; Hunter, Christine; Kehl, Karen; King, Rosalind; Onken, Lisa; Simmons, Janine M; Stoeckel, Luke; Stoney, Catherine; Tully, Lois; Weber, Wendy

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Changes in healthy childhood lifestyle behaviors in Japanese rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention points for lifestyle education. The participants were 2833 elementary and junior high school students living in Japanese rural areas. Data on 26 variables assigned to 5 subfactors were collected. We estimated the composite score of each subfactor on the basis of item response theory. A 2-way ANOVA and a graph review were performed to explore the differences and changes by sex and grade. Most of the main effects for sex and grade were statistically significant. Lifestyle behaviors acquired early in elementary school were lost as students progressed to higher grades. The research indicated the following emphases: (1) Physical activity and leisure habits should be focused on girls and hygiene habits on boys; (2) Continuous education for a healthy lifestyle is essential to maintain good health among children; (3) Education for healthy lifestyle can be classified into 2 important stages such as for dietary and sleeping habits, education from the upper grades of elementary school is important, whereas for other routine activities, reeducation in junior high school is effective. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  5. Travel Behavior Change in Older Travelers: Understanding Critical Reactions to Incidents Encountered in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sundling, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Accessibility of travel may be better understood if psychological factors underlying change in travel behavior are known. This paper examines older (65+) travelers? motives for changing their travel behavior. These changes are grounded in critical incidents earlier encountered in public-transport travel. A scientific framework is developed based on cognitive and behavioral theory. In 29 individual interviews, travelers? critical reactions (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral) to 77 ...

  6. Designing Serious Video Games for Health Behavior Change: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player’s knowledge and skill, ways in which per...

  7. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  8. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  9. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  10. Stuttering Frequency, Speech Rate, Speech Naturalness, and Speech Effort During the Production of Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Jason H; Grossman, Heather L; Edge, Robin L

    2018-05-01

    Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages during a control condition, and three voluntary stuttering conditions that involved attempting to produce purposeful, tension-free repetitions of initial sounds or syllables of a word for two or more repetitions (i.e., bouncing). The three voluntary stuttering conditions included bouncing on 5%, 10%, and 15% of syllables read. Friedman tests and follow-up Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were conducted for the statistical analyses. Stuttering frequency, articulation rate, and speech naturalness were significantly different between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Speech effort did not differ between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Stuttering frequency was significantly lower during the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition, and speech effort was significantly lower during two of the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition. Due to changes in articulation rate across the voluntary stuttering conditions, it is difficult to conclude, as has been suggested previously, that voluntary stuttering is the reason for stuttering reductions found when using voluntary stuttering techniques. Additionally, future investigations should examine different types of voluntary stuttering over an extended period of time to determine their impact on stuttering frequency, speech rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort.

  11. Cultural Context and Modification of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2009-01-01

    Although social and cultural contexts act on each level of the multilevel ecologic model to affect cancer risk, health behavior, and cancer screening and promotion in health behavior research, people have yet to develop theories that sufficiently integrate the social and environmental context with group and individual behavior. The "Behavioral…

  12. The Soft Underbelly of System Change: The Role of Leadership and Organizational Climate in Turnover during Statewide Behavioral Health Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Willging, Cathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined leadership, organizational climate, staff turnover intentions, and voluntary turnover during a large-scale statewide behavioral health system reform. The initial data collection occurred nine months after initiation of the reform with a follow-up round of data collected 18 months later. A self-administered structured assessment was completed by 190 participants (administrators, support staff, providers) employed by 14 agencies. Key variables included leadership, organizati...

  13. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluch Rocco A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247

  14. Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

  15. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-02-22

    Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. © 2011 Epstein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Exploring predictors of change in behavioral problems over a 1-year period in preterm born preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica; Jongmans, Marian

    OBJECTIVE: Although predictors of the prevalence of behavioral problems in preterm-born children have been frequently studied, predictors of behavioral change in these children remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we explore predictors of short-term changes in problem behavior in preterm-born

  17. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  18. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of o...

  19. Determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Goossensen, Dorien; Genugten, Lenneke van; Lingsma, Hester; Dippel, Diederik; Koudstaal, Peter; Hertog, Heleen den

    2016-04-01

    To assess determinants of intention to change health-related behavior and actual change in patients with TIA or ischemic stroke. In this prospective cohort study, 100 patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke completed questionnaires on behavioral intention and sociocognitive factors including perception of severity, susceptibility, fear, response-efficacy and self-efficacy at baseline. Questionnaires on physical activity, diet and smoking were completed at baseline and at 3 months. Associations between sociocognitive factors and behavioral intention and actual change were studied with multivariable linear and logistic regression. Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and fear were independently associated with behavioral intention, with self-efficacy as the strongest determinant of intention to increase physical activity (aBeta 0.40; 95% CI 0.12-0.71), adapt a healthy diet (aBeta 0.49; 95% CI 0.23-0.75), and quit smoking (aBeta 0.51; 95% CI 0.13-0.88). Intention to change tended to be associated with actual health-related behavior change. Self-efficacy, fear, and response-efficacy were determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke. These determinants of intention to change health-related behavior after TIA or ischemic stroke should be taken into account in the development of future interventions promoting health-related behavior change in these group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable Change Sequence: a framework for developing behavior change interventions for patients with long-term conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn, Glyn; Marrin, Katy; Frosch, Dominick; White, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective\\ud \\ud Interactive interventions are increasingly advocated to support behavior change for patients who have long-term conditions. Such interventions are most likely to achieve behavior change when they are based on appropriate theoretical frameworks. Developers of interventions are faced with a diverse set of behavioral theories that do not specifically address intervention development. The aim of our work was to develop a framework to guide the developers of interactive healthcare...

  1. The eHealth Behavior Management Model: a stage-based approach to behavior change and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Robert J; Mercer, Nelda; Brusk, John J; Underhile, Ric; Rivas, Jason; Anderson, Judith; Kelleher, Deanne; Lupella, Melissa; de Jager, André C

    2004-10-01

    Although the Internet has become an important avenue for disseminating health information, theory-driven strategies for aiding individuals in changing or managing health behaviors are lacking. The eHealth Behavior Management Model combines the Transtheoretical Model, the behavioral intent aspect of the Theory of Planned Behavior, and persuasive communication to assist individuals in negotiating the Web toward stage-specific information. It is here - at the point of stage-specific information - that behavioral intent in moving toward more active stages of change occurs. The eHealth Behavior Management Model is applied in three demonstration projects that focus on behavior management issues: parent-child nutrition education among participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; asthma management among university staff and students; and human immunodeficiency virus prevention among South African women. Preliminary results have found the eHealth Behavior Management Model to be promising as a model for Internet-based behavior change programming. Further application and evaluation among other behavior and disease management issues are needed.

  2. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  3. Concordance between Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire and IPAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low rate of physical activity (PA participation is observed worldwide. The identification of feasible and reliable instruments able to accurately measuring PA and help in the development of interventions to promote PA are necessary. This study aimed to analyze the concordance between the Stages of Behavior Change Questionnaire (SBCQ and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ long-version in assessing adult leisure-time physical activity (LTPA. A total of 1.588 adults completed the IPAQ to assess LTPA and the participants who performed more than 10 min/week were classified in active individuals. Using the SBCQ, active individuals were those classified in the action or maintenance stage and inactive individuals were those classified in the precontemplation, contemplation or preparation stage. The concordance between SBCQ and IPAQ was found to be 0.80. Separated by gender, it was observed a concordance between the two instruments of 0.82 for women, and 0.77 for men. Regarding age group, it was found to be 0.81 for young and middle-aged adults, and 0.77 for older people. The SBCQ presented a very good concordance with IPAQ to assess LTPA.

  4. Behavior change is not one size fits all: psychosocial phenotypes of childhood obesity prevention intervention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Mamykina, Lena

    2018-01-17

    Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention. Descriptive coding, summary, and case-ordered descriptive meta-matrices were used to group participants by their psychosocial responses to the intervention and associated behavior changes. Four psychosocial phenotypes of responses emerged: (a) Activated-successful behavior-changers with strong internal supports; (b) Inspired-motivated, but not fully successful behavior-changers with some internal supports, whose taste preferences and food environment overwhelmed their motivation; (c) Reinforced-already practiced target behaviors, were motivated, and had strong family support; and (d) Indifferent-uninterested in behavior change and only did target behaviors if family insisted. Our findings contribute to the field of behavioral medicine by suggesting the presence of specific subgroups of participants who respond differently to behavior change interventions and salient psychosocial characteristics that differentiate among these phenotypes. Future research should examine the utility of prospectively identifying psychosocial phenotypes for improving the tailoring of nutrition behavior change interventions. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  5. Voluntary Work: Between Citizenship and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Barreiro Carballal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the appearance of a series of new political subjects in democratic society at the change of the millennium, political subjects that the author considers of substantial importance in the realm of Constitutional Law. These include National Law 6/1996 concerning voluntary work, the variety of laws concerning voluntary work and finally the Organic Law, which regulates the Right to Association of March 7 2002. These are all clear examples of the recent and intense interest by the part of the administration in colonizing this until recently ignored territory. In Spain, it has been curious to note how the protagonists have changed in the debate about political participation. In the 1970s, it was seen that only parties and unions could transform society. In the 1980s, the new social movements were the only voices capable of correcting savage capitalism. Since the 1990s, only volunteers are understood to be capable of offering a bit of hope to the cloudy realm of social and political participation.

  6. Relationships Among Changes in Health Behaviors in a Six-Year U.S. Navy Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurtado, Suzzanne

    1997-01-01

    ... to practice healthy behaviors in general. This study utilized longitudinal data to examine the relationships among changes in five key lifestyle behaviors among a 6-year cohort of U.S. Navy personnel...

  7. Educating dental students about diet-related behavior change: does experiential learning work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George W; Stumpos, Madelyn L; Kerschbaum, Wendy; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether an experiential exercise in a nutrition class would a) increase dental students' motivation to change their own diet-related behavior, b) improve their understanding of theoretical concepts related to behavior change, and c) improve their attitudes towards educating their patients about diet-related behavior. Data were collected from 218 senior dental students in one dental school (2010: 106; 2011: 112) during their nutrition class. The students agreed at the beginning that it was important to change their own diet-related behavior. After one week, the majority agreed that they had changed how they felt and thought about the targeted behavior and what they actually did. After three weeks and at the end of the term, they rated the exercise as helpful for gaining a better understanding of health education theories. The majority indicated that the exercise had helped them understand the difficulty of diet-related behavior change and that it had increased their interest in helping patients change their diet-related behavior. In conclusion, this study suggests that experiential learning about diet-related behavior change is likely to affect students' own behavior positively and to result in increased understanding of behavior change theories and positive behavioral intentions concerning future health education efforts with patients.

  8. Intervention Strategies Based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sun Ju; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Song, Misoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically reviewed research on behavioral interventions based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to investigate specific intervention strategies that focus on information, motivation, and behavioral skills and to evaluate their effectiveness for people with chronic diseases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of both the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and Im and Chang. A lit...

  9. Voluntary Physical Exercise Improves Subsequent Motor and Cognitive Impairments in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is typically characterized by impairment of motor function. Gait disturbances similar to those observed in patients with PD can be observed in animals after injection of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA to induce unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Exercise has been shown to be a promising non-pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disease. Methods: In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of voluntary running wheel exercise on gait phenotypes, depression, cognitive, rotational behaviors as well as histology in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. Results: We observed that, when compared with the non-exercise controls, five-week voluntary exercise alleviated and postponed the 6-OHDA-induced gait deficits, including a significantly improved walking speed, step/stride length, base of support and print length. In addition, we found that the non-motor functions, such as novel object recognition and forced swim test, were also ameliorated by voluntary exercise. However, the rotational behavior of the exercise group did not show significant differences when compared with the non-exercise group. Conclusions: We first analyzed the detailed spatiotemporal changes of gait pattern to investigate the potential benefits after long-term exercise in the rat model of PD, which could be useful for future objective assessment of locomotor function in PD or other neurological animal models. Furthermore, these results suggest that short-term voluntary exercise is sufficient to alleviate cognition deficits and depressive behavior in 6-OHDA lesioned rats and long-term treatment reduces the progression of motor symptoms and elevates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (BMX protein expression level without affecting dopaminergic (DA neuron loss in this PD rat model.

  10. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and...

  11. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  12. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M.; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L.; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B.; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J.; Blood, Anne J.; Breiter, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task. PMID:25983682

  13. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Breiter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion (LA, the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years, or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years. We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1 the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing, (2 its activation to both positive and negative stimuli, (3 its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations relative to approach responses (positive valuations with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  14. Age-related striatal BOLD changes without changes in behavioral loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Lee, Sang; Gilman, Jodi M; Kim, Byoung Woo; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Livengood, Sherri L; Raman, Kalyan; Lee, Myung Joo; Kuster, Jake; Stern, Daniel B; Calder, Bobby; Mulhern, Frank J; Blood, Anne J; Breiter, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Loss aversion (LA), the idea that negative valuations have a higher psychological impact than positive ones, is considered an important variable in consumer research. The literature on aging and behavior suggests older individuals may show more LA, although it is not clear if this is an effect of aging in general (as in the continuum from age 20 and 50 years), or of the state of older age (e.g., past age 65 years). We also have not yet identified the potential biological effects of aging on the neural processing of LA. In the current study we used a cohort of subjects with a 30 year range of ages, and performed whole brain functional MRI (fMRI) to examine the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAc) response during a passive viewing of affective faces with model-based fMRI analysis incorporating behavioral data from a validated approach/avoidance task with the same stimuli. Our a priori focus on the VS/NAc was based on (1) the VS/NAc being a central region for reward/aversion processing; (2) its activation to both positive and negative stimuli; (3) its reported involvement with tracking LA. LA from approach/avoidance to affective faces showed excellent fidelity to published measures of LA. Imaging results were then compared to the behavioral measure of LA using the same affective faces. Although there was no relationship between age and LA, we observed increasing neural differential sensitivity (NDS) of the VS/NAc to avoidance responses (negative valuations) relative to approach responses (positive valuations) with increasing age. These findings suggest that a central region for reward/aversion processing changes with age, and may require more activation to produce the same LA behavior as in younger individuals, consistent with the idea of neural efficiency observed with high IQ individuals showing less brain activation to complete the same task.

  15. Behavioral changes during dental appointments in children having tooth extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonzalez Cademartori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extractions are associated with anxiety-related situations that can cause behavioral problems in pediatric dental clinics. Aim: We aimed to describe the behavior of children during tooth extraction appointments, compare it to their behavior in preceding and subsequent dental appointments, and assess the behavioral differences according to gender, age, type of dentition, and reason for extraction. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study based on information obtained from records of children between 6 and 13 years of age who were cared for at the Dentistry School in Pelotas, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Child behavior was assessed during the dental appointment that preceded the tooth extraction, during the tooth extraction appointment, and in the subsequent dental appointment using the Venham Behavior Rating Scale. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using the Pearson Chi-square and McNemar tests. Results: Eighty-nine children were included. Cooperative behavior prevailed in all the dental appointments. The prevalence of “mild/intense protest” was higher in the tooth extraction appointments than in the previous or subsequent dental appointments (P < 0.001. No significant differences in behavior were detected between the type of dentition (primary or permanent teeth, reason for extraction or gender. Conclusion: In this sample of children treated at a dental school, the occurrence of uncooperative behavior was higher during the tooth extraction appointments than in the preceding and subsequent dental appointments.

  16. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authority, and the changes in organizational structure it expects to make as the result of projected... description of the types of personnel actions anticipated as a result of the agency's need for voluntary early... voluntary early retirement, which may be made based on the following criteria: (A) 1 or more organizational...

  17. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in the Netherlands : differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach – Ordered and

  18. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in The Netherlands: Differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach - Ordered and

  19. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  20. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  1. Crowd-Designed Motivation: Motivational Messages for Exercise Adherence Based on Behavior Change Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.A.J.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Kwint, Sigrid; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Evers, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Developing motivational technology to support long-term behavior change is a challenge. A solution is to incorporate insights from behavior change theory and design technology to tailor to individual users. We carried out two studies to investigate whether the processes of change, from the

  2. The young and adolescents: Initiating change in children’s eating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited success in existing interventions for initiating dietary behavior change among children is forcing a more detailed analysis of how to promote change. The mediating variable model provides a conceptual framework for understanding how behavior change interventions work and integrates more basi...

  3. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  4. Behavior change techniques in popular alcohol reduction apps: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-14

    Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms "alcohol" and "drink", and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were "facilitate self-recording" (54%, 33/61), "provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation" (43%, 26/61), "provide feedback on performance" (41%, 25/61), "give options for additional and later support" (25%, 15/61) and "offer/direct towards appropriate written materials" (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change interventions (mean 2.46, SD 2.06). Evidence was mentioned by 16

  5. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Resnicow, Ken; Vaughan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. S...

  6. Processes of behavior change and weight loss in a theory-based weight loss intervention program: a test of the process model for lifestyle behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Stathi, Afroditi; Reddy, Prasuna; Perry, Rachel; Taylor, Gordon; Bennett, Paul; Dunbar, James; Greaves, Colin

    2015-01-16

    Process evaluation is important for improving theories of behavior change and behavioral intervention methods. The present study reports on the process outcomes of a pilot test of the theoretical model (the Process Model for Lifestyle Behavior Change; PMLBC) underpinning an evidence-informed, theory-driven, group-based intervention designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity for people with high cardiovascular risk. 108 people at high risk of diabetes or heart disease were randomized to a group-based weight management intervention targeting diet and physical activity plus usual care, or to usual care. The intervention comprised nine group based sessions designed to promote motivation, social support, self-regulation and understanding of the behavior change process. Weight loss, diet, physical activity and theoretically defined mediators of change were measured pre-intervention, and after four and 12 months. The intervention resulted in significant improvements in fiber intake (M between-group difference = 5.7 g/day, p behavior change, and the predicted mechanisms of change specified in the PMBLC were largely supported. Improvements in self-efficacy and understanding of the behavior change process were associated with engagement in coping planning and self-monitoring activities, and successful dietary change at four and 12 months. While participants reported improvements in motivational and social support variables, there was no effect of these, or of the intervention overall, on physical activity. The data broadly support the theoretical model for supporting some dietary changes, but not for physical activity. Systematic intervention design allowed us to identify where improvements to the intervention may be implemented to promote change in all proposed mediators. More work is needed to explore effective mechanisms within interventions to promote physical activity behavior.

  7. Climatic Change and Dynamics of Northern Hemisphere Storm-tracks: Changes in Transient Eddies Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, Yuliya; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    An evidence of our understanding of the general circulation is whether we can predict changes in the general circulation that might be associated with past or future climate changes. Changes in the location, intensity or seasonality of major climatological features of the general circulation could be more important than average temperature changes, particularly where these changes could affect local hydrology, energy balances, etc. Under these major climatological features we assume the poleward expansion of the tropical circulation (Hadley circulation), static stability (changes in the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere), role of SST forcing, sea ice extension, extratropical eddies behavior. We have a question: would the climate change significantly affect the location and intensity of midlatitude storm-tracks and associated jets? Mean-flow interaction in midlatitudes produces low-frequency variations in the latitude of the jets. It is reasonable to think that a modest climate change might significantly affects the jets location and their associated storm tracks. The storm-tracks are defined as the region of strong baroclinicity (maximum meridional temperature gradient), which are determined on the basis of eddy statistics like eddy fluxes of angular momentum, energy, and water (with the use of high-bandpass filter). In the Northern Hemisphere, there are two major storms: in the region of Atlantic and Pacific. The storm-tracks play important role in the dynamics of weather and climate. They affect the global energy cycle and the hydrological cycle, and as a result they bring heavy rains and other hazardous weather phenomena in the middle latitudes. The recent increase in global tropopause heights is closely associated with systematic temperature changes below and above the tropopause. Temperature increases in the troposphere and decreases in the stratosphere. The pattern of warming and cooling also affects the zonal wind structure in the region of

  8. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  9. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  10. A dynamic analysis of voluntary agreement implementation in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Sosa, A.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive historical analysis of failure and success factors during the implementation phase of environmental voluntary agreements (VAs) in Mexico. Secondary source data suggest that over the past two decades, perceptions of VAs have changed, and the purpose of this paper was

  11. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy.

  12. [A cross-sectional study on the changes in dietary behavior stages in resident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang-wen; Ma, Hai-yan; Yang, Ting-zhong; Liu, Ting-jie

    2004-05-01

    To explore the possibility of applying the concept of various stages of dietary behavior changes in Hangzhou residents. The dietary behavior was surveyed and analyzed in 1 388 Hangzhou residents with 18 year-old and older using the various dietary behavior change model model and stages of change. The proportion of Hangzhou residents with unhealthy dietary behavior was high and associated with gender and education level. The changes of dietary behavior could be divided into 5 stages, i.e. preintention, intention, preparation, action and maintenance. These stages of change happen consecutively. The changes of unhealthy dietary behavior do not match the improvement of health knowledge. Although a significant proportion of the residents understand that it is unhealthy to eat too much fat, pickles and high salt food, there are only a few of them really take action to reduce the consumption of these foods and to consume more milk, fruit and vegetable. There are multiple factors that affect the changes of dietary behavior in people. The changes of dietary behavior occur in various consecutive stages. Different intervention measures should be applied to people in different dietary behavior changes.

  13. Behavior change interventions: the potential of ontologies for advancing science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kai R; Michie, Susan; Hekler, Eric B; Gibson, Bryan; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Ahern, David; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Hesse, Bradford; Moser, Richard P; Yi, Jean

    2017-02-01

    A central goal of behavioral medicine is the creation of evidence-based interventions for promoting behavior change. Scientific knowledge about behavior change could be more effectively accumulated using "ontologies." In information science, an ontology is a systematic method for articulating a "controlled vocabulary" of agreed-upon terms and their inter-relationships. It involves three core elements: (1) a controlled vocabulary specifying and defining existing classes; (2) specification of the inter-relationships between classes; and (3) codification in a computer-readable format to enable knowledge generation, organization, reuse, integration, and analysis. This paper introduces ontologies, provides a review of current efforts to create ontologies related to behavior change interventions and suggests future work. This paper was written by behavioral medicine and information science experts and was developed in partnership between the Society of Behavioral Medicine's Technology Special Interest Group (SIG) and the Theories and Techniques of Behavior Change Interventions SIG. In recent years significant progress has been made in the foundational work needed to develop ontologies of behavior change. Ontologies of behavior change could facilitate a transformation of behavioral science from a field in which data from different experiments are siloed into one in which data across experiments could be compared and/or integrated. This could facilitate new approaches to hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery in behavioral science.

  14. Using an Analysis of Behavior Change to Inform Effective Digital Intervention Design: How Did the PRIMIT Website Change Hand Hygiene Behavior Across 8993 Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, B; Steele, M; Stuart, B; Joseph, J; Miller, S; Morrison, L; Little, P; Yardley, L

    2017-06-01

    In designing digital interventions for healthcare, it is important to understand not just whether interventions work but also how and for whom-including whether individual intervention components have different effects, whether a certain usage threshold is required to change behavior in each intervention and whether usage differs across population subgroups. We investigated these questions using data from a large trial of the digital PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory tract infection Transmission) (PRIMIT) intervention, which aimed to reduce respiratory tract infections (RTIs) by increasing hand hygiene behavior. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires measured behaviors, intentions and attitudes in hand hygiene. In conjunction with objective measures of usage of the four PRIMIT sessions, we analysed these observational data to examine mechanisms of behavior change in 8993 intervention users. We found that the PRIMIT intervention changed behavior, intentions and attitudes, and this change was associated with reduced RTIs. The largest hand hygiene change occurred after the first session, with incrementally smaller changes after each subsequent session, suggesting that engagement with the core behavior change techniques included in the first session was necessary and sufficient for behavior change. The intervention was equally effective for men and women, older and younger people and was particularly effective for those with lower levels of education. Our well-powered analysis has implications for intervention development. We were able to determine a 'minimum threshold' of intervention engagement that is required for hand hygiene change, and we discuss the potential implications this (and other analyses of this type) may have for further intervention development. We also discuss the application of similar analyses to other interventions.

  15. Identification of DWI behavior patterns and methods for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of behavior leading to driving while intoxicated (DWI), and to propose countermeasures for altering these patterns before they result in DWI. Two samples were studied: Los Angeles high school student...

  16. Parents' obesity-related behavior and confidence to support behavioral change in their obese child: data from the STAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A

    2014-01-01

    Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning Contracts in Undergraduate Courses: Impacts on Student Behaviors and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Timothy; Scharf, Lauren F. V

    2013-01-01

    This project studied the effect of individualized, voluntary learning contracts for 18 students who performed poorly in the first part of the semester. Contracts were hypothesized to increase commitment and motivation, and lead to changes in behaviors and course performance. Self-reported prioritization and learning-related behaviors (completion…

  18. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  19. Changing Work, Changing Health: Can Real Work-Time Flexibility Promote Health Behaviors and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L.; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees’ schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees’ health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors. PMID:22144731

  20. Changing work, changing health: can real work-time flexibility promote health behaviors and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Tranby, Eric; Huang, Qinlei

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates a change in the structuring of work time, using a natural experiment to test whether participation in a corporate initiative (Results Only Work Environment; ROWE) predicts corresponding changes in health-related outcomes. Drawing on job strain and stress process models, we theorize greater schedule control and reduced work-family conflict as key mechanisms linking this initiative with health outcomes. Longitudinal survey data from 659 employees at a corporate headquarters shows that ROWE predicts changes in health-related behaviors, including almost an extra hour of sleep on work nights. Increasing employees' schedule control and reducing their work-family conflict are key mechanisms linking the ROWE innovation with changes in employees' health behaviors; they also predict changes in well-being measures, providing indirect links between ROWE and well-being. This study demonstrates that organizational changes in the structuring of time can promote employee wellness, particularly in terms of prevention behaviors.

  1. Climate change helplessness and the (de)moralization of individual energy behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Erika; Preston, Jesse; Tannenbaum, Melanie B.

    2017-01-01

    Although most people understand the threat of climate change, they do little to modify their own energy conservation behavior. One reason for this gap between belief and behavior may be that individual actions seem un-impactful and therefore are not morally relevant. This research investigates how climate change helplessness—belief that one’s actions cannot affect climate change—can undermine the moralization of climate change and personal energy conservation. In Study 1, climate change effic...

  2. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  3. Gamification: What It Is and Why It Matters to Digital Health Behavior Change Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions. PMID:25658754

  4. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian

    2013-12-12

    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions.

  5. From Knowledge to Action: Tips for Encouraging and Measuring Program-Related Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Scott; Horntvedt, Jody; Templin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to document the behavior changes that result from Extension programming. This article describes an evaluation method we call the "action items method." Unlike other approaches for measuring behavior change, this method requires program participants to define their own action plans as part of a program and then asks them…

  6. Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2014-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) have potential for helping people increase their physical activity, but little is known about the behavior change techniques marketed in these apps. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions of top-ranked apps for physical activity. Top-ranked apps (n=167) were identified on August 28, 2013, and coded using the Coventry, Aberdeen and London-Revised (CALO-RE) taxonomy of behavior change techniques during the following month. Analyses were conducted during 2013. Most descriptions of apps incorporated fewer than four behavior change techniques. The most common techniques involved providing instruction on how to perform exercises, modeling how to perform exercises, providing feedback on performance, goal-setting for physical activity, and planning social support/change. A latent class analysis revealed the existence of two types of apps, educational and motivational, based on their configurations of behavior change techniques. Behavior change techniques are not widely marketed in contemporary physical activity apps. Based on the available descriptions and functions of the observed techniques in contemporary health behavior theories, people may need multiple apps to initiate and maintain behavior change. This audit provides a starting point for scientists, developers, clinicians, and consumers to evaluate and enhance apps in this market. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  8. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  9. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski Janice; Cerin Ester; Baranowski Tom

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior valida...

  10. Climate change and environmentally responsible behavior on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee In Yoon; Gerard Kyle; Carena J. vanRiper; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Australians' perceptions of climate change, its impact on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and predictors of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Our hypothesized model suggested that general attitudes toward climate change, social pressure for engaging in ERBs (subjective norms), and perceived behavioral control (...

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  12. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  13. Developing a Model of Health Behavior Change to Reduce Parasitic Disease in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suni; Do, Trina; Shaw, Christy; Brake, Kaile

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide more deaths occur due to conditions that can be ameliorated by behavior change. Changing health behaviors using models popularized in non-western countries has not proven particularly successful. The purpose of this study was to test variables elicited during qualitative interviews and cultural conversations to develop a model of health…

  14. Engendering Behavior Change through Single-Session Workshops: Lessons Learned from Extension's Private well Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Alyson; Gold, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a follow-up mail survey conducted in 2009, we found that structured, one-time workshops can influence and impact participant behavior change. Survey results suggest that brief workshops, staffed by key resource personnel, can have a powerful influence on participant behavior change and fill an important gap in rural drinking water…

  15. Educational Differences in Healthy Behavior Changes and Adherence among Middle-Aged Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Although the better-educated are more likely to practice healthy behaviors when measured at one point in time, there is no clear evidence regarding whether more educated people are more likely to initiate healthy behavior changes in the face of new chronic conditions and whether they are better able to adhere to these healthy changes, once made. I…

  16. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  17. Model for voluntary wine and alcohol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C

    1997-08-01

    It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone.

  18. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Angstman, Nicholas B.; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plate...

  19. Change in explicit and implicit motivation toward physical activity and sedentary behavior in pulmonary rehabilitation and associations with postrehabilitation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevance, Guillaume; Héraud, Nelly; Varray, Alain; Boiché, Julie

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables and implicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behavior would change during a 5-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program, and (b) to investigate the relationships between behavioral intentions, implicit attitudes, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in postrehabilitation. Out of 142 patients with respiratory disease included in this study, 119 completed 2 questionnaires measuring TPB variables with regard to physical activity and sedentary behavior, and an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitudes toward physical activity in contrast to sedentary behavior. The TPB questionnaires and the IAT were administered at the beginning (Time 1) and the end of the program (Time 2). Six months after the program (Time 3), 62 patients provided self-reported measures of their recreational physical activity and screen-based, leisure-time sedentary behavior. Over the course of pulmonary rehabilitation, perceived behavioral control and intentions toward physical activity increased, as did social norms and perceived behavioral control toward sedentary behavior; implicit attitudes were also more positive toward physical activity. Implicit attitudes at the end of PR (Time 2) were significantly associated with postrehabilitation physical activity (Time 3). TPB variables toward physical activity and sedentary behavior as well as implicit attitudes were enhanced during PR. At 6 months, implicit attitudes were significantly associated with physical activity. These results suggest that motivation, particularly implicit attitudes, should be targeted in future behavioral interventions in order to optimize the effects of rehabilitation on physical activity maintenance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Thinking Socially: Teaching Social Knowledge to Foster Social Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Pamela J.; Winner, Michelle Garcia; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the complexity of what it means to "be social" from the perspective of social thinking. This perspective recognizes social cognitive processing abilities as the foundation for social knowledge and, in turn, social behaviors. The article further describes variables that influence how one understands how to do what…

  1. Stability and Change of Behavioral and Emotional Screening Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Bridget V.; Dowdy, Erin; Raines, Tara C.; Carnazzo, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Universal screening for behavioral and emotional difficulties is integral to the identification of students needing early intervention and prevention efforts. However, unanswered questions regarding the stability of screening scores impede the ability to determine optimal strategies for subsequent screening. This study examined the 2-year…

  2. The Decision Tree: A Tool for Achieving Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saren, Dru

    1999-01-01

    Presents a "Decision Tree" process for structuring team decision making and problem solving about specific student behavioral goals. The Decision Tree involves a sequence of questions/decisions that can be answered in "yes/no" terms. Questions address reasonableness of the goal, time factors, importance of the goal, responsibilities, safety,…

  3. Probability Learning: Changes in Behavior across Time and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Rista C.; Fulvio, Jacqueline M.; Shutts, Kristin; Green, C. Shawn; Pollak, Seth D.

    2018-01-01

    Individuals track probabilities, such as associations between events in their environments, but less is known about the degree to which experience--within a learning session and over development--influences people's use of incoming probabilistic information to guide behavior in real time. In two experiments, children (4-11 years) and adults…

  4. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  5. Developing games for health behavior change: Getting started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...

  6. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: Effecting behavioral change in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boon-How; Chew; Sazlina; Shariff-Ghazali; Aaron; Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus(DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient’s adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal contro of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications,causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient’s psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation,self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors,coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relationto DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.

  7. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...... builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will.  But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection between free will and action. This is also the case for volunteers. The loose-coupled connection...

  8. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with

  9. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Responsiveness of a simple tool for assessing change in behavioral intention after continuing professional development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Freitas, Adriana; Turcotte, Stéphane; Borduas, Francine; Jacques, André; Luconi, Francesca; Godin, Gaston; Boucher, Andrée; Sargeant, Joan; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) activities are one way that new knowledge can be translated into changes in practice. However, few tools are available for evaluating the extent to which these activities change health professionals' behavior. We developed a questionnaire called CPD-Reaction for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions. We evaluated its responsiveness to change in behavioral intention and verified its acceptability among stakeholders. We enrolled 376 health professionals who completed CPD-Reaction before and immediately after attending a CPD activity. We contacted them three months later and asked them to self-report on any behavior change. We compared the mean rankings on each CPD-Reaction construct before and immediately after CPD activities. To estimate its predictive validity, we compared the median behavioral intention score (post-activity) of health professionals reporting a behavior change three months later with the median behavioral intention score of physicians who reported no change. We explored stakeholders' views on CPD-Reaction in semi-structured interviews. Participants were mostly family physicians (62.2%), with an average of 19 years of clinical practice. Post-activity, we observed an increase in intention-related scores for all constructs (P behavior change. We observed no statistically significant difference in intention between health professionals who later reported a behavior change and those who reported no change (P = 0.30). Overall, CPD stakeholders found the CPD-Reaction questionnaire of interest and suggested potential solutions to perceived barriers to its implementation. The CPD-Reaction questionnaire seems responsive to change in behavioral intention. Although CPD stakeholders found it interesting, future implementation will require addressing barriers they identified.

  11. Chinese Tourists’ Perceptions of Climate Change and Mitigation Behavior: An Application of Norm Activation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Qiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that tourism development is a prominent contributor to climate change, but is also a “victim” of climate change. Therefore, to mitigate climate change is of great importance for the sustainability of tourism. Yet extant studies regarding tourism and climate change tend to be dominated by a supply-side stance, albeit the core role of the tourist in the tourism industry. While researchers are increasingly adopting a tourist perspective, few seek to understand the linkage between climate change and tourists’ specific mitigation behaviors in a tourism context; this is especially so in China. This study investigates the impact of Chinese tourists’ perceptions of climate change on their mitigation behaviors based on norm activation theory. Drawing on 557 self-administrated questionnaires collected in China, it finds that tourists’ perceptions of climate change and perceived contribution of tourism to climate change both positively affect energy saving and carbon reduction behavior in tourism. Yet, compared with perceived contribution of tourism to climate change, tourists’ perceptions of climate change are found to be a much stronger predictor for energy saving and carbon reduction behavior. Therefore, it suggests that tourists’ perceptions of climate change in a general context is more strongly related to climate change mitigation behavior in tourism, calling for attention to go beyond the tourism context to alleviate the negative impacts of tourism on climate change.

  12. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-05-15

    While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior change interventions influence staff

  13. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  14. Climate Change : Behavioral Responses from Extreme Events and Delayed Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghidoni, Riccardo; Calzolari, G.; Casari, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how to sustain cooperation in the climate change global dilemma is crucial to mitigate its harmful consequences. Damages from climate change typically occurs after long delays and can take the form of more frequent realizations of extreme and random events. These features generate a

  15. Climate change : Behavioral responses from extreme events and delayed damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghidoni, Riccardo; Calzolari, Giacomo; Casari, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how to sustain cooperation in the climate change global dilemma is crucial to mitigate its harmful consequences. Damages from climate change typically occur after long delays and can take the form of more frequent realizations of extreme and random events. These features generate a

  16. Epilepsy-induced behavioral changes during the ictal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy, experiential phenomena and behavioral manifestations may pose a number of problems in terms of differential diagnosis. From a clinical point of view, ictal psychiatric symptoms represent partial seizures, mainly partial ones. In the majority of cases, they are very brief (lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes), stereotyped, out of context, and frequently associated with subtle or overt automatisms and postictal confusion of variable duration. In some cases, such symptoms are followed by alteration of consciousness as the ictus evolves to a complex partial seizure or a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. This paper reviews clinically relevant behavioral patterns during seizures discussing clinical phenomenology and relevance in terms of lateralizing value. © 2013.

  17. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Levy Paluck

    Full Text Available To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  18. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  19. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state. PMID:27875580

  20. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Batsching

    Full Text Available Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  1. Does Product Placement Change Television Viewers' Social Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Lagunes, Paul; Green, Donald P; Vavreck, Lynn; Peer, Limor; Gomila, Robin

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are television viewers affected by the behaviors and decisions they see modeled by characters in television soap operas? Collaborating with scriptwriters for three prime-time nationally-broadcast Spanish-language telenovelas, we embedded scenes about topics such as drunk driving or saving money at randomly assigned periods during the broadcast season. Outcomes were measured unobtrusively by aggregate city- and nation-wide time series, such as the number of Hispanic motorists arrested daily for drunk driving or the number of accounts opened in banks located in Hispanic neighborhoods. Results indicate that while two of the treatment effects are statistically significant, none are substantively large or long-lasting. Actions that could be taken during the immediate viewing session, like online searching, and those that were relatively more integrated into the telenovela storyline, specifically reducing cholesterol, were briefly affected, but not behaviors requiring sustained efforts, like opening a bank account or registering to vote.

  2. Nonparametric Change Point Diagnosis Method of Concrete Dam Crack Behavior Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on diagnosis method of concrete crack behavior abnormality has always been a hot spot and difficulty in the safety monitoring field of hydraulic structure. Based on the performance of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality in parametric statistical model and nonparametric statistical model, the internal relation between concrete dam crack behavior abnormality and statistical change point theory is deeply analyzed from the model structure instability of parametric statistical model and change of sequence distribution law of nonparametric statistical model. On this basis, through the reduction of change point problem, the establishment of basic nonparametric change point model, and asymptotic analysis on test method of basic change point problem, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is created in consideration of the situation that in practice concrete dam crack behavior may have more abnormality points. And the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is used in the actual project, demonstrating the effectiveness and scientific reasonableness of the method established. Meanwhile, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality has a complete theoretical basis and strong practicality with a broad application prospect in actual project.

  3. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    decreased to 73% in 2005. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of "shocks" in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution on children. International studies mainly suggest a negative relationship between non-nuclear family structure and child outcomes. There are two...... relation between family structure changes and children's outcomes. Children who have experienced family structure changes during childhood seem to have worse educational outcomes and a higher propensity to being hospitalized and convicted of a crime. The children in the dataset experience up to 13 family...... structure changes during childhood. More family structure changes implies worse outcomes and might actually be more important than the number of years a child has spent in a single parent household. The age at which the family structure change occurs also seems to be important at least for some outcomes....

  4. Why Won’t You Do What’s Good for Your? Using Intelligent Support for Behavior Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.C.A.; Mogles, N.M.; van Wissen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Human health depends to a large extent on their behavior. Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires behavior change. This paper presents a computational model of behavior change that describes formal relations between the determinants of behavior change, based on existing psychological theories.

  5. Propagation of maternal behavior across generations is associated with changes in non-maternal cognitive and behavioral processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovic, Vedran; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-08-01

    Over a number of years we have studied the phenomenology of maternal behavior from endocrine, neural, experiential, and ontogenetic perspectives. Here, we focus on the effects of early life experiences with and without the mother on subsequent maternal and non-maternal behaviors of the offspring. We have used an artificial rearing procedure, which entails removing rat pups from their mother and raising them in isolation, while controlling and manipulating several aspects of their upbringing. As adults, mother-reared (MR) and artificially-reared (AR) rats are assessed on their own maternal behavior, as well several other behaviors. While both AR and MR rats nurse and successfully wean their young, the AR rats spend less time licking, grooming, and crouching over their young. Hence, being raised in social isolation does not seem to affect primary maternal motivational dynamics. Instead, isolation rearing produces alterations in the ongoing execution of the behavior and its effective organization. Here, we present evidence that changes in maternal behavior, as a result of social isolation from mother and siblings, are due to changes in top-down (e.g., sustained attention, flexibility) and bottom-up process (e.g., increased stimulus-driven behavior). These changes are likely due to alterations in brain dopamine systems, which are sensitive to early life manipulations and are modulators of bottom-up and top-down processes. Finally, we draw parallels between the rat and human maternal behavior. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self reg...

  7. Determinants of lifestyle behavior change to prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Braver, N R; de Vet, E; Duijzer, G; Ter Beek, J; Jansen, S C; Hiddink, G J; Feskens, E J M; Haveman-Nies, A

    2017-06-12

    Although there are many effective lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention, insight into effective intervention pathways, especially of long-term interventions, is often lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the effective intervention pathways of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention using mediation analyses. In total, 240 participants at increased risk of T2DM were included in the analyses over 18 months. The intervention was a combined lifestyle intervention with a dietary and a physical activity (PA) component. The primary and secondary outcomes were change in fasting insulin (pmol/L) and change in body weight (kg) after 18 months, respectively. Firstly, in a multiple mediator model, we investigated whether significant changes in these outcomes were mediated by changes in dietary and PA behavior. Secondly, in multiple single mediator models, we investigated whether changes in dietary and PA behavior were mediated by changes in behavioral determinants and the participants' psychological profile. The mediation analyses used linear regression models, where significance of indirect effects was calculated with bootstrapping. The effect of the intervention on decreased fasting insulin was 40% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where dietary behavior was an independent mediator of the association (34%). The effect of the intervention on decreased body weight was 20% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where PA behavior was an independent mediator (17%). The intervention significantly changed intake of fruit, fat from bread spread, and fiber from bread. Change in fruit intake was mediated by change in action control (combination of consciousness, self-control, and effort), motivation, self-efficacy, intention, and skills. Change in fat intake was mediated by change in action control and psychological profile. No mediators could be identified for change in fiber intake. The change in PA behavior was mediated

  8. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  10. Improving hand hygiene compliance in healthcare settings using behavior change theories: reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.

  11. Using Behavior Change Techniques to Guide Selections of Mobile Applications to Promote Fluid Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Dubansky, Alexandra; Remillard, Joshua; Murray, Robert; Pellegrini, Christine A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Streeper, Necole M

    2017-01-01

    To determine the extent to which validated techniques for behavior change have been infused in commercially available fluid consumption applications (apps). Coders evaluated behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions for 50 fluid consumption apps and the latest version of each app. Apps incorporated a limited range of behavior change techniques (operating system but not as a function of whether apps were free or paid. Limitations include the lack of experimental evidence establishing the efficacy of these apps. Patients with urolithiasis can choose from many apps to support the recommended increase in fluid intake. Apps for iOS devices incorporate more behavior change techniques compared to apps for the Android operating system. Free apps are likely to expose patients to a similar number of techniques as paid apps. Physicians and patients should screen app descriptions for features to promote self-monitoring and provide feedback on discrepancies between behavior and a fluid consumption goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  13. A qualitative motion analysis study of voluntary hand movement induced by music in patients with Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohshin Go

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tohshin Go1, Asako Mitani21Center for Baby Science, Doshisha University, Kizugawa, Kyoto, Japan; 2Independent Music Therapist (Poco A Poco Music Room, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with Rett syndrome are known to respond well to music irrespective of their physical and verbal disabilities. Therefore, the relationship between auditory rhythm and their behavior was investigated employing a two-dimensional motion analysis system. Ten female patients aged from three to 17 years were included. When music with a simple regular rhythm started, body rocking appeared automatically in a back and forth direction in all four patients who showed the same rocking motion as their stereotyped movement. Through this body rocking, voluntary movement of the hand increased gradually, and finally became sufficient to beat a tambourine. However, the induction of body rocking by music was not observed in the other six patients who did not show stereotyped body rocking in a back and forth direction. When the music stopped suddenly, voluntary movement of the hand disappeared. When the music changed from a simple regular rhythm to a continuous tone without an auditory rhythm, the periodic movement of both the hand and body prolonged. Auditory rhythm shows a close relationship with body movement and facilitates synchronized body movement. This mechanism was demonstrated to be preserved in some patients with Rett syndrome, and stimulation with music could be utilized for their rehabilitation.Keywords: Rett syndrome, music, auditory rhythm, stereotyped movement, body rocking, voluntary movement

  14. Testing bounded rationality against full rationality in job changing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Contini, Bruno; Morini, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers' performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new ...

  15. Testing Bounded Rationality Against Full Rationality in Job Changing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I question the hypothesis of full rationality in the context of job changing behaviour, via simple econometric explorations on microdata drawn from WHIP (Worker Histories Italian Panel). Workers’ performance is compared at the end of a three-year time window that starts when choices are expressed, under the accepted notion that the main driving forces of job change are future real wages and expected job quality. Bounded rationality suggests that individuals will search for new o...

  16. Estrogenic control of behavioral sex change in the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Hunkin, K Erica; Heinz, Heather M; Hawkins, M Beth; Godwin, John

    2013-12-01

    Estrogens activate male-typical sexual behavior in several mammalian and avian models. Estrogen signaling also appears critical in the control of sex change in some fishes, in which it is instead decreases in estradiol levels that may permit development of male-typical behaviors. The bluehead wrasse is a protogynous hermaphrodite that exhibits rapid increases in aggressive and male-typical courtship behavior as females undergo sex change. Removal of the ovaries does not prevent these changes. In two field experiments involving gonadally-intact and gonadectomized females, estradiol (E2) implants prevented behavioral sex change in large females who were made the largest members of their social groups through removals of more dominant fish. In contrast, cholesterol-implanted control females showed full behavioral sex change, along with a higher frequency both of aggressive interactions and of male-typical courtship displays than occurred in E2-implanted animals. To assess potential neural correlates of these behavioral effects of E2, we evaluated abundances of aromatase mRNA using in situ hybridization. Aromatase mRNA was more abundant in the POA of E2-implanted females than in cholesterol-implanted controls in gonadally-intact females. The lack of behavioral sex change coupled with increased levels of aromatase mRNA are consistent with an inhibitory role for E2, likely of neural origin, in regulating socially controlled sex change.

  17. Which Individual Therapist Behaviors Elicit Client Change Talk and Sustain Talk in Motivational Interviewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Jackson, Kristina M; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-02-01

    To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p=.013), open question (pmotivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, addiction and behavioral changes in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merims, Doron; Giladi, Nir

    2008-01-01

    Degeneration of the dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease and longstanding exposure to dopaminergic drugs may cause reward system malfunction. This may manifest as addiction to l-dopa and behavioral disturbances associated with the impulse control system. These disturbances include: gambling, excessive spending (shopping), hypersexuality and binge eating. We included one such patient's personal story to emphasize the devastating consequences of these potentially reversible phenomena: the patient describes in his own words how gambling induced by an exposure dopamine agonist therapy significantly worsened his disease-related difficulties.

  20. Family Structure Changes and Children's Health, Behavior, and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    More and more children do not grow up in traditional nuclear families. Instead they grow up in single parent households or in families with a step-parent. Hence it is important to improve our understanding of the impact of 'shocks' in family structure due to parental relationship dissolution...... on children. In this study I empirically test whether children are traumatized by shocks in the family structure during childhood. I focus on both educational, behavioral, and health outcomes. A population sample of Danish children born in January to May 1983, 1984, and 1985 is used for the analysis...

  1. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  2. Health behavior change in advance care planning: an agent-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ernecoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A practical and ethical challenge in advance care planning research is controlling and intervening on human behavior. Additionally, observing dynamic changes in advance care planning (ACP behavior proves difficult, though tracking changes over time is important for intervention development. Agent-based modeling (ABM allows researchers to integrate complex behavioral data about advance care planning behaviors and thought processes into a controlled environment that is more easily alterable and observable. Literature to date has not addressed how best to motivate individuals, increase facilitators and reduce barriers associated with ACP. We aimed to build an ABM that applies the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change to ACP as a health behavior and accurately reflects: 1 the rates at which individuals complete the process, 2 how individuals respond to barriers, facilitators, and behavioral variables, and 3 the interactions between these variables. Methods We developed a dynamic ABM of the ACP decision making process based on the stages of change posited by the Transtheoretical Model. We integrated barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables that agents encounter as they move through the process. Results We successfully incorporated ACP barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables into our ABM, forming a plausible representation of ACP behavior and decision-making. The resulting distributions across the stages of change replicated those found in the literature, with approximately half of participants in the action-maintenance stage in both the model and the literature. Conclusions Our ABM is a useful method for representing dynamic social and experiential influences on the ACP decision making process. This model suggests structural interventions, e.g. increasing access to ACP materials in primary care clinics, in addition to improved methods of data collection for behavioral studies, e.g. incorporating

  3. Health behavior change in advance care planning: an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernecoff, Natalie C; Keane, Christopher R; Albert, Steven M

    2016-02-29

    A practical and ethical challenge in advance care planning research is controlling and intervening on human behavior. Additionally, observing dynamic changes in advance care planning (ACP) behavior proves difficult, though tracking changes over time is important for intervention development. Agent-based modeling (ABM) allows researchers to integrate complex behavioral data about advance care planning behaviors and thought processes into a controlled environment that is more easily alterable and observable. Literature to date has not addressed how best to motivate individuals, increase facilitators and reduce barriers associated with ACP. We aimed to build an ABM that applies the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change to ACP as a health behavior and accurately reflects: 1) the rates at which individuals complete the process, 2) how individuals respond to barriers, facilitators, and behavioral variables, and 3) the interactions between these variables. We developed a dynamic ABM of the ACP decision making process based on the stages of change posited by the Transtheoretical Model. We integrated barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables that agents encounter as they move through the process. We successfully incorporated ACP barriers, facilitators, and other behavioral variables into our ABM, forming a plausible representation of ACP behavior and decision-making. The resulting distributions across the stages of change replicated those found in the literature, with approximately half of participants in the action-maintenance stage in both the model and the literature. Our ABM is a useful method for representing dynamic social and experiential influences on the ACP decision making process. This model suggests structural interventions, e.g. increasing access to ACP materials in primary care clinics, in addition to improved methods of data collection for behavioral studies, e.g. incorporating longitudinal data to capture behavioral dynamics.

  4. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of Pretreatment Change on Mechanism of Behavior Change Research: An Applied Example Using Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Emily T; Levine, Jacob A; Schlauch, Robert C; Crane, Cory A; Connors, Gerard J; Maisto, Stephen A; Dearing, Ronda L

    2018-03-01

    With the growing recognition that, for some, significant changes in drinking occur before the first treatment session (i.e., pretreatment change), researchers have called for the careful assessment of when change occurs and its potential impact on mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) research. Using a commonly hypothesized MOBC variable, alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, the primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of pretreatment change on the study of MOBCs. Sixty-three individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence were recruited to participate in a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment. Participants completed weekly assessments of self-efficacy and drinking behaviors. Multilevel time-lagged regression models indicated that pretreatment change significantly moderated the effect of self-efficacy on the number of drinking days, such that among those higher on pretreatment change, higher self-efficacy ratings predicted lower rates of drinking days in the week until the next treatment session. In contrast, pretreatment change did not moderate the effect of self-efficacy on the rate of heavy drinking days. Results from the current study add to a small but growing body of research highlighting the importance of pretreatment change when studying MOBCs. Further, these results provide important insights into the conditions in which self-efficacy may play an important role in treatment outcomes.

  7. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.T.; Mishkin, F.; Goldberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  8. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C T; Mishkin, F; Goldberg, M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy.

  9. Behavioral changes induced by single and multiple electron beam pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, V.P.; McNulty, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of single, and low-dose, high-dose-rate and multiple electron beam pulses on passive avoidance behavior in mice were studied. Passive avoidance was measured by recording the time that an animal took to enter a chamber from a narrow platform. There were four conditions in the experiment: (1) no shock no radiation-control, (2) radiation only, (3) shock only, and (4) radiation plus shock. Forty animals were run for each data point. Dose rate was held constant at 9 x 10/sup 7/ rads/sec. Average doses for the two single pulses were 7.18 and 8.72 rads. The average total dose for a 25 pulse per second condition was 324.0 rads. The differences between the single versus multiple pulse radiation-only conditions were significant with longer avoidance latencies in the multiple pulse condition. Avoidance latencies were also significantly longer in the shock plus radiation condition for the multiple beam pulse than the single pulse. It is concluded that single and multiple electron beam pulses significantly effect behavior, in this case producing avoidance

  10. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  11. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  12. Predicting behavior change from persuasive messages using neural representational similarity and social network analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegors, Teresa K; Tompson, Steven; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B

    2017-08-15

    Neural activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), identified as engaging in self-related processing, predicts later health behavior change. However, it is unknown to what extent individual differences in neural representation of content and lived experience influence this brain-behavior relationship. We examined whether the strength of content-specific representations during persuasive messaging relates to later behavior change, and whether these relationships change as a function of individuals' social network composition. In our study, smokers viewed anti-smoking messages while undergoing fMRI and we measured changes in their smoking behavior one month later. Using representational similarity analyses, we found that the degree to which message content (i.e. health, social, or valence information) was represented in a self-related processing MPFC region was associated with later smoking behavior, with increased representations of negatively valenced (risk) information corresponding to greater message-consistent behavior change. Furthermore, the relationship between representations and behavior change depended on social network composition: smokers who had proportionally fewer smokers in their network showed increases in smoking behavior when social or health content was strongly represented in MPFC, whereas message-consistent behavior (i.e., less smoking) was more likely for those with proportionally more smokers in their social network who represented social or health consequences more strongly. These results highlight the dynamic relationship between representations in MPFC and key outcomes such as health behavior change; a complete understanding of the role of MPFC in motivation and action should take into account individual differences in neural representation of stimulus attributes and social context variables such as social network composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An entropy-based analysis of lane changing behavior: An interactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-05-19

    As a novelty, this article proposes the nonadditive entropy framework for the description of driver behaviors during lane changing. The authors also state that this entropy framework governs the lane changing behavior in traffic flow in accordance with the long-range vehicular interactions and traffic safety. The nonadditive entropy framework is the new generalized theory of thermostatistical mechanics. Vehicular interactions during lane changing are considered within this framework. The interactive approach for the lane changing behavior of the drivers is presented in the traffic flow scenarios presented in the article. According to the traffic flow scenarios, 4 categories of traffic flow and driver behaviors are obtained. Through the scenarios, comparative analyses of nonadditive and additive entropy domains are also provided. Two quadrants of the categories belong to the nonadditive entropy; the rest are involved in the additive entropy domain. Driving behaviors are extracted and the scenarios depict that nonadditivity matches safe driving well, whereas additivity corresponds to unsafe driving. Furthermore, the cooperative traffic system is considered in nonadditivity where the long-range interactions are present. However, the uncooperative traffic system falls into the additivity domain. The analyses also state that there would be possible traffic flow transitions among the quadrants. This article shows that lane changing behavior could be generalized as nonadditive, with additivity as a special case, based on the given traffic conditions. The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this article, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that the Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either the extensive or nonextensive entropy region would

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of behavior change techniques in health-related behavior: a scoping review of methods used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; West, Robert; Sheals, Kate; Godinho, Cristina A

    2018-03-01

    Behavior change interventions typically contain multiple potentially active components: behavior change techniques (BCTs). Identifying which specific BCTs or BCT combinations have the potential to be effective for a given behavior in a given context presents a major challenge. The aim of this study was to review the methods that have been used to identify effective BCTs for given behaviors in given contexts and evaluate their strengths and limitations. A scoping review was conducted of studies that had sought to identify effective BCTs. Articles referring to "behavio(u)r change technique(s)" in the abstract/text were located, and ones that involved identification of effective BCTs were selected. The methods reported were coded. The methods were analyzed in general terms using "PASS" criteria: Practicability (facility to apply the method appropriately), Applicability (facility to generalize from findings to contexts and populations of interest), Sensitivity (facility to identify effective BCTs), and Specificity (facility to rule out ineffective BCTs). A sample of 10% of the studies reviewed was then evaluated using these criteria to assess how far the strengths and limitations identified in principle were borne out in practice. One hundred and thirty-five studies were identified. The methods used in those studies were experimental manipulation of BCTs, observational studies comparing outcomes in the presence or absence of BCTs, meta-analyses of BCT comparisons, meta-regressions evaluating effect sizes with and without specific BCTs, reviews of BCTs found in effective interventions, and meta-classification and regression trees. The limitations of each method meant that only weak conclusions could be drawn regarding the effectiveness of specific BCTs or BCT combinations. Methods for identifying effective BCTs linked to target behavior and context all have important inherent limitations. A strategy needs to be developed that can systematically combine the strengths of

  15. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change engagement requires individuals to understand an abstract and complex topic and realize the profound implications of climate change for their families and local community. In recent years federal agencies have spent millions of dollars on climate change education to prepare a nation for a warming future. The majority of these education efforts are based on a knowledge deficit model. In this view 'educate' means 'provide information'. However cognitive and behavioral research and current action demonstrate that information alone is not enough; knowledge does not necessarily lead to action. Educators are speaking to deaf ears if we rely on passive and abstract information transfer and neglect more persuasive and affective approaches to communication. When climate change is presented abstractly as something that happens in the future to people, environments, animals somewhere else it is easy to discount. People employ two separate systems for information processing: analytical-rational and intuitive-experiential Authentic local research experiences that engage both analytical and experiential information processing systems not only help individuals understand the abstraction of climate change in a concrete and personally experienced manner, but are more likely to influence behavior. Two on-line, graduate-level courses offered within University of Nebraska's Masters of Applied Science program provide opportunities for participants to engage in authentic inquiry based studies climate change's local impacts, and work with K-12 learners in promoting the scientific awareness and behavioral changes that mitigate against the negative impacts of a changing climate. The courses are specifically designed to improve middle and high school (grades 6-12) teachers' content knowledge of climate processes and climate change science in the context of their own community. Both courses provide data-rich, investigative science experiences in a distributed digital

  16. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Carmen; Godberg, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders frequently appear in childhood. There is often lack of objective data to support a specific clinical diagnosis. Ultimately it is likely that alterations in production, concentration, storage, release, reuptake and degradation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid play key roles in the manifestations of mood disorders. We sought to determine if more gross anatomic patterns of regional brain activation in a 'baseline' state might also supply an objective means of verifying the presence of a mood disorder characterized by anger or aggressive behavior. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred for SPECT brain imaging with the diagnosis of an attention deficit disorder or autism. All had been reported as having temper problems on the routine questionnaire completed by the parents prior to SPECT imaging. The patients, who were not sedated, had absolute cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon 133 gas inhalation technique followed by intravenous injection of Tc-99m HMPAO with an administered dose calculated according to patient age and weight. One hour following the injection, high resolution brain SPECT imaging was performed using a Picker triple headed camera with fan beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT studies using 3D volume rendered semi-transparent images with dual cut off windows of 88 percent (high) and 60-65 percent (lower value depending on the patient absolute mean cortical blood flow), as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal sections. The dual window 3D display helped demonstrate increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children with similar clinical diagnoses but whose parents did not report temper problems. These preliminary findings support the proposition that an increase in perfusion to the temporal

  17. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  18. Challenges of implementing routine health behavior change support in a children's hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole

    2014-07-01

    Evidence indicates that health behavior change initiatives are often not implemented successfully. This qualitative study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementation of health behavior change brief advice into routine practice in an acute children's hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals working at a UK children's hospital (n=33). Participants were purposively sampled to incorporate a range of specialties, job roles and training. An inductive thematic framework analysis identified two emergent themes. These capture the challenges of implementing routine health behavior change support in a children's hospital setting: (1) 'health professional knowledge, beliefs and behaviors' and (2) 'patient and family related challenges'. This study enhances findings from previous research by outlining the challenges pediatric health professionals face in relation to supporting health behavior change. Challenges include failure to assume responsibility, low confidence, prioritization of the health provider relationship with patients and families, health provider and patient knowledge, and low patient and family motivation. Skills-based behavior change training is needed for pediatric health professionals to effectively support health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are current health behavioral change models helpful in guiding prevention of weight gain efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen W; Nicklas, Theresa; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Janice

    2003-10-01

    Effective procedures are needed to prevent the substantial increases in adiposity that have been occurring among children and adults. Behavioral change may occur as a result of changes in variables that mediate interventions. These mediating variables have typically come from the theories or models used to understand behavior. Seven categories of theories and models are reviewed to define the concepts and to identify the motivational mechanism(s), the resources that a person needs for change, the processes by which behavioral change is likely to occur, and the procedures necessary to promote change. Although each model has something to offer obesity prevention, the early promise can be achieved only with substantial additional research in which these models are applied to diet and physical activity in regard to obesity. The most promising avenues for such research seem to be using the latest variants of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Ecology. Synergy may be achieved by taking the most promising concepts from each model and integrating them for use with specific populations. Biology-based steps in an eating or physical activity event are identified, and research issues are suggested to integrate behavioral and biological approaches to understanding eating and physical activity behaviors. Social marketing procedures have much to offer in terms of organizing and strategizing behavioral change programs to incorporate these theoretical ideas. More research is needed to assess the true potential for these models to contribute to our understanding of obesity-related diet and physical activity practices, and in turn, to obesity prevention.

  20. Changes in the motivations, perceptions, and behaviors of recreation users: Displacement and coping in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy E. Hall; David N. Cole

    2007-01-01

    We describe how wilderness visitors perceive changes in wilderness use, impacts, and management. We examine how visitors have responded to change, both behaviorally and cognitively. The study was based on a sample of visitors to 19 Forest Service wildernesses in Oregon and Washington. Many respondents said the types of wilderness trips they take have changed since...

  1. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  2. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K

    2013-01-01

    level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons...... and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein...... in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated...

  3. Change-supportive employee behavior – A career identity explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lysova, E.; Richardson, J.; Khapova, S.N.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how career identity informs employees’ willingness to engage in organizational change initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the findings of a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of 29 employees involved in a

  4. Changes in Healthy Childhood Lifestyle Behaviors in Japanese Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…

  5. Predictors of College Students Engaging in Social Change Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership, this article examines the personal characteristics and environmental experiences that contribute to college students' involvement in social change. Results indicate that collegiate environmental characteristics (i.e., student group membership, leadership training, discussions…

  6. Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, S; Rø stad, Anders; Aksnes, DL

    2017-01-01

    Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were

  7. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)

  8. Modelling and testing behavior in applications to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargiacchi, R.

    2006-01-01

    ROSSELLA BARGIACCHI starts her concluding chapter as follows. It has been our choice in this work to investigate from an economic perspective the question of the optimal extent of climate change prevention. We have therefore chosen an abstract approach to analyze the problem of giving proper

  9. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  10. Changes of chemical and mechanical behavior of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2012-01-01

    200 °C there was no obvious structural change of the wheat straw. At 200–250 °C hemicelluloses started to decompose and were totally degraded when torrefied at 300 °C for 2 h, while cellulose and lignin began to decompose at about 270–300 °C. Tensile failure strength and strain energy of oven dried...

  11. Successful behavior changes in a man with hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several years of stress, smoking, increased alcohol use, and weight gain accompanied hypertension in a young man with an ominous family history. Aided by short-term drug therapy, he changed his ways and reduced his blood pressure for the long term.

  12. Positive Exercise Experience Facilitates Behavior Change via Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parschau, Linda; Fleig, Lena; Warner, Lisa Marie; Pomp, Sarah; Barz, Milena; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf; Lippke, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Motivational processes can be set in motion when positive consequences of physical exercise are experienced. However, relationships between positive exercise experience and determinants of the motivational and the volitional phases of exercise change have attracted only sparse attention in research. Method: This research examines direct…

  13. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tong; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Qian; Lin, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA) were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), decrease of active reaction centers (RCs), and the plastoquinone (PQ) pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI) of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  14. Is change in health behavior of Dutch medical students related to change in their ideas on how a physician's lifestyle influences their patient's lifestyle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    A change of medical students' health behavior over time may be related to a change in their opinion regarding the relationship between physicians' own health behavior and effective healthy lifestyle counseling in patients. To investigate Dutch medical students' (1) change of health behavior over

  15. Can aviation-based team training elicit sustainable behavioral change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Harry C; Browne, Patrick; Mayewski, Raymond J; Panzer, Robert J; Hittner, Kathleen C; Burke, Rebecca L; Coletta, Sandra

    2009-12-01

    To quantify effects of aviation-based crew resource management training on patient safety-related behaviors and perceived personal empowerment. Prospective study of checklist use, error self-reporting, and a 10-point safety empowerment survey after participation in a crew resource management training intervention. Seven hundred twenty-two-bed university hospital; 247-bed affiliated community hospital. There were 857 participants, the majority of whom were nurses (50%), followed by ancillary personnel (28%) and physicians (22%). Preoperative checklist use over time; number and type of entries on a Web-based incident reporting system; and measurement of degree of empowerment (1-5 scale) on a 10-point survey of safety attitudes and actions given prior to, immediately after, and a minimum of 2 months after training. Since 2003, 10 courses trained 857 participants in multiple disciplines. Preoperative checklist use rose (75% in 2003, 86% in 2004, 94% in 2005, 98% in 2006, and 100% in 2007). Self-initiated reports increased from 709 per quarter in 2002 to 1481 per quarter in 2008. The percentage of reports related to environment as opposed to actual events increased from 15.9% prior to training to 20.3% subsequently (P culture of safety, rose by an average of 0.5 point in all 10 realms immediately posttraining (mean [SD] rating, 3.0 [0.07] vs 3.5 [0.05]; P .05). Crew resource management programs can influence personal behaviors and empowerment. Effects may take years to be ingrained into the culture.

  16. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  17. The Science of Sustaining Health Behavior Change: The Health Maintenance Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Marcia G.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Mier, Nelda; Wernicke, Meghan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Health Maintenance Consortium (HMC) is a multisite Grantee Consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health from 2004–2009. The goal of HMC is to enhance understanding of the long-term maintenance of behavior change, as well as effective strategies for achieving sustainable health promotion and disease prevention. Methods This introductory research synthesis prepared by the Resource Center gives context to this theme issue by providing an overview of the HMC and the articles in this journal. Results It explores the contributions to our conceptualization of behavior change processes and intervention strategies, the trajectory of effectiveness of behavioral and social interventions, and factors influencing the long-term maintenance of behavioral and social interventions. Conclusions Future directions for furthering the science of maintaining behavior change and reducing the gaps between research and practice are recommended. PMID:20604691

  18. Nonparametric Change Point Diagnosis Method of Concrete Dam Crack Behavior Abnormality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhanchao; Gu, Chongshi; Wu, Zhongru

    2013-01-01

    The study on diagnosis method of concrete crack behavior abnormality has always been a hot spot and difficulty in the safety monitoring field of hydraulic structure. Based on the performance of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality in parametric statistical model and nonparametric statistical model, the internal relation between concrete dam crack behavior abnormality and statistical change point theory is deeply analyzed from the model structure instability of parametric statistical model ...

  19. Exploring predictors of change in behavioral problems over a 1-year period in preterm born preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappin, Renske; Wijnroks, Lex; Uniken Venema, Monica; Jongmans, Marian

    2018-02-01

    Although predictors of the prevalence of behavioral problems in preterm-born children have been frequently studied, predictors of behavioral change in these children remain unknown. Therefore, in this study we explore predictors of short-term changes in problem behavior in preterm-born preschoolers, an age period characterized by rapid behavioral change. Two- to 5-year-old children born with a gestational age behavioral problems. Following screening, 59 children with a t-score ≥60 on either the internal, external or total problem scale of the Child Behavior Checklist were included in the study. Linear mixed modeling was used to investigate predictors of change in behavior over a 1-year period. Higher levels of parenting stress, parent perceived child vulnerability, and parental hostility towards the child and lower educational levels of the mother significantly predicted increases in externalizing behavior. The higher the age of the child, the more internalizing problems decreased. Parenting stress, parent perceived child vulnerability and parental hostility towards the child were the only modifiable predictors of increases in externalizing behavior, whilst no modifiable predictors of internalizing behavior were found. There may be a reciprocal interaction between stress in parents and child externalizing problems. Furthermore, stress and worries may directly influence parents' reports on behavioral measures, because it could cause them to be concerned by behavior otherwise perceived as normal. Therefore, future interventions for parents of preterm-born children should primarily address parental stress and concerns regarding their child. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing threats in conversations about environmental behavior change: The positive impact of Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, F.E.; Güntner, A.V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  1. Player Experiences and Behaviors in a Multiplayer Game: designing game rules to change interdependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Vegt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.

  2. Mu-opioid receptor inhibition decreases voluntary wheel running in a dopamine-dependent manner in rats bred for high voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Brown, Jacob D; Kovarik, M Cathleen; Miller, Dennis K; Booth, Frank W

    2016-12-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental changes after involvement in their anxious child's cognitive behavior therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Nielsen, Sara Kerstine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD: Chi......-reported maternal autonomy-granting (non-involved mothers showed a greater increase). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that child anxiety significantly influences parental behaviors and cognitions. Child therapy may successfully change the family system.......OBJECTIVE: Specific parental behaviors and cognitions are associated with child anxiety. Studies informing us of the directionality of the associations are lacking. We investigated the effect of parental involvement in children's anxiety treatment on parental behaviors and cognitions. METHOD......: Children (N=54, 7-12 years) and parents were randomly allocated to different treatment groups (involved, not involved). Observed behavior, self-reported behavior and cognitions were assessed separately for mothers and fathers at pre-, posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: There were no differences over...

  4. Analysis on the Changes in Consumer Behavior and Marketing Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there’s a huge change in the media use habit, demand and route to get the information for the consumers, and the right of consumers to release information is mostly realized, indicating an actual return of consumer sovereignty. In such a background, it is undoubtedly the best choice for the marketing of enterprise brand to focus on the target people, manage the client relation and increase the socialized videos.

  5. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  6. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  7. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  8. A Culture-Change Approach to School Discipline: Reaction Paper to "School Organization and Student Behavior".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, Stewart C.

    Organizational changes, within the existing structure of public schooling, have the potential to decrease the oppositional behavior of students and to foster humane, positive learning and working enviroments. It has been documented that managers can create organizational structures that promote positive behaviors and facilitate people's…

  9. Responsible Adult Culture (RAC): Cognitive and Behavioral Changes at a Community-Based Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Renee S.; Gibbs, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examined cognitive and behavioral changes among participants in Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a cognitive-behavioral (especially, cognitive restructuring) treatment program in use at the Franklin County Community-Based Correctional Facility (CBCF). Participants were adult felony offenders (approximately three-fourths male). A…

  10. Behavioral changes after a 1-year exercise program and predictors of maintenance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertogh, E.M.; Vergouwe, Y.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Public health strategies attempt to stimulate participation in physical activity, aiming at permanent behavior change. We assessed the sustained effect of participating in an exercise program on physical activity behavior 1 yr after completion of the program. Furthermore, we aimed to

  11. Trained, Generalized, and Collateral Behavior Changes of Preschool Children Receiving Gross-Motor Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Holborn, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Results indicated that the program improved the 10 targeted gross-motor skills and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. The program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications are…

  12. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-05-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  13. Neural mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary recall: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicoline Marie; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2008-01-25

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval have primarily focused on volitional memory tasks. However, some conscious memories arise involuntarily, i.e. without a strategic retrieval attempt, yet little is known about the neural network underlying involuntary episodic memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether voluntary and involuntary recall are mediated by separate cortical networks. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy subjects during voluntary and involuntary cued recall of pictures and a control condition with no episodic memory requirements. Involuntary recall was elicited by using an incidental memory task. Compared to the control condition, voluntary and involuntary recall were both associated with significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases in posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG; BA 23), left precuneus (BA 7), and right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36). In addition, rCBF in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC; BA 8/9) and left precuneus (BA 7) was significantly larger during voluntary compared to involuntary recall, while rCBF was enhanced in left dorsolateral PFC (BA 9) during involuntary recall. The findings corroborate an association of the right PFC with a strategic component of episodic memory retrieval. Moreover, they show for the first time that it is possible to activate the medial temporal lobe, the PCG, and the precuneus, regions normally associated with retrieval success, without this strategic element. The relatively higher activity in precuneus during voluntary compared to involuntary recall suggests that activity in this region co-varies not only with retrieval success but also with retrieval intentionality.

  14. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2018-02-01

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  15. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Philip J; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants' self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals' intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  17. Explaining behavior change after genetic testing: the problem of collinearity between test results and risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshawe, Thomas R; Prevost, A Toby; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C; Armstrong, David; Marteau, Theresa M

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores whether and how the behavioral impact of genotype disclosure can be disentangled from the impact of numerical risk estimates generated by genetic tests. Secondary data analyses are presented from a randomized controlled trial of 162 first-degree relatives of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Each participant received a lifetime risk estimate of AD. Control group estimates were based on age, gender, family history, and assumed epsilon4-negative apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype; intervention group estimates were based upon the first three variables plus true APOE genotype, which was also disclosed. AD-specific self-reported behavior change (diet, exercise, and medication use) was assessed at 12 months. Behavior change was significantly more likely with increasing risk estimates, and also more likely, but not significantly so, in epsilon4-positive intervention group participants (53% changed behavior) than in control group participants (31%). Intervention group participants receiving epsilon4-negative genotype feedback (24% changed behavior) and control group participants had similar rates of behavior change and risk estimates, the latter allowing assessment of the independent effects of genotype disclosure. However, collinearity between risk estimates and epsilon4-positive genotypes, which engender high-risk estimates, prevented assessment of the independent effect of the disclosure of an epsilon4 genotype. Novel study designs are proposed to determine whether genotype disclosure has an impact upon behavior beyond that of numerical risk estimates.

  18. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors in Kappaphycus alvarezii Infected by Epiphyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Pang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic filamentous algae (EFA were noted as a serious problem to reduce the production and quality of K. alvarezii. The morphological studies revealed that the main epiphyte on K. alvarezii was Neosiphonia savatieri in China. Though the harmful effects of EFA on the production of K. alvarezii have been reported, the detailed mechanism of the N. savatieri in limiting the production of K. alvarezii has not been studied yet. The present paper studied the effects of N. savatieri infection on photosynthetic behaviors in K. alvarezii by detecting chlorophyll fluorescence transient in vivo. The results revealed that damage of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC, decrease of active reaction centers (RCs, and the plastoquinone (PQ pool as well as significant reduction in the performance indexes (PI of PSII were caused by the infection of N. savatieri. The influence of N. savatieri on photosynthetic activity of K. alvarezii should be one of the important reasons to reduce the production of K. alvarezii infected by N. savatieri.

  19. Changes in consumer behavior on the market with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Turčínková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Czech Republic has experienced significant changes on the market with food in last two decades. The paper presents summary of results of conducted analyses focusing on changes in levels of most important food categories, changes in consumer preferences, and suggests what trends we can expect in the near future. The analyses were based on date from Czech Statistical Office Yearbooks, EUROSTAT, INCOMA and GfK, and data from primary researches conducted on sample of total 2522 households in the Czech Republic through questionnaire researches in 2005, 2006 and 2007. The results show that in the Czech Republic, the ratio of expenditures for food out of total consumer expenditures is slowly decreasing and advances to (still lower level typical for traditional EU countries. We have experienced growth of demand for products with higher added value; customers put more emphasis on perceived quality, longer durability and special product characteristics. Czech con­su­mers increase their consumption of vegetables and fruit, bottled beverages, wine and alcoholic beverages, cheese, they decreased their consumption of meat (in total, milk and potatoes, stagnation was typical for bakery products, sugar and fats and oils. Development in all social classes was very similar. For the future, we can expect growing interest for food products in smaller packages and targeted at specific needs, growing demand for food products with higher added value, consumption of food formerly unusual for the Czech, more frequent out-of-home eating, and growing differences between individual segments of social groups, mainly due to uneven income distribution.

  20. Age- and treatment-related associations with health behavior change among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsea; Sandler, Dale P; Weinberg, Clarice R; Houck, Kevin; Chunduri, Minal; Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Sabatino, Susan A; White, Mary C; Rodriguez, Juan L; Nichols, Hazel B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and treatment-related factors associated with health-promoting behavior changes after a breast cancer diagnosis. Changes in health behaviors were also evaluated according to weight, exercise, diet and alcohol consumption patterns before breast cancer diagnosis. We examined self-reported behavior changes among 1415 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the NIEHS Sister Study cohort. Women reported changes in exercising, eating healthy foods, maintaining a healthy body weight, drinking alcohol, smoking, getting enough sleep, spending time with family and friends, and participating in breast cancer awareness events. On average, women were 3.7 years from their breast cancer diagnosis. Overall, 20-36% reported positive changes in exercise, eating healthy foods, maintaining a healthy weight, or alcohol consumption. However, 17% exercised less. With each 5-year increase in diagnosis age, women were 11-16% less likely to report positive change in each of these behaviors (OR = 0.84-0.89; p exercise, eating healthy foods, efforts to maintain a healthy weight, alcohol consumption, sleep patterns, or time spent with family or friends. Many women reported no change in cancer survivorship guideline-supported behaviors after diagnosis. Positive changes were more common among younger women or those who underwent chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physiological and behavioral reactions of fishes to temperature change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, L I

    1977-05-01

    Teleost fishes possess a central nervous system thermoregulatory mechanism remarkably similar to that of other vertebrates. Inputs from peripheral and anterior brainstem thermosensitive elements are integrated to effect appropriate thermoregulatory responses. The integrated output signal from the thermoregulatory center also appears to provide an input to the respiratory system. Short-term deviations from a given temperature alter respiratory requirements, produce acid-base imbalance, and cause disturbances in fluid-electrolyte regulation. Acclimation to a given temperature involves changes that counteract these disturbances.

  2. Progression and effect of cognitive-behavioral changes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Meredith; Duong, Y-Nhy; Kim, Anthony; Allen, Isabel; Murphy, Jennifer; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    To prospectively evaluate the progression of cognitive-behavioral function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examine the association of cognitive-behavioral deficits with disease progression, patient quality of life (QOL), and caregiver burden. We evaluated cognitive-behavioral function using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioral Screen at enrollment and after 7 months in a cohort of patients with ALS. Paired t tests were used to evaluate the change in the 2 assessments. Linear regression and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied to investigate how initial cognitive or behavioral status related to outcomes. The mean test-retest interval was 6.8 months (SD 1.6). Cognitive status of the study population (n = 49) overall did not change over the study period ( p = 0.06) despite progression of motor weakness ( p cognitive change. Patients initially classified as behaviorally normal showed increased behavioral problems over time ( t = -2.8, p = 0.009). Decline in cognitive (β = -1.3, p = 0.03) and behavioral (β = -0.76, p = 0.002) status predicted increasing caregiver burden. Behavioral abnormalities predicted decline in forced vital capacity and ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised score ( p = 0.008, 0.012) in the study population and patient QOL in the most severely affected group ( t = 4.3, p = 0.003). Cognitive-behavioral change is a key aspect of disease heterogeneity in ALS. Executive function in ALS overall remains stable over 7 months as detected by an administered screening tool. However, patients may develop caregiver-reported behavioral symptoms in that time period. Screening for caregiver-reported symptoms has a particular utility in predicting future clinical decline, increased caregiver burden, and worsening patient QOL.

  3. Explaining Consumer Safe Food Handling Through Behavior-Change Theories: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Turgeon, Patricia; Waddell, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature. A standardized systematic review methodology was used, consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of identified references; confirmation of relevance and characterization of relevant articles; risk-of-bias assessment; data extraction; and descriptive analysis of study results. A total of 20 relevant studies were identified; they were mostly conducted in Australia (40%) and the United States (35%) and used a cross-sectional design (65%). Most studies targeted young adults (65%), and none focused on high-risk consumer groups. The outcomes of 70% of studies received high overall risk-of-bias ratings, largely due to a lack of control for confounding variables. The most commonly applied theory was the Theory of Planned Behavior (45% of studies), which, along with other investigated theories of behavior change, was frequently associated with consumer safe food handling behavioral intentions and behaviors. However, overall, there was wide variation in the specific constructs found to be significantly associated and in the percentage of variance explained in each outcome across studies. The results suggest that multiple theories of behavior change can help to explain consumer safe food handling behaviors and could be adopted to guide the development of future behavior-change interventions. In these contexts, theories should be appropriately selected and adapted to meet the needs of the specific target population and context of interest.

  4. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eOettingen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task towards their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people’s personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  5. Design and protocol of a randomized multiple behavior change trial: Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Steglitz, Jeremy; Johnston, Winter; Warnick, Jennifer; Adams, Tiara; McFadden, H G; Siddique, Juned; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-03-01

    Suboptimal diet and inactive lifestyle are among the most prevalent preventable causes of premature death. Interventions that target multiple behaviors are potentially efficient; however the optimal way to initiate and maintain multiple health behavior changes is unknown. The Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2) trial aims to examine whether sustained healthful diet and activity change are best achieved by targeting diet and activity behaviors simultaneously or sequentially. Study design approximately 250 inactive adults with poor quality diet will be randomized to 3 conditions examining the best way to prescribe healthy diet and activity change. The 3 intervention conditions prescribe: 1) an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (F/V+), decrease in sedentary leisure screen time (Sed-), and increase in physical activity (PA+) simultaneously (Simultaneous); 2) F/V+ and Sed- first, and then sequentially add PA+ (Sequential); or 3) Stress Management Control that addresses stress, relaxation, and sleep. All participants will receive a smartphone application to self-monitor behaviors and regular coaching calls to help facilitate behavior change during the 9 month intervention. Healthy lifestyle change in fruit/vegetable and saturated fat intakes, sedentary leisure screen time, and physical activity will be assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. MBC2 is a randomized m-Health intervention examining methods to maximize initiation and maintenance of multiple healthful behavior changes. Results from this trial will provide insight about an optimal technology supported approach to promote improvement in diet and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Are Financial Incentives for Lifestyle Behavior Change Informed or Inspired by Behavioral Economics? A Mapping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Bronwyn; O'Hara, Blythe J; Bauman, Adrian; Grunseit, Anne C; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2018-01-01

    To identify the behavioral economics (BE) conceptual underpinnings of lifestyle financial incentive (FI) interventions. A mapping review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted by searching electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were real-world FI interventions explicitly mentioning BE, targeting individuals, or populations with lifestyle-related behavioral outcomes. Exclusion criteria were hypothetical studies, health professional focus, clinically oriented interventions. Study characteristics were tabulated according to purpose, categorization of BE concepts and FI types, design, outcome measures, study quality, and findings. Data Synthesis and Analysis: Financial incentives were categorized according to type and payment structure. Behavioral economics concepts explicitly used in the intervention design were grouped based on common patterns of thinking. The interplay between FI types, BE concepts, and outcome was assessed. Seventeen studies were identified from 1452 unique records. Analysis showed 76.5% (n = 13) of studies explicitly incorporated BE concepts. Six studies provided clear theoretical justification for the inclusion of BE. No pattern in the type of FI and BE concepts used was apparent. Not all FI interventions claiming BE inclusion did so. For interventions that explicitly included BE, the degree to which this was portrayed and woven into the design varied. This review identified BE concepts common to FI interventions, a first step in providing emergent and pragmatic information to public health and health promotion program planners.

  7. Identity Changes and Consumer Behavior. How Becoming Parents Changes Our Consumption Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Cito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the impact of the identity change on consumption. An identity change is defined as the acquisition of a new identity after a life change event. For instance after the birth of the first child the new identity as parent is acquired and a woman can define herself as a mother. Despite marketing research recognizes that individuals’ identity is unstable and susceptible to change, the investigation of the identity change is still in its infancy. Furthermore, mar...

  8. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. Such a perspective however, fails to account for non-linear, quantum influences on human thought and action. Consider why after years of false starts and failed attempts, a person succeeds at increasing their physical activity, eating healthier or losing weight. Or, why after years of success a person relapses. This paper discusses a competing view of health behavior change that was presented at the 2006 annual ISBNPA meeting in Boston. Discussion Rather than viewing behavior change from a linear perspective it can be viewed as a quantum event that can be understood through the lens of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems. Key principles of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems relevant to understanding health behavior change include: 1 Chaotic systems can be mathematically modeled but are nearly impossible to predict; 2 Chaotic systems are sensitive to initial conditions; 3 Complex Systems involve multiple component parts that interact in a nonlinear fashion; and 4 The results of Complex Systems are often greater than the sum of their parts. Accordingly, small changes in knowledge, attitude, efficacy, etc may dramatically alter motivation and behavioral outcomes. And the interaction of such variables can yield almost infinite potential patterns of motivation and behavior change. In the linear paradigm unaccounted for variance is generally relegated to the catch all "error" term, when in fact such "error" may represent the chaotic component of the

  9. A chaotic view of behavior change: a quantum leap for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Vaughan, Roger

    2006-09-12

    The study of health behavior change, including nutrition and physical activity behaviors, has been rooted in a cognitive-rational paradigm. Change is conceptualized as a linear, deterministic process where individuals weigh pros and cons, and at the point at which the benefits outweigh the cost change occurs. Consistent with this paradigm, the associated statistical models have almost exclusively assumed a linear relationship between psychosocial predictors and behavior. Such a perspective however, fails to account for non-linear, quantum influences on human thought and action. Consider why after years of false starts and failed attempts, a person succeeds at increasing their physical activity, eating healthier or losing weight. Or, why after years of success a person relapses. This paper discusses a competing view of health behavior change that was presented at the 2006 annual ISBNPA meeting in Boston. Rather than viewing behavior change from a linear perspective it can be viewed as a quantum event that can be understood through the lens of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems. Key principles of Chaos Theory and Complex Dynamic Systems relevant to understanding health behavior change include: 1) Chaotic systems can be mathematically modeled but are nearly impossible to predict; 2) Chaotic systems are sensitive to initial conditions; 3) Complex Systems involve multiple component parts that interact in a nonlinear fashion; and 4) The results of Complex Systems are often greater than the sum of their parts. Accordingly, small changes in knowledge, attitude, efficacy, etc may dramatically alter motivation and behavioral outcomes. And the interaction of such variables can yield almost infinite potential patterns of motivation and behavior change. In the linear paradigm unaccounted for variance is generally relegated to the catch all "error" term, when in fact such "error" may represent the chaotic component of the process. The linear and chaotic paradigms are

  10. Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, S

    2017-05-10

    Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were observed down to the deepest part of the water column and were interpreted as a response to sudden dark weather. However, light measurements suggest that the mesopelagic targets (fish) did not fully compensate for the reduction in ambient light, and the calculated light levels in the scattering layers were similar to 1 order of magnitude lower during the passage of the storm. The results show that fluctuating weather conditions may affect pelagic ecosystems even towards the lower parts of the mesopelagic zone.

  11. Economics as a factor in models of behavioral motivation and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, I D; Atkinson, J S; Trevino, R A

    2000-02-01

    This note first presents a summary of four main behavioral models that are used to explain behavioral motivation and change. Three models are based on psychosocial theory. They are: 1) the Theory of Reasoned Action, 2) the Theory of Planned Behavior, and 3) the Theory of Stages-of-Change. The fourth model is based on economic theory and is known as the Rational Addiction Model. Each model is analyzed for its strengths and weaknesses. The note concludes by arguing for the usefulness of integrating the economic and the psychosocial models to study drug use. Specific examples and suggestions are presented.

  12. Multiple health behavior change in adults with or at risk for cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amanda C; Hayman, Laura L; Cooley, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    To identify components of efficacious interventions for multiple health behavior change (MHBC) in adult cancer survivors or adults at high risk for cancer. A systematic review of MHBC interventions was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies changed at least 2 health behaviors. Diet, exercise, and smoking cessation were consistently changed with in-person interventions. Longer duration interventions using phone or mail contact had a positive association with changing diet and exercise. MHBC interventions positively influenced behavior change in adults with cancer and those at high risk for cancer. Future studies should focus on increasing dissemination and implementation of efficacious interventions.

  13. Using mHealth to Deliver Behavior Change Interventions Within Prenatal Care at Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello, Leanne M; Van Marter, Deborah F; Umanzor, Cindy D; Castle, Patricia H; de Aguiar, Emma L

    2016-09-01

    To test an iPad-delivered multiple behavior tailored intervention (Healthy Pregnancy: Step by Step) for pregnant women that addresses smoking cessation, stress management, and fruit and vegetable consumption. A randomized 2 × 5 factorial repeated measures design was employed with randomization on the individual level stratified on behavior risk. Women completed three sessions during pregnancy and two postpartum at postdelivery months 1 and 4. Women were recruited from six locations of federally funded health centers across three states. Participants (N = 335) were English- and Spanish-speaking women at up to 18 weeks gestation. The treatment group received three interactive sessions focused on two priority health behavior risks. The sessions offered individually tailored and stage-matched change strategies based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. The usual care group received March of Dimes brochures. The primary outcome was the number of behavior risks. Stage of change and continuous measures for all behaviors also were assessed. Data were analyzed across all time points using generalized estimating equations examining repeated measures effects. Women in the treatment group reported significantly fewer risks than those in usual care at 1 month (.85 vs. 1.20, odds ratio [OR] = .70) and 4 months postpartum (.72 vs. .91, OR = .81). Healthy Pregnancy is an evidence-based and personalized program that assists pregnant women with reducing behavior risks and sustaining healthy lifestyle behaviors. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  14. Active assistance technology for health-related behavior change: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-06-14

    Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with

  15. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  16. Perceptions of barriers and facilitators to health behavior change among veteran cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Gregory P; Rodrigues, Amy E; Kay, Morgan A; Kiviniemi, Marc T; Steinbrenner, Lynn

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to health behavior change related to body size in a sample of veteran cancer survivors. A qualitative study was conducted with a sample of 35 male and female cancer survivors receiving care at a Veterans Administration comprehensive cancer center. Participants completed individual interviews regarding barriers and facilitators to lifestyle change and responded to a brief questionnaire regarding current health behaviors. Participants reported suboptimal adherence to recommended health behavior goals and the majority were overweight or obese (80%). Qualitative analysis revealed numerous barriers and facilitators to health behavior change across six broad categories: environmental factors, health services delivery factors, health-related factors, factors related to attitudes toward change, factors related to enacting change, and motivational factors. Veteran cancer survivors were impacted by common barriers to change affecting the general population, cancer-specific factors related to personal diagnosis and treatment history, and health service delivery factors related to the Veterans Administration health care system. There are many barriers and facilitators that exist in diverse domains for veteran cancer survivors, each of which offers unique challenges and opportunities for improving engagement in behavior change following cancer diagnosis and treatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  18. Stability and change in teachers' goal orientation profiles over time : Managerial coaching behavior as a predictor of profile change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, E.M.; van Woerkom, M.; van Kollenburg, G.H.; Poell, R.F.

    2018-01-01

    Goal orientation is an important predictor of motivation at work. This study introduces goal orientation profiles in the work domain, evaluates their stability over time and assesses the impact of managerial coaching behavior on change in employees' goal orientation profiles. We hypothesize that

  19. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully used for a range of health behaviors, including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests the relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrates a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and to adjust analytically for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas.

  20. Designing serious video games for health behavior change: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2012-07-01

    Serious video games for health are designed to entertain while changing a specific health behavior. This article identifies behavioral principles that can guide the development of serious video games focused on changing a variety of health behaviors, including those attempting to decrease risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Guidelines discussed include how to develop video games that provide a solid foundation for behavior change by enhancing a player's knowledge and skill, ways in which personal mastery experiences can be incorporated into a video game environment, using game characters and avatars to promote observational learning, creating personalized experiences through tailoring, and the importance of achieving a balance between "fun-ness" and "seriousness." The article concludes with suggestions for future research needed to inform this rapidly growing field. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.