WorldWideScience

Sample records for voluntary activation level

  1. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  2. Trainability of Muscular Activity Level during Maximal Voluntary Co-Contraction: Comparison between Bodybuilders and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  3. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  4. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  5. 75 FR 47607 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a.... Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None...

  6. 77 FR 36566 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs...

  7. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey... forms of information. Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and...

  8. 75 FR 27563 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... collection requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB...

  9. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, ...

  10. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  11. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  12. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Sargeant, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also

  13. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  14. Determining firm characteristics and the level of voluntary corporate governance disclosures among Malaysian listed property companies

    OpenAIRE

    Talpur Shabana; Lizam Mohd; Keerio Nazia

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the level of voluntary corporate governance disclosures and the influence of firm characteristics (i.e., firm size, firm age, and firm market listing) on the level of these disclosures among Malaysian property listed companies. The check-list to measure the voluntary corporate governance disclosures was adopted from Malaysian corporate governance index 2011 by Minority Shareholder Watchdog Group (MSWG). The voluntary corporate governance disclosure practices and firm speci...

  15. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-05-13

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode.

  16. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  17. Weaker Seniors Exhibit Motor Cortex Hypoexcitability and Impairments in Voluntary Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Taylor, Janet L; Hong, S Lee; Law, Timothy D; Russ, David W

    2015-09-01

    Weakness predisposes seniors to a fourfold increase in functional limitations. The potential for age-related degradation in nervous system function to contribute to weakness and physical disability has garnered much interest of late. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that weaker seniors have impairments in voluntary (neural) activation and increased indices of GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex, assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Young adults (N = 46; 21.2±0.5 years) and seniors (N = 42; 70.7±0.9 years) had their wrist flexion strength quantified along with voluntary activation capacity (by comparing voluntary and electrically evoked forces). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure motor-evoked potential amplitude and silent period duration during isometric contractions at 15% and 30% of maximum strength. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure intracortical facilitation and short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition. The primary analysis compared seniors to young adults. The secondary analysis compared stronger seniors (top two tertiles) to weaker seniors (bottom tertile) based on strength relative to body weight. The most novel findings were that weaker seniors exhibited: (i) a 20% deficit in voluntary activation; (ii) ~20% smaller motor-evoked potentials during the 30% contraction task; and (iii) nearly twofold higher levels of long-interval intracortical inhibition under resting conditions. These findings indicate that weaker seniors exhibit significant impairments in voluntary activation, and that this impairment may be mechanistically associated with increased GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 16 CFR 1031.7 - Commission support of voluntary standards activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government or industrial model code development activities, so as to develop uniformity and minimize... as hosting meetings and secretarial assistance. (11) Providing funding support for voluntary...

  19. Changes in voluntary activation assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation during prolonged cycling exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jubeau

    Full Text Available Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed three 80-min bouts on an ergocycle at 45% of their maximal aerobic power. Before exercise and immediately after each bout, neuromuscular function was evaluated in the quadriceps femoris muscles under isometric conditions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess voluntary activation at the cortical level (VATMS, corticospinal excitability via motor-evoked potential (MEP and intracortical inhibition by cortical silent period (CSP. Electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure voluntary activation at the peripheral level (VAFNES and muscle contractile properties. Maximal voluntary force was significantly reduced after the first bout (13 ± 9%, P<0.01 and was further decreased (25 ± 11%, P<0.001 at the end of exercise. CSP remained unchanged throughout the protocol. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis MEP normalized to maximal M-wave amplitude significantly increased during cycling. Finally, significant decreases in both VATMS and VAFNES (∼ 8%, P<0.05 and ∼ 14%, P<0.001 post-exercise, respectively were observed. In conclusion, reductions in VAFNES after a prolonged cycling exercise are partly explained by a deficit at the cortical level accompanied by increased corticospinal excitability and unchanged intracortical inhibition. When comparing the present results with the literature, this study highlights that changes at the cortical and/or motoneuronal levels depend not only on the type of exercise (single-joint vs. whole-body but also on exercise intensity and/or duration.

  20. Determining firm characteristics and the level of voluntary corporate governance disclosures among Malaysian listed property companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpur Shabana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the level of voluntary corporate governance disclosures and the influence of firm characteristics (i.e., firm size, firm age, and firm market listing on the level of these disclosures among Malaysian property listed companies. The check-list to measure the voluntary corporate governance disclosures was adopted from Malaysian corporate governance index 2011 by Minority Shareholder Watchdog Group (MSWG. The voluntary corporate governance disclosure practices and firm specific characteristics were obtained from annual reports of property listed companies on Bursa Malaysia for the period of 2012 to 2015. The findings suggested an improving voluntary corporate governance reforms in Malaysia. However, the firm size was found as an inflicting factor in determining the level and quality of voluntary corporate governance disclosure practices. On the contrary, the results found were contradicting the hypothesis related to firm age and firm market listing, as no relation of voluntary corporate governance disclosures and firm age and firm market listing. The study has made an interesting contribution toward the disclosure and corporate governance by contributing in understanding the importance of quality disclosure and good governance practices.

  1. Measuring voluntary quadriceps activation: Effect of visual feedback and stimulus delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew H; Arguelles, Gabrielle D; Blackburn, J Troy; Ryan, Eric D; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Quadriceps voluntary activation, assessed via the superimposed burst technique, has been extensively studied in a variety of populations as a measure of quadriceps function. However, a variety of stimulus delivery techniques have been employed, which may influence the level of voluntary activation as calculated via the central activation ratio (CAR). The purpose was to determine the effect of visual feedback, stimulus delivery, and perceived discomfort on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) peak torque and the CAR. Quadriceps CAR was assessed in 14 individuals on two days using three stimulus delivery methods; (1) manual without visual feedback, (2) manual with visual feedback, and (3) automated with visual feedback. MVIC peak torque and the CAR were not different between the automated with visual feedback (MVIC=3.25, SE=0.14Nm/kg; CAR=88.63, SE=1.75%) and manual with visual feedback (MVIC=3.26, SE=0.13Nm/kg, P=0.859; CAR=89.06, SE=1.70%, P=0.39) stimulus delivery methods. MVIC (2.99, SE=0.12Nm/kg) and CAR (85.32, SE=2.10%) were significantly lower using manual without visual feedback compared to manual with visual feedback and automated with visual feedback (CAR P<0.001; MVIC P<0.001). Perceived discomfort was lower in the second session (P<0.05). Utilizing visual feedback ensures participant MVIC, and may provide a more accurate assessment of quadriceps voluntary activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Iwazaki, E; Suchy, S A; Pallotto, M R; Swanson, K S

    2014-03-01

    Low physical activity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of feline obesity and diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increased meal frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in cats fed to maintain BW. Ten adult lean neutered male cats were used in 2 tests, both crossover studies composed of a 14-d adaptation period, followed by a 7-d measurement of physical activity from d 15 to d 22 using Actical activity collars. Cats were group housed for most of the day, except for times when they were individually housed in cages to access their diet under a 16:8 h light:dark cycle. In Exp. 1, the difference in voluntary physical activity among cats fed 1, 2, 4, or a random number of meals per day were tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in 4 individual rooms. In Exp. 2, the effect of increasing dietary water content on voluntary physical activity was tested in a crossover design including a 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection from d 22 to 27. Cats were randomly assigned to 2 rooms and fed a dry commercial diet with or without added water (70% hydrated) twice daily. Activity levels were expressed as "activity counts" per epoch (15 s). In Exp. 1, average daily activity level for 1-meal-fed cats was lower than 4-meal-fed (P = 0.004) and random-meal-fed (P = 0.02) cats, especially during the light period. The activity level of cats during the dark period was greater in 1-meal-fed cats compared with cats fed 2 meals (P = 0.008) or 4 meals (P = 0.007) daily. Two-hour food anticipatory activity (FAA) before scheduled meal times for 1-meal-fed cats was lower (P meal-fed cats. In Exp. 2, average daily activity level of cats fed the 70% hydrated diet tended to be higher (P = 0.06) than cats fed the dry diet, especially during the dark period (P = 0.007). Two-hour FAA before the afternoon meal for cats fed the 70% hydrated diet was lower (P frequency and dietary water content, without changing energy intake or

  3. Cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats selectively bred for low and high voluntary running behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob D; Green, Caroline L; Arthur, Ian M; Booth, Frank W; Miller, Dennis K

    2015-02-01

    The rewarding effects of physical activity and abused drugs are caused by stimulation of similar brain pathways. Low (LVR) and high (HVR) voluntary running lines were developed by selectively breeding Wistar rats on running distance performance on postnatal days 28-34. We hypothesized that LVR rats would be more sensitive to the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine than HVR rats due to their lower motivation for wheel running. We investigated how selection for LVR or HVR behavior affects inherited activity responses: (a) open field activity levels, (b) habituation to an open field environment, and (c) the locomotor response to cocaine. Open field activity was measured for 80 min on three successive days (days 1-3). Data from the first 20 min were analyzed to determine novelty-induced locomotor activity (day 1) and the habituation to the environment (days 1-3). On day 3, rats were acclimated to the chamber for 20 min and then received saline or cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg) injection. Dopamine transporter (DAT) protein in the nucleus accumbens was measured via Western blot. Selecting for low and high voluntary running behavior co-selects for differences in inherent (HVR > LVR) and cocaine-induced (LVR > HVR) locomotor activity levels. The differences in the selected behavioral measures do not appear to correlate with DAT protein levels. LVR and HVR rats are an intriguing physical activity model for studying the interactions between genes related to the motivation to run, to use drugs of abuse, and to exhibit locomotor activity.

  4. Plyometric training improves voluntary activation and strength during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Mueller, Karoline; Heise, Sandra; Gube, Martin; Beuster, Nico; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated effects of plyometric training (6 weeks, 3 sessions/week) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength and neural activation of the knee extensors during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Maximum voluntary torques (MVT) during the different types of contraction were measured at 110° knee flexion (180°=full extension). The interpolated twitch technique was applied at the same knee joint angle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to measure voluntary activation. In addition, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal at MVT was calculated. The twitch torque signal induced by electrical nerve stimulation at rest was used to evaluate training-related changes at the muscle level. In addition, jump height in countermovement jump was measured. After training, MVT increased by 20Nm (95% CI: 5-36Nm, P=0.012), 24Nm (95% CI: 9-40Nm, P=0.004) and 27Nm (95% CI: 7-48Nm, P=0.013) for isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs compared to controls, respectively. The strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation during isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs by 7.8% (95% CI: 1.8-13.9%, P=0.013), 7.0% (95% CI: 0.4-13.5%, P=0.039) and 8.6% (95% CI: 3.0-14.2%, P=0.005), respectively. Changes in the twitch torque signal of the resting muscle, induced by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve, were not observed, indicating no alterations at the muscle level, whereas jump height was increased. Given the fact that the training exercises consisted of eccentric muscle actions followed by concentric contractions, it is in particular relevant that the plyometric training increased MVC strength and neural activation of the quadriceps muscle regardless of the contraction mode. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Voluntary business activities to mitigate climate change: Case studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary business activities, such as the voluntary action plans conducted by comprehensive business associations in Japan to reduce environmental damage, are viable policy instruments alongside regulations and economic incentives (e.g. taxes and emissions trading schemes). This paper examines three case studies in which voluntary activities have played a successful role in mitigating climate change. Based on interviews with business organisations together with a literature review and data analysis, we show why businesses are motivated to take socially responsible actions and describe the major benefits of such activities. One of the important benefits of voluntary activities is their flexibility in phasing measures. This flexibility is greatly appreciated, since industries are able to retain control of their responses to future uncertainties, which allows them to tackle climate change issues aggressively. We conclude that voluntary activities have been more environmentally effective than alternative policy measures under a proper institutional framework, which consists of effective motivation mechanisms for businesses, governmental measures to encourage their compliance, and capable industrial associations that can lessen the transaction costs both of the government and of industry. - Highlights: • Businesses are well motivated to take suitable, technologically feasible actions. • Capability of industrial associations is a key to successful voluntary activities. • Flexibility allows businesses to manage uncertainty and aim for ambitious goals

  6. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Hoge, Katherine M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Cramer, Joel T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10–90% VI and 40–90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions

  7. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Batista Fontana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers will voluntarily disclose information depends on certain factors that are characteristic of the company. Understanding the disclosure of information regarding intangible assets, specifically human capital, has strategic relevance for enterprises because these features, although not always recorded in accounting, represent a competitive business edge in the current economy.Design/methodology/approach: The study examined 145 annual reports, representing 29 companies in the period of 2005-2009. The level of voluntary disclosure was determined through content analysis of annual reports using representative indicators of human capital information.Findings: The statistical results indicate that factors such as size, debt, growth and time of registration with the brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission explain the level of voluntary human capital disclosure of the companies studied.Originality/value: An important contribution of this research is the formulation and non-repudiation of the time of registration with the CVM hypothesis as a factor that explains the level of human capital disclosure because none of the revised studies have tested this hypothesis.

  8. Voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Thurstan B

    1986-05-10

    Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.

  9. Voluntary activation of biceps-to-triceps and deltoid-to-triceps transfers in quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carrie L; Bednar, Michael S; Bryden, Anne M; Keith, Michael W; Perreault, Eric J; Murray, Wendy M

    2017-01-01

    The biceps or the posterior deltoid can be transferred to improve elbow extension function for many individuals with C5 or C6 quadriplegia. Maximum strength after elbow reconstruction is variable; the patient's ability to voluntarily activate the transferred muscle to extend the elbow may contribute to the variability. We compared voluntary activation during maximum isometric elbow extension following biceps transfer (n = 5) and deltoid transfer (n = 6) in three functional postures. Voluntary activation was computed as the elbow extension moment generated during maximum voluntary effort divided by the moment generated with full activation, which was estimated via electrical stimulation. Voluntary activation was on average 96% after biceps transfer and not affected by posture. Individuals with deltoid transfer demonstrated deficits in voluntary activation, which differed by posture (80% in horizontal plane, 69% in overhead reach, and 70% in weight-relief), suggesting inadequate motor re-education after deltoid transfer. Overall, individuals with a biceps transfer better activated their transferred muscle than those with a deltoid transfer. This difference in neural control augmented the greater force-generating capacity of the biceps leading to increased elbow extension strength after biceps transfer (average 9.37 N-m across postures) relative to deltoid transfer (average 2.76 N-m across postures) in our study cohort.

  10. Level of voluntary disclosure and the cost of capital of Brazilian companies: 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Ballestero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed whether the level of voluntary disclosure in the Brazilian market affects the cost of capital of companies listed on Bovespa during the period covering 2008 through 2012.  The sample was composed of 46 Brazilian non-financial institutions, building on and complementing previous research such as that carried out by Lima, Lima, Favero and Galdi (2007, Murcia and Santos (2009a, and Li and Yang (2013. The panel data regression model is employed to relate the independent variables with the following dependent variables: Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt and Weighted Average Cost of Capital. Findings permit the conclusion that some voluntary disclosure practices influence the cost of capital, i.e., when a company chooses to voluntarily disclose information in its annual reports, this information can affect its cost of equity and cost of debt.

  11. Attitudinal and motivational antecedents of participation in voluntary employee development activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtz, Gregory M; Williams, Kevin J

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated factors influencing ongoing participation in employee development activities. A multiple-indicator structural equation model building on the theory of planned behavior and prior employee development literature was tested with a survey across 4 organizations on 2 occasions. The model uses reactions to past participation and past supportiveness of the social and organizational environment as indirect antecedents of participation, filtered through their impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward future participation. Learning goal orientation also influenced attitudes toward participation. Whereas personal control over participation and higher levels of voluntariness were negatively related to participation, intentions to participate and availability of opportunities arose as strong predictors of higher participation rates. Many significant hypothesized paths were found, and 85% of the variance in participation was explained by the model variables. Increasing employee awareness of opportunities and managing positive attitudes toward those opportunities are recommended as key factors for increasing participation rates. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia debate in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2017-04-25

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia - however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, not on the merits. This means that in future the courts can be approached again to consider the legalisation of voluntary active euthanasia. As such, Stransham-Ford presents a learning opportunity for both sides of the legalisation divide. In particular, conceptual errors pertaining to human dignity were made in Stransham-Ford, and can be avoided in future. In this article, I identify these errors and propose the following three corrective principles to inform future debate on the subject: (i) human dignity is violable; (ii) human suffering violates human dignity; and (iii) the 'natural' causes of suffering due to terminal illness do not exclude the application of human dignity.

  13. Motivation and benefits of voluntary activities. Case study: EYOF 2013 Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary activities have become natural concerns among an increasing number of European citizens. Romania, as a member state of the EU, has a low number of participations in voluntary activities, situation partly justified by the lack of presence of our country on the map of large scale events organization which is based to a high extent, on volunteers’ involvement. The present paper presents the results of a quantitative marketing research organized among volunteers who participated at EYOF 2013 Braşov and highlights the participation’s motivations and benefits felt by volunteers at the end of the event. The authors of the article highlight the differences reported between volunteers’ expectations and their opinions after the event, the results obtained being considered useful for planning the voluntary activities in organizing future events hosted in our country.

  14. Sex-dependent differences in voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-01-02

    Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In rodents, the amount of time engaged in spontaneous activity within the home cage is a strong predictor of later adiposity and weight gain. Thus, it is important to understand primary motivators stimulating physical activity (PA). There are normal sex differences in PA levels in rodents and humans. The perinatal environment can induce sex-dependent differences in PA disturbances. This Review considers the current evidence for sex differences in PA in rodents and humans. The rodent studies showing that early exposure to environmental chemicals can shape later adult PA responses are discussed. Next, whether there are different motivators stimulating exercise in male vs. female humans are examined. Finally, the brain regions, genes, and pathways that modulate PA in rodents, and possibly by translation in humans, are described. A better understanding of why each sex remains physically active through the life span could open new avenues for preventing and treating obesity in children and adults. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Strength and voluntary activation in relation to functioning in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by pain, and problems with activities of daily life, especially if the hip or knee joint is affected. The aim of this project was to study associations between strength, voluntary activation and physical functioning in elderly patients with OA. People with OA of

  16. The importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; Maas, Huub; Pellegrin-Friedmann, Carla; Tapia, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the ankle plantar flexors. Methods: The effects of cutaneous plantar anaesthesia were assessed in 15 subjects and compared to 15 controls,

  17. Voluntary Activity of Polish People and Its Motives in Recent Years: New Volunteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosewska, Bernadetta

    2015-01-01

    This article covers an issue or the phenomenon of volunteering. The introduction is a recall of a definition of volunteering. Then it shows the distribution of voluntary activity in different countries of the European Union in order to look at some aspects of the phenomenon in the microscale of one country--Poland. It shows the percentage of…

  18. 78 FR 57818 - Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... docket number for this rulemaking. All comments received may be posted without change, including any... found in in such locations as homes, schools, and recreational areas. Voluntary standards activity is an... handled primarily by three standards development/coordinating organizations: ASTM International...

  19. Voluntary active euthanasia: Is there a place for it in modern day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article discusses various ethical and legal concepts regarding euthanasia and includes concepts like physician assisted suicide, assisted suicide, voluntary active euthanasia, killing vs. letting die, indirect euthanasia and terminal sedation. Is there a difference if death is only foreseen but not intended?

  20. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  1. Voluntary muscle activation and evoked volitional-wave responses as a function of torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight, Robert E; Quarshie, Alwyn T; Black, Christopher D

    2018-08-01

    This study employed a unique stimulation paradigm which allowed for the simultaneous assessment of voluntary activation levels (VA) via twitch-interpolation, and the evoked V-wave responses of the plantar flexors during submaximal and maximal contractions. Test-retest reliability was also examined. Fourteen participants repeated a stimulation protocol over four visits to assess VA and evoked V-wave amplitude across torque levels ranging from 20% to 100% MVC. MVC torque and EMG amplitude were also measured. VA increased nonlinearly with torque production and plateaued by 80% MVC. V-wave amplitude increased linearly from 20% to 100% MVC. There were no differences in any dependent variable across visits (p > 0.05). VA demonstrated moderate to substantial reliability across all torque levels (ICC = 0.76-0.91) while V-wave amplitude exhibited fair to moderate reliability from 40% to 100% (ICC = 0.48-0.74). We were able to reliably collect VA and the V-wave simultaneously in the plantar flexors. Collection of VA and V-wave during the same contraction provides distinct information regarding the contribution of motor-unit recruitment and descending cortico-spinal drive/excitability to force production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fermented soymilk increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Kaneko, Daisuke; Nishimura, Ikuko; Matsuyama, Asahi

    2010-12-01

    Wheel running by rodents is thought to reflect voluntary exercise in humans. The present study examined the effect of fermented soymilk (FSM) on voluntary wheel running in rats. FSM was prepared from soymilk (SM) using the bacteria Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The rats were fed a normal diet for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week administration of diet containing FSM or SM (5% w/w), and then the diets were switched back to a normal diet for 3 weeks. The voluntary wheel running activity was increased by FSM administration, although no changes were observed by SM administration. This effect was observed 2 weeks after FSM administration and lasted 1 week after deprivation of FSM. Then we evaluated the effect of FSM on sexual behavior in male rats. FSM administration for 10 days significantly increased the number of mounts. The protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) increased in the hippocampus by FSM administration and it is suggested that FSM may change norepinephrine or dopamine signaling in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence that FSM increases voluntary wheel running activity and sexual behavior and suggests that TH may be involved in these effects.

  3. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide prevents fat gain following the cessation of voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Sevage, Joseph A; Childs, Thomas E; Grigsby, Kolter B; Booth, Frank W

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) could prevent acute increases in body fat and changes in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue following the sudden transition from physical activity to physical inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? AICAR prevented fat gains following the transition from physical activity to inactivity to levels comparable to rats that remained physically active. AICAR and continuous physical activity produced depot-specific changes in cyclin A1 mRNA and protein that were associated with the prevention of fat gain. These findings suggest that targeting AMP-activated protein kinase signalling could oppose rapid adipose mass growth. The transition from physical activity to inactivity is associated with drastic increases in 'catch-up' fat that in turn foster the development of many obesity-associated maladies. We tested whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment would prevent gains in body fat following the sudden transition from a physically active state to an inactive state by locking a voluntary running wheel. Male Wistar rats were either sedentary (SED) or given wheel access for 4 weeks, at which time rats with wheels continued running (RUN), had their wheel locked (WL) or had WL with daily AICAR injection (WL + AICAR) for 1 week. RUN and WL + AICAR prevented gains in body fat compared with SED and WL (P RUN and WL + AICAR compared with SED and WL groups (P run, and that together, continuous physical activity and AICAR could, at least initially in these conditions, exert similar inhibitory effects on adipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  4. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Matthijs; van Eijk, Lucas T; Zwaag, Jelle; van den Wildenberg, Joanne; Sweep, Fred C G J; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-05-20

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 12). Subjects in the intervention group were trained for 10 d in meditation (third eye meditation), breathing techniques (i.a., cyclic hyperventilation followed by breath retention), and exposure to cold (i.a., immersions in ice cold water). The control group was not trained. Subsequently, all subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin). In the intervention group, practicing the learned techniques resulted in intermittent respiratory alkalosis and hypoxia resulting in profoundly increased plasma epinephrine levels. In the intervention group, plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased more rapidly after endotoxin administration, correlated strongly with preceding epinephrine levels, and were higher. Levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were lower in the intervention group and correlated negatively with IL-10 levels. Finally, flu-like symptoms were lower in the intervention group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. These results could have important implications for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases.

  5. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  6. Voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle in cases with neck/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Katrine Tholstrup; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack of...

  7. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. European relevance of case study results. Reflections on transferability to voluntary agreement schemes at the European level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter

    2000-04-01

    As a policy instrument, voluntary agreements often fascinate policy-makers.This is fuelled by a number of assumed advantages, such as the opportunity for co-operation rather than confrontation, speed and flexibility and the cost-effectiveness. Some advantages might even be accentuated at the European level: Co-operation has added advantage at the European level where the culture of consensus decision is strong. Flexibility is extra attractive for policy makers dealing with an economy less homogeneous than the average national economy. Speed is certainly welcomed by policy-makers otherwise faced with the slow-winding European legislative process. Cost-effectiveness is eagerly sought by European policy makers facing tight administrative budgets and staff limits. This report examines lessons from the VAIE case studies that may be useful to policy makers engaged in the development of voluntary approaches at the European level. These case studies are about voluntary agreement schemes for industrial energy efficiency deployed in Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, and Sweden. For a summary of these case studies, please refer to the the VAIE final report. More detailed information is available in the VAIE national reports. It needs to be emphasised that the empirical base is very narrow. The 'lessons' presented can only be hypotheses, based on an inductive leap from a very narrow experience. The reader will need to check these hypotheses against her own broader experience and personal judgement. According to the principle of subsidiarity, voluntary agreements should be implemented at the European level only if that would have significant advantage over national action. Action at the European level, rather than the national level, would have these potential advantages: Being more consistent with the development of the single market; Allowing higher demands on energy efficiency without negative effect on competitiveness and employment; Stimulating company

  8. U.K. physicians' attitudes toward active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, George E; Lancaster, Carol J; Clark, David; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Noble, William

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of the views of geriatric medicine physicians and intensive care physicians in the United Kingdom on the topics of active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide revealed rather different attitudes. Eighty percent of geriatricians, but only 52% of intensive care physicians, considered active voluntary euthanasia as never justified ethically. Gender and age did not play a major part in attitudinal differences of the respondents. If the variability of attitudes of these two medical specialties are anywhere near illustrative of other physicians in the United Kingdom, it would be difficult to formulate and implement laws and policies concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide. In addition, ample safeguards would be required to receive support from physicians regarding legalization.

  9. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia debate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrich W Jordaan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, not on the merits. This means that in future the courts can be approached again to consider the legalisation of voluntary active euthanasia. As such, Stransham-Ford presents a learning opportunity for both sides of the legalisation divide. In particular, conceptual errors pertaining to human dignity were made in Stransham-Ford, and can be avoided in future. In this article, I identify these errors and propose the following three corrective principles to inform future debate on the subject: (i human dignity is violable; (ii human suffering violates human dignity; and (iii the ‘natural’ causes of suffering due to terminal illness do not exclude the application of human dignity.

  10. Cooperation enhanced by the coevolution of teaching activity in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games with voluntary participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shen

    Full Text Available Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase. Through numerical simulation, we have shown that voluntary participation could effectively promote the fraction of cooperation, which is also affected by the value of increment. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of the increment value on the density of different strategies and find that there exists an optimal increment value that plays an utmost role on the evolutionary dynamics. With regard to this observation, we unveil that an optimal value of increment can lead to strongest heterogeneity in agents' teaching ability, further promoting the evolution of cooperation.

  11. Cooperation enhanced by the coevolution of teaching activity in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games with voluntary participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Chu, Chen; Geng, Yini; Jin, Jiahua; Chen, Fei; Shi, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase. Through numerical simulation, we have shown that voluntary participation could effectively promote the fraction of cooperation, which is also affected by the value of increment. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of the increment value on the density of different strategies and find that there exists an optimal increment value that plays an utmost role on the evolutionary dynamics. With regard to this observation, we unveil that an optimal value of increment can lead to strongest heterogeneity in agents' teaching ability, further promoting the evolution of cooperation.

  12. The origin of activity in the biceps brachii muscle during voluntary contractions of the contralateral elbow flexor muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Taylor, Janet L.

    During strong voluntary contractions, activity is not restricted to the target muscles. Other muscles, including contralateral muscles, often contract. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to analyse the origin of these unintended contralateral contractions (termed "associated"

  13. Hip orthosis powered by pneumatic artificial muscle: voluntary activation in absence of myoelectrical signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Breno Gontijo; Vimieiro, Claysson Bruno Santos; Nagem, Danilo Alves Pinto; Pinotti, Marcos

    2008-04-01

    Powered orthosis is a special class of gait assist device that employs a mechanical or electromechanical actuator to enhance movement of hip, knee, or ankle articulations. Pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) has been suggested as a pneumatic actuator because its performance is similar to biological muscle. The electromyography (EMG) signal interpretation is the most popular and simplest method to establish the patient voluntary control of the orthosis. However, this technique is not suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. For those cases, an alternative control strategy should be provided. The aim of the present study is to develop a gait assistance orthosis for lower limb powered by PAMs controlled by a voluntary activation method based on the angular behavior of hip joint. In the present study, an orthosis that has been molded in a patient was employed and, by taking her anthropometric parameters and movement constraints, the adaptation of the existing orthosis to the powered orthosis was planned. A control system was devised allowing voluntary control of a powered orthosis suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. A pilot clinical study was reported where a patient, victim of poliovirus, successfully tested a hip orthosis especially modified for the gait test evaluation in the parallel bar system. The hip orthosis design and the control circuitry parameters were able to be set to provide satisfactory and comfortable use of the orthosis during the gait cycle.

  14. Role of the dorsal medial habenula in the regulation of voluntary activity, motor function, hedonic state, and primary reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Wang, Si D; Wang, Shirong; Morton, Glenn; Zariwala, Hatim A; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Turner, Eric E

    2014-08-20

    The habenular complex in the epithalamus consists of distinct regions with diverse neuronal populations. Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. Here, we have developed a genetic model in which neurons of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb) are developmentally eliminated, via tissue-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a). Mice with dMHb lesions perform poorly in motivation-based locomotor behaviors, such as voluntary wheel running and the accelerating rotarod, but show only minor abnormalities in gait and balance and exhibit normal levels of basal locomotion. These mice also show deficits in sucrose preference, but not in the forced swim test, two measures of depression-related phenotypes in rodents. We have also used Cre recombinase-mediated expression of channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin to activate dMHb neurons or silence their output in freely moving mice, respectively. Optical activation of the dMHb in vivo supports intracranial self-stimulation, showing that dMHb activity is intrinsically reinforcing, whereas optical silencing of dMHb outputs is aversive. Together, our findings demonstrate that the dMHb is involved in exercise motivation and the regulation of hedonic state, and is part of an intrinsic reinforcement circuit. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411366-19$15.00/0.

  15. Effect of voluntary vs. artificial activation on the relationship of muscle torque to speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Harris, Robert T.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Hather, Bruce M.; Buchanan, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The suggestion by Phillips and Petrofsky (1980) and Wickiewicz et al. (1984) that artificial activation of the knee extensor muscles should result in greater relative changes in torque than those evident with maximal voluntary activation is examined by investigating the speed-torque relationship of the right knee extensor muscle group in eight human subjects in whom activation was achieved by 'maximal' voluntary effort or by electrical stimulation. Torque was measured at a specific knee angle during isokinetic concentric or eccentric actions at velocities between 0.17 and 3.66 rad/s and during isometric actions. It is shown that, with artificial activation, the relative changes in both eccentric and concentric torque were greater as the speed increased; the speed-torque relationship was independed of the extent of activation and was similar to that of an isolated muscle. On the other hand, activation by the central nervous system during maximal effort depended on the speed and the type of muscle action performed.

  16. Effects of long-term voluntary exercise on learning and memory processes: dependency of the task and level of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Capdevila, Sílvia; Portell-Cortés, Isabel; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Costa-Miserachs, David

    2009-09-14

    The effect of long-term voluntary exercise (running wheel) on anxiety-like behaviour (plus maze and open field) and learning and memory processes (object recognition and two-way active avoidance) was examined on Wistar rats. Because major individual differences in running wheel behaviour were observed, the data were analysed considering the exercising animals both as a whole and grouped according to the time spent in the running wheel (low, high, and very-high running). Although some variables related to anxiety-like behaviour seem to reflect an anxiogenic compatible effect, the view of the complete set of variables could be interpreted as an enhancement of defensive and risk assessment behaviours in exercised animals, without major differences depending on the exercise level. Effects on learning and memory processes were dependent on task and level of exercise. Two-way avoidance was not affected either in the acquisition or in the retention session, while the retention of object recognition task was affected. In this latter task, an enhancement in low running subjects and impairment in high and very-high running animals were observed.

  17. Voluntary resistance running wheel activity pattern and skeletal muscle growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Elliott, Bradley; Guillemin, Bernard; Smith, Heather K

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the pattern of voluntary activity of young rats in response to resistance loading on running wheels and to determine the effects of the activity on the growth of six limb skeletal muscles. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were housed individually with a resistance running wheel (R-RUN, n = 7) or a conventional free-spinning running wheel (F-RUN, n = 6) or without a wheel, as non-running control animals (CON, n = 6). The torque required to move the wheel in the R-RUN group was progressively increased, and the activity (velocity, distance and duration of each bout) of the two running wheel groups was recorded continuously for 45 days. The R-RUN group performed many more, shorter and faster bouts of running than the F-RUN group, yet the mean daily distance was not different between the F-RUN (1.3 +/- 0.2 km) and R-RUN group (1.4 +/- 0.6 km). Only the R-RUN resulted in a significantly (P RUN and R-RUN led to a significantly greater wet mass relative to increase in body mass and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the soleus muscle compared with CON. We conclude that the pattern of voluntary activity on a resistance running wheel differs from that on a free-spinning running wheel and provides a suitable model to induce physiological muscle hypertrophy in rats.

  18. Participation of catalase in voluntary ethanol consumption in perinatally low-level lead-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattalloni, Mara S; De Giovanni, Laura N; Molina, Juan C; Cancela, Liliana M; Virgolini, Miriam B

    2013-10-01

    Environmental lead (Pb) exposure and alcohol abuse pose significant public health problems for our society. One of the proposed mechanisms of action of the developmental neurotoxicant Pb is related to its ability to affect antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT). Ethanol's (EtOH) motivational effects are postulated to be mediated by the CAT-dependent acetaldehyde generated in the brain. The current study sought to investigate the role of this enzyme in the elevated EtOH intake previously reported in perinatally Pb-exposed rats. Thirty-five-day-old male Wistar rats exposed to 220 ppm Pb during gestation and lactation were offered escalating EtOH solutions (2 to 10%) or water, 2 h/d for 28 days. Once baseline 10% EtOH intake was achieved, they were injected with (i) saline (SAL), (ii) 3-amino 1,2,4 triazole (aminotriazole [AT], a CAT inhibitor, 250 mg/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.], 5 hours before the last 8 EtOH intake sessions), or (iii) 3-nitropropionic acid (3NPA; a CAT activator, 20 mg/kg subcutaneously [s.c.], 45 minutes before the last 4 EtOH intake sessions). Rats were then sacrificed, blood collected, and brain regions harvested for CAT activity determination. Additional studies evaluated EtOH intake and CAT activity in response to 10 and 30 mg/kg 3NPA. Both 3NPA and AT were evaluated for striatal cytotoxicity. We observed that AT pretreatment blunted the increased EtOH intake, as well as the elevated CAT activity in blood, cerebellum, and hippocampus evidenced in the developmentally Pb-exposed rats that have consumed EtOH. Conversely, 20 mg/kg 3NPA further increased voluntary EtOH intake in these animals as compared with controls, concomitantly with a slight elevation in CAT activity both in blood and in the striatum, associated with no changes in striatal cytotoxicity. These results suggest a participation of CAT, and possibly acetaldehyde, in Pb-induced high EtOH intake, and open up new avenues to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the Pb and Et

  19. Reinventing the wheel: comparison of two wheel cage styles for assessing mouse voluntary running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, T; Harfmann, B D; Esser, K A; Schroder, E A

    2018-04-01

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different laboratories. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differ depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs. magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to greater running distance per day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used, suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus investigators need to report wheel cage type/wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The results of this study highlight that mice will run different distances per day and average speed based on the inherent resistance present in the switch mechanism used to record data. Rapid changes in running behavior for the same mouse in the different cages demonstrate that a strong behavioral factor contributes to classic exercise outcomes in mice. Caution needs to be taken when interpreting mouse voluntary wheel running activity to

  20. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  1. Velcro on the slippery slope: the role of psychiatry in active voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C J

    1995-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the role that psychiatrists should play in legislation that establishes a right to active voluntary euthanasia (AVE). One version of the "slippery slope" argument, usually invoked against the legalisation of AVE, is recast as an argument for the introduction of strong safeguards in any future AVE legislation. The literature surrounding the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses in the terminally ill, physicians' ability to identify such illnesses and the aetiology of suicide in the terminally ill is examined. The strength of the slippery slope argument, combined with the poor ability of general physicians to diagnose psychiatric illness in the terminally ill, demands that any legislation allowing AVE should require a mandatory psychiatric review of the patient requesting euthanasia. Any legislation adopted that establishes a right to active voluntary euthanasia should include a mandatory psychiatric review of the person requesting euthanasia and a cooling off period before the request is acceded to. In addition, the discovery of a serious mental illness ought to disqualify the affected person from the right to AVE until that illness resolves.

  2. Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex Response, Voluntary Muscle Activation and Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Krause

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIndividuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP.Methods44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16–25 Hz, 1.5–3 mm. Assessment included (1 recordings of stretch reflex (SR activity of the triceps surae, (2 electromyography (EMG measurements of maximal voluntary muscle activation of lower limb muscles, and (3 neuromuscular activation during active range of motion (aROM. We recorded EMG of m. soleus (SOL, m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM, m. tibialis anterior, m. vastus medialis, m. rectus femoris, and m. biceps femoris. Angular excursion was recorded by goniometry of the ankle and knee joint.ResultsAfter WBV, (1 SOL SRs were decreased (p < 0.01 while (2 maximal voluntary activation (p < 0.05 and (3 angular excursion in the knee joint (p < 0.01 were significantly increased. No changes could be observed for GM SR amplitudes or ankle joint excursion. Neuromuscular coordination expressed by greater agonist–antagonist ratios during aROM was significantly enhanced (p < 0.05.DiscussionThe findings point toward acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects following one bout of WBV. Protocols demonstrate that pathological reflex responses are reduced (spinal level, while the execution of voluntary movement (supraspinal level is improved in regards to kinematic and neuromuscular control. This facilitation of muscle and joint control is probably due to a reduction of spasticity-associated spinal excitability in favor of giving access for greater supraspinal input during voluntary motor

  3. Mandatory and Voluntary Disclosures of Serbian Listed Companies - Achieved Level and Some Recommendation for Improving their Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Denčić-Mihajlov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper investigates mandatory and voluntary disclosure practices of non-financial listed companies on the Belgrade Stock Exchange. The results help in determining the level of transparency of Serbian s listed companies and in formulating recommendations for improving the quality and relevance of disclosed information. Design/methodology/approach – We focus on modeling both mandatory and voluntary disclosure indices for financial and non-financial information in order to evaluate the level of disclosure of 63 Serbian companies for reporting period 2012. Findings – We found the low level of both mandatory and voluntary disclosures. Concerning mandatary disclosure, the information that is least frequently disclosed by the sample companies are those related to the material content of the financial statements (information on changes in accounting estimates and corrections of fundamental errors in the previous period, as well as related companies. Serbian companies usually disclose information that contributes to their greater visibility. Similar to the mandatory disclosure, usually published voluntary information are mostly "neutral" from the point of impact on the values reported in the financial statements, which do not contribute to a better understanding of the financial position, profitability and cash flows of the company. Research limitations/implications – There is a limitation concerning the sample size (which is generally intrinsic to Serbian capital market size and the sample structure (research is limited to listed non-financial companies. The study covers the annual reports for 2012 which in Serbia coincides with a crisis period. The same research methodology could be applied on a larger and comprehensive database (non-listed companies and include period after 2012, which will allow the analysis of evolution of disclosure practices by companies within new accounting framework. Originality/value – The authors give

  4. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

    OpenAIRE

    Clea Beatriz Macagnan; Fernando Batista Fontana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers wil...

  5. PRESENT CONDITION AND MEASURES TO EXPAND OF VOLUNTARY AGREEMENT ON PLASTIC SHOPPING BAGS REDUCTION AT THE PREFECTURAL LEVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mayuka; Kanaya, Ken

    Purpose of this research is to clear present condition and measures to expand of voluntary agreement on plastic shopping bags reduction at the prefectural level. Methods of this research are questionnaire survey to prefectures implementing the agreement and survey by i town page to the number of stores of companies and the number of companies in the prefectures. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. The refusal rate of plastic shopping bags was 10-40% before the implementation of voluntary agreements. And the rate is approximately 70-90% after the implementation. Therefore, before and after the implementation of voluntary agreements, the refusal rate of plastic shopping bags is approximately 40-70% less. 2. It is suggested that the time and number of meetings from proposal to conclusion of the agreement are related in some way, to the ratio of stores participating. On the participation of administration, the ratio of stores participating in the case in which prefecture and cities participate is higher than in the case in which prefecture participates.

  6. Increasing Children's Voluntary Physical Activity Outside of School Hours Through Targeting Social Cognitive Theory Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Walsh, Stephanie M; Greenwood, Brittney L

    2016-10-01

    Volume of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity completed during the elementary school day is insufficient, and associated with health risks. Improvements in theory-based psychosocial factors might facilitate increased out-of-school physical activity. A behaviorally based after-school care protocol, Youth Fit 4 Life, was tested for its association with increased voluntary, out-of-school physical activity and improvements in its theory-based psychosocial predictors in 9- to 12-year-olds. Increases over 12 weeks in out-of-school physical activity, and improvements in self-regulation for physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and mood, were significantly greater in the Youth Fit 4 Life group (n = 88) when contrasted with a typical care control group (n = 57). Changes in the 3 psychosocial variables significantly mediated the group-physical activity change relationship (R(2) = .31, P theory-based psychosocial changes within a structured after-school care physical activity program was associated with increases in children's overall time being physically active. After replication, large scale application will be warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  8. Voluntary activation of ankle muscles is accompanied by subcortical facilitation of their antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend S.; Zuur, Abraham Theodoor; Nielsen, Jens B.

    2010-01-01

    Flexion and extension movements are organized reciprocally, so that extensor motoneurones in the spinal cord are inhibited when flexor muscles are active and vice versa. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurones are thus inhibited as evidenced by a depression......) or soleus muscle of the left ankle. TMS was applied to the hotspot of TA and soleus muscles on separate days. Stimuli were delivered prior to and at the beginning of contraction. Soleus MEPs were significantly facilitated when TMS was applied 50 ms prior to onset of plantar flexion. Surprisingly, soleus...... was increased prior to plantar flexion, but not prior to dorsiflexion. These findings suggest that voluntary contraction at the ankle is accompanied by preceding facilitation of antagonists by a subcortical motor programme. This may help to ensure that the direction of movement may be changed quickly...

  9. Local muscle metabolic demand induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary contractions at different force levels: a NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC. However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC and MVC (VOL-MVC level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y. Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  10. Local Muscle Metabolic Demand Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Contractions at Different Force Levels: A NIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-06-13

    Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  11. Asymmetrical Brain Activity Induced by Voluntary Spatial Attention Depends on the Visual Hemifield: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, Masamitsu; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the visual hemifield to which spatial attention was oriented on the activities of the posterior parietal and occipital visual cortices was examined using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in order to investigate the neural substrates of voluntary visuospatial attention. Our brain imaging data support the theory put forth in a…

  12. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  13. Guilty but good: defending voluntary active euthanasia from a virtue perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ann Marie

    2008-07-01

    This article is presented as a defence of voluntary active euthanasia from a virtue perspective and it is written with the objective of generating debate and challenging the assumption that killing is necessarily vicious in all circumstances. Practitioners are often torn between acting from virtue and acting from duty. In the case presented the physician was governed by compassion and this illustrates how good people may have the courage to sacrifice their own security in the interests of virtue. The doctor's action created huge tensions for the nurse, who was governed by the code of conduct and relevant laws. Appraising active euthanasia from a virtue perspective can offer a more compassionate approach to the predicament of practitioners and clients. The tensions arising from the virtue versus rules debate generates irreconcilable difficulties for nurses. A shift towards virtue would help to resolve this problem and support the call for a change in the law. The controversial nature of this position is acknowledged. The argument is put forward on the understanding that many practitioners will not agree with the conclusions reached.

  14. A case for justified non-voluntary active euthanasia: exploring the ethics of the Groningen Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, B A

    2006-11-01

    One of the most recent controversies to arise in the field of bioethics concerns the ethics for the Groningen Protocol: the guidelines proposed by the Groningen Academic Hospital in The Netherlands, which would permit doctors to actively euthanise terminally ill infants who are suffering. The Groningen Protocol has been met with an intense amount of criticism, some even calling it a relapse into a Hitleresque style of eugenics, where people with disabilities are killed solely because of their handicaps. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, the paper will attempt to disabuse readers of this erroneous understanding of the Groningen Protocol by showing how such a policy does not aim at making quality-of-life judgements, given that it restricts euthanasia to suffering and terminally ill infants. Second, the paper illustrates that what the Groningen Protocol proposes to do is both ethical and also the most humane alternative for these suffering and dying infants. Lastly, responses are given to some of the worries expressed by ethicists on the practice of any type of non-voluntary active euthanasia.

  15. Fluvoxamine moderates reduced voluntary activity following chronic dexamethasone infusion in mice via recovery of BDNF signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazuki; Izumo, Nobuo; Suzuki, Biora; Karube, Yoshiharu; Morikawa, Tomomi; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Kameyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Koji; Sasaki, Noriko; Iwata, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Manabe, Takayuki

    2014-04-01

    Major depression is a complex disorder characterized by genetic and environmental interactions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) effectively treat depression. Neurogenesis following chronic antidepressant treatment activates brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the SSRI fluvoxamine (Flu) on locomotor activity and forced-swim behavior using chronic dexamethasone (cDEX) infusions in mice, which engenders depression-like behavior. Infusion of cDEX decreased body weight and produced a trend towards lower locomotor activity during darkness. In the forced-swim test, cDEX-mice exhibited increased immobility times compared with mice administered saline. Flu treatment reversed decreased locomotor activity and mitigated forced-swim test immobility. Real-time polymerase chain reactions using brain RNA samples yielded significantly lower BDNF mRNA levels in cDEX-mice compared with the saline group. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) gene expression was lower in cDEX-mice compared with the saline group. However, marked expression of the XBP1 gene was observed in cDEX-mice treated with Flu compared with mice given saline and untreated cDEX-mice. Expression of 5-HT2A and Sigma-1 receptors decreased after cDEX infusion compared with the saline group, and these decreases normalized to control levels upon Flu treatment. Our results indicate that the Flu moderates reductions in voluntary activity following chronic dexamethasone infusions in mice via recovery of BDNF signal cascades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social reward improves the voluntary control over localized brain activity in fMRI-based neurofeedback training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Anna Mathiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback (NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI allows voluntary regulation of the activity in a selected brain region. For the training of this regulation, a well-designed feedback system is required. Social reward may serve as an effective incentive in NF paradigms, but its efficiency has not yet been tested. Therefore, we developed a social reward NF paradigm and assessed it in comparison with a typical visual NF paradigm (moving bar.We trained 24 healthy participants, on three consecutive days, to control activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC with fMRI-based NF. In the social feedback group, an avatar gradually smiled when ACC activity increased, whereas in the standard feedback group, a moving bar indicated the activation level. To assess a transfer of the NF training both groups were asked to up-regulate their brain activity without receiving feedback immediately before and after the NF training (pre- and post-test. Finally, the effect of the acquired NF training on ACC function was evaluated in a cognitive interference task (Simon task during the pre- and post-test.Social reward led to stronger activity in the ACC and reward-related areas during the NF training when compared to standard feedback. After the training, both groups were able to regulate ACC without receiving feedback, with a trend for stronger responses in the social feedback group. Moreover, despite a lack of behavioral differences, significant higher ACC activations emerged in the cognitive interference task, reflecting a stronger generalization of the NF training on cognitive interference processing after social feedback.Social reward can increase self-regulation in fMRI-based NF and strengthen its effects on neural processing in related tasks, such as cognitive interference. An advantage of social feedback is that a direct external reward is provided as in natural social interactions, opening perspectives for implicit

  17. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-10-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media.

  18. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-01-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media. PMID:8910778

  19. Effect of vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise on subsequent muscle activity during maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Porcari, John P; Scheunke, Mark D

    2004-11-01

    This investigation was designed to determine if vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise would alter associated patterns of muscle activity. A cross-over design was employed with 8 subjects completing a resistance exercise bout once with a vibrating dumbbell (V) (44 Hz, 3 mm displacement) and once without vibration (NV). For both exercise bouts, 10 sets were performed with a load that induced concentric muscle failure during the 10th repetition. The appropriate load for each set was determined during a pretest. Each testing session was separated by 1 week. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the biceps brachii muscle at 12 different time points during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a 170 degrees elbow angle after each set of the dumbbell exercise. The time points were as follows: pre (5 minutes before the resistance exercise bout), T1-T10 (immediately following each set of resistance exercise), and post (15 minutes after the resistance exercise bout). EMG was analyzed for median power frequency (MPF) and maximum (mEMG). NV resulted in a significant decrease in MPF at T1-T4 (p recruitment of high threshold motor units during fatiguing contractions. This may indicate the usage of vibration with resistance exercise as an effective tool for strength training athletes.

  20. GPi oscillatory activity differentiates tics from the resting state, voluntary movements, and the unmedicated parkinsonian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS. Thalamic (Cm-Pf and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13-30Hz at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200-400Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3 TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4-7Hz and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200-400Hz and gamma band (35-200Hz activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5-10Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics, resting

  1. Loss of Cdk5 function in the nucleus accumbens decreases wheel running and may mediate age‐related declines in voluntary physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Childs, Thomas E.; Grigsby, Kolter B.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physical inactivity, which drastically increases with advancing age, is associated with numerous chronic diseases.The nucleus accumbens (the pleasure and reward ‘hub’ in the brain) influences wheel running behaviour in rodents.RNA‐sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analysis led us to hypothesize a potential relationship between the regulation of dendritic spine density, the molecules involved in synaptic transmission, and age‐related reductions in wheel running. Upon completion of follow‐up studies, we developed the working model that synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is central to age‐related changes in voluntary running.Testing this hypothesis, inhibition of Cdk5 (comprising a molecule central to the processes described above) in the nucleus accumbens reduced wheel running.The results of the present study show that reductions in synaptic transmission and Cdk5 function are related to decreases in voluntary running behaviour and provide guidance for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie age‐dependent reductions in the motivation to be physically active. Abstract Increases in age are often associated with reduced levels of physical activity, which, in turn, associates with the development of numerous chronic diseases. We aimed to assess molecular differences in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (a specific brain nucleus postulated to influence rewarding behaviour) with respect to wheel running and sedentary female Wistar rats at 8 and 14 weeks of age. RNA‐sequencing was used to interrogate transcriptomic changes between 8‐ and 14‐week‐old wheel running rats, and select transcripts were later analysed by quantitative RT‐PCR in age‐matched sedentary rats. Voluntary wheel running was greatest at 8 weeks and had significantly decreased by 12 weeks. From 619 differentially expressed mRNAs, bioinformatics suggested that cAMP‐mediated signalling, dopamine‐ and cAMP‐regulated neuronal phosphoprotein of 32

  2. Activity in the superior colliculus reflects dynamic interactions between voluntary and involuntary influences on orienting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew H; Munoz, Douglas P

    2008-10-01

    Performance in a behavioural task can be influenced by both bottom-up and top-down processes such as stimulus modality and prior probability. Here, we exploited differences in behavioural strategy to explore the role of the intermediate and deep layers of the superior colliculus (dSC) in covert orienting. Two monkeys were trained on a predictive cued-saccade task in which the cue predicted the target's upcoming location with 80% validity. When the delay between cue and target onset was 250 ms, both monkeys showed faster responses to the uncued (Invalid) location. This was associated with a reduced target-aligned response in the dSC on Valid trials for both monkeys and is consistent with a bottom-up (i.e. involuntary) bias. When the delay was increased to 650 ms, one monkey continued to show faster responses to the Invalid location whereas the other monkey showed faster responses to the Valid location, consistent with a top-down (i.e. voluntary) bias. This latter behaviour was correlated with an increase in activity in dSC neurons preceding target onset that was absent in the other monkey. Thus, using the information provided by the cue shifted the emphasis towards top-down processing, while ignoring this information allowed bottom-up processing to continue to dominate. Regardless of the selected strategy, however, neurons in the dSC consistently reflected the current bias between the two processes, emphasizing its role in both the bottom-up and top-down control of orienting behaviour.

  3. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  4. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (Pbone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is limiting, supplemental phytase may have beneficial effects on LBM and performance activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  6. Effects of voluntary running on plasma levels of neurotrophins, hippocampal cell proliferation and learning and memory in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, S-Y; Lau, B W-M; Zhang, E-D; Lee, J C-D; Li, A; Lee, T M C; Ching, Y-P; Xu, A-M; So, K-F

    2012-10-11

    Previous studies have shown that a 2-week treatment with 40 mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) in rats suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis and decreases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impairs spatial learning, all of which could be counteracted by voluntary wheel running. BDNF and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) have been suggested to mediate physical exercise-enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Here we examined whether such running-elicited benefits were accompanied by corresponding changes of peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a rat model of stress. We examined the effects of acute (5 days) and chronic (4 weeks) treatment with CORT and/or wheel running on (1) hippocampal cell proliferation, (2) spatial learning and memory and (3) plasma levels of BDNF and IGF-1. Acute CORT treatment improved spatial learning without altered cell proliferation compared to vehicle treatment. Acute CORT-treated non-runners showed an increased trend in plasma BDNF levels together with a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Acute running showed no effect on cognition, cell proliferation and peripheral BDNF and IGF-1 levels. Conversely, chronic CORT treatment in non-runners significantly impaired spatial learning and suppressed cell proliferation in association with a decreased trend in plasma BDNF level and a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. Running counteracted cognitive deficit and restored hippocampal cell proliferation following chronic CORT treatment; but without corresponding changes in plasma BDNF and IGF-1 levels. The results suggest that the beneficial effects of acute stress on cognitive improvement may be mediated by BDNF-enhanced synaptic plasticity that is hippocampal cell proliferation-independent, whereas chronic stress may impair cognition by decreasing hippocampal cell proliferation and BDNF levels. Furthermore, the results indicate a trend in changes of plasma BDNF levels associated with a

  7. Young People's Voluntary and Campaigning Activities as Sources of Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roker, Debi; Player, Katie; Coleman, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses political apathy and alienation among youth, challenging this negative image. Describes empirical research that demonstrates a high level of engagement by young people in social activism and community activities, focuses on factors influencing young people's participation, and demonstrates that volunteering and campaigning affect young…

  8. Evaluation of the Dutch general exemption level for voluntary fortification with folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fortification with folic acid was prohibited in the Netherlands. Since 2007, a general exemption is given to fortify with folic acid up until a maximum level of 100 µg/100 kcal. This maximum level was based on a calculation model and data of adults only. The model requires parameters on intake (diet, supplements, energy and on the proportion of energy that may be fortified. This study aimed to evaluate the model parameters considering the changing fortification market. In addition, the risk of young children exceeding the UL for folic acid was studied. Methods: Folic acid fortified foods present on the Dutch market were identified in product databases and by a supermarket inventory. Together with data of the Dutch National Consumption Survey-Young Children (2005/2006 these inventory results were used to re-estimate the model parameters. Habitual folic acid intake of young children was estimated and compared to the UL for several realistic fortification scenarios. Results: Folic acid fortified foods were identified in seven different food groups. In up to 10% of the population, the proportion of energy intake of folic acid fortified foods exceeded 10% – the original model parameter. The folic acid intake from food supplements was about 100 µg/day, which is lower than the intake assumed as the original model parameter (300 µg. In the scenarios representing the current market situation, a small proportion (<5% of the children exceeded the UL. Conclusion: The maximum fortification level of 100 µg/100 kcal is sufficiently protective for children in the current market situation. In the precautionary model to estimate the maximum fortification levels, subjects with high intakes of folic acid from food and supplements, and high energy intakes are protected from too high folic acid intakes. Combinations of high intakes are low in this population. The maximum levels should be monitored and revised with increasing fortification and

  9. Effect of voluntary exercise and dietary protein levels on incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Masanori; Kimura, Shuichi

    1983-01-01

    The effect of voluntary exercise on incorporation of 14 C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro were examined with mice fed 4 %, 6 % and 20 % protein diets. The incorporation of 14 C-leucine increased as dietary protein levels decreased and was significantly higher in liver slices of exercise groups than in slices of non-exercise groups. (author)

  10. Effect of voluntary physical activity initiated at age 7 months on skeletal hindlimb and cardiac muscle function in mdx mice of both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Arnaud; Benchaouir, Rachid; Joanne, Pierre; Peat, Rachel A; Mougenot, Nathalie; Agbulut, Onnik; Butler-Browne, Gillian

    2015-11-01

    The effects of voluntary activity initiated in adult mdx (C57BL/10ScSc-DMD(mdx) /J) mice on skeletal and cardiac muscle function have not been studied extensively. We studied the effects of 3 months of voluntary wheel running initiated at age 7 months on hindlimb muscle weakness, increased susceptibility to muscle contraction-induced injury, and left ventricular function in mdx mice. We found that voluntary wheel running did not worsen the deficit in force-generating capacity and the force drop after lengthening contractions in either mdx mouse gender. It increased the absolute maximal force of skeletal muscle in female mdx mice. Moreover, it did not affect left ventricular function, structural heart dimensions, cardiac gene expression of inflammation, fibrosis, or remodeling markers. These results indicate that voluntary activity initiated at age 7 months had no detrimental effects on skeletal or cardiac muscles in either mdx mouse gender. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Dai, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Jin-Sheng; Pei, Zhong; Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the interstitial fluid (ISF). A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); synaptic function was investigated with Thy1 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95) increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition. These data suggest

  12. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the interstitial fluid (ISF. A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4, astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; synaptic function was investigated with Thy1–green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95 increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition

  13. How voluntary is the active ageing life? A life-course study on the determinants of extending careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero-Cabib, Ignacio; Kaeser, Laure

    2016-03-01

    In Switzerland, as in many other European states, there is an increasing emphasis in public policy on promoting later retirement from the labour market. But this accelerating drive in Swiss policy-making to extend occupational activity does not mean that every worker is currently likely to retire late, nor does it imply that all those who do retire late do so voluntarily. This article uses a life-course approach, first to study the determinants of late retirement, and secondly to analyse whether the decision to postpone retirement is made voluntarily or involuntarily. Both objectives are addressed on the basis of data from the Swiss survey Vivre/Leben/Vivere. The results of logistic regression modelling indicate that, whereas self-employed and more highly educated individuals are more likely to retire late, people with access to private pension funds and workers who have benefited from periods of economic growth have a lower tendency to retire late. Regarding voluntariness, those who are more likely to opt for voluntary late retirement tend to be Swiss citizens, more highly educated, and also benefited from periods of economic expansion, while the self-employed, men and widowed individuals leaving the labour market late tend to do so involuntarily. In conclusion, the article discusses the absence of a social inequality debate in the design of active ageing policies.

  14. Asymmetrical brain activity induced by voluntary spatial attention depends on the visual hemifield: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, Masamitsu; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2011-04-01

    The effect of the visual hemifield to which spatial attention was oriented on the activities of the posterior parietal and occipital visual cortices was examined using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in order to investigate the neural substrates of voluntary visuospatial attention. Our brain imaging data support the theory put forth in a previous psychophysical study, namely, the attentional resources for the left and right visual hemifields are distinct. Increasing the attentional load asymmetrically increased the brain activity. Increase in attentional load produced a greater increase in brain activity in the case of the left visual hemifield than in the case of the right visual hemifield. This asymmetry was observed in all the examined brain areas, including the right and left occipital and parietal cortices. These results suggest the existence of asymmetrical inhibitory interactions between the hemispheres and the presence of an extensive inhibitory network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  17. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regular voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and cell proliferation accompanied by increases in cerebral IGF-1 and GST activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sanae; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo; Ohno, Makoto; Mikami, Toshio

    2010-08-25

    Chronic stress impairs cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis. This impairment is attributed to increases in oxidative stress, which result in the accumulation of lipid peroxide. On the other hand, voluntary exercise enhances cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and antioxidant capacity in normal animals. However, the effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive function, neurogenesis, and antioxidants in stressed mice are unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and increases in antioxidant capacity. Stressed mice were exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS), which consisted of 12h immobilization daily and feeding in a small cage, for 8 weeks. Exercised mice were allowed free access to a running wheel during their exposure to CRS. At the 6th week, cognitive function was examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Daily voluntary exercise restored stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and the hippocampal cell proliferation of newborn cells but not cell survival. Voluntary exercise increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein and mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex and liver, respectively. In addition, CRS resulted in a significant increase in the number of 4-hydrosynonenal (4-HNE)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus; whereas, voluntary exercise inhibited it and enhanced glutathione s-transferases (GST) activity in the brain. These findings suggest that voluntary exercise attenuated the stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. This exercise-induced improvement was attributed to exercise-induced enhancement of IGF-1 protein and GST activity in the brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine maximal voluntary knee-extensor contraction force (MVC force), sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and muscle glycogen levels in the days after a high-level soccer game when players ingested an optimised diet. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus...... lateralis muscle biopsy and a blood sample collected in a control situation and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after a competitive soccer game. MVC force, SR function, muscle glycogen, muscle soreness and plasma myoglobin were measured. MVC force sustained over 1 s was 11 and 10% lower (P ...

  1. VOLUNTARY ACTIVITIES AND ONLINE EDUCATION FOR DIGITAL HERITAGE INVENTORY DEVELOPMENT AFTER THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kondo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Consortium for Earthquake-Damaged Cultural Heritage (CEDACH is a voluntary initiative launched just after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The consortium is developing a social network between local cultural resource managers restoring disaster-damaged cultural heritage on one side and remote researchers including historians, archaeologists and specialists of cultural information studies on the other side, in order to facilitate collaborative projects. This paper presents three projects in which CEDACH contributed to the development of a digital inventory for disaster-damaged heritage management through web-based collaborations by self-motivated workers. The first project, CEDACH GIS, developed an online archaeological site inventory for the disaster area. Although a number of individuals voluntarily participated in the project at the beginning, it gradually stagnated due to limited need for local rescue archaeology. However, the experience of online-based collaborations worked well for the second project proposed by local specialists, in which CEDACH restored the book catalogue of a tsunami-devastated research library. This experience highlighted the need for online education to improve information and communication technologies (ICT skills of data builders. Therefore, in the third project called CEDACHeLi, an e-Learning management system was developed to facilitate learning the fundamental knowledge and techniques required for information processing in rescue operations of disaster-damaged cultural heritage. This system will contribute to improved skills and motivation of potential workers for further developments in digital heritage inventory.

  2. Voluntary Activities and Online Education for Digital Heritage Inventory Development after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Uozu, T.; Seino, Y.; Ako, T.; Goda, Y.; Fujimoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2013-07-01

    Consortium for Earthquake-Damaged Cultural Heritage (CEDACH) is a voluntary initiative launched just after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. The consortium is developing a social network between local cultural resource managers restoring disaster-damaged cultural heritage on one side and remote researchers including historians, archaeologists and specialists of cultural information studies on the other side, in order to facilitate collaborative projects. This paper presents three projects in which CEDACH contributed to the development of a digital inventory for disaster-damaged heritage management through web-based collaborations by self-motivated workers. The first project, CEDACH GIS, developed an online archaeological site inventory for the disaster area. Although a number of individuals voluntarily participated in the project at the beginning, it gradually stagnated due to limited need for local rescue archaeology. However, the experience of online-based collaborations worked well for the second project proposed by local specialists, in which CEDACH restored the book catalogue of a tsunami-devastated research library. This experience highlighted the need for online education to improve information and communication technologies (ICT) skills of data builders. Therefore, in the third project called CEDACHeLi, an e-Learning management system was developed to facilitate learning the fundamental knowledge and techniques required for information processing in rescue operations of disaster-damaged cultural heritage. This system will contribute to improved skills and motivation of potential workers for further developments in digital heritage inventory.

  3. Evidence of active management of private voluntary pension funds in Colombia: a performance analysis using proxy ETFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Cayón Fallón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find evidence that shows that either active management of private pension funds in Colombia actually adds value to the investors or, on the contrary, investors would achieve better results if they invested in passively managed products such as, for example, an ETF (Exchange Trade Fund. After conducting a review of data available from 30 different private pension funds in Colombia and 30 ETFs that had similar investment goals to these portfolios, our findings reveal that, using common performance indicators, a Colombian investor would have a better ROI by investing in passively managed products (ETFs than in portfolios currently offered by voluntary pension funds in Colombia

  4. Involvement in clubs or voluntary associations, social networks and activity generation : a path analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den P.E.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure activities have received increasing attention from travel behavior researchers over the past decade. However, these activities are often treated as a single category, neglecting their differences. Whereas most leisure activities are flexible, club activities are usually scheduled longer in

  5. Voluntary ambulation using voluntary upper limb muscle activity and Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL®) in a patient with complete paraplegia due to chronic spinal cord injury: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yukiyo; Kadone, Hideki; Kubota, Shigeki; Suzuki, Kenji; Saotome, Kousaku; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Abe, Tetsuya; Marushima, Aiki; Watanabe, Hiroki; Endo, Ayumu; Tsurumi, Kazue; Ishimoto, Ryu; Matsushita, Akira; Koda, Masao; Matsumura, Akira; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-01-19

    We sought to describe our experience with the Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL®) for active knee extension and voluntary ambulation with remaining muscle activity in a patient with complete paraplegia after spinal cord injury. A 30-year-old man with complete paraplegia used the HAL® for 1 month (10 sessions) using his remaining muscle activity, including hip flexor and upper limb activity. Electromyography was used to evaluate muscle activity of the gluteus maximus, tensor fascia lata, quadriceps femoris, and hamstring muscles in synchronization with the Vicon motion capture system. A HAL® session included a knee extension session with the hip flexor and voluntary gait with upper limb activity. After using the HAL® for one month, the patient's manual muscle hip flexor scores improved from 1/5 to 2/5 for the right and from 2/5 to 3/5 for the left knee, and from 0/5 to 1/5 for the extension of both knees. Knee extension sessions with HAL®, and hip flexor and upper-limb-triggered HAL® ambulation seem a safe and feasible option in a patient with complete paraplegia due to spinal cord injury.

  6. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei-Xin; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen; Gu, Shou-Zhi; Sang, Li-Xuan; Dai, Cong; Wang, Hai-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  7. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: weixinliu@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)

    2015-04-10

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  8. 42 CFR 137.205 - Will this voluntary uniform data set reporting activity be required of all Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resources, hardware, software, and technical assistance to the Self-Governance Tribes to facilitate data... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will this voluntary uniform data set reporting activity be required of all Self-Governance Tribes entering into a compact with the IHS under Title V? 137...

  9. Impaired voluntary neuromuscular activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Age-related alterations of neuromuscular activation may contribute to deficits in muscle power and mobility function. This study assesses whether impaired activation of the agonist quadriceps and antagonist hamstrings, including amplitude- and velocity-dependent characteristics of activa...

  10. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  11. Understanding Crowdsourcing: Effects of motivation and rewards on participation and performance in voluntary online activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.M. Borst (Irma)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCompanies increasingly outsource activities to volunteers that they approach via an open call on the internet. The phenomenon is called ‘crowdsourcing’. For an effective use of crowdsourcing it is important to understand what motivated these online volunteers and what is the influence of

  12. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot

  13. A case against justified non-voluntary active euthanasia (the Groningen Protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan; Glick, S; Gesundheit, B

    2008-11-01

    The Groningen Protocol allows active euthanasia of severely ill newborns with unbearable suffering. Defenders of the protocol insist that the protocol refers to terminally ill infants and that quality of life should not be a factor in the decision to euthanize an infant. They also argue that there should be no ethical difference between active and passive euthanasia of these infants. However, nowhere in the protocol does it refer to terminally ill infants; on the contrary, the developers of the protocol take into account the future quality of life of the infant. We also note how the Nazi Euthanasie Programm started with the premise that there is some life not worthy of living. Therefore, in our opinion, the protocol violates the traditional ethical codes of physicians and the moral values of the overwhelming majority of the citizens of the world.

  14. Activation of inflammatory signaling by lipopolysaccharide produces a prolonged increase of voluntary alcohol intake in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y.A.; Benavidez, J.M.; Geil, C.; Perra, S.; Morikawa, H.; Harris, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that mice with genetic predisposition for high alcohol consumption as well as human alcoholics show changes in brain expression of genes related to immune signaling. In addition, mutant mice lacking genes related to immune function show decreased alcohol consumption (Blednov et al., in press), suggesting that immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption. To test the possibility that activation of immune signaling will increase alcohol consumption, we treated mice with lipopolysaccaride (LPS; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and tested alcohol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. To take advantage of the long-lasting activation of brain immune signaling by LPS, we measured drinking beginning one week or one month after LPS treatment and continued the studies for several months. LPS produced persistent increases in alcohol consumption in C57/Bl6 J (B6) inbred mice, FVBxB6F1 and B6xNZBF1 hybrid mice, but not in FVB inbred mice. To determine if this effect of LPS is mediated through binding to TLR4, we tested mice lacking CD14, a key component of TLR4 signaling. These null mutants showed no increase of alcohol intake after treatment with LPS. LPS treatment decreased ethanol-conditioned taste aversion but did not alter ethanol-conditioned place preference (B6xNZBF1 mice). Electro-physiological studies of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area showed that pretreatment of mice with LPS decreased the neuronal firing rate. These results suggest that activation of immune signaling promotes alcohol consumption and alters certain aspects of alcohol reward/aversion. PMID:21266194

  15. Palliative options of last resort: a comparison of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, terminal sedation, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quill, T E; Lo, B; Brock, D W

    1997-12-17

    Palliative care is generally agreed to be the standard of care for the dying, but there remain some patients for whom intolerable suffering persists. In the face of ethical and legal controversy about the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia, voluntarily stopping eating and drinking and terminal sedation have been proposed as ethically superior responses of last resort that do not require changes in professional standards or the law. The clinical and ethical differences and similarities between these 4 practices are critically compared in light of the doctrine of double effect, the active/passive distinction, patient voluntariness, proportionality between risks and benefits, and the physician's potential conflict of duties. Terminal sedation and voluntarily stopping eating and drinking would allow clinicians to remain responsive to a wide range of patient suffering, but they are ethically and clinically more complex and closer to physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia than is ordinarily acknowledged. Safeguards are presented for any medical action that may hasten death, including determining that palliative care is ineffective, obtaining informed consent, ensuring diagnostic and prognostic clarity, obtaining an independent second opinion, and implementing reporting and monitoring processes. Explicit public policy about which of these practices are permissible would reassure the many patients who fear a bad death in their future and allow for a predictable response for the few whose suffering becomes intolerable in spite of optimal palliative care.

  16. Tuberculosis among drug users and homeless persons: impact of voluntary X-ray investigation on active case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, U; Bellinger, O K; Buettel, K-L; Gottschalk, R

    2012-08-01

    Illicit drug use and homelessness are major contributors to the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among inhabitants of major cities. The primary objective of this study was to establish a sustainable low-threshold chest X-ray screening programme for pulmonary TB among illicit drug users and homeless persons and to integrate this into the existing public health programme for active case finding. A secondary objective was to estimate the coverage of the programme, assess other risk factors and determine TB rates and treatment outcome in these two groups. Illicit drug users and homeless persons were asked to voluntarily participate in an X-ray screening programme. The coverage of the intervention, total number and characteristics of cases and the follow-up of treatment were assessed. A total of 4,529 chest radiographs were made from 3,477 persons, of whom 66% were homeless and 34% were illicit drug users, between May 2002 and April 2007. Coverage for screening once every 2 years ranged between 18 and 26%. Thirty-nine TB cases (14 drug users, 25 homeless persons) were identified, representing 8.7% of the total case load of 448 notified cases of pulmonary TB in Frankfurt during this period. Among the drug users, human immunodeficiency virus coinfection (10/14) seemed to play a key role in the development of TB. The case-finding rate of 861/100,000 radiographs (1,122/100,000 persons) is as high as that in routine contact investigations (1,078/100,000). Among all individuals with TB, 76% completed treatment. A novel targeted TB screening approach with voluntary radiographic examination of illicit drug users and homeless persons can be integrated into the existing public TB prevention programme and provides a high case-finding rate.

  17. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J A M; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often without appropriate control groups. We measured a broad array of neuromuscular functions between legs of ACL patients and compared outcomes to age, sex, and physical activity matched controls. Thirty-two ACL-deficient patients (208 ± 145 days post-injury) and active and less-active controls (N = 20 each) participated in the study. We measured single- and multi-joint neuromuscular function in both legs in each group and expressed the overall neuromuscular function in each leg by calculating a mean z-score across all neuromuscular measures. A group by leg MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to examine group and leg differences for the selected outcomes. After an ACL injury, duration (-4.3 h/week) and level (Tegner activity score of -3.9) of sports activity decreased and was comparable to less-active controls. ACL patients showed bilateral impairments in the star excursion balance test compared to both control groups (P ≤ 0.004) and for central activation ratio compared to active controls (P ≤ 0.002). There were between-leg differences within each group for maximal quadriceps and hamstring strength, voluntary quadriceps activation, star excursion balance test performance, and single-leg hop distance (all P joint proprioception, and static balance. Overall neuromuscular function (mean z-score) did not differ between groups, but ACL patients' non-injured leg displayed better neuromuscular function than the injured leg (P neuromuscular deficits despite reductions in physical activity after injury. Therapists can use the non-injured leg as a reference to assess the injured leg's function for tasks measured in the present study, excluding dynamic balance and quadriceps

  18. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. The Effects of the Preconception Endurance Exercise Training and Voluntary Exercise Activity during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice on Lipid Profile of the Adult Offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gaeini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preconception endurance exercise training with voluntary exercise activity during pregnancy in mother mice on lipid profile in adult offsprings. Materials and Methods: Twenty four C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into four subgroups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE(20.3±1.02g; trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC(21.58±0.4g; untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE(21.02±0.23g; untrained and unexercised (CC(19.23±0.45g. Trained mice were subjected to a protocol of moderate endurance exercise training over a period of 4 weeks for 5 days before pregnancy. The fasting blood samples were collected from adult mice(8 weeks old and serum levels of glucose and lipid profile were measured. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The Glucose test results in offspring showed that there was a significant interaction between group and sex and group main effect (p<0.001 Glucose levels of male offspring were significantly lower in TC and TE groups. Results on LDL also showed that the sex main effect was significant (p<0.001, and LDL levels of male born to TE and TC dams lower than in female offspring. Conclusion: Improving the mother's physical fitness by providing regular endurance training in the preconception period and maintaining it by exercise activty throughout pregnancy may have potential for eliciting positive changes in lipid profile of offspring, specially males.

  20. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  1. Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  3. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  4. Voluntary work, a diversity of forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Joep de Hart

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Vrijwilligerswerk in meervoud. By international standards, the level of participation in voluntary work in the Netherlands is high, and the signs are that this will continue. On the other hand, the type of voluntary work and the groups in which it is concentrated are changing.

  5. Maximal Voluntary Activation of the Elbow Flexors Is under Predicted by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Compared to Motor Point Stimulation Prior to and Following Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. J. Cadigan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic (TMS and motor point stimulation have been used to determine voluntary activation (VA. However, very few studies have directly compared the two stimulation techniques for assessing VA of the elbow flexors. The purpose of this study was to compare TMS and motor point stimulation for assessing VA in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Participants performed a fatigue protocol that included twelve, 15 s isometric elbow flexor contractions. Participants completed a set of isometric elbow flexion contractions at 100, 75, 50, and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC prior to and following fatigue contractions 3, 6, 9, and 12 and 5 and 10 min post-fatigue. Force and EMG of the bicep and triceps brachii were measured for each contraction. Force responses to TMS and motor point stimulation and EMG responses to TMS (motor evoked potentials, MEPs and Erb's point stimulation (maximal M-waves, Mmax were also recorded. VA was estimated using the equation: VA% = (1−SITforce/PTforce × 100. The resting twitch was measured directly for motor point stimulation and estimated for both motor point stimulation and TMS by extrapolation of the linear regression between the superimposed twitch force and voluntary force. MVC force, potentiated twitch force and VA significantly (p < 0.05 decreased throughout the elbow flexor fatigue protocol and partially recovered 10 min post fatigue. VA was significantly (p < 0.05 underestimated when using TMS compared to motor point stimulation in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Motor point stimulation compared to TMS superimposed twitch forces were significantly (p < 0.05 higher at 50% MVC but similar at 75 and 100% MVC. The linear relationship between TMS superimposed twitch force and voluntary force significantly (p < 0.05 decreased with fatigue. There was no change in triceps/biceps electromyography, biceps/triceps MEP amplitudes, or bicep MEP amplitudes throughout the fatigue protocol at

  6. ENHANCING VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE BY REDUCING COMPLIANCE COSTS: A TAXPAYER SERVICE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; EDWIN FORLEMU

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an overview is made of the determinants of voluntary tax compliance. Unlike previous treatments of this subject, the cost of taxpayer compliance is considered as an important determinant of overall level of voluntary compliance in a country. A number of ways that tax authorities reduce compliance are discussed, and the most common uses of information technology in providing taxpayer service is described. Finally, the paper considers some of the ways that such activities might be...

  7. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  8. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  9. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  10. Activity Level Change Detection for Persistent Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, F; Bush, L. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Instead of traditional target tracking, this approach utilizes GMTI data as moving spots on the ground to estimate the level of activities and detect unusual activities such as military deployments...

  11. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.

  12. Exploring the beliefs underlying attitudes to active voluntary euthanasia in a sample of Australian medical practitioners and nurses: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Wise, Susi E; Young, Ross McD; Hyde, Melissa K

    A qualitative study explored beliefs about active voluntary euthanasia (AVE) in a sample (N = 18) of medical practitioners and nurses from Australia, where AVE is not currently legal. Four behaviors relating to AVE emerged during the interviews: requesting euthanasia for oneself, legalizing AVE, administering AVE to patients if it were legalized, and discussing AVE with patients if they request it. Using thematic analysis, interviews were analyzed for beliefs related to advantages and disadvantages of performing these AVE behaviors. Medical practitioners and nurses identified a number of similar benefits for performing the AVE-related behaviors, both for themselves personally and as health professionals. Benefits also included a consideration of the positive impact for patients, their families, and the health care system. Disadvantages across behaviors focused on the potential conflict between those parties involved in the decision making process, as well as conflict between one's own personal and professional values.

  13. Chronic voluntary oral methamphetamine induces deficits in spatial learning and hippocampal protein kinase Mzeta with enhanced astrogliosis and cyclooxygenase-2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Avila

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA. This VOMA model is useful for determining the lower limits necessary to produce neurotoxicity in the short-term and long-term as it progresses over time. We show that mice consumed on average 1.743 mg/kg bw/hour during 3 hours, and an average of 5.23 mg/kg bw/day over 28 consecutive days on a VOMA schedule. Since this consumption rate is much lower than the neurotoxic doses typically injected, we assessed the effects of long-term chronic VOMA on both spatial memory performance and on the levels of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. Following 28 days of VOMA, mice exhibited a significant deficit in short-term spatial working memory and spatial reference learning on the radial 8-arm maze (RAM compared to controls. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in memory markers protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ, calcium impermeable AMPA receptor subunit GluA2, and the post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95 protein in the hippocampus. Compared to controls, the VOMA paradigm also induced decreases in hippocampal levels of dopamine transporter (DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, as well as increases in dopamine 1 receptor (D1R, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, with a decrease in prostaglandins E2 (PGE2 and D2 (PGD2. These results demonstrate that chronic VOMA reaching 146 mg/kg bw/28d induces significant hippocampal neurotoxicity. Future studies will evaluate

  14. The quality of voluntary medical male circumcision done by mid-level workers in Tshwane District, South Africa: A retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanele Ngcobo

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in heterosexual men by up to 60%. One HIV infection is averted for every 5 to 15 VMMCs. To conduct VMMCs in large populations, large numbers of trained healthcare professionals are needed. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have a high burden of HIV and a shortage of healthcare professionals, creating a healthcare conundrum. To bridge this gap, South Africa launched a new cadre of mid-level medical worker called Clinical Associates (CA. We assessed the ability of CAs to perform circumcisions of adequate quality and their subsequent usefulness to meet the demands of VMMCs in a population with a high HIV burden.We conducted a retrospective analysis, reviewing patient files (n = 4850 of surgical VMMCs conducted over a 16-month period. Patient files were sourced from clinics and hospitals that provided free VMMCs in Tshwane district in South Africa.Clinical associates performed 88.66% of the circumcisions and doctors performed the remaining 11.34% (p < 0.001. The number of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. Data on intra-operative adverse events were available for 4 738 patients. Of these, 341 (7.2% experienced intra-operative adverse events. For the whole sample, 44 (8.1%, n = 543 adverse events occurred during circumcisions done by doctors and 297 (7.1%, n = 4195 occurred during circumcisions done by CAs (p = 0.385. Clinical associates performed circumcisions in shorter times (duration: 14.63 minutes compared to doctors (duration: 15.25 minutes, t = -7.46; p < 0.001. Recorded pain, bleeding, swelling, infection and wound destruction did not differ between clients circumcised by CAs and doctors. This study is limited by the use of data from a single district.Clinical associates contribute to the demands for high numbers of VMMCs in Tshwane district, South Africa. Clinical associates perform VMMCs at a clinical standard that is

  15. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  16. StranshamFord v Minister of Justice and Correctional Services and Others: Can active voluntary euthanasia and doctorassisted suicide be legally justified and are they consistent with the biomedical ethical principles Some suggested guidelines for doct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McQuoid-Mason

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent case of Stransham-Ford v Minister of Justice and Correctional Services and Others held that voluntary active euthanasia and doctor assisted suicide may be legally justified in certain circumstances. The court observed that the distinction between ‘active’ and ‘passive’ voluntary euthanasia is not legally tenable as in both instances the doctors concerned have the ‘actual’ or ‘eventual’ intention to terminate the patient’s life and have caused or hastened the patient’s death. It is argued that as the South African Constitution is the supreme law of the country, the fundamental rights of patients guaranteed in the Constitution cannot be undermined by ethical duties imposed on health care practitioners by international and national professional bodies. The court in the Stransham-Ford case did not use ethical theories and principles to decide the matter. It simply applied the values in the Constitution and the provisions of the Bill of Rights. However, in order to assist medical practitioners with practical guidelines with which many of them are familiar - rather than complicated unfamiliar philosophical arguments - the biomedical ethical principles of patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice or fairness are applied to active voluntary euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide in the context of the Stransham-Ford case. Although the case has not set a precedent or opened the floodgates to doctor-assisted voluntary active euthanasia and it is open to Parliament, the Constitutional Court or other courts to develop the concept or outlaw it, some guidelines are offered for doctors to consider should they be authorized by a court to assist with voluntary active euthanasia.

  17. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  18. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice.

  19. KEBERADAAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN KONDISI FINANCIAL DISTRESSED TERHADAP VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesanti Edie Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm’s operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997.Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdisclosure. This research used a sample of manufacture fi rms listed in Indonesian stockexchange. Based on data processing using sample above, we found that corporate governance andfi nancial distress could be associated with the voluntary disclosure level.

  20. Intensive voluntary wheel running may restore circadian activity rhythms and improves the impaired cognitive performance of arrhythmic Djungarian hamsters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinert, D.; Schöttner, Konrad; Müller, L.; Wienke, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 9 (2016), s. 1161-1170 ISSN 0742-0528 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Djungarian hamster * circadian rhythm * arrhythmic activity pattern Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2016

  1. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  2. Keberadaan Corporate Governance Dan Kondisi Financial Distressed Terhadap Voluntary Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Riesanti Edie

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm's operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997).Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdi...

  3. Voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among high school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-09-24

    Sep 24, 2012 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Voluntary .... cigarettes, alcohol or going to night clubs before their majority and these activities are associated with sexual activity. ... Ngwakongnwi E, Quan H. Sex differentials in the use of centres for voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Cameroon. Afr J AIDS ...

  4. Voluntary Becomes Mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, William

    Voluntary bench-bar press guidelines have evolved over the past 15 years as a way of resolving the conflict between the right of the accused to a fair trial and the right of the press to cover such a trial. In 1980, however, a Washington state judge required reporters to sign an affidavit stating that they would follow the state's guidelines.…

  5. Effects of Acupuncture Therapy on the EMG Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior during Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se In Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been increasingly used in the treatment of muscle damage associated with sports activities. However, studies on the immediate effects of one-time acupuncture on the muscles of athletes are clearly lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effects of acupuncture therapy on the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC electromyography (EMG of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. This study was conducted among 20 healthy male college students who had no musculoskeletal disease. The participants were subjected to 3 different experimental conditions and subsequently grouped based on these conditions: real acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and control. A 7-day washout period was implemented to avoid any transient effects on the physiological and psychological conditions of the participants. Subsequently, an electromyogram patch was attached on the most developed area in the middle of the origin and insertion of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. The percent MVIC, which was used to standardize the signal from the electromyogram, was determined, and the maximal value from the MVIC of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles was measured. The MVIC EMG activities of both femoris (F = 6.633, p = 0.003 and tibialis anterior (F = 5.216, p = 0.008 muscles were significantly different among all groups. Accordingly, the results of a posthoc test showed that the real acupuncture group had higher MVIC EMG activities in the femoris (p = 0.002 and tibialis anterior (p = 0.006 muscles compared with the control group. These results suggest that treatment with real acupuncture resulted in significantly higher MVIC EMG activities of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles than the other treatments. Hence, acupuncture may be helpful in the improvement of muscle strength among athletes in the physical fitness field.

  6. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  7. Physical activity level among undergraduate students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity level among undergraduate students in Terengganu, Malaysia using pedometer. N.A.M. Yusoff, S Ganeson, K.F. Ismail, H Juahir, M.R. Shahril, L.P. Lin, A Ahmad, S.W. Wafa, S Harith, R Rajikan ...

  8. Intermittent Theta Burst Over M1 May Increase Peak Power of a Wingate Anaerobic Test and Prevent the Reduction of Voluntary Activation Measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Thumm, Patrick; Bertschinger, Raphael; Gruber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesized that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS) treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment. Ten subjects participated in two randomized experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 min after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA) of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS) and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a two way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioral changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index) were observed. These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task.

  9. Influence of sustained submaximal clenching fatigue test on electromyographic activity and maximum voluntary bite forces in healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Fan, S; Cai, B; Fang, Z; Jiang, X

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the fatigue induced by sustained motor task in the jaw elevator muscles differed between healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifteen patients with TMD and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed a fatigue test consisting of sustained clenching contractions at 30% maximal voluntary clenching intensity until test failure (the criterion for terminating the fatigue test was when the biting force decreased by 10% or more from the target force consecutively for >3 s). The pre- and post-maximal bite forces (MBFs) were measured. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the superficial masseter muscles and anterior temporal muscles bilaterally, and the median frequency at the beginning, middle and end of the fatigue test was calculated. The duration of the fatigue test was also quantified. Both pre- and post-MBFs were lower in patients with TMD than in controls (P fatigue test in TMD patients was significantly shorter than that of the controls (P fatigued, but the electromyographic activation process during the fatigue test is similar between healthy subjects and patients with TMD. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear, and further research is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intermittent theta burst over M1 may increase peak power of a Wingate anaerobic test and prevent the reduction of voluntary activation measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Solal Giboin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesised that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment.Ten subjects participated in two randomised experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 minutes after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a 2 way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioural changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index were observed.These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task.

  11. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  13. Effects of weight loss with a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on body composition, voluntary physical activity, and fecal microbiota of obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotto, Marissa R; de Godoy, Maria R C; Holscher, Hannah D; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.

  14. Activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century (according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyga, N. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered the activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory. This enterprise clearly shows peculiarities of social activity of citizens under the leadership of the Communist Party, which considered labor collective as a main link of communist self government. In Ukrainian and foreign historiography this problem is almost unconsidered. Source base is represented by the fund of State archive of Dnipropetrovsk region, acts of the CC KPSU (Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and puplications of local press. In the article made an attempt to show the process of functioning of voluntary public squads on the example of Dnipropetrovsk radio factory and show the results in field of crime prevention.

  15. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  16. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  17. Delivery mechanisms: voluntary vs command and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program was debated. The generally accepted view is that the voluntary program to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000 has failed. However, the author suggested that the issues and processes are complicated and that we should not give up too soon. Time is needed to refine the market instruments that we are dealing with. Also, there are substantial economic barriers to fully meet target figures, among them the fact that municipalities, universities, social services and health care industries are chronically capital rationed and don't have the money to respond to the VCR program. Other sectors of the economy capitalized and regulated by government, have not seen much success in the VCR program either. The central argument is that while voluntary programs are probably not the answer, binding agreements or government-run schemes are even less likely to succeed

  18. Voluntariness of consent to HIV clinical research: A conceptual and empirical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Obtaining voluntary informed consent for research participation is an ethical imperative, yet there appears to be little consensus regarding what constitutes a voluntary consent decision. An instrument to assess influences on participants' consent decision and perceived voluntariness was developed and piloted in two South African HIV clinical trials. The pilot study found high levels of perceived voluntariness. The feeling of having no choice but to participate was significantly associated with lower perceived voluntariness. Overall the data suggest that it is possible to obtain voluntary and valid consent for research participants in ethically complex HIV clinical trials in a developing country context.

  19. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... measures so that Contingency planning information can be shared with Participants to enable them to plan... Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) Table of Contents Abbreviations Definitions Preface I. Purpose II... of VISA Contingency Provisions A. General B. Notification of Activation C. Voluntary Capacity D...

  20. Disincentives to voluntary transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations

  1. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  2. The value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecchia...... 1983). Our results indicate that more voluntary disclosure does not improve the association between current returns and future earnings; i.e. current returns do not reflect more future earnings news. This finding raises the question whether voluntary information in the annual report contains value...... relevant information about future earnings or if investors are simply not capable of incorporating voluntary information in the firm value estimates. Key words: Disclosure, future earnings, informativeness...

  3. VOLUNTARY NOISE MAPPING FOR SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Poslončec-Petrić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the

  4. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  5. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  6. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  7. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  8. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  9. PSA Level 2 activities for RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, R.

    1998-01-01

    Probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) of the boiling water graphite moderated pressure tube reactors (RBMKs) have been developed only recently and they are limited to Level 1. Activities at the IAEA were first motivated because of the difficulties to characterize core damage for RBMK reactors. Core damage probability is used in documents of the IAEA as a convenient single valued measure, for example for probabilistic safety criteria. The limited number of PSAs that have been completed for the RBMK reactors have shown that several special features of these channel type reactors necessitate revisiting of the characterization of core damage for these reactors. Furthermore, it has become increasingly evident that detailed deterministic analysis of DBAs and beyond design basis accidents reveal considerable insights into RBMK response to various accident conditions. These analyses can also help in better characterizing the outstanding phenomenological uncertainties, improved EOPs and AM strategies, including potential risk-beneficial accident negative backfits. The deterministic efforts should be focused first on elucidating accident progression processes and phenomena, and second on finding, qualifying and implementing procedures to minimize the risk of severe accident states The IAEA PSA procedures were mainly developed in New of vessel type LWRs, and would therefore require extensions to make them directly applicable. to channel type reactors. (author) (author)

  10. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 counts in an ... per month) and functional independence as assessed from the responses to the ... and between CD4 cell counts and total habitual physical activity levels (p ...

  12. Quantifying levels of animal activity using camera trap data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowcliffe, J.M.; Kays, R.; Kranstauber, B.; Carbone, C.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    1.Activity level (the proportion of time that animals spend active) is a behavioural and ecological metric that can provide an indicator of energetics, foraging effort and exposure to risk. However, activity level is poorly known for free-living animals because it is difficult to quantify activity

  13. [Intersectoral experience to bridge the gap between human resources in public health and the technical-operational level for Peruvian Voluntary Military Service members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaní-Romaní, Franco; Curisinche-Rojas, Maricela; Arteaga, Norka Rojas; Lopez, Pedro Riega; Cabezas, César

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap between human resources and technical-operational education that limits the Peruvian health system's ability to implement public health interventions. The Peruvian Ministry of Health, through the National Health Institute and the Ministry of Defense, implemented a Public Health Training Program addressed to young full-time military servicemen, on the basis of the competency profile of a public health technician. The program consists of seven thematic units given in 390 hours, 200 of which correspond to classroom and field practices. Between July 2014 and December 2015, the program has been carried out in 10 venues of the three armed forces, training and certifying 405 young servicemen. The intervention provides the military service with an additional educational benefit, making it more appealing as a chance for development and opens up a line of work in the public health sector for young people in more remote areas. This experience seeks to increase public health-trained human resources to a technical-operational level. In collaboration with regional governments, graduates are expected to be welcomed and included in the public health system.

  14. The Greenlandic sea areas and activity level up to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; í Dali, Birita

    2016-01-01

    , petroleum activity, tourism and research/government activity. The last chapter is devoted to summarizing findings about the current developed activity level in the High North sea and coastal regions and the estimated activity level up to 2025. Possible implications for the preparedness system in the High....... It includes an overview of types of vessels and other objects involved in different activities, and the volume of traffic connected to different types of activities, such as fisheries, petroleum, tourism, navy and research. Furthermore, this report estimates the maritime activity level in the area the next...

  15. Cardioprotective Effects of Voluntary Exercise in a Rat Model: Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular exercise at moderate intensity reduces cardiovascular risks. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play a major role in cardiac remodeling, facilitating physiological adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of voluntary physical exercise on the MMP-2 enzyme activity and to investigate the cardiac performance by measurement of angina susceptibility of the heart, the basal blood pressure, the surviving aorta ring contraction, and the cardiac infarct size after I/R-induced injury. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into control and exercising groups. After a 6-week period, the serum level of MMP-2, basal blood pressure, cardiac angina susceptibility (the ST segment depression provoked by epinephrine and 30 s later phentolamine, AVP-induced heart perfusion and aorta ring contraction, infarct size following 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, and coronary effluent MMP-2 activity were measured. Results. Voluntary wheel-running exercise decreased both the sera (64 kDa and 72 kDa and the coronary effluent (64 kDa MMP-2 level, reduced the development of ST depression, improved the isolated heart perfusion, and decreased the ratio of infarct size. Conclusion. 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training preserved the heart against cardiac injury. This protective mechanism might be associated with the decreased activity of MMP-2.

  16. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...

  17. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  18. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  19. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  20. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  2. Voluntary CSR vs. mandatory CSR : the sound of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sarna, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) laws are an area of exploration and there is debate over preference to voluntary CSR laws or to mandatory CSR laws. The objective is to con-duct a micro-level study to explore the employee’s preferences for mandatory CSR laws or voluntary CSR laws. There is some existing literature on this topic at the macro-level and goal is to extend and contribute to the literature about this topic by studying the pref-erence at the micro-level. A qualitative study bas...

  3. Attainable and Relevant Moral Exemplars Are More Effective than Extraordinary Exemplars in Promoting Voluntary Service Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Kim, Jeongmin; Jeong, Changwoo; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop effective moral educational interventions based on social psychology by using stories of moral exemplars. We tested whether motivation to engage in voluntary service as a form of moral behavior was better promoted by attainable and relevant exemplars or by unattainable and irrelevant exemplars. First, experiment 1, conducted in a lab, showed that stories of attainable exemplars more effectively promoted voluntary service activity engagement among undergraduate students compared with stories of unattainable exemplars and non-moral stories. Second, experiment 2, a middle school classroom-level experiment with a quasi-experimental design, demonstrated that peer exemplars, who are perceived to be attainable and relevant to students, better promoted service engagement compared with historic figures in moral education classes.

  4. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  5. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  6. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity.[1] However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...

  7. 75 FR 75471 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of..., LLC of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement... or component organizations whose mission and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve...

  8. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The perceived constraints, motivation, and physical activity levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was threefold; Are Korean youth physically active to promote health during leisure time? What constraints to physical active do youth experience during leisure time? Are there relationships among constraints, motivation, and physical activity level? Of 1 280 youth randomly selected by a ...

  10. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  11. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  12. Nanotechnology, voluntary oversight, and corporate social performance: does company size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we examine voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology in the context of corporate social performance (CSP) in order to better understand the drivers, barriers, and forms of company participation in such programs. At the theoretical level, we use the management framework of CSP to understand the voluntary behavior of companies. At the empirical level, we investigate nanotech industry participation in the Environmental Protection Agency's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP) as an example of CSP, in order to examine the effects of company characteristics on CSP outcomes. The analysis demonstrates that, on the average, older and larger companies for which nanotech is one of the many business activities demonstrate greater CSP as judged by company actions, declarations, and self-evaluations. Such companies tended to submit more of the requested information to the NMSP, including specific information about health and safety, and to claim fewer of the submitted items as confidential business information. They were also more likely to have on-line statements of generic and nano-specific corporate social responsibility principles, policies, and achievements. The article suggests a need to encourage smaller and younger companies to participate in voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology and presents options for better design of these programs.

  13. Nanotechnology, voluntary oversight, and corporate social performance: does company size matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzma, Jennifer; Kuzhabekova, Aliya

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology in the context of corporate social performance (CSP) in order to better understand the drivers, barriers, and forms of company participation in such programs. At the theoretical level, we use the management framework of CSP to understand the voluntary behavior of companies. At the empirical level, we investigate nanotech industry participation in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program (NMSP) as an example of CSP, in order to examine the effects of company characteristics on CSP outcomes. The analysis demonstrates that, on the average, older and larger companies for which nanotech is one of the many business activities demonstrate greater CSP as judged by company actions, declarations, and self-evaluations. Such companies tended to submit more of the requested information to the NMSP, including specific information about health and safety, and to claim fewer of the submitted items as confidential business information. They were also more likely to have on-line statements of generic and nano-specific corporate social responsibility principles, policies, and achievements. The article suggests a need to encourage smaller and younger companies to participate in voluntary oversight programs for nanotechnology and presents options for better design of these programs.

  14. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  15. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...... D levels (51nmol/l) than patients who did not smoke (76nmol/l), plevels. CONCLUSIONS: Active Crohn's disease was associated with low serum 25-OH vitamin D. Patients who smoked had lower 25-OH...

  16. The impact of pregnancy on physical activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Deshayne B; Joseph, K S; Armson, B Anthony; Dodds, Linda

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare women's levels of physical activity during early pregnancy and during the year before pregnancy, and to identify characteristics associated with discontinuing sports and exercise among women previously active during the year before pregnancy. Data collected from 1,737 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study and who had no contraindications for exercise were included in this analysis. Measures of physical activity (including household and care-giving activities, active living and sports and exercise activities) during early pregnancy were compared to the year before pregnancy. Log binomial regression was used to identify factors associated with discontinuing sports and exercise during pregnancy. There was a statistically significant decrease in all summary measures of physical activity during early pregnancy. The largest decreases were observed in sports and exercise activity. Among women active before pregnancy, age pregnancy body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m(2) and lower levels of pre-pregnancy exercise were associated with discontinuing sports and exercise activities during pregnancy. Most women reduced their physical activity level during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy compared with their level of activity during the year prior to pregnancy, particularly for sports and exercise, although a small proportion of women in this study actually increased their activity in this area during early pregnancy. Participation in sports and exercise activity during pregnancy is potentially modifiable and could favorably impact perinatal health and maternal post-partum weight. The results of this study suggests that pregnancy is an event that leads to a decrease in physical activity.

  17. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  18. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  19. Voluntary wheel running delays disease onset and reduces pain hypersensitivity in early experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Curtis; Paylor, John W; Tenorio, Gustavo; Winship, Ian; Baker, Glen; Kerr, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is classically defined by motor deficits, but it is also associated with the secondary symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Up to this point modifying these secondary symptoms has been difficult. There is evidence that both MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, can be modulated by exercise. To examine whether limited voluntary wheel running could modulate EAE disease progression and the co-morbid symptoms of pain, mice with EAE were allowed access to running wheels for 1h every day. Allowing only 1h every day of voluntary running led to a significant delay in the onset of clinical signs of the disease. The development of mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey hairs and indicated that wheel running had a modest positive effect on the pain hypersensitivity associated with EAE. These behavioral changes were associated with reduced numbers of cFOS and phosphorylated NR1 positive cells in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord compared to no-run EAE controls. In addition, within the dorsal horn, voluntary wheel running reduced the number of infiltrating CD3(+) T-cells and reduced the overall levels of Iba1 immunoreactivity. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we observed that wheel-running lead to significant changes in the spinal cord levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Oxidative stress has separately been shown to contribute to EAE disease progression and neuropathic pain. Together these results indicate that in mice with EAE, voluntary motor activity can delay the onset of clinical signs and reduce pain symptoms associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jihyeung; Nolan, Bonnie; Cheh, Michelle; Bose, Mousumi; Lin, Yong; Wagner, George C; Yang, Chung S

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, Apc Min/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female Apc Min/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. In the Apc Min/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In Apc Min/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E 2 and nuclear β-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant β-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism

  1. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  2. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  3. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  4. Protein C activity and antigen levels in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Teunenbroek, A.; Peters, M.; Sturk, A.; Borm, J. J.; Breederveld, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hereditary protein C deficiency is an important risk factor for thrombosis. To enable its diagnosis shortly after birth, we determined reference values of protein C antigen and activity levels for the first 3 months of life. To establish an age-related range of protein C levels we also determined

  5. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  6. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  7. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  8. High Levels of Phytophenolics and Antioxidant Activities in Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate phenolic levels, phytophenolic profiles and total antioxidant activities of Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice. Methods: Unpolished Thai rice strains of Leum Phua, Klam, Hawm Nil and Black Rose were measured for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ...

  9. Serum paraoxonase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate serum PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels in adult football players after three days ... oxidative stress after three days football tournament. In addition, physical activity for a ... polymorphism, gender, and exercise. Furthermore, it has been ...

  10. Enrollment in mental health courts: voluntariness, knowingness, and adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Hoover, Steven; Summers, Alicia; Steadman, Henry J

    2010-04-01

    Mental health courts (MHCs) are rapidly expanding as a form of diversion from jails and prisons for persons with mental illness charged with crimes. Although intended to be voluntary, little is known about this aspect of the courts. We examined perceptions of voluntariness, and levels of knowingness and legal competence among 200 newly enrolled clients of MHCs at two courts. Although most clients claimed to have chosen to enroll, at the same time, most claimed not to have been told the court was voluntary or told of the requirements prior to entering. The majority knew the "basics" of the courts, but fewer knew more nuanced information. A minority also were found to have impairments in legal competence. Implications are discussed.

  11. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...... the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...

  12. The Barriers for Voluntary Environmental Management Systems—The Case of EMAS in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Seifert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of formal environmental management systems (EMS according to EMAS (Eco-Management and Audit Scheme represents a voluntary approach that aims to increase corporate environmental performance. Though EMAS can offer several advantages for organizations, registration numbers are falling. In the hospital sector, the dissemination of EMAS is low. The question arises as to what hinders hospitals when planning, implementing, and maintaining such voluntary environmental management initiatives. The results from interviews with environmental managers in EMAS registered hospitals reveal problems such as high initial effort for creation of the required documents, or lacking knowledge and staff awareness. The barriers are presented in a model synthesizing the problems chronologically on the organizational, group, and individual level. The challenges for the adoption of EMAS as a voluntary environmental management approach in hospitals are discussed. This paper contributes by creating an understanding of the barriers organizations might face when implementing an EMS. Thus, measures to actively manage and overcome barriers can be developed by organizations, consultants, reviewers, policy makers, and researchers.

  13. Announcement, observation and honesty in the voluntary contributions game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denant-Boemont, L.; Masclet, D.; Noussair, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of pre-play announcements and ex-post observation of decisions on voluntary public good provision. We find that requiring announcements, in conjunction with making contribution decisions public, has a significantly positive effect on the average level of

  14. 75 FR 57477 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Creighton Center for Health Services Research and Patient Safety (CHRP) Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  15. 75 FR 75473 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... entity of Harbor Medical, Inc., of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  16. 75 FR 57281 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Organizations: Voluntary delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS ACTION: Notice... Patient Safety Corporation of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  17. 75 FR 75472 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of.... Patient Safety Group (A Component of Helmet Fire, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  18. 75 FR 57048 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  19. Early Experiences Implementing Voluntary School District Mergers in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John D.; Glesner, Talia J.; Meyers, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of an initiative to encourage voluntary school district mergers in Vermont. The law was intended to increase educational opportunities for Vermont students while reducing costs. Three research activities were conducted to understand how districts and supervisory unions around the state responded to the new…

  20. Voluntary sport clubs and the social policy agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Magda; Slender, Hans; Wiggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Local governments, traditionally an important partner of voluntary sport clubs in the Netherlands, are increasingly influencing clubs into involvement in social projects and activities. Although it is not clear what contribution sports clubs can play in this social policy agenda, or whether this

  1. Development and Operation of a Voluntary Audit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jerome R.

    This report describes a voluntary audit program implemented by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The comprehensive audit program was developed to assure that all corporate programs adhere to the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness. The standards address issues which relate to all ETS activities such as accountability, confidentiality of…

  2. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  3. Correlation of Level of Trauma Activation With Emergency Department Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael C; Srivastava, Geetanjali

    2018-06-01

    In-hospital trauma team activation criteria are formulated to identify severely injured patients requiring specialized multidisciplinary care. Efficacy of trauma activation (TA) criteria is commonly measured by emergency department (ED) disposition, injury severity score, and mortality. Necessity of critical ED interventions is another measure that has been proposed to evaluate the appropriateness of TA criteria. Two-year retrospective cohort study of 1715 patients from our trauma registry at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center. We abstracted data on acute interventions, level and criterion of TA, ED disposition, and mortality. We report odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value, and frequency of acute interventions. Trauma activation was initiated for 947 (55%) of the 1715 patients. There were 426 ED interventions performed on 235 patients (14%); 67.8% were in level 1 activations; 17.6% in level 2, and 14.6% in level 3. Highest-level activations were highly associated with need for ED interventions (OR, 16.1; 95% CI, 11.5-22.4). The ORs for requiring an ED intervention were low for lower level activations (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5), trauma service consults (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), and certain mechanism-based criteria. The ORs for ED intervention for isolated motor vehicle collision (0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), isolated all-terrain vehicle rollover (0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.7), and suspected spinal cord injury (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-3.7) were significantly lower than 1. Highest-level activation criteria correlate with high utilization of ED resources and interventions. Lower level activation criteria and trauma service consult criteria are not highly correlated with need for ED interventions. Downgrading isolated motor vehicle collision and all-terrain vehicle rollovers and suspected spinal cord injury to lower level activations could decrease the overtriage rate, and adding age-specific bradycardia as a physiologic criterion could improve our

  4. Some research findings of motivation to volunteer activity in female students of helping professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Mlčák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the structure and intensity of the motives leading students of helping professions to undertake voluntary work, and to assess whether their motivation to carry out voluntary activities can be predicted on the basis of their levels of emotional and cognitive empathy.

  5. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Corporate governance, cultural factors and voluntary disclosure: Evidence from selected companies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtaruddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test empirically the relationship between corporate governance, cultural factors and voluntary disclosure by the listed companies in Bangladesh. The corporate governance factors examined are proportion of independent non-executive directors (INDs, board leadership structure, management ownership, board size and audit committee size. The extent of voluntary disclosure level is measured using 68 items of information. Data are taken from annual reports of the listed companies in Bangladesh. The result shows a positive association between board size, board leadership structure, audit committee size and voluntary disclosure. However, no evidence is found to support the contention that independent directors are associated with increased disclosure, consistent with previous studies. Higher education of the CEO and CFO is positively related to the level of voluntary disclosure. The result also indicates that the extent of voluntary disclosures is negatively associated with a higher management ownership.

  7. Prediction of BMI by impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaxia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.

  8. Systemic lupus erythematosus activity and beta two microglobulin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a cyclical clinical course. Evaluation of the clinical activity of this disease is important for choosing the correct treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M serum levels in determining SLE clinical activity.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a private university hospital.METHODS: 129 SLE patients were studied regarding disease activity using SLEDAI (SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage using SLICC ACR (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. At the same time, the β2M serum level, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA (anti-double-stranded DNA and C3 and C4 complement fractions were determined.RESULTS: β2M levels correlated positively with SLEDAI (P = 0.02 and ESR (P = 0.0009 and negatively with C3 (P = 0.007. Patients who were positive for anti-dsDNA had higher β2M serum levels (P = 0.009.CONCLUSION: β2M levels are elevated in SLE patients with active disease.

  9. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  10. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  11. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  12. The cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain: an application of event-related fMRI study of the voluntary motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Enzhong; Tian Jie; Dai Ruwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain using event-related fMRI technique developed in recent years. Methods: Forty-four subjects were selected in this experiment and scanned by GE Signa Horizon 1.5 Tesla superconductive MR system. A CUE-GO paradigm was used in this experiment. The data were analyzed in SUN and SGI workstation. Results: The activation areas were found in contralateral primary motor area (Ml), bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMA), pre-motor areas (PMA), basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices. The time-signal curve of Ml was a typical single-peak curve, but the curves in PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were double-peak curves. SMA had 2 parts, one was Pre-SMA, and another was SMA Proper. The curve was double-peak type in Pre-SMA and single-peak type in SMA Proper. There was difference between the time-signal intensity curves in above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: (1) Ml is mainly associated with motor execution, while others with both motor preparation and execution. There are differences in the function at the variant areas in the brain. (2) The fact that bilateral SMA, PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were activated, is different from what the classical theories told. (3) Event-related fMRI technique has higher temporary and spatial resolutions. (4) There is cooperation among different cortical areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

  13. Methodology for classification of commercial edification and of service according to the regulation for voluntary tagging of the energy efficiency level of commercial, services and public buildings - economic evaluation of the simulated and classified models; Metodologia para classificacao de edificacao comercial e de servico conforme a regulamentacao para etiquetagem voluntaria do nivel de eficiencia energetica de edificios comerciais, de servicos e publicos - avaliacao economica dos modelos simulados e classificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Norma do Nascimento; Rovere, Emilio Lebre La [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: normabaptista@ppe.ufrj.br, e-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the methodology developed for determination of energy performance and the classification in accordance with the Regulation for the Voluntary Tagging of the Efficiency Level of commercial, services and public edifications. The methodology applies to commercial and service edification, specifically for offices and schools purposes.

  14. Play Equipment, Physical Activity Opportunities, and Children's Activity Levels at Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Gubbels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between physical activity facilities at childcare (e.g., play equipment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year olds. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among 175 children at 9 childcare centers in The Netherlands, using the OSRAC-P. The physical activity facilities were assessed for indoors and outdoors separately, using the EPAO instrument. Regular (single-level multivariate and multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of the facilities and child characteristics (age and sex with children's activity levels. Various physical activity facilities were available in all childcare centers (e.g., balls. Riding toys and a small playing area were associated with lower indoor physical activity levels. Outdoor physical activity levels were positively associated with the availability of portable jumping equipment and the presence of a structured track on the playground. Portable slides, fixed swinging equipment, and sandboxes were negatively associated with outdoor activity levels. In addition, the 3-year old children were more active outdoors than the 2-year olds. In conclusion, not all physical activity facilities at childcare were indeed positively associated with children's activity levels. The current findings provide concrete leads for childcare providers regarding which factors they can improve in the physical environment to facilitate children's physical activity.

  15. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdogan, M.; YiImaz, D.; Yontem, M.; Kalei, S.; Kilic, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p 0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p 0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  16. Mental health and physical activity levels of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The regular practice of physical activity is fundamental to the health of children, it has been cited as factor of protection for mental disorders in school age. Objective: To verify the relation between mental health and physical activity levels in schoolchildren of the city Jacobina, Bahia. Method: Sample composed of 55 students between the ages 08 to 10 and their parents, who participated as secondary informants in this study. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL was used for evaluation of mental health problems of the schoolchildren, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C, for evaluation of the physical activity levels of the subject, and a social-demographic questionnaire. Results: Most children were classified as sedentary (80% and only 7.3% of the sample showed positive for trace of mental disorder. No significant association was found between mental disorders and physical activity levels among the group, or between these variables and socio-demographic characteristics of children. It was observed that the girls were more sedentary than boys, with significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and the non-association with physical activity levels, special attention is necessary with this audience, aiming to strengthen physical activity as a protective factor for children’s mental health, with investments in actions aimed at the encouragement of regular practice of physical activity, combining family and school. Studies with a larger number of samples need to be conducted and its findings must be thoroughly analyzed.

  17. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  18. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Voluntary chemical castration of a mental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1988-06-04

    Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.

  20. Default activity patterns at the neocortical microcircuit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur eLuczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in absence of sensory stimuli cortical networks exhibit complex, self-organized activity patterns. While the function of those spontaneous patterns of activation remains poorly understood, recent studies both in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that neocortical neurons activate in a surprisingly similar sequential order both spontaneously and following input into cortex. For example, neurons that tend to fire earlier within spontaneous bursts of activity also fire earlier than other neurons in response to sensory stimuli. These 'default patterns' can last hundreds of milliseconds and are strongly conserved under a variety of conditions. In this paper we will review recent evidence for these default patterns at the local cortical level. We speculate that cortical architecture imposes common constraints on spontaneous and evoked activity flow, which result in the similarity of the patterns.

  1. Physical Activity Level and Adiposity: Are they Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on self-reported physical activity (PA) level in association with primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is not readily available on African populations, and there is a dearth of information on the association of adiposity with PD. This study explored the association of PA and adiposity indices with PD and associated menstrual ...

  2. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  3. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...

  4. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...

  5. Seasonal disease activity and serum vitamin D levels in rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that plays essential roles in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and mineralization homeostasis, also has a role in the maintenance of immune-homeostasis. Objective: We aimed to investigate seasonal serum vitamin D levels and seasonal disease activity in ...

  6. Physical activity, fitness level and health problems of healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of physical activity of healthcare workers using the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a framework and to identify barriers to exercise. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 200 randomly selected hospital staff members in South Africa. The weight and height of the ...

  7. 34 CFR 300.704 - State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mental health services for children with disabilities; (iv) To improve the use of technology in the... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-level activities. 300.704 Section 300.704 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  8. Self Reported Physical Activity Levels in Hypertensive Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was mainly described as brisk-walking 179(69.1%), jogging 27(10.4%), gymnasium workouts 13(5.1%), dancing 4(1.5), cycling 4(1.5%) and weight lifting ... There is need to engage hypertensive patients on the relevance of physical activity and encourage them to obtain the known benefits by optimizing their levels of ...

  9. Neural mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary recall: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicoline Marie; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2008-01-25

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval have primarily focused on volitional memory tasks. However, some conscious memories arise involuntarily, i.e. without a strategic retrieval attempt, yet little is known about the neural network underlying involuntary episodic memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether voluntary and involuntary recall are mediated by separate cortical networks. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy subjects during voluntary and involuntary cued recall of pictures and a control condition with no episodic memory requirements. Involuntary recall was elicited by using an incidental memory task. Compared to the control condition, voluntary and involuntary recall were both associated with significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases in posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG; BA 23), left precuneus (BA 7), and right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36). In addition, rCBF in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC; BA 8/9) and left precuneus (BA 7) was significantly larger during voluntary compared to involuntary recall, while rCBF was enhanced in left dorsolateral PFC (BA 9) during involuntary recall. The findings corroborate an association of the right PFC with a strategic component of episodic memory retrieval. Moreover, they show for the first time that it is possible to activate the medial temporal lobe, the PCG, and the precuneus, regions normally associated with retrieval success, without this strategic element. The relatively higher activity in precuneus during voluntary compared to involuntary recall suggests that activity in this region co-varies not only with retrieval success but also with retrieval intentionality.

  10. The voluntary safeguards offer of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    During negotiations of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concerns were expressed by non-nuclear-weapon States that their acceptance of Agency safeguards would put them at a disadvantage vis-a-vis the nuclear-weapon States. To allay these concerns, the United States and the United Kingdom in December 1967 made voluntary offers to accept Agency safeguards on their peaceful nuclear activities. Subsequently, France made a voluntary offer, the safeguards agreement for which was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in February 1978, with a view to encouraging acceptance of Agency safeguards by additional States. More recently, in February 1985 the Board approved the safeguards agreement for the voluntary offer of the USSR, made inter alia to encourage further acceptance of Agency safeguards. These safeguards agreements with nuclear-weapon-States have two important features in common: Namely, they result from voluntary offers to accept safeguards rather than from multilateral or bilateral undertakings, and they give the Agency the right but generally not an obligation to apply its safeguards. The agreements differ in certain respects, the most noteworthy of which is the scope of the nuclear activities covered by each offer. The agreements of the United States and United Kingdom are the broadest, covering all peaceful nuclear activities in each country. The safeguards agreement for the US voluntary offer has been in force since December 1980. Now is an appropriate time to review the experience with the agreement's implementation during its first four years, as well as its history and salient features

  11. A decision-tree model to detect post-calving diseases based on rumination, activity, milk yield, BW and voluntary visits to the milking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, M; Antler, A; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Maltz, E; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of post-calving health problems is critical for dairy operations. Separating sick cows from the herd is important, especially in robotic-milking dairy farms, where searching for a sick cow can disturb the other cows' routine. The objectives of this study were to develop and apply a behaviour- and performance-based health-detection model to post-calving cows in a robotic-milking dairy farm, with the aim of detecting sick cows based on available commercial sensors. The study was conducted in an Israeli robotic-milking dairy farm with 250 Israeli-Holstein cows. All cows were equipped with rumination- and neck-activity sensors. Milk yield, visits to the milking robot and BW were recorded in the milking robot. A decision-tree model was developed on a calibration data set (historical data of the 10 months before the study) and was validated on the new data set. The decision model generated a probability of being sick for each cow. The model was applied once a week just before the veterinarian performed the weekly routine post-calving health check. The veterinarian's diagnosis served as a binary reference for the model (healthy-sick). The overall accuracy of the model was 78%, with a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 69%, suggesting its practical value.

  12. Prostaglandin levels and lysosomal enzyme activities in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats results in the release of hydrolases from lysosomes, an increase in lysosomal enzyme activities, and changes in the prostaglandin levels in spleen and liver tissues. A transient increase in the concentration of prostaglandins E and F and leakage of lysosomal hydrolases occurred in both spleen and liver tissues 3-6 hours after the animals were irradiated. Maximal values for hydrolase activities, prostaglandin E and F content, and release of lysosomal enzymes were found 4 days postirradiation in rat spleens whereas in the liver only slight increases were observed at this time period for prostaglandin F levels. On day 7 there was a final rise in the spleen's prostaglandin E and F concentrations and leakage of hydrolases from the lysosomes before returning to near normal values on day 11. The prostaglandin F concentration in liver was also slightly elevated on the 7th day after irradiation and then decreased to control levels. (author)

  13. Chronic postnatal stress induces voluntary alcohol intake and modifies glutamate transporters in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Andreu, Marcela; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postnatal stress alters stress responses for life, with serious consequences on the central nervous system (CNS), involving glutamatergic neurotransmission and development of voluntary alcohol intake. Several drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport (GluT). Here, we evaluated effects of chronic postnatal stress (CPS) on alcohol intake and brain glutamate uptake and transporters in male adolescent Wistar rats. For CPS from postnatal day (PD) 7, pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4 °C) for 1 h daily for 20 days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7 days (5-7 rats per group), then killed. CPS: (1) increased voluntary ethanol intake, (2) did not affect body weight gain or produce signs of toxicity with alcohol exposure, (3) increased glutamate uptake by hippocampal synaptosomes in vitro and (4) reduced protein levels (Western measurements) in hippocampus and frontal cortex of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and excitatory amino-acid transporter-3 (EAAT-3) but increased glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) levels. We propose that CPS-induced decrements in GLT-1 and EAAT-3 expression levels are opposed by activation of a compensatory mechanism to prevent excitotoxicity. A greater role for GLAST in total glutamate uptake to prevent enlarged extracellular glutamate levels is inferred. Although CPS strongly increased intake of ethanol, this had little impact on effects of CPS on brain glutamate uptake or transporters. However, the impact of early life adverse events on glutamatergic neurotransmission may underlie increased alcohol consumption in adulthood.

  14. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  15. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  16. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  17. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  18. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  19. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  20. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  1. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  2. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Karla

    Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  3. Dynamic clinical measurements of voluntary vaginal contractions and autonomic vaginal reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, Paul M A; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M

    2014-12-01

    The vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists and might be involved in the pathophysiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of a canalicular vaginal "sphincter mechanism" by measuring intravaginal pressure at different levels of the vaginal canal during voluntary pelvic floor contractions and during induced reflexive contractions. Sixteen nulliparous women, without sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor trauma, were included in the study. High-resolution solid-state circumferential catheters were used to measure intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions at different levels in the vaginal canal. Voluntary intravaginal pressure measurements were performed in the left lateral recumbent position only, while reflexive intravaginal pressure measurements during slow inflation of a vaginal balloon were performed in the left lateral recumbent position and in the sitting position. Intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions were the main outcome measures. In addition, a general demographic and medical history questionnaire was administered to gain insight into the characteristics of the study population. Fifteen out of the sixteen women had deep and superficial vaginal high-pressure zones. In one woman, no superficial high-pressure zone was found. The basal and maximum pressures, as well as the duration of the autonomic reflexive contractions significantly exceeded the pressures and the duration of the voluntary contractions. There were no significant differences between the reflexive measurements obtained in the left lateral recumbent and the sitting position. The two high-pressure zones found in this study, as a result of voluntary contractions and, even more pronounced

  4. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  5. Evaluation of the activity levels in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.

    1977-05-01

    The activation of a fusion reactor blanket (316 SS or V-10Cr-10Ti as structure) with a minimum lithium inventory has been calculated for 0.83 MW/m 2 wall load. The resulting radiation levels and waste problems are discussed. The dose rate near the steel structure will always be higher than 0.1 rem/h due to its niobium content. After 200 to 100,000 years of decay the potential biological hazard originating from this high level fusion reactor waste (with plutonium recyclation). (orig.) [de

  6. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for...

  7. Determinants of anti-corruption activities at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity level in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Schultz Straatmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p21   More objective methods to detect inactive adolescents may help identify young people that are vulnerable to obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the association between classifications obtained with the cardiorespiratory fitness test and physical activity level in adolescents, as well as the agreement between tertiles and z-score distribution of the variables generated with these methods (distance covered and total physical activity score. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 639 adolescents (61% girls aged 12 to 19 years (mean age of 16 ± 1.8 and categorized into two age groups: 12-13 and 14-19 years, from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 9-min run/walk test (T9 and physical activity level by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The chi-square test (or Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied for the evaluation of associations, and the weighted kappa coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to investigate agreement between variables. A level of significance of p<0.05 was adopted. A significant association between the classifications obtained with the two methods was only observed for adolescents aged ≥ 14 years. However, there was agreement between the variables generated with the two methods in both age groups. The median distance covered in the T9 increased according to tertiles of total physical activity score. An association between the classifications obtained with the IPAQ and T9 was only found for older adolescents. However, the continuous variables and variables categorized into tertiles generated with the methods were associated and showed agreement in both age groups.

  9. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J F; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K

    2011-10-01

    Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDLR-deficient mice (8 weeks old) had either access to a voluntary running wheel for 12 weeks (RUN) or remained sedentary (CONTROL). Both groups were fed a western-type/high cholesterol diet. Running activity and food intake were recorded. At 12 weeks of intervention, feces, bile and plasma were collected to determine fecal, biliary and plasma parameters of cholesterol metabolism and plasma cytokines. Atherosclerotic lesion size was determined in the aortic root. RUN weighed less (∼13%) while food consumption was increased by 17% (p=0.004). Plasma cholesterol levels were decreased by 12% (p=0.035) and plasma levels of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins decreased in RUN compared to control. Running modulated cholesterol catabolism by enhancing cholesterol turnover: RUN displayed an increased biliary bile acid secretion (68%, p=0.007) and increased fecal bile acid (93%, p=0.009) and neutral sterol (33%, p=0.002) outputs compared to control indicating that reverse cholesterol transport was increased in RUN. Importantly, aortic lesion size was decreased by ∼33% in RUN (p=0.033). Voluntary wheel running reduces atherosclerotic burden in hypercholesterolemic mice. An increased cholesterol turnover, specifically its conversion into bile acids, may underlie the beneficial effect of voluntary exercise in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  11. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  12. Physical activity level and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Camila Kümmel; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de; Merker, Aline Juliana Schneider; Brauer, Fabiane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2012-01-01

    To compare physical activity level (PAL) and care related to exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM outpatients (adult, insulin-user patients) were assessed for PAL (international questionnaire; moderate- and high-level activities, as well as walking, over a typical week) and questioned about formal exercise practice, self-care, and hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise or reasons for not exercising. Two hundred twenty five patients were assessed: 107 (47.6%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 118 (52.4%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), with a larger percentage of patients with DM2 being classified as poorly active [33 (30.7%) versus 12 (10.3%)] and a lower percentage being classified as highly active [9 (8.7%) versus 29 (25%)], compared with patients having DM1. Patients who do not exercise (n = 140) gave different reasons for not doing so: patients with DM2 claimed that they "felt uncomfortable", "presented medical restrictions", and "did not like it"; DM1 patients claimed that they "had no time to exercise", "were lazy", and "had hypoglycemic episodes". Only 85 patients exercised regularly, regardless of the PAL, and 38.8% performed self-care, such as eating, stretching, and capillary glucose monitoring. Patients with DM2 [5 (14.3%)] reported a lower number of hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise than those with DM1 [17 (34%)]. Patients with DM2 have different PAL and behavior related to exercise than those seen in DM1 patients.

  13. Optimization of muscle activity for task-level goals predicts complex changes in limb forces across biomechanical contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucas McKay

    Full Text Available Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task in cats, we demonstrate that achieving task-level constraints center of mass forces and moments while minimizing control effort predicts detailed patterns of muscle activity and ground reaction forces in an anatomically-realistic musculoskeletal model. Whereas optimization is typically used to resolve redundancy at a single level of the motor hierarchy, we simultaneously resolved redundancy across both muscles and limbs and directly compared predictions to experimental measures across multiple perturbation directions that elicit different intra- and interlimb coordination patterns. Further, although some candidate task-level variables and cost functions generated indistinguishable predictions in a single biomechanical context, we identified a common optimization framework that could predict up to 48 experimental conditions per animal (n = 3 across both perturbation directions and different biomechanical contexts created by altering animals' postural configuration. Predictions were further improved by imposing experimentally-derived muscle synergy constraints, suggesting additional task variables or costs that may be relevant to the neural control of balance. These results suggested that reduced-dimension neural control mechanisms such as muscle synergies can achieve similar kinetics to the optimal solution, but with increased control effort (≈2× compared to individual muscle control. Our results are consistent with the idea that hierarchical, task-level

  14. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered compared with control rats (vehicle administered. This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1, total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  15. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  16. Theory-based physical activity beliefs by race and activity levels among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.

  17. Levels of physical activity in people with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Parker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who suffer from chronic pain are thought to have lower levels of physical activity compared to healthy individuals. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning levels of physical activity in South Africans with chronic pain. Objectives: To compare levels of physical activity in a South African sample of people with chronic pain compared to matched controls. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 24 participants (12 with chronic pain and 12 in the control group matched for age, gender and residential area. Convenience sampling was used. The participants with chronic pain (12 were identified from the Groote Schuur Hospital, Chronic Pain Management Clinic (CPMC waiting list and had not yet received any chronic pain management intervention. Healthy matched controls were selected from volunteers in the community. With the desired alpha level set at 0.05 and the power at 0.9, 45 participants were required to detect a minimum of a 50 per cent difference between groups in levels of physical activity as measured in steps per day using pedometers. The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ and the brief pain inventory (BPI were used as measures of physical activity and pain. Objective indicators of physical activity that were used included the 6-minute walk test (6MWT, repeated sit-to-stand test (RSST, 7 days of pedometry and body mass index (BMI. Results: The chronic pain group performed significantly worse on the 6MWT (335 m [30–430] vs 680 m [430–795]; U = 0.5; p < 0.01 and on the RSST (17.9 s [11.83–105] vs 7.85 s [5.5–11.5]; U = 0; p < 0.01. The chronic pain group also had significantly lower scores on pedometry (mean daily: 2985.1 [32.8–13785.4] vs 6409.4 [4207.1–15313.6]; U = 35; p < 0.03. The BMI for the chronic pain group was significantly higher than matched controls (29.36 kg/m2 [18.94–34.63] vs 22.16 kg/m2 [17.1–30.86]; U = 34; p < 0.03. Conclusion: Participants with chronic pain

  18. The Voluntary Nature of Decision-Making in Addiction: Static Metaphysical Views Versus Epistemologically Dynamic Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Rousseau-Lesage, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The degree of autonomy present in the choices made by individuals with an addiction, notably in the context of research, is unclear and debated. Some have argued that addiction, as it is commonly understood, prevents people from having sufficient decision-making capacity or self-control to engage in choices involving substances to which they have an addiction. Others have criticized this position for being too radical and have counter-argued in favour of the full autonomy of people with an addiction. Aligning ourselves with middle-ground positions between these two extremes, we flesh out an account of voluntary action that makes room for finer-grained analyses than the proposed all-or-nothing stances, which rely on a rather static metaphysical understanding of the nature of the voluntariness of action. In contrast, a dynamic concept of voluntary action better accounts for varying levels of voluntariness of the person with an addiction which takes into consideration internal (e.g. cravings) and external (e.g. perceptions of degrees of freedom related to different options) determinants of choice. Accordingly, like other components of autonomous choices such as level of information, voluntariness can fluctuate. Therefore, there are important implications for research and clinical ethics in matters of consent, recruitment, and therapeutic approaches. Overall, our proposal is inspired by a pragmatist understanding of voluntary action, notably with respect to how voluntariness is both informed by actions and experiences that shape one's view of the world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differences in leisure-time activities according to level of physical activity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos

    2008-03-01

    The main goals of this study were: (1) to examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) involvement and other leisure activities in a sample of Portuguese youth and (2) to analyze gender differences in PA and leisure-time activity structure. The sample comprised 1123 adolescents that were classified according to PA levels as active (n = 589) and nonactive (n = 534). A questionnaire assessing leisure-time activities was used. Girls were significantly more engaged in social leisure, dutiful, and individual artistic activities during leisure time, whereas boys were more involved in sports and computer and TV viewing activities. Significant associations between PA and social leisure were found in girls (r = .18, P leisure (girls: r = .56, P importance of organized and nonorganized sports/PA during leisure time for overall levels of PA in adolescents.

  20. Physical Activity Levels and Well-Being in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Wonyul; Ik Suh, Young; Ryu, Jungsu; Heo, Jinmoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the interconnectedness of different intensity levels of physical activity and psychological (life satisfaction and positive affect) and physical (physical health) well-being. Participants were from the National Study of Midlife in the United States with assessments in 2004 and aged 25 to 74 living in the United States were included in the analyses. We conducted bivariate correlations to examine significant relationships among the study variables. In addition, after multicollinearity among the independent variable was checked, a series of hierarchical regression analyses with physical health, positive affect, and life satisfaction as criterion variables were conducted. The results showed that light physical activities were positively associated with physical health and life satisfaction in summer, whereas light physical activities and all dependent variables were positively correlated in winter. Furthermore, engaging in moderate physical activities was positively related only with physical health. Meanwhile, vigorous physical activities were not associated with life satisfaction, physical health, and positive affect in summer and winter.

  1. Voluntary agreements in the field of energy efficiency and emission reduction: Review and analysis of experiences in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezessy, Silvia; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A number of Member States of the EU have introduced voluntary agreements (VAs) that aim to deliver energy savings and emission reductions via increased energy efficiency in different end-use sectors, mainly targeting industry. Where there is a successful track record of cooperation between public authorities and the private sector, VAs can offer advantages to public authorities in comparison to legislation, most importantly better flexibility when introduced or updated, greater acceptance by industry, possibility for tailor-made solutions e.g. at the level of industrial sectors and opportunity to overcome the information asymmetry between public authorities and private actors. Nevertheless, VAs have been criticized for lack of specific obligations and lenient targets, as well as for deficiencies in compliance monitoring and self-reporting and difficulty in establishing the policy additionality of VA activity. This paper analyses the design of existing VAs in terms of general framework, targets and sectors, obligations and commitments, motivation to join, reporting and monitoring provisions, and results of existing VAs as reported by national authorities. The paper summarizes the key characteristics of voluntary agreements and gives recommendations for the successful application of this policy tool. - Highlights: → Analyze the design of voluntary agreements (VAs) for energy efficiency. → Study national-level VAs in the European Union. → Analyze their general framework and results delivered. → Summarize the key characteristics of VAs. → Give recommendations for the successful application of this policy tool.

  2. Causes and consequences of voluntary anorexia during the parental care period of wild male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kyle C; Abizaid, Alfonso; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-11-01

    By definition, parental care behaviors increase offspring survival, and individual fitness, at some cost to the parent. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), parental males provide sole care for the developing brood that includes an increase in activity during brood defense and decreased foraging resulting in a decline in endogenous energy reserves. No mechanisms have been proposed for cessation of voluntary foraging, though regulation of appetite hormones such as ghrelin have been documented to affect feeding behavior in other fishes. We documented baseline fluctuations in plasma ghrelin concentrations across parental care. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were lowest during the early stages of parental care before increasing as the brood developed to independence. Additionally, we performed an intervention experiment whereby plasma ghrelin levels were artificially increased through an injection of rodent ghrelin at the onset of parental care. Despite measuring a significant increase in plasma ghrelin approximately 1 week after injection, we noted no differences in plasma-borne indicators of recent foraging activity indicating that voluntary anorexia is possibly reinforced by receptor insensitivity to appetite hormones. Finally, we assessed the ultimate consequences of foraging during parental care by feeding fish to satiation and measuring post-prandial changes in swimming performance and aggression. Fish fed to satiation showed significant decreases in burst swimming ability and aggressiveness towards potential brood predators. Voluntary anorexia during smallmouth bass parental care is an adaptive behavior that avoids potentially deleterious declines in swimming performance and aggression apparently through a modulation of production and reception of appetite hormones including ghrelin.

  3. The cardiovascular and endocrine responses to voluntary and forced diving in trained and untrained rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNovo, Karyn. M.; Connolly, Tiffanny M.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian diving response, consisting of apnea, bradycardia, and increased total peripheral resistance, can be modified by conscious awareness, fear, and anticipation. We wondered whether swim and dive training in rats would 1) affect the magnitude of the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and forced diving, and 2) whether this training would reduce or eliminate any stress due to diving. Results indicate Sprague-Dawley rats have a substantial diving response. Immediately upon submersion, heart rate (HR) decreased by 78%, from 453 ± 12 to 101 ± 8 beats per minute (bpm), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 25%, from 143 ± 1 to 107 ± 5 mmHg. Approximately 4.5 s after submergence, MAP had increased to a maximum 174 ± 3 mmHg. Blood corticosterone levels indicate trained rats find diving no more stressful than being held by a human, while untrained rats find swimming and diving very stressful. Forced diving is stressful to both trained and untrained rats. The magnitude of bradycardia was similar during both voluntary and forced diving, while the increase in MAP was greater during forced diving. The diving response of laboratory rats, therefore, appears to be dissimilar from that of other animals, as most birds and mammals show intensification of diving bradycardia during forced diving compared with voluntary diving. Rats may exhibit an accentuated antagonism between the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, such that in the autonomic control of HR, parasympathetic activity overpowers sympathetic activity. Additionally, laboratory rats may lack the ability to modify the degree of parasympathetic outflow to the heart during an intense cardiorespiratory response (i.e., the diving response). PMID:19923359

  4. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  5. A Self-Paced Team Sport Match Simulation Results In Reductions In Voluntary Activation And Modifications To Biological, Perceptual And Performance Measures At Half-Time, And For Up To 96 Hours Post-Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofari, Paul; Kemp, Justin; Cormack, Stuart

    2017-02-23

    Assessing responses to soccer match-play is limited by match variability or unrealistic simulations. To address this, the biological, perceptual, and performance response were assessed using a self-paced, simulated soccer match protocol using a non-motorized treadmill. Twelve male team-sport athletes performed the 90-min simulation. Match activity; quadriceps twitch interpolation [voluntary activation (%VA) and potentiated twitch (POT)]; biochemical markers; strength and power performance; rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and self-report wellness were collected pre-, half-time, post-, and 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96-h post-match. Change compared to pre-match was calculated using effect size (ES) ±90% confidence limit, and relationships were assessed using regression analysis. Subjects covered 12445.8±768.7 m at 87.1±3.2% maximal HR (mean±SD). Reductions in %VA and POT was present at half-time (-0.38±0.46 and -0.79±0.30, respectively), and persisted post-match. Squat jump height decreased at half-time (-0.42±0.31) and was decreased until Post96. Perceptual fatigue, soreness (-0.92±0.88 and -1.49±0.76, respectively) and creatine kinase (CK, 1.11±0.43) peaked at Post24. Pre-test strength (N.kg) correlated with changes in CK (r=-0.58 to -0.81), peak oxygen consumption (V˙ O2peak) correlated with reduced perceived wellness at Post24 (r=0.44 to 0.58) and RPE post (r=-0.71±0.28). High-speed running correlated with soreness (r=0.42) and very high speed running with reduced POT (r=0.61). Previously unreported half-time reductions in %VA and POT plateaued by post-match, suggesting a role in regulating second-half performance. Perceptual and neuromuscular responses appear related to running intensity. Greater lower-body strength and V˙ O2peak were associated with less CK (i.e., muscle damage) and perceptual responses post-match, respectively, suggesting a training focus should be placed on these capacities.

  6. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  7. Leisure activities, caregiving demands and catecholamine levels in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (n = 107; mean age = 73.95 ± 8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = 0.41; p = 0.005) and EPI (β = 0.44; p = 0.003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = -0.08; p = 0.57) or EPI (β = 0.23; p = 0.12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers.

  8. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Masayasu; Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Pulse shape discrimination of α and β rays with liquid scintillation counting was investigated for the purpose of low level α activity measurements. Various liquid scintillators for pulse shape discrimination were examined by means of pulse rise time analysis. A new scintillator of low cost and of superior characteristics was found. The figure of merits better than 3.5 in risetime spectrum and the energy resolution better than 9% were obtained for carefully prepared samples. The background counting rate for a sample of 10 ml was reduced to 0.013 cpm/MeV in the range of α ray energy 5 to 7 MeV. (author)

  9. Segregation of low-level dry active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblith, L. Jr.; Naughton, M.D.; Welsh, L.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been carried out to characterize the Dry Active Waste (DAW) stream from a typical PWR power plant in order to determine the usefulness of large-volume DAW monitors for segregating such waste in order to dispose of it in appropriate facilities. A waste monitor using plastic scintillation counters was used for measuring the waste. The monitor had a volume of about 300 liters and an overall efficiency of about 12% for a typical fission product mixture. It provides automatic compensation for background radioactivity and can measure a bag of waste in less than a minute, including background measurements. Six hundred consecutively generated bags of DAW were measured. These had a total activity of about one millicurie and an average specific activity of about 540 nanocuries per kilogram. About half of the bags contained less than 1000 nanocuries and had specific activities of less than 100 nanocuries per kilogram. Based on simplified preliminary calculations, it appears that an evaluation of the risks of disposal of bags such as these in a landfill other than a low-level waste disposal facility could be carried out that would demonstrate that such disposal of half or more of these bags would not result in any substantial hazard, either short or long term

  10. Fenofibrate--a lipid-lowering drug--reduces voluntary alcohol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, Maria Elena; Fernandez, Katia; Israel, Yedy

    2014-11-01

    The administration of disulfiram raises blood acetaldehyde levels when ethanol is ingested, leading to an aversion to alcohol. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of fenofibrate on voluntary ethanol ingestion in rats. Fenofibrate reduces blood triglyceride levels by increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver peroxisomes, along with an increase in the activity of catalase, which can oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde. UChB drinker rats were allowed to consume alcohol 10% v/v freely for 60 days, until consumption stabilized at around 7 g ethanol/kg/24 h. About 1-1.2 g ethanol/kg of this intake is consumed in the first 2 h of darkness of the circadian cycle. Fenofibrate subsequently administered (50 mg/kg/day by mouth [p.o.]) for 14 days led to a 60-70% (p intake was determined within the first 2 h of darkness, the reduction was 85-90% (p chronically allowed access to ethanol and subsequently treated with fenofibrate, would a) increase liver catalase activity, and b) increase blood acetaldehyde levels after a 24-h ethanol deprivation and the subsequent administration of 1 g ethanol/kg. The oral administration of 1 g ethanol/kg produced a rapid increase in blood (arterial) acetaldehyde in fenofibrate-treated animals versus controls also administered 1 g/kg ethanol (70 μM vs. 7 μM; p alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase) remained unchanged. No liver damage was induced, as measured by serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity. The effect of fenofibrate in reducing alcohol intake was fully reversible. Overall, in rats allowed chronic ethanol intake, by mouth (p.o.), fenofibrate administration increased liver catalase activity and reduced voluntary ethanol intake. The administration of 1 g ethanol/kg (p.o.) to these animals increased blood acetaldehyde levels in fenofibrate-treated animals, suggesting the possible basis for the reduction in ethanol intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p299   The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  12. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  13. The Improved Sensitivity to Crossmodal Asynchrony Caused by Voluntary Action: Comparing Combinations of Sensory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to assess the fine temporal relationship between voluntary actions and their sensory effects to achieve precise spatiotemporal control of body movement. Recently we found that voluntary action improved the subsequent perceptual temporal discrimination between somatosensory and auditory events. In voluntary condition, participants actively pressed a button and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either ‘sound-first’ or ‘touch-first’ responses. We found that the temporal order judgment performance in the voluntary condition (as indexed by just noticeable difference was significantly better than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition. Temporal attention and comparable involuntary movement did not explain the improvement caused by the voluntary action. The results suggest that predicting sensory consequences via a ‘forward’ model enhances perceptual temporal resolution for precise control of the body. The present study examined whether this improved temporal sensitivity caused by the voluntary action is also observed for the other combinations of sensory modalities. We compared the effects of voluntary action on the temporal sensitivity between auditory-somatosensory, visual-somatosensory, and somatosensory-somatosensory stimulus pairs.

  14. Support for Voluntary Euthanasia with No Logical Slippery Slope to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that acceptance of voluntary euthanasia does not generate commitment to either non-voluntary euthanasia or euthanasia on request. This is accomplished through analysis of John Keown's and David Jones's slippery slope arguments, and rejection of their view that voluntary euthanasia requires physicians to judge patients as better off dead. Instead, voluntary euthanasia merely requires physicians to judge patients as within boundaries of appropriate deference. This paper develops two ways of understanding and defending voluntary euthanasia on this model, one focused on the independent value of patients' autonomy and the other on the evidence of well-being provided by patients' requests. Both avoid the purported slippery slopes and both are independently supported by an analogy to uncontroversial elements of medical practice. Moreover, the proposed analyses of voluntary euthanasia suggest parameters for the design of euthanasia legislation, both supporting and challenging elements of existing laws in Oregon and the Netherlands.

  15. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  16. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  17. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  18. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  19. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...

  20. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  1. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Blanco

    Full Text Available Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R, was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  2. Physical activity levels in adolescents: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical Activity (PA is very important during childhood and adolescence in order to promote healthy development and prevent obesity. The WHO recommends 60 minutes daily of moderate-vigorous activity (e» 3 METs/day. The main objective of the study is to assess the levels of PA intensity performed daily by adolescents from a school using the triaxial accelerometry system and to know if they achieve the WHO recommendations. The sample size was 60 Spanish adolescents (14.52 ± .854 year-old belongs to the Empordá school (Empúries, Spain. Previous informed consent was obtained from their parents and/or tutors. PA levels were obtained through accelerometry, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated though weight and height, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were measured using a digital automatic blood pressure monitor. Descriptive for all data was calculated, and T–test (p < .05 was used to analyze the differences between boys and girls. The main result show that males performed PA during longer time and at higher intensity than women. There is a low percentage of students who achieve the WHO recommendations. In conclusion, we believe very important to seek new strategies and methods to involve more adolescents in the practice of PA, and we believe that PA sessions at school are very important.

  3. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants’ perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants’ judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding. PMID:23029435

  4. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  5. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  6. Selection for increased voluntary wheel-running affects behavior and brain monoamines in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, R.Parrish; Pringle, R.B.; Forster, G.L.; Renner, K.J.; Malisch, J.L.; Garland, T.; Swallow, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Selective-breeding of house mice for increased voluntary wheel-running has resulted in multiple physiological and behavioral changes. Characterizing these differences may lead to experimental models that can elucidate factors involved in human diseases and disorders associated with physical inactivity, or potentially treated by physical activity, such as diabetes, obesity, and depression. Herein, we present ethological data for adult males from a line of mice that has been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel-running and from a non-selected control line, housed with or without wheels. Additionally, we present concentrations of central monoamines in limbic, striatal, and midbrain regions. We monitored wheel-running for 8 weeks, and observed home-cage behavior during the last 5 weeks of the study. Mice from the selected line accumulated more revolutions per day than controls due to increased speed and duration of running. Selected mice exhibited more active behaviors than controls, regardless of wheel access, and exhibited less inactivity and grooming than controls. Selective-breeding also influenced the longitudinal patterns of behavior. We found statistically significant differences in monoamine concentrations and associated metabolites in brain regions that influence exercise and motivational state. These results suggest underlying neurochemical differences between selected and control lines that may influence the observed differences in behavior. Our results bolster the argument that selected mice can provide a useful model of human psychological and physiological diseases and disorders. PMID:23352668

  7. Brain Functional Connectivity is Different during VoluntaryConcentric and Eccentric Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan X Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies report greater activation in the cortical motor network in controlling eccentric contraction (EC than concentric contraction (CC of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It is unknown, however, whether the strength of functional coupling between the primary motor cortex (M1 and other involved areas in the brain differs as voluntary movements are controlled by a network of regions in the primary, secondary and association cortices. Examining fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC offers an opportunity to measure strength of such coupling. To address the question, we examined functional MRI (fMRI data acquired during EC and CC (20 contractions each with similar movement distance and speed of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle in 11 young (20-32 years and healthy individuals and estimated FC between the M1 and a number of cortical regions in the motor control network. The major findings from the behavioral and fMRI-based FC analysis were that (1 no significant differences were seen in movement distance, speed and stability between the EC and CC; (2 significantly stronger mean FC was found for CC than EC. Our finding provides novel insights for a better understanding of the control mechanisms underlying voluntary movements produced by EC and CC. The finding is potentially helpful for guiding the development of targeted sport training and/or therapeutic programs for performance enhancement and injury prevention.

  8. Objectively assessed physical activity levels in Spanish cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casado, Ana; Verdugo, Ana Soria; Solano, María J Ortega; Aldazabal, Itziar Pagola; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Alejo, Lidia Brea; del Hierro, Julio R Padilla; Palomo, Isabel; Aguado-Arroyo, Oscar; Garatachea, Nuria; Cebolla, Héctor; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    To objectively assess physical activity (PA) levels in a cohort of Spanish cancer survivors. Descriptive, cross-sectional. The Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada and two healthcare centers in Madrid, Spain. 204 cancer survivors and 115 adults with no history of cancer. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer for seven or more consecutive days to assess PA levels. Body mass index (BMI), indirect indicators of adiposity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio), and cardiorespiratory fitness also were determined. Light, moderate, vigorous, and total PA (sum of the former). Most (94%) of the cancer survivors met international recommendations for moderate PA, but very few (3%) fulfilled those (75 minutes or more per week) for vigorous PA. Except for lower total (minute per day, p=0.048) and vigorous PA levels (p0.05). A high percentage of the survivors (33%) were obese (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2), and many also showed poor cardiorespiratory fitness (45% were below the 8 metabolic equivalent threshold). Although cancer survivors overall met international PA recommendations for a healthy lifestyle, their BMI and cardiorespiratory profiles were not within the healthy range. Cancer survivors need to be informed about healthy lifestyle habits and should be regularly monitored.

  9. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  10. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We...... of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas...

  11. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millers, A.; Enina, G.; Platkajis, A.; Metra, M.; Kukaine, R.

    2002-01-01

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  12. Mitochondrial haplotypes are not associated with mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, Bernard W M; Yim, Won C; Schutz, Heidi; Meek, Thomas H; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-04

    Mitochondrial haplotypes have been associated with human and rodent phenotypes, including nonshivering thermogenesis capacity, learning capability, and disease risk. Although the mammalian mitochondrial D-loop is highly polymorphic, D-loops in laboratory mice are identical, and variation occurs elsewhere mainly between nucleotides 9820 and 9830. Part of this region codes for the tRNA Arg gene and is associated with mitochondrial densities and number of mtDNA copies. We hypothesized that the capacity for high levels of voluntary wheel-running behavior would be associated with mitochondrial haplotype. Here, we analyzed the mtDNA polymorphic region in mice from each of four replicate lines selectively bred for 54 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from four control lines (Control) randomly bred for 54 generations. Sequencing the polymorphic region revealed a variable number of adenine repeats. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) varied from 2 to 3 adenine insertions, resulting in three haplotypes. We found significant genetic differentiations between the HR and Control groups (F st  = 0.779, p ≤ 0.0001), as well as among the replicate lines of mice within groups (F sc  = 0.757, p ≤ 0.0001). Haplotypes, however, were not strongly associated with voluntary wheel running (revolutions run per day), nor with either body mass or litter size. This system provides a useful experimental model to dissect the physiological processes linking mitochondrial, genomic SNPs, epigenetics, or nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk to exercise activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Voluntary ethanol intake predicts κ-opioid receptor supersensitivity and regionally distinct dopaminergic adaptations in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Helms, Christa M; Lovinger, David M; Grant, Kathleen A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-04-15

    The dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the striatum have long been implicated in mediating motivated behaviors and addiction. Previously it was demonstrated that κ-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the striatum plays a critical role in the increased reinforcing efficacy of ethanol following ethanol vapor exposure in rodent models. Although rodents have been used extensively to determine the neurochemical consequences of chronic ethanol exposure, establishing high levels of voluntary drinking in these models has proven difficult. Conversely, nonhuman primates exhibit similar intake and pattern to humans in regard to drinking. Here we examine the effects of chronic voluntary ethanol self-administration on dopamine neurotransmission and the ability of KORs to regulate dopamine release in the dorsolateral caudate (DLC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. Using voltammetry in brain slices from cynomolgus macaques after 6 months of ad libitum ethanol drinking, we found increased KOR sensitivity in both the DLC and NAc. The magnitude of ethanol intake predicted increases in KOR sensitivity in the NAc core, but not the DLC. Additionally, ethanol drinking increased dopamine release and uptake in the NAc, but decreased both of these measures in the DLC. These data suggest that chronic daily drinking may result in regionally distinct disruptions of striatal outputs. In concert with previous reports showing increased KOR regulation of drinking behaviors induced by ethanol exposure, the strong relationship between KOR activity and voluntary ethanol intake observed here gives further support to the hypothesis that KORs may provide a promising pharmacotherapeutic target in the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355959-10$15.00/0.

  14. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs in Canada: should provincial healthcare pay for voluntary adult vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith? Robert J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, provincial health programs in Canada and elsewhere have begun rolling out vaccination against human papillomavirus for girls aged 9–13. While vaccination is voluntary, the cost of vaccination is waived, to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated. Adult women who are eligible for the vaccine may still receive it, but at a cost of approximately CAN$400. Given the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the vaccine, the possibility of eradicating targeted types of the virus may be feasible, assuming the vaccination programs are undertaken strategically. Methods We develop a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination against human papillomavirus, accounting for a widespread childhood vaccination program that may be supplemented by voluntary adult vaccination. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The critical vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity thresholds are derived, and the minimum level of adult vaccination required for eradication of targeted types is determined. Results We demonstrate that eradication of targeted types is indeed feasible, although the burden of coverage for a childhood-only vaccination program may be high. However, if a small, but non-negligible, proportion of eligible adults can be vaccinated, then the possibility of eradication of targeted types becomes much more favourable. We provide a threshold for eradication in general communities and illustrate the results with numerical simulations. We also investigate the effects of suboptimal efficacy and immunogenicity and show that there is a critical efficacy below which eradication of targeted types is not possible. If eradication is possible, then there is a critical immunogenicity such that even 100% childhood vaccination will not eradicate the targeted types of the virus and must be supplemented with voluntary adult vaccination. However, the level of adult

  15. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  16. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  17. One method of measure low activity level of α, β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shimin

    2003-01-01

    In this paper it is described that several method of measure low activity level of Alpha and Beta, and an circuit diagram for signal of Alpha and Beta to differentiate with method of wave shape identification. With the method, the signal of Beta did not interfere any signal to the count-way of Alpha. For adopted the technology the model JA-3502 of eight detectors of low background Alpha and Beta measuring instrument only have 2.65 x 10 -4 cpm/cm 2 background count rate at count-way of Alpha. Opposite the model FJ-2600 middle area low background Alpha and Beta measuring instrument have 1.27 x 10 -3 cpm/cm 2 background count rate at count-way of Alpha. The latter is 5 times of other

  18. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  19. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  20. The impacts of product market competition on the quantity and quality of voluntary disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Saeidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between product market competition and voluntary disclosure among 124 selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2013. The study uses Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI and Lerner (LLIA index to measure competition in terms of capacity and price, respectively. In addition, the study uses the questionnaire developed by Botosan (1997 [Botosan, C. A. (1997. Disclosure level and the cost of equity capital. Accounting Review, 72(3, 323-349.] to measure voluntary disclosure. Using linear regression technique, the study has determined that there was a meaningful, direct and positive relationship between voluntary disclosure and competition in terms of price (LLIA. In addition, the results indicate that there was a meaningful and reverse relationship between voluntary disclosure and competition in terms of capacity (HHI.

  1. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  2. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Maria Nyssen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, andExercise capacity (BODE index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components.METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1, perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale, and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]. The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ. The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer, using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI− and severe physical inactivity (SPI+. We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis.RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain, lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted, and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total. The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399, age (r = −0.459, and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446 and in % of predicted (r = 0.422.CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day.

  3. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 78 FR 69793 - Voluntary Remedial Actions and Guidelines for Voluntary Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ...'' and ``hard copy'' as possible forms of direct voluntary recall notice. Because firms often lack... formatting of a voluntary recall notice in the form of a press release should comport with the most current... transmitted using an electronic medium and in hard copy form. Acceptable forms of, and means for...

  5. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  6. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Laudani

    Full Text Available Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years, 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years and 24 older (70 ± 3 years gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume

  7. The Client's Perspective on Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.

  8. Dissociable Neural Correlates of Intention and Action Preparation in Voluntary Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljac, Edita; Yeung, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This electroencephalographic (EEG) study investigated the impact of between-task competition on intentional control in voluntary task switching. Anticipatory preparation for an upcoming task switch is a hallmark of top-down intentional control. Meanwhile, asymmetries in performance and voluntary choice when switching between tasks differing in relative strength reveal the effects of between-task competition, reflected in a surprising bias against switching to an easier task. Here, we assessed the impact of this bias on EEG markers of intentional control during preparation for an upcoming task switch. The results revealed strong and varied effects of between-task competition on EEG markers of global task preparation—a frontal contingent negative variation (CNV), a posterior slow positive wave, and oscillatory activity in the alpha band (8–12 Hz) over posterior scalp sites. In contrast, we observed no between-task differences in motor-specific task preparation, as indexed by the lateralized readiness potential and by motor-related amplitude asymmetries in the mu (9–13 Hz) and beta (18–26 Hz) frequency bands. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that between-task competition directly influences the formation of top-down intentions, not only their expression in overt behavior. Specifically, this influence occurs at the level of global task intention rather than the preparation of specific actions. PMID:23104682

  9. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  10. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Porrata Maury, C.; Jimenez Acosta, S.; Gonzalez Perez, T.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Sanchez, V.; Monterrey, P.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  11. Quality assurance activities and proposals at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of international bodies have attempted to stimulate wider interest in Quality Assurance in X-ray departments. A major initiative has been taken by WHO with the publication of its recommendations in 1982 under the title Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology, in which they indicated the action that should be taken at various national, professional and local levels. The recommendations of ICRP in Publication 26 point to the need for quality assurance programmes that will obtain optimum diagnostic information at minimum cost and minimum patient dose. ICRU have been considering the need for cost-effective quality assurance programmes and the specification of standards for image quality. The IEC and various manufacturers' organisations have begun to consider the part they can play in setting up quality control procedures. The most active group has been the ISRRT, which has arranged a series of seminars and workshops for radiographers in various parts of the world. Future needs for international support lie in the provision of training programmes, the publication of comparative statistical data and the development of image quality standards. (author)

  12. Voluntary Association Membership and Social Cleavages: A Micro-Macro Link in Generalized Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-ung; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Generalized trust varies across individuals and countries. Past studies on trust have demonstrated that voluntary association membership, inequality and ethnic homogeneity at country level are important. However, those studies examined either individual-level or country-level factors separately. In this paper, we conceptualized the emergence of…

  13. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  14. SEA Screening of voluntary Climate Change Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...

  15. ASPECTS REGARDING CORPORATE MANDATORY AND VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.

  16. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  17. Mu-opioid receptor inhibition decreases voluntary wheel running in a dopamine-dependent manner in rats bred for high voluntary running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Brown, Jacob D; Kovarik, M Cathleen; Miller, Dennis K; Booth, Frank W

    2016-12-17

    The mesolimbic dopamine and opioid systems are postulated to influence the central control of physical activity motivation. We utilized selectively bred rats for high (HVR) or low (LVR) voluntary running behavior to examine (1) inherent differences in mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) expression and function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), (2) if dopamine-related mRNAs, wheel-running, and food intake are differently influenced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone injection in HVR and LVR rats, and (3) if dopamine is required for naltrexone-induced changes in running and feeding behavior in HVR rats. Oprm1 mRNA and protein expression were greater in the NAc of HVR rats, and application of the Oprm1 agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to dissociated NAc neurons produced greater depolarizing responses in neurons from HVR versus LVR rats. Naltrexone injection dose-dependently decreased wheel running and food intake in HVR, but not LVR, rats. Naltrexone (20mg/kg) decreased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and Fos and Drd5 mRNA in NAc shell of HVR, but not LVR, rats. Additionally, lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the NAc with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) ablated the decrease in running, but not food intake, in HVR rats following i.p. naltrexone administration. Collectively, these data suggest the higher levels of running observed in HVR rats, compared to LVR rats, are mediated, in part, by increased mesolimbic opioidergic signaling that requires downstream dopaminergic activity to influence voluntary running, but not food intake. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, Erin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  19. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs, compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from the Federal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.

  20. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  1. The bible and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-03-15

    Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  2. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....

  3. Sex-dependent influence of chronic mild stress (CMS) on voluntary alcohol consumption; study of neurobiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Ballesta, Javier Antonio; Irala, Carlos; Hernández, María-Donina; Serrano, María Elisa; Mela, Virginia; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Viveros, María-Paz

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder and depression are highly comorbid, and both conditions exhibit important sexual dimorphisms. Here, we aimed to investigate voluntary alcohol consumption after 6weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) in Wistar rats - employed as an animal model of depression. Male and female rats were investigated, and changes in several molecular markers were analysed in frontal cortex (FCx) and hippocampal formation (HF). CMS induced depressive-like responses in the forced swimming test - increased immobility time - in male and female animals, without affecting anhedonia (sucrose preference test) nor motor activity (holeboard); body weight gain and food intake were diminished only among CMS males. Voluntary alcohol consumption was evaluated in a two-bottle choice paradigm (ethanol 20% versus tap water) for 4 consecutive days; females exhibited a higher preference for alcohol compared to male animals. In particular, alcohol consumption was significantly higher among CMS females compared to CMS male animals. Remarkably, similar changes in both male and female animals exposed to CMS were observed regarding the expression levels of NCAM-140KDa (decrease), GFAP and CB1R expression (increase) within the FCx as well as for HF PSD-95 levels (increase). However, contrasting effects in males and females were reported in relation to synaptophysin (SYN) protein levels within the FCx, HF CB1R expression (a decrease among male animals but an increase in females); while the opposite pattern was observed for NCAM-140KDa protein levels in the HF. A decrease in CB2R expression was only observed in the HF of CMS-females. The present study suggests that male and female animals might be differentially affected by CMS regarding later voluntary alcohol consumption. In this initial approach, cortical SYN, and NCAM-140KDa, CB1R and CB2R expression within the HF have arisen as potential candidates to explain such sex differences in behaviour. However, the depression

  4. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... activities because they are often not motivated to exercise (Buch- holz & Purath ..... Physical Activity and Hypertension among University .... Endurance and Resistance Exercise on HIV Metabolic Abnormalities: A Pilot. Study.

  5. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.

  6. Effects of crocin and voluntary exercise, alone or combined, on heart VEGF-A and HOMA-IR of HFD/STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, V; Mohammadi, M; Dariushnejad, H; Chodari, L; Mohaddes, G

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycemia is the main risk factor for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Crocin and voluntary exercise have anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetes. In this research, we evaluated the effects of crocin and voluntary exercise alone or combined on glycemia control and heart level of VEGF-A. Animals were divided into eight groups as: control (con), diabetes (Dia), crocin (Cro), voluntary exercise (Exe), crocin and voluntary exercise (Cro-Exe), diabetic-crocin (Dia-Cro), diabetic-voluntary exercise (Dia-Exe), diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise (Dia-Cro-Exe). Type 2 diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet (4 weeks) and injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (i.p, 35 mg/kg). Animals received oral administration of crocin (50 mg/kg) or performed voluntary exercise alone or together for 8 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on overnight fasted control, diabetic and treated rats after 8 weeks of treatment. Then, serum insulin and heart VEGF-A protein levels were measured. Crocin combined with voluntary exercise significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p HOMA-IR) (p HOMA-IR) and reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Since both crocin and voluntary exercise can increase VEGF-A protein expression in heart tissue, they probably are able to increase angiogenesis in diabetic animals.

  7. Modest Amounts of Voluntary Exercise Reduce Pain- and Stress-Related Outcomes in a Rat Model of Persistent Hind Limb Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Mark H; Tarum, Farid; Rauf, Imran Z; Low, Lucie A; Bushnell, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise improves outcomes in a variety of chronic health conditions, yet the support for exercise-induced effects on chronic pain in humans is mixed. Although many rodent studies have examined the effects of exercise on persistent hypersensitivity, the most used forced exercise paradigms that are known to be highly stressful. Because stress can also produce analgesic effects, we studied how voluntary exercise, known to reduce stress in healthy subjects, alters hypersensitivity, stress, and swelling in a rat model of persistent hind paw inflammation. Our data indicate that voluntary exercise rapidly and effectively reduces hypersensitivity as well as stress-related outcomes without altering swelling. Moreover, the level of exercise is unrelated to the analgesic and stress-reducing effects, suggesting that even modest amounts of exercise may impart significant benefit in persistent inflammatory pain states. Modest levels of voluntary exercise reduce pain- and stress-related outcomes in a rat model of persistent inflammatory pain, independently of the amount of exercise. As such, consistent, self-regulated activity levels may be more relevant to health improvement in persistent pain states than standardized exercise goals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Voluntary wheel running increases bile acid as well as cholesterol excretion and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Lombardo, Elisa; Havinga, Rick; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Regular physical activity decreases the risk for atherosclerosis but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We questioned whether voluntary wheel running provokes specific modulations in cholesterol turnover that translate into a decreased atherosclerotic burden in

  9. Muscle activation levels of the gluteus maximus and medius during standing hip-joint strengthening exercises using elastic-tubing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Nelson, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2014-02-01

    No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance. To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions. Repeated measures. Laboratory. 26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y). Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05). For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F3,75 = 21.5; P tubing.

  10. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  11. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  12. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983.

  13. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  14. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  15. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  16. VOLUNTARY INTEREST ARBITRATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Birhanu is currently working as the Manager of the Legal Research and Advisory Division ... forth voluntary interest arbitration to the attention of lawyers, employees, .... being selective is a poor design since the basic rules of this law are not .... courts to review interest arbitrators decision on the merit by way of appeal.

  17. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  18. 25 CFR 38.14 - Voluntary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.14 Voluntary services. (a... receiving credit for their work (i.e., student teaching) from an education institution, the agreement will... Regulations Governing Responsibilities and Conduct. (e) Travel and other expenses. The decision to reimburse...

  19. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  20. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    that voluntary community work in relation to public urban regeneration is much more than the public’s engagement in project planning processes. Contrary to temporary urban regeneration projects, VCOs are much more permanently embedded in the neighbourhood, and volunteers are motivated by both self-interest...

  1. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  2. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  3. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  4. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  5. Negotiating the voluntary siting of nuclear waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussler, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator which was created by Congress with the purpose of seeking a voluntary host State or Indian tribe for a high level nuclear waste repository or monitored retrievable storage facility. Given the history of the Federal government's efforts at siting such facilities, this would appear to be an impossible mission. Since commencing operations in August 1990, the Office has accomplished perhaps more than had been expected. Some of the approaches it has taken to implementing this mission may be applicable to other endeavors

  6. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  7. Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary counseling and ... Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: A case control study. ... Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.

  10. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  11. Physical activity level in pediatric population: A comprehensive review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity (PA) is a key component in the maintenance and attainment of healthy, active, well-nourished and psycho-social well-being of a society. Hence, the reduction of sedentary lifestyle has featured in many countries as an important arm of policy designed to address childhood chronic diseases of lifestyle risk ...

  12. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  13. 31 CFR 103.110 - Voluntary information sharing among financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 103.110 Voluntary.... 5312(a)(2) that is required under this part to establish and maintain an anti-money laundering program... suspects may involve possible terrorist activity or money laundering. (2) Notice requirement. A financial...

  14. Circulating fibroblast activation protein activity and antigen levels correlate strongly when measured in liver disease and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.U. de Willige; Keane, F.M. (Fiona M.); Bowen, D.G. (David G.); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); Zhang, H.E. (H. Emma); Maneck, B. (Bharvi); G. McCaughan (Geoff); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); Gorrell, M.D. (Mark D.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aim: Circulating fibroblast activation protein (cFAP) is a constitutively active enzyme expressed by activated fibroblasts that has both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. We aimed to assess the correlation between cFAP activity and antigen levels and to

  15. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J

    1988-01-01

    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with the drivers of emergency vehicles, who are allowed to drive through red lights. PMID:3184136

  17. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  18. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level..., language, and numeracy skills) in accordance with Part C of the Act to children with disabilities who are...

  19. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Furthermore, the presence of obesity, dietary imbalances and sedentary ... activities/exercises in people living with HIV/AIDS while being treated with ..... Smoking in Dyslipidaemia in HIV-Infected Patients with Lipodystrophy.

  20. Physical Activity Level and Adiposity: Are they Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Adiposity, Primary Dysmenorrhea, Physical Activity, Adolescence. Résumé. Les informations ... In addition, urinary frequency, irritability, nervous depression, abdominal .... years) was significantly higher than that of those without PD ...

  1. Influence of marital status on psysical activity levels among older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettee, K.K.; Brach, J.; Boudreau, R.; Colbert, L.H.; Harris, T.B.; Visser, M.; Richardson, C.; Newman, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of these analyses was to describe the levels and types of activity in relationship to current marital status among older adults and determine if the physical activity level of the husband was related to the physical activity level of his wife. Methods: Participants included 3075

  2. Intermediate levels of hippocampal activity appear optimal for associative memory formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Qin, S.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly

  3. Voluntary income redistribution with migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the welfare magnet problem, in which disparities in transfer policies across states are believed to encourage recipient and possibly resource migration. "This study clarifies the terms of the debate by showing how the value of redistributing local resources depends not only on the value of income to each group, but also on the cost of the transfer in erosion of the resource base through migration and through the general equilibrium effects of such activity on local prices." The geographical focus is on the United States. excerpt

  4. Voluntary wheel running increases satellite cell abundance and improves recovery from disuse in gastrocnemius muscles from mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Matthew J; Hajira, Ameena; Mohamed, Junaith S; Alway, Stephen E

    2018-02-22

    Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice. Young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice (n=6/group) were randomly placed into 5 groups. These included HSU without recovery (HSU), normal ambulatory recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+NoWR), and voluntary wheel running recovery for 14 days after HSU (HSU+WR). Two control groups were used: non-suspended mice-cage controls (Control) and voluntary wheel running controls (ControlWR). Satellite cell activation, was evaluated by providing mice 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in their drinking water. As expected, HSU significantly reduced in vivo maximal force and decreased the in vivo fatigability and decreased type I and IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) abundance in plantarflexor muscles. HSU+WR mice significantly improved plantarflexor fatigue resistance, increased type type I and IIa MHC abundance, increased fiber cross sectional area (CSA), and an increased the percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius muscle. HSU+WR mice also had a significantly greater percentage of BrdU-positive and Pax 7 positive nuclei inside muscle fibers and a greater MyoD to Pax 7 protein ratio when compared to HSU+NoWR mice. The mechanotransduction protein Yes-associated protein (YAP) was elevated with reloading after HSU, but HSU+WR had lower levels of the inactive phosphorylated YAP serine127 which may have contributed to increased satellite cell activation creased with reloading after HSU. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running increased YAP

  5. Capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., sob duas doses de nitrogênio. Consumo e produção de leite Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. fertilized with two levels of nitrogen, under grazing, voluntary intake and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Guimarães Soares

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção de leite, o consumo voluntário de matéria seca e a taxa de passagem da FDN no trato gastrintestinal em quatro épocas do ano (julho, outubro, janeiro e março, de vacas mestiças, sob pastejo de capim-elefante, submetido a dois níveis de nitrogênio (300 e 700 kg de N/ha•ano, foram estimados. Foi usado pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação e 30 de descanso, empregando-se 36 vacas lactantes mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em uma lotação de 6 vacas/ha. A estimativa de consumo e a taxa de passagem foram determinadas em apenas 24 animais. Para a coleta de extrusas, foram usadas duas vacas esôfago-fistuladas. O consumo foi estimado usando-se a relação produção fecal:indigestibilidade dos alimentos. A produção fecal foi estimada usando-se a FDN da extrusa marcada com dicromato de sódio fornecida em dose única. O consumo de MS total não foi influenciado pelas doses de N e por épocas do ano, com valores médios diários de 10,9 e 10,5 kg /MS•vaca para as doses de 300 e 700 kg N/ha•ano, respectivamente. Entretanto, o consumo de MS do capim-elefante foi influenciado por doses de N e épocas, com valores de 6,5 e 5,6 kg/vaca•dia para as doses de N supracitadas, respectivamente. O capim-elefante contribuiu com 26,0% da MS total ingerida, durante a época seca (julho/outubro e sua contribuição aumentou para 84,0% na época das águas (janeiro/março. A produção diária de leite não foi influenciada por doses de N, com produções médias de 11,6 e 12,3 kg de leite/vaca•dia, para as doses de 300 e 700 kg N/ha•ano, respectivamente.The milk production, the dry matter intake (DMI and the NDF passage rate in the gastrointestinal tract in four seasons (July, October, January and March, of crossbred cows, under grazing of elephant grass, submitted to two levels of nitrogen (300 and 700 kg N/ha•year were estimated. The rotation grazing with three days of occupation and 30 days of resting, using 36 crossbred

  6. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  7. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although genetic influences may be expressed when children have brief opportunities for autonomous activity, activity levels in daily-life are predominantly explained by environmental factors. Future research should aim to identify key environmental drivers of childhood activity.

  8. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation (PhASRec) Focus Area, North-West ... Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior .... tematic review of the physical activity and nutritional status of.

  9. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  10. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  11. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M.; Cozzolino, S.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y -1 for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y -1 per individual. (author)

  12. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... close to one of the sites. A future study involving objective before and after measures when a new bicycle playground is build will be needed to reveal if bicycle playgrounds can provide additional activity to its users, or ‘just’ a different type of activity, in a different location....

  13. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen

    2014-01-01

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future

  14. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Triana, M; Aleman Mateo, H; Valencia Julleirat, M [Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Havana (Cuba); and others

    2002-07-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  15. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Aleman Mateo, H.; Valencia Julleirat, M.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  16. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Diaz, M.E.; Aleman-Mateo, H.; Valencia-Julleirat, M.; Salazar, G.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  17. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  18. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  19. Corruption and Economic Activity: Micro Level Evidence from Rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief

  20. Social trust among recipients of voluntary welfare in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Saltkjel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of social capital, including social trust, has in recent decades been acknowledged by many scholars across different disciplines as a key resource. This has led to many studies and scientific articles investigating this topic. Few studies, however, have focused upon social trust within marginalised groups. This study is based upon data gathered from one of the larger research projects investigating the vulnerable recipients of voluntary welfare assistance in Norway. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of social trust in a sample of 80 recipients of welfare assistance within two large voluntary welfare organisations in the capital city of Oslo, Norway. In particular, the study will explore whether and to what degree the level of social trust can be explained by conditions experienced while growing up and as an adult. Results indicate that adult life experiences, such as drug abuse and life satisfaction are the most important explanatory variables. However problems experienced while growing-up seems to be indirectly related to social trust. The results of the study highlight the significance of acknowledging processes of marginalisation in socially vulnerable groups, such as drug users and children experiencing problems growing up.

  1. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  2. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  3. Voluntary exercise attenuates obesity-associated inflammation through ghrelin expressed in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Takako; Maegawa, Taketeru; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Jun-etsu; Ookawara, Tomomi; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Izawa, Tetsuya; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki

    2011-09-30

    Chronic low-level inflammation is associated with obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, causing metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance. Exercise training has been shown to decrease chronic low-level systemic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone predominantly produced in the stomach that stimulates appetite and induces growth hormone release. In addition to these well-known functions, recent studies suggest that ghrelin localizes to immune cells and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of ghrelin expressed in macrophages in the anti-inflammatory effects of voluntary exercise training. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and F4/80 was increased in adipose tissue from mice fed a HFD (HFD mice) compared with mice fed a standard diet (SD mice), whereas the expression of these inflammatory cytokines was markedly decreased in mice performing voluntary wheel running during the feeding of a HFD (HFEx mice). The expression of TNF-α was also increased in peritoneal macrophages by a HFD and exercise training inhibited the increase of TNF-α expression. Interestingly, expression of ghrelin in peritoneal macrophages was decreased by a HFD and recovered by exercise training. Suppression of ghrelin expression by siRNA increased TNF-α expression and LPS-stimulated NF-κB activation in RAW264 cells, which is a macrophage cell line. TNF-α expression by stimulation with LPS was significantly suppressed in RAW264 cells cultured in the presence of ghrelin. These results suggest that ghrelin exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages and functions as a mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  5. Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, I.; Ruiz, C.; Ibanez, R.; Viguri, J.; Irabien, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

  6. Effect of physical activity on anxiety levels in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Janik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a very important period in a woman's life, but it is often associated not only with positive emotions, but also with negative emotions such as anxiety, stress or depression. Women most often fear birth and various medical complications during pregnancy. Very often their unpleasant experiences at the beginning such as nausea, fatigue and strong anxiety cause them to give up their physical activity. Numerous studies show that the physical activity of pregnant women has a positive impact on mother and child health. First and foremost, it is a powerful preventive agent in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, but also has a beneficial effect on the well-being of future mothers, including lowering anxiety and lowering the incidence of postpartum depression. That is why it is so important to educate pregnant women what exercises are most beneficial for them.

  7. Voluntary eyeblinks disrupt iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E; Irwin, David E

    2006-04-01

    In the present research, we investigated whether eyeblinks interfere with cognitive processing. In Experiment 1, the participants performed a partial-report iconic memory task in which a letter array was presented for 106 msec, followed 50, 150, or 750 msec later by a tone that cued recall of onerow of the array. At a cue delay of 50 msec between array offset and cue onset, letter report accuracy was lower when the participants blinked following array presentation than under no-blink conditions; the participants made more mislocation errors under blink conditions. This result suggests that blinking interferes with the binding of object identity and object position in iconic memory. Experiment 2 demonstrated that interference due to blinks was not due merely to changes in light intensity. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that other motor responses did not interfere with iconic memory. We propose a new phenomenon, cognitive blink suppression, in which blinking inhibits cognitive processing. This phenomenon may be due to neural interference. Blinks reduce activation in area V1, which may interfere with the representation of information in iconic memory.

  8. Stressors and Coping among Voluntary Sports Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, AJ; Didymus, F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching has been identified as a naturally stressful occupation. Coaches must be able to competently and effectively manage stress that is inherent in competitive sport and perform under pressure. Yet, limited research exists that has explored coaches’ experiences of psychological stress. The research that does exist has mainly focused on full-time, elite coaches who represent just 3% of the coaching workforce in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Despite the voluntary coaching wo...

  9. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  10. Analysis of the German market for voluntary carbon offsetting; Analyse des deutschen Marktes zur freiwilligen Kompensation von Treibhausgasemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Christian; Duwe, Sebastian; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [adelphi research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kleemann, Max; Krebs, Jan-Marten [sustainable AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In the past years the market for voluntary carbon offsetting has developed rapidly. Certificates sold on this market originate partly from the compliance market, i.e. from projects of the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation. Mostly, however, certificates stem from projects of the voluntary carbon market. Voluntary carbon offsetting can serve as another mechanism to efficiently prevent emissions, while at the same time achieving co-benefits. Very little is known however of the exact state of the voluntary carbon market, e.g. factors like business volume, market actors, origin of certificates or the efficacy of the voluntary market. Analyses of the market on the global market for voluntary offsetting do exist (ENDS, Hamilton et al. 2007, 2008, 2009); however they do not allow any conclusions for the market situation in Germany. This study aims at closing this gap. From the end of 2009 until the beginning of 2010 adelphi and sustainable interviewed providers of offset services, intermediaries, certifiers and consumers like businesses and public institutions on their activities in the voluntary carbon offset market in Germany. (orig.)

  11. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  12. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy , including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  13. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  14. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. The Determinants of Voluntary Risk Disclosures: The Case of Shariah Compliant Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Nurul Fida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk reporting is essential in notifying investors on how companies manage the risks they engage in. Even though companies nowadays release information through press releases, corporate websites, and other forms of communications, they still have to disclose more information in their annual reports. The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of voluntary risk disclosures of Shariah compliant companies (ShCCs in Malaysia, focusing on the religiosity factor and the ownership structure. A quantitative analysis using secondary data was employed as a method to assess the annual reports of 116 Shariah compliant companies in Malaysia for the financial years of 2012 and 2013. The findings of this study reveal that the voluntary risk disclosures in ShCCs on average are not more than sixty per cent. This study indicates no relationship between the religiosity of board members and directors’ ownership to the level of voluntary risk disclosure. More importantly, this study finds the relationship between the existence of government ownership and voluntary risk disclosure in ShCCs. The study adds value to the current body of knowledge in voluntary risk disclosures and suggests the importance of risk management information in the annual reports of ShCCs as Malaysia grows as a leading country in the Islamic economy.

  16. Voluntary Smoke-Free Measures Among Oklahoma Nightlife Owners: Barriers and Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson; McQuoid, Julia; Sheon, Nicolas; Olson, Sarah; Ling, Pamela M

    2018-03-01

    Smoke-free policies prevent exposure to secondhand smoke and encourage tobacco cessation. Local smoke-free policies that are more comprehensive than statewide policies are not allowed in states with preemption, including Oklahoma, which has the sixth highest smoking prevalence in the United States. In states with preemption, voluntary smoke-free measures are encouraged, but little research exists on venue owners' and managers' views of such measures, particularly in nightlife businesses such as bars and nightclubs. This article draws from semistructured interviews with 23 Oklahoma bar owners and managers, examining perceived risks and benefits of adopting voluntary smoke-free measures in their venues. No respondents expressed awareness of preemption. Many reported that smoke-free bars and nightclubs were an inevitable societal trend, particularly as younger customers increasingly expected smoke-free venues. Business benefits such as decreased operating and cleaning costs, improved atmosphere, and employee efficiency were more convincing than improved employee health. Concerns that voluntary measures created an uneven playing field among venues competing for customers formed a substantial barrier to voluntary measures. Other barriers included concerns about lost revenue and fear of disloyalty to customers, particularly older smokers. Addressing business benefits and a level playing field may increase support for voluntary smoke-free nightlife measures.

  17. System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplatine, L.; Al'Mrayat, O.; Luan, E.; Fang, C.; Rezaiezadeh, S.; Ratner, D. M.; Cheung, K.; Dattner, Y.; Chrostowski, L.

    2017-02-01

    Biosensors based on silicon photonic integrated circuits have attracted a growing interest in recent years. The use of sub-micron silicon waveguides to propagate near-infrared light allows for the drastic reduction of the optical system size, while increasing its complexity and sensitivity. Using silicon as the propagating medium also leverages the fabrication capabilities of CMOS foundries, which offer low-cost mass production. Researchers have deeply investigated photonic sensor devices, such as ring resonators, interferometers and photonic crystals, but the practical integration of silicon photonic biochips as part of a complete system has received less attention. Herein, we present a practical system-level architecture which can be employed to integrate the aforementioned photonic biosensors. We describe a system based on 1 mm2 dies that integrate germanium photodetectors and a single light coupling device. The die are embedded into a 16x16 mm2 epoxy package to enable microfluidic and electrical integration. First, we demonstrate a simple process to mimic Fan-Out Wafer-level-Packaging, which enables low-cost mass production. We then characterize the photodetectors in the photovoltaic mode, which exhibit high sensitivity at low optical power. Finally, we present a new grating coupler concept to relax the lateral alignment tolerance down to +/- 50 μm at 1-dB (80%) power penalty, which should permit non-experts to use the biochips in a"plug-and-play" style. The system-level integration demonstrated in this study paves the way towards the mass production of low-cost and highly sensitive biosensors, and can facilitate their wide adoption for biomedical and agro-environmental applications.

  18. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  19. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, C.P.; Mills, D.; Razor, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  20. The right friends in the right places: Understanding network structure as a predictor of voluntary turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Gary A; Cross, Rob; Holtom, Brooks C

    2016-04-01

    Research examining the relationship between social networks and employee retention has focused almost exclusively on the number of direct links and generally found that having more ties decreases the likelihood of turnover. The present research moves beyond simple measures of network centrality to investigate the relationship between 2 additional, and theoretically distinct, facets of social capital and voluntary turnover. In 2 organizations, we found consistent evidence of a negative relationship between reputation, as measured by relationships with highly sought-out others (incoming eigenvector centrality) and voluntary turnover. Further, we found that the negative relationship between brokerage (structural holes) and turnover is significant, but only for higher-level employees. The theoretical and practical implications of expanding the suite of social capital measures to understand voluntary turnover are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The effect of voluntariness on the acceptance of e-learning by nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žvanut, Boštjan; Pucer, Patrik; Ličen, Sabina; Trobec, Irena; Plazar, Nadja; Vavpotič, Damjan

    2011-05-01

    Although e-learning is an innovation that is worth making generally available, it is not always accepted by nursing students. Many researchers state that voluntariness is closely related to the individual level of adoption of innovations. Hence, we hypothesized that voluntariness moderates the effect of perceived attributes of innovations (e.g. relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability), which determines the acceptance of e-learning. To test the hypothesis a survey involving two groups of nursing students was carried out. For the first group the usage of e-learning was mandatory, for the second group it was optional. The results confirm our hypothesis. Institutions, interested in e-learning initiatives, should consider the effect of voluntariness when implementing e-learning. This paper provides a useful reference that can help e-learning providers to develop guidelines that can improve the acceptance of e-learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants and features of voluntary disclosure in the Chinese stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers in-depth analysis of the determinants and features of voluntary disclosure based on information in the annual reports of 1066 Chinese firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. This extensive sample represents about 80% of all public companies in China. Our findings suggest that voluntary disclosure in China is positively related to firm size, leverage, assets-in-place, and return on equity and is negatively related to auditor type and the level of maturity or sophistication of the intermediary and legal environments. We also find some evidence to suggest a quadratic convex association between state ownership and voluntary disclosure. However, our analysis provides no evidence that extensive disclosure benefits public companies in China in the form of a lower cost of equity.

  3. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  4. Analysis and prediction of daily physical activity level data using autoregressive integrated moving average models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Xi; Pauws, S.C.; Pijl, M.; Lacroix, J.; Goris, A.H.C.; Aarts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results are provided on predicting daily physical activity level (PAL) data from past data of participants of a physical activity lifestyle program aimed at promoting a healthier lifestyle consisting of more physical exercise. The PAL data quantifies the level of a person’s daily physical activity

  5. Physical activity levels and preferences of ethnically diverse visitors to Georgia State Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...

  6. The Effect of Voluntary Ventilation on Acid-base Responses to a Moo Duk Tkow Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a study that investigated the acid-base and lactate reponses to voluntary integration of breathing and exercise movements during beginning level form Ki Cho I, performed at competitive intensities. Findings suggest that respiratory compensation does not occur and that respiratory acidosis may contribute to metabolic…

  7. Voluntary risk Seeking in the Risk Society: Explaining Involvement in Edgework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini (Peter); P.H.J. Achterberg (Peter); D. Houtman (Dick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ How does voluntary participation in dangerous leisure activities requiring skills (‘edgework’) compare, for example, to gambling and thrill seeking and why does edgework thrive in societies preoccupied with safety and security? Lyng (1990) assumes edgework constitutes

  8. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschner, J.; Schaller, G.

    1993-12-01

    Using radioecological models, nuclide-specific ''basic values'' were established for the specific activity of radioactive contaminated waste. These basic values were determined in order to avoid dose equivalents of more than 10 μSv/a (de minimis concept) when disposing the waste in conventional waste deposits or burning it in incineration plants. The basic values vary within 16 orders of magnitude, ranging between 4.3E-02 Bq/g for Cm-250 and 2.2E+14 Bq/g for Po-212. About 82% of the basic values are between 1 Bq/g und 1000 Bq/g. The critical exposure for most of the radionuclides is that from direct radiation or inhalation at the slag-deposit. For 54% of the radionuclides the basic value for the specific activity of waste is lower at least by a factor of 10 than the 10 -4 -fold value per gram of the release limit (German Radiation Protection Ordinance). Appropriate nuclide-specific and dose-related limits were derived from these basic values. The respective limits are ranging between 1E-01 Bq/g and 1E+07 Bq/g. About 95% of the limits are between 1 Bq/g and 1000 Bq/g. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschner, J.; Schaller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Using radioecological models, nuclide specific values were calculated for the specific activity of low contaminated radioactive waste, which is disposed in conventional waste deposits or burned in incineration plants. The calculation of these values is based on a limit of 10 μSv effective dose in one year, i.e. effective dose possibly resulting from waste disposal or burning should not exceed a 'de-minimis'-value of some 10 μSv per year. The applied radioecological models describe exposure of the public by direct radiation, inhalation and ingestion for the operational period of a deposit or an incineration plant, but also cover post-operational scenarios, collecting and sorting of waste and road accidents of the waste-truck. Referring to the dose limit of 10 μSv/a, a value for the specific activity of waste was calculated for each scenario and each radionuclide considered. The smallest of these values for a radionuclide, the 'basic value' was rounded to a 'reference value'. For about 600 radionuclides reference values were derived. About 90% of the reference values are ranging between 1 and 1 000 Bq/g. For about 90% of the radionuclides direct radiation or inhalation at the deposit proved to be the critical path of exposure. (orig.) [de

  10. Moderating effects of voluntariness on the actual use of electronic health records for allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Teresa Ml; Ku, Benny Ps

    2015-02-10

    Mandatory versus voluntary requirement has moderating effect on a person's intention to use a new information technology. Studies have shown that the use of technology in health care settings is predicted by perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, social influence, facilitating conditions, and attitude towards computer. These factors have different effects on mandatory versus voluntary environment of use. However, the degree and direction of moderating effect of voluntariness on these factors remain inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the moderating effect of voluntariness on the actual use of an electronic health record (EHR) designed for use by allied health professionals in Hong Kong. Specifically, this study explored and compared the moderating effects of voluntariness on factors organized into technology, implementation, and individual contexts. Physiotherapists who had taken part in the implementation of a new EHR were invited to complete a survey. The survey included questions that measured the levels of voluntariness, technology acceptance and use, and attitude towards technology. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with actual use of a compulsory module and a noncompulsory module of the EHR. In total, there were 93 participants in the study. All of them had access to the noncompulsory module, the e-Progress Note, to record progress notes of their patients. Out of the 93 participants, 57 (62%) were required to use a compulsory module, the e-Registration, to register patient attendance. In the low voluntariness environment, Actual Use was associated with Effort Expectancy (mean score of users 3.51, SD 0.43; mean score of non-users 3.21, SD 0.31; P=.03). Effort Expectancy measured the perceived ease of use and was a variable in the technology context. The variables in the implementation and individual contexts did not show a difference between the two groups. In the high voluntariness environment, the mean

  11. Stable tooth contacts in intercuspal occlusion makes for utilities of the jaw elevators during maximal voluntary clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-R; Zhang, Y; Xing, N; Xu, Y-F; Wang, M-Q

    2013-05-01

    Data are inconsistent concerning whether the level of the surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity of jaw-closing muscles increases when biting forces elevated during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). In this study, T-Scan III system and BioEMG III system were used to record bite force, occlusal contacts and SEMG activity of the anterior temporalis (TA) and of the masseter muscles (MM) simultaneously. Recordings were obtained from 16 healthy young adult males during different conditions: (i) a fast MVC from resting position to intercuspal position (ICP); (ii) mandibular movements from ICP to protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions with teeth in contact with biting; (iii) a fast MVC in protrusive and lateral edge-to-edge positions. A higher level of SEMG activity was associated with a higher bite force during occluding movements (P < 0.05). However, during fast MVC from rest to ICP, the largest number of occlusal contacts was achieved and distributed more symmetrically, the highest level of biting force was obtained, but the SEMG activity of the jaw elevator muscles was reduced compared with its maximum level (P < 0.05). This phenomenon was not observed during the fast MVC in protrusive or lateral edge-to-edge positions. The present results that a lower SEMG activity was associated with the largest number of occlusal contacts and the highest level of bite force during centric MVC demonstrated a complex integration of jaw-closing muscles when a stable occlusion is present. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, Pwomen (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF SELF-ESTEEM BY SEX AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN TWO GROUPS OF SENIOR ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez Méndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to observe whether there are differences in the self-esteem score, depending on the level of physical activity (active-sedentary in a sample of senior adults. Twenty-six senior adults participated in the study with an average of 73 ± 9 years of age. The sedentary group (n = 12 belonged to the Santo Domingo Nursing Home in Heredia, Costa Rica, while the active group belonged to the project entitled Modulation of the Aging Process of the Movement for Life Program. Results: No significant differences were found in scores by level of physical activity (t = 0.931, p = 0.363; however, there were significant differences in self-esteem scores by gender (t = -2.255, p = 0.034. It was concluded that the level of physical activity does not affect self-esteem and that men’s level of self-esteem is higher than women’s.

  14. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    A number of research studies provide evidence that hamstring cocontraction during open kinetic chain knee extension exercises enhances tibiofemoral (TF) stability and reduces the strain on the anterior cruciate ligament. To determine the possible increase in hamstring muscle coactivation caused by a voluntary cocontraction effort during open kinetic chain leg-extension exercises, and to assess whether an intentional hamstring cocontraction can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force during these exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Knee kinematics as well as electromyographic activity in the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured in 20 healthy men during isotonic leg extension exercises with resistance (R) ranging from 10% to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The same exercises were also performed while the participants attempted to enhance hamstring coactivation through a voluntary cocontraction effort. The data served as input parameters for a model to calculate the shear and compressive TF forces in leg extension exercises for any set of coactivation patterns of the different hamstring muscles. For R≤ 40% 1RM, the peak coactivation levels obtained with intentional cocontraction (l) were significantly higher (P hamstring muscle, maximum level l was reached at R = 30% 1RM, corresponding to 9.2%, 10.5%, and 24.5% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the BF, ST, and SM, respectively, whereas the ratio l/l 0 reached its maximum at R = 20% 1RM and was approximately 2, 3, and 4 for the BF, SM, and ST, respectively. The voluntary enhanced coactivation level l obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM completely suppressed the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. In leg extension exercises with resistance R≤ 40% 1RM, coactivation of the BF, SM, and ST can be significantly enhanced (up to 2, 3, and 4 times, respectively) by a voluntary hamstring

  15. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  16. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important subgroup to focus on during interventions

  17. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  19. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  20. Low level beta-activity radiometer with compensation of the background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vankov, I [and others

    1996-12-31

    New type of the low level beta-activity scintillation detector system is developed. The procedure of finding the beta activity and the operation of the recording unit of the radiometer are considered. 3 refs.; 5 figs.

  1. 76 FR 24038 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-NEW; Level 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-NEW; Level 1 Assessment and Level III Evaluations for the Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) AGENCY: Federal Emergency...; OMB No. 1660-NEW; FEMA Form 092-0-2, Level 1 Assessment Form; FEMA Form 092-0-2A, Level 3 Evaluation...

  2. 76 FR 52672 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Level 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...-2011-0012] Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Level 1 Assessment and Level 3 Evaluations for the Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) AGENCY: Federal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Collection of Information Title: Level 1 Assessment and Level 3 Evaluations for the...

  3. Voluntary euthanasia: ethical concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Chaloner, C

    Euthanasia is a highly emotive and contentious subject, giving rise to a great deal of debate. However, despite its frequent exposure in public and professional media, there appears to be a lack of clarity about the concepts and definitions used in the euthanasia debate. This suggests that discussions on this subject are inadequately informed and ineffectual. The ethical focus of the euthanasia debate concerns the moral legitimacy of 'voluntary euthanasia'. This article provides an overview and clarification of some of the key ethical issues at the centre of that debate.

  4. Mediation –Voluntary or Mandatory Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROSU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Part of modifications brought through 370/2009 Act to the 192/2006 Law concerning mediation and structure of mediator profession have been interpreted as establishing a preliminary mediation procedure before intimating the courts of law, in civil and commercial matters. This interpretation is in excess of operative legal provisions. Although the law in modified form stipulates the compulsoriness of judicial authorities and other jurisdictional bodies to inform the parties about the possibility and the dvantages of using mediation procedure and the obligation to guide the parties to resort at mediation, this circumstances does not affect the mediation particular voluntary nature.

  5. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet has sex-specific effects on fetal glucocorticoids with little consequence for offspring metabolism and voluntary locomotor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice H Chin

    Full Text Available Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS diet or a nutrient-matched low-fat, no-sucrose control diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. At day 17 of gestation, HFHS dams had ~20% lower circulating corticosterone levels than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between maternal diet and fetal sex for circulating corticosterone levels in the fetuses, whereby HFHS males tended to have higher corticosterone than control males, with no effect in female fetuses. However, placental 11β-HSD1 or 11β-HSD2 expression did not differ between diets or show an interaction between diet and sex. To assess potential long-term consequences of this sex-specific effect on fetal corticosterone, we studied locomotor activity and metabolic traits in adult offspring. Despite a sex-specific effect of maternal diet on fetal glucocorticoids, there was little evidence of sex-specific effects on offspring physiology or behaviour, although HFHS offspring of both sexes had higher circulating corticosterone at 9 weeks of age. Our results suggest the existence of as yet unknown mechanisms that mitigate the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure early in development, making offspring resilient to the potentially negative effects of a HFHS maternal diet.

  6. Withdrawal of voluntary inhibition unravels the off state of the spontaneous blink generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Timoleon; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-12-01

    Involuntary movements such as spontaneous eye blinks can be successfully inhibited at will. Little do we know how the voluntary motor circuits countermand spontaneous blinks. Do the voluntary inhibitory commands act to pause or to turn off the endogenous blink generator, or does inhibition intersect and counter the generator׳s excitatory outputs? In theory, the time taken for the system to generate an after-inhibition blink will reflect onto the form of inhibition. For instance, if voluntary commands were to turn the blink generator off then the after-blink latency would be fixed to the inhibition offset and reflect the time it takes for the generator to rebound and turn on. In this study we measured the after-blink latency from the offset of voluntary inhibition. Volunteers inhibited their blinks in response to sound tones of randomly varying durations. At the offset volunteers withdrew the inhibition and relaxed. Interestingly, the spontaneous after-blinks were fixed to the offset of the inhibition as if the generator rebounded from an off state. The after-blink latency was not related to the duration of the inhibition, and inhibiting even for a small fraction of the mean inter-blink interval generated an after-blink time-locked to the inhibition offset. Interestingly, the insertion of voluntary blinks after inhibition further altered the blink generator by delaying the spontaneous after-blinks. We propose that the inhibition of spontaneous blinks at the level of the generator allows for highly effective voluntary countermanding. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of such inhibition was strongly associated with motor excitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory-somatosensory temporal sensitivity improves when the somatosensory event is caused by voluntary body movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we actively interact with the environment, it is crucial that we perceive a precise temporal relationship between our own actions and sensory effects to guide our body movements.Thus, we hypothesized that voluntary movements improve perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between auditory and movement-related somatosensory events compared to when they are delivered passively to sensory receptors. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tapped a button, and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either 'sound-first' or 'touch-first' responses. We found that the performance of temporal order judgment (TOJ in the voluntary condition (as indexed by the just noticeable difference was significantly better (M=42.5 ms ±3.8 s.e.m than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition: M=66.8 ms ±6.3 s.e.m. We further examined whether the performance improvement with voluntary action can be attributed to the prediction of the timing of the stimulation from sensory cues (sensory-based prediction, kinesthetic cues contained in voluntary action, and/or to the prediction of stimulation timing from the efference copy of the motor command (motor-based prediction. When the participant’s finger was moved passively to press the button (involuntary condition and when three noise bursts were presented before the target burst with regular intervals (predictable condition, the TOJ performance was not improved from that in the passive condition. These results suggest that the improvement in sensitivity to temporal disparity between somatosensory and auditory events caused by the voluntary action cannot be attributed to sensory-based prediction and kinesthetic cues. Rather, the prediction from the efference copy of the motor command would be crucial for improving the temporal sensitivity.

  8. ANALISA PENGARUH TARIF DAN KUALITAS TERHADAP VOLUNTARY CHURN PRODUK FLEXI TRENDY (Studi Kasus : PT. Telkom Wilayah Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Santoso

    2012-02-01

    dihasilkan untuk setiap strategi adalah dengan menurunkan tarif sms Flexi Trendy ke operator lain dan tarif telepon Flexi Trendy. Kata kunci: tarif, kualitas, voluntary churn, system dynamics     Abstract   At twenty first century, telecommunication has being developed rapidly. It has been proven by technologies appearance in the telecommunication sector which facilitates people to communicate each to another. There are two kinds of wireless telecommunication service that has been known in Indonesia, Full Mobility telecommunication service or Mobile Wireless Access (MWA and Limited Mobility or Fixed Wireless Access (FWA. While, the used technology are consist of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access. PT. TELKOM is the market leader in cellular telecommunication industries which is licensed by FWA with market share up to 60% from all the FWA market in Indonesia. One of the ways to keep customer numbers is by minimizing voluntary churn. Voluntary churn is discontinuance customer numbers using PT. TELKOM service by own request.  PT. TELKOM has two licensed FWA products, Flexi Classy and Flexi Trendy. Customer numbers which are doing voluntary churn to Flexi Trendy larger than Flexi Classy. According to Mattison (2005, p.53 there are two primary factor causes voluntary churn, rate offering factor and quality offering factor. Therefore in this research, author tries to analyze rate offering and quality offering effect concerning voluntary churn for Flexi Trendy product. This research is using system dynamics as a tool to analyze the rate and quality offering effect concerning voluntary churn. From the research has been known that rate factor has greater influence and contribution than quality factor to voluntary churn occurrence. In addition to that phone rate to other phone operator factor has the greatest contribution than others factor. The best strategy according to churn produced level for each strategy is decreasing short

  9. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2

  10. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE: A Study in the Brazilian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianny Maria Forte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure theory assumes the wide availability of information to users, increasing the level of corporate transparency and reducing information asymmetry common to the business environment. This research aims to investigate the factors influencing the level of voluntary disclosure by companies in the Brazilian banking sector. Corporate reputation (REP, firm size (TAM, performance (DES, and internationalization (ADR were the variables used as factors influencing the level of disclosure. The sample was composed of the 100 largest Brazilian banks in relation to total assets in 2012. The methodology technique used multiple linear regression. The evidence revealed that the corporate reputation and the size of the companies had a significant and positive relationship with the level of voluntary disclosure. In this sense, the larger the company and higher the standard of corporate reputation, the higher the level of corporate disclosure. Performance and internationalization were not statistically significant.

  12. Comparison between electrically evoked and voluntary isometric contractions for biceps brachii muscle oxidative metabolism using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2009-09-01

    This study compared voluntary (VOL) and electrically evoked isometric contractions by muscle stimulation (EMS) for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation (tissue oxygenation index, DeltaTOI) and total haemoglobin concentration (DeltatHb = oxygenated haemoglobin + deoxygenated haemoglobin) determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Twelve men performed EMS with one arm followed 24 h later by VOL with the contralateral arm, consisting of 30 repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for the first 60 s, and maximal intensity contractions thereafter (MVC for VOL and maximal tolerable current at 30 Hz for EMS) until MVC decreased approximately 30% of pre-exercise MVC. During the 30 contractions at 30% MVC, DeltaTOI decrease was significantly (P < 0.05) greater and DeltatHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL, suggesting that the metabolic demand for oxygen in EMS is greater than VOL at the same torque level. However, during maximal intensity contractions, although EMS torque (approximately 40% of VOL) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than VOL, DeltaTOI was similar and tHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL towards the end, without significant differences between the two sessions in the recovery period. It is concluded that the oxygen demand of the activated biceps brachii muscle in EMS is comparable to VOL at maximal intensity.

  13. Voluntary Work: Between Citizenship and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Barreiro Carballal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the appearance of a series of new political subjects in democratic society at the change of the millennium, political subjects that the author considers of substantial importance in the realm of Constitutional Law. These include National Law 6/1996 concerning voluntary work, the variety of laws concerning voluntary work and finally the Organic Law, which regulates the Right to Association of March 7 2002. These are all clear examples of the recent and intense interest by the part of the administration in colonizing this until recently ignored territory. In Spain, it has been curious to note how the protagonists have changed in the debate about political participation. In the 1970s, it was seen that only parties and unions could transform society. In the 1980s, the new social movements were the only voices capable of correcting savage capitalism. Since the 1990s, only volunteers are understood to be capable of offering a bit of hope to the cloudy realm of social and political participation.

  14. Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…

  15. Voluntary Counseling and Testing untuk Orang Berisiko HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Astuti Saputri Retnaningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Study aims to know further about the implementation of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT to people with the possibility of being infected by HIV/AIDS. It is governmental service program starting from counseling, testing, and post testing in order to minimize the contagious risk of HIV/AIDS. Through the qualitative-descriptive approach, this study showed that the implementation of VCT program is very important because the process emphasizes the acceptance of client, building relationship, exploring, identifying, giving information, planning activity, determining decision, testing, up to developing the readiness of client, making planning, reading off the tests result, explaining result of the test, giving support and motivation. All of these are purposed to minimize the contagious risk, and make the infected one more optimistic in experiencing life.

  16. Voluntary wheel running is beneficial to the amino acid profile of lysine-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-06-01

    Rats voluntarily run up to a dozen kilometers per night when their cages are equipped with a running wheel. Daily voluntary running is generally thought to enhance protein turnover. Thus, we sought to determine whether running worsens or improves protein degradation caused by a lysine-deficient diet and whether it changes the utilization of free amino acids released by proteolysis. Rats were fed a lysine-deficient diet and were given free access to a running wheel or remained sedentary (control) for 4 wk. Amino acid levels in plasma, muscle, and liver were measured together with plasma insulin levels and tissue weight. The lysine-deficient diet induced anorexia, skeletal muscle loss, and serine and threonine aminoacidemia, and it depleted plasma insulin and essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. Allowing rats to run voluntarily improved these symptoms; thus, voluntary wheel running made the rats less susceptible to dietary lysine deficiency. Amelioration of the declines in muscular leucine and plasma insulin observed in running rats could contribute to protein synthesis together with the enhanced availability of lysine and other essential amino acids in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that voluntary wheel running under lysine-deficient conditions does not enhance protein catabolism; on the contrary, it accelerates protein synthesis and contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass. The intense nocturnal voluntary running that characterizes rodents might be an adaptation of lysine-deficient grain eaters that allows them to maximize opportunities for food acquisition.

  17. Post-retirement voluntary work and psychological functioning among older Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Catherine S K; Yan, Elsie C W

    2005-03-01

    This study examined demographic and psychosocial differences between older Chinese volunteers and non-volunteers. The influences of work-related factors on older Chinese volunteers' post-retirement psychological functioning and life satisfaction were also explored. A total of 501 older Chinese in Hong Kong were individually interviewed. About 65% of them were involved in community voluntary work since their retirement, with an average of four hours per week. Compared to those without voluntary work experiences, older Chinese volunteers had higher educational attainment and reported better physical health, higher self-efficacy, greater life satisfaction, and less psychological distress. Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that salient correlates of a low level of psychological distress in older Chinese volunteers were high educational attainment, high self-efficacy, perceived good physical health, and high levels of perceived rewards and satisfaction from voluntary work. Self-efficacy and perceived rewards from voluntary work were also salient correlates of life satisfaction for older Chinese volunteers. As hypothesized, work-related factors of perceived rewards and work satisfaction remained significant correlates of older volunteers' psychological well-being, even after controlling for demographic and individual psychosocial factors. Limitations and implications of the study were also discussed.

  18. Parental Intentions to Enroll Children in a Voluntary Expanded Newborn Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Ryan S.; Peay, Holly L.; Gehtland, Lisa M.; Lewis, Megan A.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Nearly all babies in the United States are tested at birth for rare, serious, and treatable disorders through mandatory state newborn screening (NBS). Recently, there have been calls for an expanded, voluntary model to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of a wider range of disorders. We applied the reasoned action framework to examine parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded screening. Methods We recruited a national cohort of recent and expectant parents living in the U.S. who completed a self-administered online survey (N = 1,001). Using a mixed-level fractional factorial experiment, we studied parental participation intentions and preferences for timing of consent, cost, consent format, and testing options. Results We conducted a hierarchical regression analysis assessing parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded NBS. Attitudes, perceived normative influence, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance in intention, with perceived normative influence emerging as the strongest predictor. We found no evidence that the manipulated program features altered mean levels of intention, but timing of parental permission, cost, and permission format moderated the relative importance of reasoned action constructs on intention. Conclusion Program design features may impact the psychological mechanisms underlying parental decision making for voluntary expanded screening. These results have important implications for parent education, outreach, and informed parental permission procedures. PMID:27526258

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of voluntary solid waste reduction policies: Methodology and a Flemish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Simon de; Eyckmans, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of statistical techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments for waste management. The voluntary character of these instruments implies that latent characteristics, unobserved by the analyst, might influence the subscription decision and might lead to biased estimates of the effectiveness of the policy instrument if standard techniques are used. We propose an extension of the difference-in-differences (DiD) estimator to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments, which is termed the dynamic difference-in-differences (or DDD) estimator. We illustrate the technique by estimating the effectiveness of voluntary cooperation agreements between the Flemish environmental administration and individual municipalities aimed at curbing residential solid waste. Using a dataset covering all 308 Flemish municipalities for the period 2000-2005, our results indicate that municipalities subscribing to the agreement accomplished less reduction of their waste levels compared to what could be expected on the basis of their own performance prior to subscription and the performance of the non-subscribers. This result might be explained by the rising marginal cost of extra residential solid waste reduction policies. In addition, there are indications that subscribing municipalities refrain from additional reduction efforts once the target waste level of the program is achieved. The more complicated DDD methodology is shown to generate additional insight over the ordinary DiD analysis

  20. Parental intentions to enroll children in a voluntary expanded newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, Ryan S; Peay, Holly L; Gehtland, Lisa M; Lewis, Megan A; Bailey, Donald B

    2016-10-01

    Nearly all babies in the United States are tested at birth for rare, serious, and treatable disorders through mandatory state newborn screening (NBS). Recently, there have been calls for an expanded, voluntary model to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of a wider range of disorders. We applied the reasoned action framework to examine parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded screening. We recruited a national cohort of recent and expectant parents living in the U.S. who completed a self-administered online survey (N = 1001). Using a mixed-level fractional factorial experiment, we studied parental participation intentions and preferences for timing of consent, cost, consent format, and testing options. We conducted a hierarchical regression analysis assessing parental intentions to participate in voluntary expanded NBS. Attitudes, perceived normative influence, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance in intention, with perceived normative influence emerging as the strongest predictor. We found no evidence that the manipulated program features altered mean levels of intention, but timing of parental permission, cost, and permission format moderated the relative importance of reasoned action constructs on intention. Program design features may impact the psychological mechanisms underlying parental decision making for voluntary expanded screening. These results have important implications for parent education, outreach, and informed parental permission procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between firm characteristics and corporate voluntary disclosure: Evidence from Turkish listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uyar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper empirically investigates the factors that impact voluntary information disclosure level of Turkish manufacturing companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of the study is content analysis of annual reports of the corporations listed on the ISE for the year 2010. Findings: The findings provide evidence of a positive association between voluntary information disclosure level and the variables such as firm size, auditing firm size, proportion of independent directors on the board, institutional/corporate ownership, and corporate governance. However, leverage and ownership diffusion were found to have negative significant association with the extent of voluntary disclosure. The remaining variables, namely, profitability, listing age, and board size were found to be insignificant. Research limitations/implications: Since this study was conducted solely on listed manufacturing companies, the results may not be generalizable to non-listed and non-manufacturing industries. The study has some implications for firms, auditors, investors, and regulators. All these parties play an important role in improving the transparency and disclosure practices of corporations. Originality/value: We extend previous research on the determinants of voluntary information disclosure in the emerging market context.

  2. Effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Mitsutoshi; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Kojima, Atsushi; Goto, Katsumasa; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5) or training (n = 12) group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant differences in muscle weight or fiber area between the groups, the numbers of satellite cells and myonuclei per muscle fiber, percentage of satellite cells, and citrate synthase activity were significantly higher in the training group compared with the control group (p run in the training group (r = 0.61, p running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without changing the mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle; this increase in satellite cell content is a function of distance run. Key pointsThere is no study about the effect of voluntary running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running training causes an increase of citrate synthase activity in the rat plantaris muscle but does not affect muscle weight and mean fiber area in the rat plantaris muscle.Voluntary running can induce an increase in the number of satellite cells without hypertrophy of the rat plantaris muscle.

  3. Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Bilski, Jan; Wojcik, Dagmara; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Surmiak, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Chmura, Anna; Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p Exercise significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p < 0.05). We conclude that: (1) experimental colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin. PMID:28425943

  4. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.; Pavlicsek, I.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195 Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  5. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  6. Physical activity levels and patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is worldwide concern over the decline in physical activity (PA) levels among school children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the (PA) levels and PA patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old boys from different race groups in the North- West Province and to determine to what degree this physical activity profile ...

  7. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  8. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  9. Level and determinants of physical activity among school adolescents in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bergier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of adolescents’ physical activity has become one of the serious challenges of the modern times, as a concern about the future health of societies. The major goal of the presented study was to discover the level of physical activity among Polish adolescents aged 16–18, and the factors which condition this level. The investigations were carried out in 2011, among 2,974 school adolescents from various locations in Poland – 1,790 girls (60.2%, and 1,184 boys (39.8%. As a study method, a short version of the IPAQ was applied. The results of the study indicated that a larger number of girls than boys show a low level of physical activity. With respect to activity among boys, higher values of intensive and moderate efforts are noted, while in girls, higher values of activities related to walking. It was confirmed that the level of physical activity does not depend on the place of residence. However, the number of physical exercise classes attended is a significant factor, both among boys and girls. It was also found that adolescents who more frequently lead a sedentary style of life are characterized by a lower level of total physical activity. Sedentary lifestyle (time spent sitting does not differ among the level of physical activity of girls and of boys, neither with respect to the scope of the total physical activity nor to its three levels (low, moderate, high.

  10. Intermediate levels of hippocampal activity appear optimal for associative memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly attributed to unsuccessful memory formation, whereas the supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity related to unsuccessful memory formation have been rarely studied. It is still unclear under what circumstances such supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity occur. To clarify this issue, we aimed at creating a condition, in which supra-optimal hippocampal activity is associated with encoding failure. We assumed that such supra-optimal activity occurs when task-relevant information is embedded in task-irrelevant, distracting information, which can be considered as noise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present fMRI study, we probed neural correlates of associative memory formation in a full-factorial design with associative memory (subsequently remembered versus forgotten and noise (induced by high versus low distraction as factors. Results showed that encoding failure was associated with supra-optimal activity in the high-distraction condition and with sub-optimal activity in the low distraction condition. Thus, we revealed evidence for a bell-shape function relating hippocampal activity with associative encoding success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that intermediate levels of hippocampal activity are optimal while both too low and too high levels appear detrimental for associative memory formation. Supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity seem to occur when task-irrelevant information is added to task-relevant signal. If such task-irrelevant noise is reduced adequately, hippocampal activity is lower and thus optimal for associative memory formation.

  11. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  12. A rapid method of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in sheep from activity levels in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.; Keatinge, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of faecal samples taken from sheep flocks as a means of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in live animals was studied. Radiocaesium levels in 1726 sheep from 29 flocks were measured using in vivo techniques and a single faecal sample taken from each flock was also analysed. A highly significant relationship was found to exist between mean flock activity and activity in the corresponding faecal samples. Least-square regression yielded a simple model for predicting mean flock radiocaesium concentrations based on activity levels in faecal samples. A similar analysis of flock maxima and activity levels in faeces provides an alternative model for predicting the expected within-flock maximum radiocaesium concentration. (Author)

  13. The current situation of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among children in Takatsuki, Japan: focus on Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki. © 2013 APJPH.

  14. Voluntary certification systems in the EU wine sector: How to recognise quality and be safe from confusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandi Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant growth in voluntary certification schemes field in wine sector, by following a general trend that has characterised agricultural products and foodstuffs. The voluntary certification system is aimed at adding value to products, while differentiating it on the related market. The paper presents the preliminary results of a work-in-progress research on the voluntary certification schemes in the Italian wine sector. Through a case-study analysis, the paper is aimed at highlighting the emerging implementation issues. The scope of the case-studies is limited to three voluntary certification schemes, which underlie similarities with the organic wine farming and operate at business-to-consumer level. The paper is divided in three parts. Part I will examine the relevant legal framework on wine quality standards, by framing the legislation in mandatory, regulatory and voluntary. Part II will consider three case-studies of voluntary certification schemes that are implemented in the Italian wine sector. Part III will analyse the emerging issues that arise from the analysis of the case-studies. In conclusion, the paper highlights the key challenge, which concerns finding a trade-off between consumer protection and the promotion of free trade in an openly competitive market.

  15. Validation of the human activity profile questionnaire as a measure of physical activity levels in older community-dwelling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastone, Alessandra de Carvalho; Moreira, Bruno de Souza; Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) by comparing scores with accelerometer data and by objectively testing its cutoff points. This study included 120 older women (age 60-90 years). Average daily time spent in sedentary, moderate, and hard activity; counts; number of steps; and energy expenditure were measured using an accelerometer. Spearman rank order correlations were used to evaluate the correlation between the HAP scores and accelerometer variables. Significant relationships were detected (rho = .47-.75, p < .001), indicating that the HAP estimates physical activity at a group level well; however, scatterplots showed individual errors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine HAP cutoff points on the basis of physical activity level recommendations, and the cutoff points found were similar to the original HAP cutoff points. The HAP is a useful indicator of physical activity levels in older women.

  16. Enhancing voluntary participation in community collaborative forest management: a case of Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Sri; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines voluntary participation in community forest management, and characterizes how more participation may be induced. We implemented a survey of 571 respondents and conducted a case study in Central Java, Indonesia. The study's novelty lies in categorizing the degrees of participation into three levels and in identifying how socio-economic factors affect people's participation at each level. The analysis finds that voluntary participation responds to key determinants, such as education and income, in a different direction, depending on each of the three levels. However, the publicly organized programs, such as information provision of benefit sharing, are effective, irrespective of the levels of participation. Overall, the results suggest a possibility of further success and corrective measures to enhance the participation in community forest management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M. (and others)

    2006-12-15

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map.

  18. A Planning Study for the Enhancement of National Nuclear Transparency through the Voluntary Contribution to IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the experts' opinions and a case study of typical country in order to enhance international transparency and confidence for national nuclear policy and its activities. And direction and strategies for strengthening cooperation with IAEA through various voluntary contribution into IAEA activities, was also investigated as well as long term strategic road map. It is important to strengthen the nuclear diplomacy in order to increase transparency of Korean nuclear activities through the establishment of nation-wide collaborative systems as well as systematic and long term based implementation of positive measures and actions. At the same time, it is also required to strengthen cooperation with IAEA through voluntary contribution program into relevant IAEA activities as well as establishing national long term strategies and road map

  19. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.

  1. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  2. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC20....... A high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  3. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Erwin; Wanner Miriam; Zimmermann-Sloutskis Dorith; Martin Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a longitudinal study...

  4. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Yoshio; Oka Koichiro; Shibata Ai; Muraoka Isao

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-age...

  5. Canadian population trends in leisure-time physical activity levels, 1981-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marny J; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2002-12-01

    Age, sex, geographic and temporal trends in leisure-time physical activity levels were examined using data from five national surveys conducted between 1981 and 1998. Physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) was higher among men compared to women, and in younger versus older adults. AEE increased from Eastern to Western Canada, with a significant temporal trend of increasing AEE. The prevalence of physical inactivity (expending importance of population-level physical activity surveillance and interventions.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem K; Ahuja, Alok; Kalra, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors) and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials) who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. The sample population consisted of mostly men (67%) in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most prominent. This study illustrates how increasing awareness and

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. Aim: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. Result: The sample population consisted of mostly men (67% in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most

  8. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  9. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  10. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Oxygen Uptake Among Norwegian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated activity levels among adolescents, but no study has examined longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA level, body mass, and oxygen uptake among the same adolescents from the age of 14 to 19 years. The present study examined data from a research project that included a group of randomly selected students (N = 116 with objective measurements of PA (accelerometer data, self-reported PA level, and body mass and oxygen uptake during a 5-year period. The results show a significant decrease in the accelerometer-based PA level over time, from age 14 to 19. At 14 years of age, the minutes of moderate and/or vigorous PA was 66.7 min·day−1, but was less than half, at only 24.4 min·day−1, at 19 years of age. The self-reported activity data show a decrease in girls’ general activity level over time, while boys’ activity level during school breaks decreased strongly during the period: at age 14, 61% of the boys were classified as active, while at age 19, only 11% were physically active. Furthermore, body mass index increased during the period for both genders, while oxygen uptake decreased. Since both BMI and maximal oxygen uptake are important risk factors for future CVD, these findings point toward the importance of maintaining a high activity level during childhood and adolescence, in order to keep fit later in life.

  11. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production

  12. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; DE Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; DEN Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and nonhuman animal models. This consensus article, developed as a result of an American College of Sports Medicine-sponsored round table, provides a brief review of the theoretical concepts and existing literature that supports a significant role of genetic and other biological factors in the regulation of physical activity. Future research on physical activity regulation should incorporate genetics and other biological determinants of physical activity instead of a sole reliance on social and other environmental determinants.

  13. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity...

  14. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  15. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  16. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  17. Differential Effects of Voluntary and Forced Exercise on Stress Responses after Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Griesbach, Grace S.; Tio, Delia L.; Vincelli, Jennifer; McArthur, David L.; Taylor, Anna N.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) when it occurs during a delayed time window. In contrast, acute post-TBI exercise does not increase BDNF. It is well known that increases in glucocorticoids suppress levels of BDNF. Moreover, recent work from our laboratory showed that there is a heightened stress response after fluid percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if a heightened stress response is also observed ...

  18. Motor unit firing rate patterns during voluntary muscle force generation: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Muscle force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU) recruitment and changes in the discharge rate of active MUs. There have been two basic MU recruitment and firing rate paradigms reported in the literature, which describe the control of the MUs during force generation. The first (termed the reverse ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits lower firing rates for lower threshold units, with higher firing rates occurring in higher threshold units. The second (termed the ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits an inverse arrangement, with lower threshold units reaching higher firing rates. Approach. Using a simulation of the MU activity in a hand muscle, this study examined the force generation capacity and the variability of the muscle force magnitude at different excitation levels of the MU pool under these two different MU control paradigms. We sought to determine which rate/recruitment scheme was more efficient for force generation, and which scheme gave rise to the lowest force variability. Main results. We found that the force output of both firing patterns leads to graded force output at low excitation levels, and that the force generation capacity of the two different paradigms diverged around 50% excitation. In the reverse ‘onion skin’ pattern, at 100% excitation, the force output reached up to 88% of maximum force, whereas for the ‘onion skin’ pattern, the force output only reached up to 54% of maximum force at 100% excitation. The force variability was lower at the low to moderate force levels under the ‘onion skin’ paradigm than with the reverse ‘onion skin’ firing patterns, but this effect was reversed at high force levels. Significance. This study captures the influence of MU recruitment and firing rate organization on muscle force properties, and our results suggest that the different firing organizations can be beneficial at different levels of voluntary muscle force generation and perhaps for different tasks.

  19. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  20. Gender Disparity in Structured Physical Activity and Overall Activity Level in Adolescence: Evaluation of Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kang, Youjeong; Daly, Brian P.; Brown, Michael D.; Patterson, Freda

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adolescent girls are less likely to meet physical activity recommendations than boys. This study examined the relative contribution of structured physical activity opportunities including physical education (PE) class and sports teams to overall activity levels for girls and boys. Methods. Data from 591 9th–12th grade students who completed the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between PE and sport...