Sample records for volumetric wear rates

  1. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  2. Consideration of Wear Rates at High Velocities (United States)


    tionally, the texts by Bayer [3; 4], Rabinowicz [30], and Stachowiak [32] thoroughly cover the topic of wear mechanisms. A summary of the material is...March 1976. 30. Rabinowicz , E. Friction and Wear of Metals. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995. 31. Saka, N., A. M. Eleiche, and N. P. Suh. “Wear of

  3. Volumetric Growth Rate of Recurrent Pleomorphic Adenoma. (United States)

    Naunheim, Molly; Wu, Xin; Ryan, William R; Wang, Steven J; Heaton, Chase M


    Surgery for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA) can be challenging and may increase the risk of operative complications, particularly facial nerve weakness. As observation may be a viable alternative to surgery for slow-growing tumors, our objective was to assess the growth rate of recurrent PAs. This study is a case series of patients at our tertiary academic medical center with recurrent PA. Two magnetic resonance images (MRI) were compared; total volume (TV) of recurrent tumor on both studies was calculated to obtain our main outcomes of percent change in TV and tumor growth rate. Fourteen patients with recurrent PA had a median interval time between MRI of 12.8 months. Though growth rates were variable, the median continuous compound growth per year was 10.2%. Notably, 3 patients (21%) had no growth, and 2 patients (14%) had a reduction in TV. The median growth rate for enlarging tumors is estimated at 10.2% per year. Due to variability, tumor growth rate should be estimated on an individual patient basis. For slow-growing tumors, physicians may weigh the risk of this slow growth with the morbidity of reoperation.

  4. Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography-based microangiography (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.


    Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-rate volumetric OCT-based microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame rate of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video rate up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.

  5. Analysis of Changing Swarm Rate using Volumetric Strain (United States)

    Kumazawa, T.; Ogata, Y.; Kimura, K.; Maeda, K.; Kobayashi, A.


    Near the eastern coast of Izu peninsula is an active submarine volcanic region in Japan, where magma intrusions have been observed many times. The forecast of earthquake swarm activities and eruptions are serious concern particularly in nearby hot spring resort areas. It is well known that temporal durations of the swarm activities have been correlated with early volumetric strain changes at a certain observation station of about 20 km distance apart. Therefore the Earthquake Research Committee (2010) investigated some empirical statistical relations to predict sizes of the swarm activity. Here we looked at the background seismicity rate changes during these swarm periods using the non-stationary ETAS model (Kumazawa and Ogata, 2013, 2014), and have found the followings. The modified volumetric strain data, by removing the effect of earth tides, precipitation and coseismic jumps, have significantly higher cross-correlations to the estimated background rates of the ETAS model than to the swarm rate-changes. Specifically, the background seismicity rate synchronizes clearer to the strain change by the lags around a half day. These relations suggest an enhanced prediction of earthquakes in this region using volumetric strain measurements. Hence we propose an extended ETAS model where the background rate is modulated by the volumetric strain data. We have also found that the response function to the strain data can be well approximated by an exponential functions with the same decay rate, but that their intersects are inversely proportional to the distances between the volumetric strain-meter and the onset location of the swarm. Our numerical results by the same proposed model show consistent outcomes for the various major swarms in this region.

  6. The predictive analysis of wear work-rates in wear test rigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalippou, C.; Delaune, X.


    Impact and sliding wear in components is classically studied, as far as the wear laws are concerned, in specific wear test rigs that simulate the vibratory motion induced by the flow. In this paper, an experimental and numerical study on the impact forces and wear work-rates of a typical AECL rig is presented. The mode shapes and frequencies are measured and compared with finite element computations. Impact and sliding motions between the wear specimens are calculated and compared to the experimental results. Impact forces, mean values of wear work-rates as well as the specimen relative motions are found to be close to the experimental data. (authors). 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Prediction of wear rates in comminution equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas Roald Dörig; Fundal, Erling; Møller, Per


    Raw material comminution equipment may be exposed to excessive wear, which makes it difficult to operate minerals processing plants continuously because lengthy and unplanned shut-downs interrupt the overall process. In general, most comminution equipment is fine-tuned to operate at low vibrations......-resistant high chromium white cast iron (21988/JN/HBW555XCr21), a heat-treated wear resistant steel (Hardox 400) and a plain carbon construction steel (S235). Quartz, which accounts for the largest wear loss in the cement industry, was chosen as abrasive. Other process parameters such as velocity (1–7 m...

  8. The Volumetric Rate of Superluminous Supernovae at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Prajs, S; Smith, M; Levan, A; Karpenka, N V; Edwards, T D P; Walker, C R; Wolf, W M; Balland, C; Carlberg, R; Howell, A; Lidman, C; Pain, R; Pritchet, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V


    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z~1, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically-identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett (2010) and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91 (+76/-36) SNe/Yr/Gpc^3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z=1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2 (+1.8/-0.9) x10^-4 of the volumetric core collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formati...

  9. The volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae at z ˜ 1 (United States)

    Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Levan, A.; Karpenka, N. V.; Edwards, T. D. P.; Walker, C. R.; Wolf, W. M.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R.; Howell, D. A.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.


    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z ˜ 1.0, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et al. and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91^{+76}_{-36} SNe yr-1 Gpc-3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z = 1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2^{+1.8}_{-0.9}× 10^{-4} of the volumetric core-collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formation history. We also estimate the rate of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts based on the events discovered by the Swift satellite, and show that it is comparable to the rate of SLSNe, providing further evidence of a possible connection between these two classes of events. We also examine the host galaxies of the SLSNe discovered in SNLS, and find them to be consistent with the stellar-mass distribution of other published samples of SLSNe.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Wear Rate of Different Riva Glass Ionomers

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    Vahid Yaghoubi


    Full Text Available Introduction: wear is one of the most important factors that cause loss of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the wear rate in light-cured glass ionomers SDI. Materials and Methods: 20 samples consisted of light-cured Ionomer Glass Riva and Riva HV and Fuji II and composit Z250 to 2mm and length and width 10mm in Copper generator were prepared (n = 5 and were put in a wear device. Samples in wear cycles, in the course of 5000, 10000, 20000, 40000, 80000, 120000 respectively cycles via cobalt chrome cylindrical abrasive was under wear. Digital scale with 0.1 mg precision was used for gravimetric. Data using One Way Anova and Post hoc Tukey test and Spss software was analyzed. Results: The weight loss was as follows: Glass Ionomer light cure Riva ˂Glass Ionomer light cure Riva HV ˂Glass Ionomer light cure Fuji II ˂composite Z250. The other three groups were statistically significant weight loss between the composite Z250 and but the difference in weight loss between the groups and Glass Ionomer light cure Riva, Glass Ionomer light cure Riva HV, Glass Ionomer light cure Fuji II was found after 120,000 cycles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the wear of glass ionomers Capsule Riva is similar Fuji II LC but the wear of glass inomers is much more than composite Z250 which seems ready to take in areas not exposed to occlusal stress.

  11. Optimization of pulsed DC PACVD parameters: Toward reducing wear rate of the DLC films (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mansoureh; Mahboubi, Farzad; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza


    The effect of pulsed direct current (DC) plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) parameters such as temperature, duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio on the wear behavior and wear durability of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). DLC films were deposited on nitrocarburized AISI 4140 steel. Wear rate and wear durability of the DLC films were examined with the pin-on-disk method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques were used for studying wear mechanisms, chemical structure, and hardness of the DLC films. RSM results show that duty cycle is one of the important parameters that affect the wear rate of the DLC samples. The wear rate of the samples deposited with a duty cycle of >75% decreases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. In contrast, for a duty cycle of <65%, the wear rate increases with an increase in the argon/CH4 ratio. The wear durability of the DLC samples increases with an increase in the duty cycle, hydrogen flow, and argon/CH4 flow ratio at the deposition temperature between 85 °C and 110 °C. Oxidation, fatigue, abrasive wear, and graphitization are the wear mechanisms observed on the wear scar of the DLC samples deposited with the optimum deposition conditions.

  12. Volumetric Examination of MS Plaques and Correlation with EDSS Ratings. (United States)

    Gurwara, S; Hailey, B; Thompson, A; Minagar, A; Hardjasudarma, M; Gonzalez-Toledo, E


    This study is a retrospective analysis of 17 patients with multiple sclerosis. The total volume of plaques from three different MR image sets of the brain was correlated with the EDSS ratings of the patients. Each of the correlations showed a positive relationship, but none was statistically significant. A more extensive study is required in order to give significance to these relationships.

  13. Detecting Safety Zone Drill Process Parameters for Uncoated HSS Twist Drill in Machining GFRP Composites by Integrating Wear Rate and Wear Transition Mapping

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    Sathish Rao Udupi


    Full Text Available The previous research investigations informed that the tool wear of any machining operation could be minimized by controlling the machining factors such as speed, feed, geometry, and type of cutting tool. Hence the present research paper aims at controlling the process parameters to minimize the drill tool wear, during the machining of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP composites. Experiments were carried out to find the tool wear rate and a wear mechanism map of uncoated High Speed Steel (HSS drill of 10 mm diameter was developed for the drilling of GFRP composite laminates. The surface micrograph images on the drill land surface displayed dominant wear mechanisms induced on HSS drill during machining of GFRP and they were found to be adhesive wear, adhesive and abrasive wear, abrasive wear, and diffusion and fatigue wear. A “safety wear zone” was identified on the wear mechanism map, where the minimum tool wear of the HSS drill occurs. From the safety zone boundaries, it was inferred that the drill spindle speed should be set between 1200 and 1590 rpm and feed rate must be set within a range of 0.10–0.16 mm/rev for GFRP work and HSS tool combination to enhance the service life of 10 mm HSS drills and to minimize the tool wear.

  14. Wear rate evaluation of a novel polycarbonate-urethane cushion form bearing for artificial hip joints. (United States)

    Elsner, Jonathan J; Mezape, Yoav; Hakshur, Keren; Shemesh, Maoz; Linder-Ganz, Eran; Shterling, Avi; Eliaz, Noam


    There is growing interest in the use of compliant materials as an alternative to hard bearing materials such as polyethylene, metal and ceramics in artificial joints. Cushion form bearings based on polycarbonate-urethane (PCU) mimic the natural synovial joint more closely by promoting fluid-film lubrication. In the current study, we used a physiological simulator to evaluate the wear characteristics of a compliant PCU acetabular buffer, coupled against a cobalt-chrome femoral head. The wear rate was evaluated over 8 million cycles gravimetrically, as well as by wear particle isolation using filtration and bio-ferrography (BF). The gravimetric and BF methods showed a wear rate of 9.9-12.5mg per million cycles, whereas filtration resulted in a lower wear rate of 5.8mg per million cycles. Bio-ferrography was proven to be an effective method for the determination of wear characteristics of the PCU acetabular buffer. Specifically, it was found to be more sensitive towards the detection of wear particles compared to the conventional filtration method, and less prone to environmental fluctuations than the gravimetric method. PCU demonstrated a low particle generation rate (1-5×10⁶ particles per million cycles), with the majority (96.6%) of wear particle mass lying above the biologically active range, 0.2-10μm. Thus, PCU offers a substantial advantage over traditional bearing materials, not only in its low wear rate, but also in its osteolytic potential.

  15. Volumetric flow rate comparisons for water and product on pasteurization systems. (United States)

    Schlesser, J E; Stroup, W H; McKinstry, J A


    A flow calibration tube system was assembled to determine the volumetric flow rates for water and various dairy products through a holding tube, using three different flow promotion methods. With the homogenizer, the volumetric flow rates of water and reconstituted skim milk were within 1.5% of each other. With the positive displacement pump, the flow rate for reconstituted skim milk increased compared with that for water as the pressure increased or temperature decreased. The largest increase in flow rate was at 310-kPa gauge and 20 degrees C. On a magnetic flow meter system, the volumetric flow rates of water and reconstituted skim milk were within .5% of the flow rate measured from the volume collected in a calibrated tank. The flow rate of whole milk was similar to that of skim milk on the three flow promoters evaluated. Ice milk mix increased the flow rate of the positive displacement pump, but not the homogenizer and magnetic flow meter system.

  16. Predicting Offshore Swarm Rate Changes by Volumetric Strain Changes in Izu Peninsula, Japan (United States)

    Kumazawa, T.; Ogata, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Maeda, K.; Kobayashi, A.


    The eastern offshore of Izu peninsula is one of the well known volcanic active regions in Japan, where magma intrusions have been observed several times since 1980s monitored by strain-meters located nearby. Major swarm activities have been synchronously associated with coseismic and preseismic significant sizes of a volumetric strain changes (Earthquake Research Committee, 2010). We investigated the background seismicity changes during these earthquake swarms using the nonstationary ETAS model (Kumazawa and Ogata, 2013), and have found the followings. The modified volumetric strain change data by removing the effect of earth tides and precipitation as well as removing coseismic jumps have much higher cross-correlations to the background rates of the ETAS model than to the whole seismicity rate change of the ETAS, and further the strain changes precede the background seismicity by lag of about a day. This relation suggests an enhanced prediction of earthquakes in this region using volumetric strain measurements. Thus we propose an extended ETAS model where the background seismicity rate is predicted by the time series of preceding volumetric strain changes. Our numerical results for Izu region show consistent outcomes throughout the major swarms in this region. References Earthquake Research Committee (2010). Report on "Prediction of seismic activity in the Izu Eastern Region" (in Japanese), Kumazawa, T. and Ogata, Y. (2013). Quantitative description of induced seismic activity before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake by nonstationary ETAS model, J Geophys.Res. 118, 6165-6182.

  17. On the influence of strain rate sensitivity on wear in the Archard regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechet, Y. (Domaine Univ. de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France). Lab. de Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie Metallurgique); Estrin, Y. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)


    Relating wear characteristics of a metallic material to its mechanical properties (yield strength, strain hardening coefficient) and its microstructural features (size and volume fraction of inclusions) is a long-standing problem. The diversity of mechanisms which are involved during wear processes makes it practically impossible to have a general theory which would encompass all thinkable situations corresponding to various loads and various regimes of sliding. Different regimes and the conditions for their occurrence have been systematized in wear mechanism maps. In this communication the authors are going to restrict their consideration to plasticity dominated wear which is expected to occur in the low velocity range where surface heating is negligible. In this regime, the prevalent wear mechanism is the removal of slivers of metal by plastic failure due to shearing of contact asperities. The classic works by Rabinowicz have demonstrated clearly that solid friction is a rate dependent problem and that the velocity dependence of dynamic solid friction is nothing else than a consequence of the increase of static solid friction with time during which normal load was applied prior to the commencement of sliding. Creep under normal compression stress leads to flattening of the junctions causing their strength to increase with time. Like solid friction, wear appears to be a rate dependent phenomenon, and the strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress can be expected to be relevant for wear resistance. The strain rate sensitivity is known to play an important role in other damage related properties, such as ductility and fracture toughness. The authors felt that it would be of interest to evaluate the effect of strain rate sensitivity on the wear rate as part of an attempt to relate the wear properties to a bulk constitutive equation, and as a guideline for assessing the influence of alloying elements known to affect the strain rate sensitivity.

  18. 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging: in vivo quantification of arterial volumetric flow rate in a single heartbeat (United States)

    Correia, Mafalda; Provost, Jean; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu


    We present herein 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging, a novel ultrasound-based volumetric imaging technique for the quantitative mapping of blood flow. Complete volumetric blood flow distribution imaging was achieved through 2D tilted plane-wave insonification, 2D multi-angle cross-beam beamforming, and 3D vector Doppler velocity components estimation by least-squares fitting. 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging was performed in large volumetric fields of view at very high volume rate (>4000 volumes s-1) using a 1024-channel 4D ultrafast ultrasound scanner and a 2D matrix-array transducer. The precision of the technique was evaluated in vitro by using 3D velocity vector maps to estimate volumetric flow rates in a vessel phantom. Volumetric Flow rate errors of less than 5% were found when volumetric flow rates and peak velocities were respectively less than 360 ml min-1 and 100 cm s-1. The average volumetric flow rate error increased to 18.3% when volumetric flow rates and peak velocities were up to 490 ml min-1 and 1.3 m s-1, respectively. The in vivo feasibility of the technique was shown in the carotid arteries of two healthy volunteers. The 3D blood flow velocity distribution was assessed during one cardiac cycle in a full volume and it was used to quantify volumetric flow rates (375  ±  57 ml min-1 and 275  ±  43 ml min-1). Finally, the formation of 3D vortices at the carotid artery bifurcation was imaged at high volume rates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KIYAK


    Full Text Available The improvements of adaptive control and computer aided manufacturing need to be sensitively determined tool wear rate during machining. Reserarchers working on this topic have developed direct and indirect methods. To determine tool wear rate during machining by measuring of cutting temperature is an indirect method. In this study, two measuring techniques, work-tool thermocouple technique and a method that is realized by using a thermocouple assambed by embeding in the tool have been used. Both of them have been tested by obtaining tool wear using hard metal insert and turning mild steel and compared one with the other using different point of views.

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: VI. The Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Barbary, K; Amanullah, R; Brodwin, M; Connolly, N; Dawson, K S; Doi, M; Eisenhardt, P; Faccioli, L; Fadeyev, V; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E; Huang, X; Ihara, Y; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Lubin, L; Meyers, J; Morokuma, T; Oda, T; Panagia, N; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanford, S A; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Yasuda, N


    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate out to z ~ 1.6 from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. In observations spanning 189 orbits with the Advanced Camera for Surveys we discovered 29 SNe, of which approximately 20 are SNe Ia. Twelve of these SNe Ia are located in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. Using these new data, we derive the volumetric SN Ia rate in four broad redshift bins, finding results consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthening the case for a SN Ia rate that is equal to or greater than ~0.6 x 10^-4/yr/Mpc^3 at z ~ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. We provide SN candidates and efficiency calculations in a form that makes it easy to rebin and combine these results with other measurements for increased statistics. Finally, we compare the assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements, finding that different assumptions may induce sig...

  1. Evolution in the Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Perrett, K; Conley, A; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Carlberg, R; Fouchez, D; Ripoche, P; Neill, J D; Astier, P; Balam, D; Balland, C; Basa, S; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Pritchet, C; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Baumont, S; Lidman, C; Perlmutter, S; Walker, E S


    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNR_Ia) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1volumetric SNR_Ia evolution is consistent with a rise to z~1.0 that follows a power-law of the form (1+z)^alpha, with alpha=2.11+/-0.28. This evolutionary trend in the SNLS rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star-formation history over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., proportional to t^-beta) yields values from beta=0.98+/-0.05 to beta=1.15+/-0.08 depending on the parameterization of t...

  2. Study Tensile Strength and Wear Rate for Unsaturated Polyester Resin and Nitrile butadiene Rubber Polymer Blend

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    Entihaa G. Daway


    Full Text Available Binary polymer blend was prepared by mechanical mixing method of unsaturated polyester resin with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR with different weight ratios (0, 5, 10 and 15 % of (NBR. Tensile characteristics and wear rates of these blends were studied for all mixing ratios. The microstructure of fracture surfaces of the prepared samples were investigated by optical microscope. The results were showed that strain rates of the resin material increase after blending it with rubber while the ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus values of it will decrease. It is also noticed that the wear rate of resin decreases with increasing of (NBR content.

  3. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

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    Jianxi Wang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  4. effect of turning parameters on metal removal and tool wear rates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1,3,4 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGR., FEDERAL UNIV. OF PETROLEUM RESOURCES ... Keywords: Orthogonal array, Robust design, Tool wear rate, Metal removal rate. 1. ... use of improved harmony search algorithm to determine the optimum ... objective optimization of turning parameters was conducted using ...

  5. Dental erosive wear and salivary flow rate in physically active young adults

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    Mulic Aida


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate. Methods Young members (age range 18-32 years of a fitness-centre were invited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy young adults training hard at least twice a week. A non-exercising comparison group was selected from an ongoing study among 18-year-olds. Two hundred and twenty participants accepted an intraoral examination and completed a questionnaire. Seventy of the exercising participants provided saliva samples. The examination was performed at the fitness-centre or at a dental clinic (comparison group, using tested erosive wear system (VEDE. Saliva sampling (unstimulated and stimulated was performed before and after exercise. Occlusal surfaces of the first molars in both jaws and the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper incisors and canines were selected as index teeth. Results Dental erosive wear was registered in 64% of the exercising participants, more often in the older age group, and in 20% of the comparison group. Enamel lesions were most observed in the upper central incisors (33%; dentine lesions in lower first molar (27%. One fourth of the participants had erosive wear into dentine, significantly more in males than in females (p = 0.047. More participants with erosive wear had decreased salivary flow during exercise compared with the non-erosion group (p Conclusion The study showed that a high proportion of physically active young adults have erosive lesions and indicate that hard exercise and decreased stimulated salivary flow rate may be associated with such

  6. Recoil-Implantation Of Multiple Radioisotopes Towards Wear Rate Measurements And Particle Tracing In Prosthetic Joints (United States)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Smith, Paul N.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Gladkis, Laura; Timmers, Heiko


    This study demonstrates a new method of radioisotope labeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene inserts in prosthetic joints for wear studies. The radioisotopes 97Ru, 100Pd, 100Rh, and 101mRh are produced in fusion evaporation reactions induced by 12C ions in a 92Zr target foil. The fusion products recoil-implant into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene plugs, machined to fit into the surface of the inserts. During laboratory simulations of the joint motion, a wear rate of the labeled polyethylene may be measured and the pathways of wear debris particles can be traced by detecting characteristic gamma-rays. The concentration profiles of the radioisotopes extend effectively uniformly from the polyethylene surface to a depth of about 4 μm. The multiplicity of labeling and the use of several gamma-ray lines aids with avoiding systematic measurement uncertainties. Two polyethylene plugs were labeled and one was fitted into the surface of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis, which had been worn in. Actuation over close to 100,000 cycles with a 900 N axial load and a 24° flexion angle removed (14±1)% of the gamma-ray activity from the plug. Most of this activity dispersed into the serum lubricant identifying this as the important debris pathway. Less than 1% activity was transferred to the femoral component of the prosthesis and the measured activity on the tibial tray was insignificant. Assuming uniform wear across the superior surface of the insert, a wear rate of (12±3) mm3/Megacycle was determined. This is consistent with wear rate measurements under similar conditions using other techniques.

  7. Rate distortion optimal bit allocation methods for volumetric data using JPEG 2000. (United States)

    Kosheleva, Olga M; Usevitch, Bryan E; Cabrera, Sergio D; Vidal, Edward


    Computer modeling programs that generate three-dimensional (3-D) data on fine grids are capable of generating very large amounts of information. These data sets, as well as 3-D sensor/measured data sets, are prime candidates for the application of data compression algorithms. A very flexible and powerful compression algorithm for imagery data is the newly released JPEG 2000 standard. JPEG 2000 also has the capability to compress volumetric data, as described in Part 2 of the standard, by treating the 3-D data as separate slices. As a decoder standard, JPEG 2000 does not describe any specific method to allocate bits among the separate slices. This paper proposes two new bit allocation algorithms for accomplishing this task. The first procedure is rate distortion optimal (for mean squared error), and is conceptually similar to postcompression rate distortion optimization used for coding codeblocks within JPEG 2000. The disadvantage of this approach is its high computational complexity. The second bit allocation algorithm, here called the mixed model (MM) approach, mathematically models each slice's rate distortion curve using two distinct regions to get more accurate modeling at low bit rates. These two bit allocation algorithms are applied to a 3-D Meteorological data set. Test results show that the MM approach gives distortion results that are nearly identical to the optimal approach, while significantly reducing computational complexity.

  8. Feasibility study of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate for endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ruijie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Junjie, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Feng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Hua [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Xile [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)


    To investigate the feasibility, efficiency, and delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate (VMAT-CDR) for whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) of endometrial cancer. The nine-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), VMAT with variable dose-rate (VMAT-VDR), and VMAT-CDR plans were created for 9 patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs), and normal tissue (NT) were compared. The monitor units (MUs) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated. For each VMAT-CDR plan, a dry run was performed to assess the dosimetric accuracy with MatriXX from IBA. Compared with IMRT, the VMAT-CDR plans delivered a slightly greater V{sub 20} of the bowel, bladder, pelvis bone, and NT, but significantly decreased the dose to the high-dose region of the rectum and pelvis bone. The MUs decreased from 1105 with IMRT to 628 with VMAT-CDR. The delivery time also decreased from 9.5 to 3.2 minutes. The average gamma pass rate was 95.6% at the 3%/3 mm criteria with MatriXX pretreatment verification for 9 patients. VMAT-CDR can achieve comparable plan quality with significant shorter delivery time and smaller number of MUs compared with IMRT for patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. It can be accurately delivered and be an alternative to IMRT on the linear accelerator without VDR capability.

  9. Evaluation of wear rate of dental composites polymerized by halogen or LED light curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaghehmand H.


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sufficient polymerization is a critical factor to obtain optimum physical properties and clinical efficacy of resin restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate wear rates of composite resins polymerized by two different systems Light Emitting Diodes (LED to and Halogen lamps. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory study, 20 specimens of A3 Tetric Ceram composite were placed in brass molds of 2*10*10 mm dimensions and cured for 40 seconds with 1 mm distance from surface. 10 specimens were cured with LED and the other 10 were cured with Halogen unit. A device with the ability to apply force was developed in order to test the wear of composites. After storage in distilled water for 10 days, the specimens were placed in the wear testing machine. A chrome cobalt stylus with 1.12 mm diameter was applied against the specimens surfaces with a load of 2 kg. The weight of each samples before and after 5000, 10000, 20000, 40000, 80000 and 120000 cycles was measured using an electronic balance with precision of 10-4 grams. Data were analyzed using t test and paired t test. P0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, LED and halogen light curing units resulted in a similar wear rate in composite resin restorations.

  10. An Experimental Investigation for Wear Rate Optimization on Different Gear Materials Using Hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet sing v Makwana


    Full Text Available An Experimental Investigation for Wear Rate Optimization on Different Gear Materials (EN8, 8620 & MILD STEEL Using Hardening.” mainly focuses on the mechanical design and analysis of gearbox as transmit the power and live long life. Gears play an essential role in the performance of many products that we rely on in our everyday lives. Gears are mainly used in lathes machines, automobiles and all torque transmitting units. The improved mechanical properties achieved by hardening process. This research focuses on optimizing wear rate of different gear materials using hardening process. The main Objective of this research is to find out the best material for manufacturing gear by hardening process.

  11. Wear rate and surface coating optimization of coconut coir-based polymer using fuzzy logic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The use of fuzzy logic for modeling surface parameters of coconut coir-based composite is the focus of this research paper. Natural fiber–polymer composite has been developed by combining coconut coir as a stimulator and polyester as a fixative. This sturdy material is resistant to scratches in the coating process on the surface layer of composite material. The specimen of this composite material is fabricated by different coir fiber and resin content. A polyurethane coating is also applied with varied thickness to give better wear rate and surface coating properties. A fuzzy logic approach is adopted to invent the optimal wear rate and surface coating using coating thickness and fiber content properties. The results indicate the best combinations of coatingthickness and its surface roughness of the sandwiches. MATLAB 7 is used in this work.

  12. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik


    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus......, the irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... spectroscopy (FTIR). Wear was assessed by a three-body test. Data were submitted to Levene's test, one and three-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD test (alpha = 0.05). Results: Immersion in ethanol, curing mode, and material all had significant effects on Wallace hardness. After ethanol storage, resin composites...

  13. Polyethylene sterilization and production affects wear in total hip arthroplasties. (United States)

    Faris, Philip M; Ritter, Merrill A; Pierce, Andrew L; Davis, Kenneth E; Faris, Gregory W


    Production and package sterilization techniques for the polyethylene used in acetabular components for total hip arthroplasties are known to affect wear. We considered three combinations of techniques: sterilization by radiation in inert gas with isostatically molded polyethylene, in inert gas and ram-extruded polyethylene, and in air with extruded polyethylene. The intent of this study was to confirm that molded polyethylene and polyethylene radiated in inert environments reduce wear rates in vivo, to determine the combination of methods with the least wear, and to determine how much variance in wear is attributable to these methods. We reviewed 150 consecutive total hip arthroplasties done in 133 patients using 28-mm cobalt-chrome femoral heads and polyethylene-lined, titanium, ring-locked acetabular components. The least wear occurred in gamma inert-molded polyethylene components. The mean volumetric wear rates were 52.12 mm3/year for gamma inert-molded, 62.32 mm3/year for gamma inert-extruded, and 66.09 mm3/year for gamma air-extruded polyethylene components. Relative risk assessment found gamma air-extruded and gamma inert-extruded polyethylene components to wear 16% and 11% more than gamma inert-molded polyethylene components, respectively. Gender, body mass index, and age accounted for the greatest amount of the explained variance in volumetric wear (57.5%, 21.6%, and 14.4, respectively), followed by angle of wear (3.4%), and sterilization and production technique (3.2%).

  14. Effects of gap size and excitation frequency on the vibrational behavior and wear rate of fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zupan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Thouless, M.D., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lu, Wei, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: A wear map shows wear rate as a function of the grid-to-rod gap size and the frequency of the excitation force. The critical gap size, which is associated with the maximum wear rate, lies within the harmonic regime. In the no wear region the amplitude of the rod vibration is smaller than the gap size so that no impact between the rod and plate can happen. The curve of the resonant frequency of the system appears to overlap with the peaks in the contour. - Highlights: • A 3D finite-element based approach to study grid-to-rod fretting. • Two important factors: grid-to-rod gap size and frequency of the excitation force. • Rod vibration shows three regimes: harmonic, period-doubling and chaotic. • A critical gap size is associated with the maximum wear rate. • A wear map shows wear rate as a function of the gap size and excitation frequency. - Abstract: Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) wear is a major cause of fuel leaks. Understanding its mechanism is crucial for improving the reliability of nuclear reactors. In this paper we present a three-dimensional, finite-element based approach, which reveals how the wear rate depends on the size of the gap between the grid and the fuel rod, and on the frequency of the excitation force. We show that these two factors affect the dynamic vibration of the rod, which leads to three different regimes: harmonic, period-doubling and chaotic. The wear rate in the harmonic regime is significantly larger than that in the other two regimes, and reaches a maximum when the excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the system, which is dependent on the gap size. We introduce the concept of a critical gap size that gives the maximum wear rate, and we identify the properties and values of this critical gap size. A wear map is developed as a result of a large number of parametric studies. This map shows quantitatively the wear rate as a function of the gap size and excitation frequency, and will be a

  15. An Experimental study of the initial volumetric strain rate effect on the creep behaviour of reconstituted clays (United States)

    Bagheri, M.; Rezania, M.; Nezhad, M. M.


    Clayey soils tend to undergo continuous compression with time, even after excess pore pressures have substantially dissipated. The effect of time on deformation and mechanical response of these soft soils has been the subject of numerous studies. Based on these studies, the observed time-dependent behaviour of clays is mainly related to the evolution of soil volume and strength characteristics with time, which are classified as creep and/or relaxation properties of the soil. Apart from many empirical relationships that have been proposed in the literature to capture the rheological behaviour of clays, a number of viscid constitutive relationships have also been developed which have more attractive theoretical attributes. A particular feature of these viscid models is that their creep parameters often have clear physical meaning (e.g. coefficient of secondary compression, Cα). Sometimes with these models, a parameter referred to as initial/reference volumetric strain rate, has also been alluded as a model parameter. However, unlike Cα, the determination of and its variations with stress level is not properly documented in the literature. In an attempt to better understand , this paper presents an experimental investigation of the reference volumetric strain rate in reconstituted clay specimens. A long-term triaxial creep test, at different shear stress levels and different strain rates, was performed on clay specimen whereby the volumetric strain rate was measured. The obtained results indicated the stress-level dependency and non-linear variation of with time.

  16. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.


    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual prospect

  17. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.


    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual

  18. Study of abrasive wear rate of silicon using n-alcohols (United States)

    Danyluk, S.


    The work carried out at the University of Illinois at Chicago for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project under contract No. 956053 is summarized. The abrasion wear rate of silicon in a number of fluid environments and the parameters that influence the surface mechanical properties of silicon were determined. Three tests were carried out in this study: circular and linear multiple-scratch test, microhardness test and a three-point bend test. The pertinent parameters such as effect of surface orientation, dopant and fluid properties were sorted. A brief review and critique of previous work is presented.

  19. Seatbelt wearing rates in middle income countries: a cross-country analysis. (United States)

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bishai, David; Chandran, Aruna; Bhalla, Kavi; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Gupta, Shivam; Slyunkina, Ekaterina; Hyder, Adnan A


    In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) using observational studies as well as to produce estimates of country-level and site-level variance. As part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Program, data on driver and passenger seatbelt use across four middle-income countries was collected between October 2010 and May 2011 (n=122,931 vehicles). Logistic regression and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient analyses for sites- and country-level clustering were performed. We found high variability of seatbelt wearing rates ranging from 4 to 72% in drivers and 3-50% in front-seat passengers. Overall, average seatbelt wearing rates were low (under 60% in most sites). At the individual level, older and female drivers were more likely to wear seatbelts, as well as drivers of vehicles transiting at times of increased vehicle flow. We also found that 26-32% and 37-41% of the variance in seatbelt use among drivers and front-seat passengers respectively was explained by differences across sites and countries. Our results demonstrate that there is room for improvement on seatbelt use in middle-income countries and that standardized cross-country studies on road safety risk factors are feasible, providing valuable information for prevention and monitoring activities.

  20. Higher wear-rate of third-generation metal-backed Reflection cups with eto-sterilised UHMWPE at a mean 13 years follow-up. (United States)

    Hengst, David M; Thomsen, Per B; Homilius, Morten; Hansen, Torben B; Stilling, Maiken


    Polyethylene (PE) wear and osteolysis is a recognised problem with non-cross linked PE liners and first generation modular cup designs. Wear particles induce osteolysis leading to aseptic loosening. We retrospectively compared the linear PE wear and implant survival and revision rates of the Reflection Cup and the Duraloc 300. After a mean clinical follow-up of 13 years (range 11-15 years), the 2D linear PE wear-rate of the Reflection liner (n = 68) was 0.23 mm/year, with a mean total wear of 3.14 mm (1.04-7.36), SD 1.45. The wear-rate of the Duraloc 300 cups (n = 32) was 0.14 mm/year, with a mean total wear of 1.84 mm (0.55-4.63), SD 1.07. The difference in PE wear-rate as well as mean total wear was highly significant (p = 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between wear-rate and both Oxford Hip Score and Harris Hip Score (p = 0.02). Large acetabular cup size (>54 mm), HA coating on the stem and age <50 years did not influence PE wear. The higher wear-rate in the Reflection liners could be related to the EtO sterilisation. Intermediate and long-term follow-up is advisable.

  1. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk


    The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the lower vertical section and a condenser on the upper vertical section. The one-dimensional homogeneous and separated two-phase flow models were used in calculations. The latest minichannel heat transfer correlations available in literature were applied. A numerical analysis of the volumetric flow rate in the steady-state has been done. The experiment was conducted on a specially designed test apparatus. Ultrapure water was used as a working fluid. The results show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured volumetric flow rate at steady-state.

  2. Condition-based maintenance for a system subject to a non-homogeneous wear process with a wear rate transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grall, Antoine [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)


    The aim of this paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance model for a gradually deteriorating system. The system considered initially deteriorates with a nominal deterioration rate and at an unknown time the system's deterioration rate changes and the new deterioration rate is a time-dependent function. To deal with the transition of mode of deterioration in the framework of the maintenance decision rule an adequate online change detection algorithm is used. The maintenance decision rule is chosen in order to minimise the total maintenance cost including the cost of unavailability. The main result of this paper is to point out the interest of using a detection algorithm and hence the appreciation of a decision rule which takes into account transitions in the deterioration rate.

  3. Assessment of wear facets produced by the ACTA wear machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana R; Larsen, Liselotte; Dowling, Adam H


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of a three-dimensional (3D) digital scanning method in determining the accuracy of the wear performance parameters of resin-based composites (RBCs) determined using a two-dimensional (2D) analogue methodology following in-vitro testing in an Academisch Centrum...... an assessment of the potential of the experimental RBC formulations for clinical usage. CONCLUSION: The 3D technique allowed for the assessment of mean maximum wear depth and mean total volumetric wear which enables tribological analyses of the wear facet and therefore the wear mechanisms operative. Employing...... profilers is useful when screening potential new RBC formulations for the restoration of posterior dentition....

  4. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  5. Wear of Polished Steel Surfaces in Dry Friction Linear Contact on Polimer Composites with Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rus


    Full Text Available It is generally known that the friction and wear between polymers and polished steel surfaces has a special character, the behaviour to friction and wear of a certain polymer might not be valid for a different polymer, moreover in dry friction conditions. In this paper, we study the reaction to wear of certain polymers with short glass fibres on different steel surfaces, considering the linear friction contact, observing the friction influence over the metallic surfaces wear. The paper includes also its analysis over the steel’s wear from different points of view: the reinforcement content influence and tribological parameters (load, contact pressure, sliding speed, contact temperature, etc.. Thus, we present our findings related to the fact that the abrasive component of the friction force is more significant than the adhesive component, which generally is specific to the polymers’ friction. Our detections also state that, in the case of the polyamide with 30% glass fibres, the steel surface linear wear rate order are of 10-4 mm/h, respectively the order of volumetric wear rate is of 10-6 cm3 /h. The resulting volumetric wear coefficients are of the order (10-11 – 10-12 cm3/cm and respectively linear wear coefficients of 10-9 mm/cm.

  6. Evaluation of wear rates and mechanisms of titanium diboride-graphite composite materials proposed for use as cathodes in Hall-Heroult cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Brimhall, J.L.; Raney, P.J.; Hart, P.E.


    Purpose of this study was to measure the initial wear rates of TiB/sub 2/ carbon-containing cathode materials (TiB/sub 2/-G) under electrolytic conditions. Parameters evaluated included bath ratio, current density, and aluminum pad thickness. In order to measure initial wear rates, the tests were limited to 8 h.

  7. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Velocity Vector Imaging and Volumetric Flow Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev


    scanner SARUS. Measurements are conducted on a carotid artery flow phantom from Danish Phantom Design, and 20 frames are acquired with a constant flow rate of 16.7±0.17 mL/s provided by a Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies CompuFlow 1000 system. The peak velocity magnitude in the vessel is found...

  8. Evaluation of wear rate on material vane of hydraulic pump by standard ASTM G 77


    Rodriguez Ballesteros, Nairo Julian


    En el desarrollo de la investigación se evaluó la rata de desgaste en los materiales (bronce C93700 y resina fenólica reforzada con fibras de Aramida) de las paletas de una bomba hidráulica de referencia BLACKMER ML, bajo el método estándar ASTM G77- 2010, “Ranking Resistence of Materials to Sliding Wear Using Block-on-Ring Wear Test”. A partir de un análisis experimental del contacto par tribológico probetas “block on ring” bajo cinco niveles de carga (5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 N), s...

  9. Megahertz rate, volumetric imaging of bubble clouds in sonothrombolysis using a sparse hemispherical receiver array (United States)

    Acconcia, Christopher N.; Jones, Ryan M.; Goertz, David E.; O’Reilly, Meaghan A.; Hynynen, Kullervo


    It is well established that high intensity focused ultrasound can be used to disintegrate clots. This approach has the potential to rapidly and noninvasively resolve clot causing occlusions in cardiovascular diseases such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, lack of an appropriate treatment monitoring tool is currently a limiting factor in its widespread adoption. Here we conduct cavitation imaging with a large aperture, sparse hemispherical receiver array during sonothrombolysis with multi-cycle burst exposures (0.1 or 1 ms burst lengths) at 1.51 MHz. It was found that bubble cloud generation on imaging correlated with the locations of clot degradation, as identified with high frequency (30 MHz) ultrasound following exposures. 3D images could be formed at integration times as short as 1 µs, revealing the initiation and rapid development of cavitation clouds. Equating to megahertz frame rates, this is an order of magnitude faster than any other imaging technique available for in vivo application. Collectively, these results suggest that the development of a device to perform DVT therapy procedures would benefit greatly from the integration of receivers tailored to bubble activity imaging.

  10. Diamond Tool Specific Wear Rate Assessment in Granite Machining by Means of Knoop Micro-Hardness and Process Parameters (United States)

    Goktan, R. M.; Gunes Yılmaz, N.


    The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential usability of Knoop micro-hardness, both as a single parameter and in combination with operational parameters, for sawblade specific wear rate (SWR) assessment in the machining of ornamental granites. The sawing tests were performed on different commercially available granite varieties by using a fully instrumented side-cutting machine. During the sawing tests, two fundamental productivity parameters, namely the workpiece feed rate and cutting depth, were varied at different levels. The good correspondence observed between the measured Knoop hardness and SWR values for different operational conditions indicates that it has the potential to be used as a rock material property that can be employed in preliminary wear estimations of diamond sawblades. Also, a multiple regression model directed to SWR prediction was developed which takes into account the Knoop hardness, cutting depth and workpiece feed rate. The relative contribution of each independent variable in the prediction of SWR was determined by using test statistics. The prediction accuracy of the established model was checked against new observations. The strong prediction performance of the model suggests that its framework may be applied to other granites and operational conditions for quantifying or differentiating the relative wear performance of diamond sawblades.

  11. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.


    Pin-on-disc tests of tungsten carbide pins against silicon carbide discs were performed and wear rate, mechanism and friction maps constructed. Correlations were observed between the wear mode and the friction of the pin-disc interface, and between the qualitative incidence of disruptive wear...

  12. SU-E-T-421: Feasibility Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Constant Dose Rate for Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R; Wang, J [Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China)


    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility, efficiency, and delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy with constant dose rate (VMAT-CDR) for whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) of endometrial cancer. Methods: The nine-Field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), VMAT with variable dose-rate (VMAT-VDR), and VMAT-CDR plans were created for 9 patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. The dose distribution of planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs), and normal tissue (NT) were compared. The monitor units (MUs) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated. For each VMAT-CDR plan, a dry Run was performed to assess the dosimetric accuracy with MatriXX from IBA. Results: Compared with IMRT, the VMAT-CDR plans delivered a slightly greater V20 of the bowel, bladder, pelvis bone, and NT, but significantly decreased the dose to the high-dose region of the rectum and pelvis bone. The MUs Decreased from 1105 with IMRT to 628 with VMAT-CDR. The delivery time also decreased from 9.5 to 3.2 minutes. The average gamma pass rate was 95.6% at the 3%/3 mm criteria with MatriXX pretreatment verification for 9 patients. Conclusion: VMAT-CDR can achieve comparable plan quality with significant shorter delivery time and smaller number of MUs compared with IMRT for patients with endometrial cancer undergoing WPRT. It can be accurately delivered and be an alternative to IMRT on the linear accelerator without VDR capability. This work is supported by the grant project, National Natural; Science Foundation of China (No. 81071237)

  13. Response surface modelling of tool electrode wear rate and material removal rate in micro electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan


    conductivity and high strength causing it extremely difficult tomachine. Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM) is a non-conventional method that has a potential toovercome these restrictions for machining of Inconel 718. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used for modelling thetool Electrode Wear...

  14. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alajmi


    Full Text Available The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE, Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE, and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE. The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR and coefficient of friction (COF of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs, as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  15. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites. (United States)

    Alajmi, Mahdi; Shalwan, Abdullah


    The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.

  16. Impact of small MU/segment and dose rate on delivery accuracy of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). (United States)

    Huang, Long; Zhuang, Tingliang; Mastroianni, Anthony; Djemil, Toufik; Cui, Taoran; Xia, Ping


    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans may require more control points (or segments) than some of fixed-beam IMRT plans that are created with a limited number of segments. Increasing number of control points in a VMAT plan for a given prescription dose could create a large portion of the total number of segments with small number monitor units (MUs) per segment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the small number MU/segment on the delivery accuracy of VMAT delivered with various dose rates. Ten patient datasets were planned for hippocampus sparing for whole brain irradiation. For each dataset, two VMAT plans were created with maximum dose rates of 600 MU/min (the maximum field size of 21 × 40 cm2) and 1000 MU/min (the maximum field size of 15 × 15 cm2) for a daily dose of 3 Gy. Without reoptimization, the daily dose of these plans was purposely reduced to 1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy while keeping the same total dose. Using the two dose rates and three different daily doses, six VMAT plans for each dataset were delivered to a physical phantom to investigate how the changes of dose rate and daily doses impact on delivery accuracy. Using the gamma index, we directly compared the delivered planar dose profiles with the reduced daily doses (1.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy) to the delivered planar dose at 3 Gy daily dose, delivered at dose rate of 600 MU/min and 1000 MU/min, respectively. The average numbers of segments with MU/segment ≤ 1 were 35 ± 8, 87 ± 6 for VMAT-600 1.5 Gy, VMAT-600 1 Gy plans, and 30 ± 7 and 42 ± 6 for VMAT-1000 1.5 Gy and VMAT-1000 1 Gy plans, respectively. When delivered at 600 MU/min dose rate, the average gamma index passing rates (1%/1 mm criteria) of comparing delivered 1.5 Gy VMAT planar dose profiles to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose profiles was 98.28% ± 1.66%, and the average gamma index passing rate of comparing delivered 1.0 Gy VMAT planar dose to 3.0 Gy VMAT delivered planar dose was 83.75% ± 4.86%. If using 2%/2mm

  17. Total hip wear assessment: a comparison between computational and in vitro wear assessment techniques using ISO 14242 loading and kinematics. (United States)

    Matsoukas, George; Willing, Ryan; Kim, Il Yong


    In the present study a direct comparison was made between in vitro total hip wear testing and a computational analysis considering the effects of time and a nonlinear stress-strain relationship for ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) at 37 degrees C. The computational simulation was made correct through calibration to experimental volumetric wear results, and the predicted damage layout on the acetabular liner surface was compared with results estimated from laser scanning of the actual worn specimens. The wear rates for the testing specimens were found to be 17.14+/-1.23 mg/10(6) cycles and 19.39+/-0.79 mg/10(6) cycles, and the cumulative volumetric wear values after 3x10(6) cycles were 63.70 mm(3) and 64.02 mm(3) for specimens 1 and 2, respectively. The value of the calibrated wear coefficient was found to be 5.32(10(-10)) mm(3)/N mm for both specimens. The major difference between the computational and experimental wear results was the existence of two damage vectors in the experimental case. The actual location of damage was virtually the same in both cases, and the maximum damage depth of the computational model agreed well with the experiment. The existence of multiple wear vectors may indicate the need for computational approaches to account for multidirectional sliding or strain hardening of UHMWPE. Despite the limitation in terms of describing the overall damage layout, the present computational model shows that simulation can mimic some of the behavior of in vitro wear.

  18. Rates of anterior tooth wear in Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) (United States)

    de Castro, J. M. Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, M.; Sarmiento, S.; Lozano, M.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Carbonell, E.


    This study presents quantitative data on the rates of anterior tooth wear in a Pleistocene human population. The data were obtained for the hominin sample of the Sima de los Huesos site in Atapuerca, Spain. The fossil record belongs to a minimum of 28 individuals of the same biological population, assigned to the species Homo heidelbergensis. We have estimated the original and the preserved crown height of the mandibular incisors (I1 and I2) of 11 individuals, whose age at death can be ascertained from the mineralization stage and tooth eruption. Results provide a range of 0.276–0.348 and 0.288–0.360 mm per year for the mean wear rate of the mandibular I1 and I2, respectively, in individuals ≈16–18 years old. These data suggest that incisors' crowns would be totally worn out toward the fifth decade of life. Thus, we expect the life expectancy of this population to be seriously limited. These data, which could be contrasted with results obtained on hominins at other sites, could be of interest for estimating the death age of adult individuals. PMID:14528001

  19. Rates of anterior tooth wear in Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Sarmiento, S; Lozano, M; Arsuaga, J L; Carbonell, E


    This study presents quantitative data on the rates of anterior tooth wear in a Pleistocene human population. The data were obtained for the hominin sample of the Sima de los Huesos site in Atapuerca, Spain. The fossil record belongs to a minimum of 28 individuals of the same biological population, assigned to the species Homo heidelbergensis. We have estimated the original and the preserved crown height of the mandibular incisors (I1 and I2) of 11 individuals, whose age at death can be ascertained from the mineralization stage and tooth eruption. Results provide a range of 0.276-0.348 and 0.288-0.360 mm per year for the mean wear rate of the mandibular I1 and I2, respectively, in individuals approximately 16-18 years old. These data suggest that incisors' crowns would be totally worn out toward the fifth decade of life. Thus, we expect the life expectancy of this population to be seriously limited. These data, which could be contrasted with results obtained on hominins at other sites, could be of interest for estimating the death age of adult individuals.

  20. Effects of tool geometry and welding rates on the tool wear behavior and shape optimization in friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 6061 + 20% aluminum oxide MMC (United States)

    Prado, Rafael Arcangel

    FSW is a new solid-state process currently being investigated for joining aluminum alloys that are difficult to weld, where there is no perceptible wear of the pin tool throughout the experiment. The present report investigates and examines tool wear in the friction-stir welding of Al 6061-T6 and Al 6061-T6 containing 20% (volume) Al2O3 particles, a metal matrix composite (MMC), in order to compare wear optimized tool geometries and corresponding parameters. The weld tool, referred to as pin tool or nib, did not exhibit any measurable wear in the FSW of the 6061 Al alloy even after traversing tens of meters of material. However, the pin tool geometry changed during the FSW of the Al 6061-T6 containing 20% (volume) Al2O3 particles. Tool wear was measured in relation to the original tool by weighing the photograph of the tool and comparing the percentage change relative to the original tool photograph. The maximum wear rate was roughly 0.64 %/cm at 1000 rpm for the MMC at 1 mm/s traverse speed. The best performance involving the least wear for MMC FSW was observed at a tool rotational speed of 500 rpm and a traverse speed of 3 mm/s; where the corresponding wear rate was 0.13 %/cm. Optical, scanning and transmission microscopy were used to characterize the microstructures of the base material and weld zone for the MMC confirming the solid phase nature of the technique. The microstructure of the friction stir weld zone shows a characteristic dynamic recrystallization phenomenon that acts as a mechanism to accommodate the super-plastic deformation and facilitates the bonding. Rockwell E hardness profiles for both aluminum alloys were measured from the base metals through the FSW zone near the through-thickness mid-section. In the FSW of Al 6061 containing 20% (volume) Al2O3 particles, tool wear has been shown to depend primarily on rotational and traverse speeds, with optimum wear occurring at 1000 rpm. However, as the traverse or actual weld speed is increased from 1

  1. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, Jakob [Karolinska Institutet, The Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Stockholm (Sweden); Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Anders [Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  2. The influence of kinematic conditions and design on the wear of patella-femoral replacements. (United States)

    Maiti, Raman; Fisher, John; Rowley, Liam; Jennings, Louise M


    The success rate of patella-femoral arthroplasty varies between 44% and 90% in 17 years of follow-up. Several studies have been performed previously for assessing the surface wear in the patella-femoral joint. However, they have not included all six degrees of freedom. The aim of this study was to develop a six-axis patella-femoral joint simulator to assess the wear rate for two patellae designs (round and oval dome) at different kinematic conditions. An increase in patellar rotation from 1° to 4° led to a significantly (p0.08). The increase in wear rate was likely due to the higher cross shear. A decrease in patellar medial lateral displacement from passive to constrained resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in wear (p>0.06). There was no significant difference in wear rate between the two patellae designs (p>0.28). The volumetric wear under all conditions was positively correlated with the level of passive patellar tilt (rho>0.8). This is the first report of preclinical wear simulation of patella-femoral joint in a six-axis simulator under different kinematic conditions.

  3. The effect of insert conformity and material on total knee replacement wear. (United States)

    Abdelgaied, Abdellatif; Brockett, Claire L; Liu, Feng; Jennings, Louise M; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John


    The mean average life is increasing; therefore, there is a need to increase the lifetime of the prostheses. To fulfil this requirement, new prosthetic designs and materials are being introduced. Two of the design parameters that may affect wear of total knee replacements, and hence the expected lifetime, are the insert conformity and material. Computational models have been used extensively for wear prediction and optimisation of artificial knee designs. The objective of the present study was to use a previously validated non-dimensional wear coefficient-based computational wear model to investigate the effect of insert conformity and material on the predicted wear in total knee replacements. Four different inserts (curved, lipped, partial flat and custom flat), with different conformity levels, were tested against the same femoral and under two different kinematic inputs (intermediate and high), with different levels of cross-shear. The insert bearing materials were either conventional or moderately cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear predictions were validated against the experimental data from Leeds knee simulation tests. The predicted wear rates for the curved insert (most conformed) were more than three times those for the flat insert (least conformed). In addition, the computationally predicted average volumetric wear rates for moderately cross-linked UHMWPE bearings were less than half of their corresponding conventional UHMWPE bearings. Moreover, the wear of the moderately cross-linked UHMWPE was shown to be less dependent on the degree of cross-shear, compared to conventional UHMWPE. These results along with supporting experimental studies provide insight into the design variables, which may reduce wear in knee replacements.

  4. Material Removal Rate, Electrode Wear Rate, and Surface Roughness Evaluation in Die Sinking EDM with Hollow Tool through Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teepu Sultan


    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining is one of the earliest nontraditional machining, extensively used in industry for processing of parts having unusual profiles with reasonable precision. In the present work, an attempt has been made to model material removal rate, electrode wear rate, and surface roughness through response surface methodology in a die sinking EDM process. The optimization was performed in two steps using one factor at a time for preliminary evaluation and a Box-Behnken design involving three variables with three levels for determination of the critical experimental conditions. Pulse on time, pulse off time, and peak current were changed during the tests, while a copper electrode having tubular cross section was employed to machine through holes on EN 353 steel alloy workpiece. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the proposed mathematical models obtained can adequately describe the performances within the limits of factors being studied. The experimental and predicted values were in a good agreement. Surface topography is revealed with the help of scanning electron microscope micrographs.

  5. Two features of the uniaxial compression of a glassy epoxy resin: the yield stress rate-dependence and the volumetric instability (United States)

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Belleri, Andrea


    We report the results of uniaxial compressive tests on a DGEBA epoxy resin at room temperature, well below its glass transition. We first focus on the strength, defined as the stress value corresponding to either a maximum or a flattening of the stress-strain curve, which, for this polymer, may be taken to be coincident with the yield stress, as often assumed for many thermosets. Within the strain rate range (1.E-6 s-1, 2.E-3 s-1) we confirm the linear trend relating the logarithm of the strain rate to the yield stress, as already been observed by other investigators even for the same epoxy resin; instead, at strain rates below dot{\\varepsilon} 0 ≈ 1.E{-}6 s^{-1}, we found a negligible rate-dependence, as our data indicate a lowest limit of the yield stress, of about 87 MPa. On the basis of these results, we propose how to extend to the viscoplastic regime of deformation a nonlinear viscoelastic model previously put forward. Secondarily, within the viscoelastic range, at a stress level significantly lower than the yield stress, our measurements show a mild volumetric instability, allowed by the free lateral expansion, not ascribable to any macroscopic structural effect; such a behaviour has never been reported in the literature, to the best of our knowledge.

  6. The High performance of nanocrystalline CVD diamond coated hip joints in wear simulator test. (United States)

    Maru, M M; Amaral, M; Rodrigues, S P; Santos, R; Gouvea, C P; Archanjo, B S; Trommer, R M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F; Achete, C A


    The superior biotribological performance of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings grown by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was already shown to demonstrate high wear resistance in ball on plate experiments under physiological liquid lubrication. However, tests with a close-to-real approach were missing and this constitutes the aim of the present work. Hip joint wear simulator tests were performed with cups and heads made of silicon nitride coated with NCD of ~10 μm in thickness. Five million testing cycles (Mc) were run, which represent nearly five years of hip joint implant activity in a patient. For the wear analysis, gravimetry, profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used. After 0.5 Mc of wear test, truncation of the protruded regions of the NCD film happened as a result of a fine-scale abrasive wear mechanism, evolving to extensive plateau regions and highly polished surface condition (Ra<10nm). Such surface modification took place without any catastrophic features as cracking, grain pullouts or delamination of the coatings. A steady state volumetric wear rate of 0.02 mm(3)/Mc, equivalent to a linear wear of 0.27 μm/Mc favorably compares with the best performance reported in the literature for the fourth generation alumina ceramic (0.05 mm(3)/Mc). Also, squeaking, quite common phenomenon in hard-on-hard systems, was absent in the present all-NCD system.

  7. Influence of the Hard-Faced Layer Welded on Tangential-Rotary Pick Operational Part on to Its Wear Rate (United States)

    Krauze, Krzysztof; Skowronek, Tadeusz; Mucha, Kamil


    Problems related with abrasive wear of tangential-rotary picks during cutting process and its limitations, have been discussed in the present study. Essential for the parameters of cutting process geometrical, kinematic and material parameters of tangential-rotary picks and types of their wear, have been discussed. Testing procedure in aspect of the wear of tangential-rotary picks and their durability estimation, has been described. Manners of the abrasion of pick body and pick edge of the tangential-rotary picks, have been determined. Particular attention was paid to procedure of hard facing of the pick operational part and its influence onto mining process. Results of examination of tangential-rotary picks with hard facing layer on operational part near insert made of abrasion sintered carbide are also cited.

  8. Wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron (United States)

    Lerner, Y. S.; Kingsbury, G. R.


    A detailed review of wear resistance properties of austempered ductile iron (ADI) was undertaken to examine the potential applications of this material for wear parts, as an alternative to steels, alloyed and white irons, bronzes, and other competitive materials. Two modes of wear were studied: adhesive (frictional) dry sliding and abrasive wear. In the rotating dry sliding tests, wear behavior of the base material (a stationary block) was considered in relationship to countersurface (steel shaft) wear. In this wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was only one-fourth that of pearlitic ductile iron (DI) grade 100-70-03; the wear rates of aluminum bronze and leaded-tin bronze, respectively, were 3.7 and 3.3 times greater than that of ADI. Only quenched DI with a fully martensitic matrix slightly outperformed ADI. No significant difference was observed in the wear of steel shafts running against ADI and quenched DI. The excellent wear performance of ADI and its countersurface, combined with their relatively low friction coefficient, indicate potential for dry sliding wear applications. In the abrasive wear mode, the wear rate of ADI was comparable to that of alloyed hardened AISI 4340 steel, and approximately one-half that of hardened medium-carbon AISI 1050 steel and of white and alloyed cast irons. The excellent wear resistance of ADI may be attributed to the strain-affected transformation of high-carbon austenite to martensite that takes place in the surface layer during the wear tests.

  9. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong


    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  10. Can pin-on-disk testing be used to assess the wear performance of retrieved UHMWPE components for total joint arthroplasty? (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; MacDonald, Daniel W; Kocagöz, Sevi; Tohfafarosh, Mariya; Baykal, Doruk


    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of using multidirectional pin-on-disk (POD) testing to characterize wear behavior of retrieved ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The POD wear behavior of 25 UHMWPE components, retrieved after 10 years in vivo, was compared with 25 that were shelf aged for 10-15 years in their original packaging. Components were gamma sterilized (25-40 kGy) in an air or reduced oxygen (inert) package. 9 mm diameter pins were fabricated from each component and evaluated against CoCr disks using a super-CTPOD with 100 stations under physiologically relevant, multidirectional loading conditions. Bovine serum (20 g/L protein concentration) was used as lubricant. Volumetric wear rates were found to vary based on the aging environment, as well as sterilization environment. Volumetric wear rates were the lowest for the pins in the gamma inert, shelf aged cohort. These results support the utility of using modern, multidirectional POD testing with a physiologic lubricant as a novel method for evaluating wear properties of retrieved UHMWPE components. The data also supported the hypothesis that wear rates of gamma-inert liners were lower than gamma-air liners for both retrieved and shelf aging conditions. However, this difference was not statistically significant for the retrieved condition.

  11. Can Pin-on-Disk Testing Be Used to Assess the Wear Performance of Retrieved UHMWPE Components for Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Kurtz


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of using multidirectional pin-on-disk (POD testing to characterize wear behavior of retrieved ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE. The POD wear behavior of 25 UHMWPE components, retrieved after 10 years in vivo, was compared with 25 that were shelf aged for 10–15 years in their original packaging. Components were gamma sterilized (25–40 kGy in an air or reduced oxygen (inert package. 9 mm diameter pins were fabricated from each component and evaluated against CoCr disks using a super-CTPOD with 100 stations under physiologically relevant, multidirectional loading conditions. Bovine serum (20 g/L protein concentration was used as lubricant. Volumetric wear rates were found to vary based on the aging environment, as well as sterilization environment. Volumetric wear rates were the lowest for the pins in the gamma inert, shelf aged cohort. These results support the utility of using modern, multidirectional POD testing with a physiologic lubricant as a novel method for evaluating wear properties of retrieved UHMWPE components. The data also supported the hypothesis that wear rates of gamma-inert liners were lower than gamma-air liners for both retrieved and shelf aging conditions. However, this difference was not statistically significant for the retrieved condition.

  12. Analysis of polyethylene wear of reverse shoulder components: A validated technique and initial clinical results. (United States)

    Lewicki, Kathleen A; Bell, John-Erik; Van Citters, Douglas W


    One of the most prevalent phenomena associated with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) is scapular notching. Current methods examine only the damage to the scapula and no methods are available for quantifying the total wear volume of the polyethylene humeral bearing. Quantifying the polyethylene material loss may provide insight into the mechanism for scapular notching and into the particle dose delivered to the patient. A coordinate measurement machine (CMM) and custom computer algorithms were employed to quantify the volumetric wear of polyethylene humeral bearings. This technique was validated using two never-implanted polyethylene humeral liners with a controlled amount of wear in clinically relevant locations. The technique was determined to be accurate to within 10% of the known value and within 5 mm(3) of the gravimetrically determined values. Following validation, ten retrieved polyethylene humeral liners were analyzed to determine a baseline for future clinical tests. Four of the ten polyethylene humeral liners showed visible and measureable wear volumes ranging from 40 mm(3) to 90 mm(3) total with a maximum wear rate as high as 470 mm(3) /year in one short duration and significantly damaged humeral liner. This validated technique has the potential to relate patient outcomes such as scapular notching grades to polyethylene release into the body. While the total wear volumes are less than reported in literature for cases of osteolysis in knee and hip patients, dosages are well within the osteolytic thresholds that have been suggested, indicating that osteolysis may be a clinical concern in the shoulder. This work provides the basis for future studies that relate volumetric wear to patient outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Eye Wear (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  14. Correlation between Mechanical Properties with Specific Wear Rate and the Coefficient of Friction of Graphite/Epoxy Composites


    Mahdi Alajmi; Abdullah Shalwan


    The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific...

  15. Wear Behavior of Woven Roving Aramid / Epoxy Composite under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad A. Khalid


    Full Text Available Wear behavior studies of aramid woven roving /epoxy composite has been conducted. Sliding the material against smooth steel counter face under dry and  lubricated with oil conditions has been investigated. Powder of Silicon carbide has been mixed with the epoxy resin and tested also. The powder was mixed in a volumetric fraction of 10% with the epoxy resin. Four Laminates of six layers were fabricated by hand lay up  method. A pin on disc apparatus has been fabricated to conduct the sliding wear tests on specimens of (4 mm   4 mm   12 mm in size have been cut from the four laminates. The effect of sliding condition including dry, lubricated, dry with additives and lubricated with additives have been studied. Wear rate tests have been conducted at different sliding speeds and loads. Results show that the wear characteristics are influenced by the operating conditions and the construction of the composite material used. It was also found that the wear of aramid /epoxy composite onto the steel counter face were significantly reduced by using lubricant and additives but still took place.Keywords: Wear, Composite materials, Woven roving aramid, Epoxy, Additives, Lubricant.

  16. Abrasive Wear Map of Polymer Tapes in Sand Dust Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tong-hai; DIAO Dong-feng


    To make clear the wear conditions of ATM (Automatic Teller Machine) tribosystem when servicing in Chinese sand dust environment, abrasive wear of two kinds of polymer tapes specified for ATM, PI (Polyimide) and PEN (Polyethylene-2, 6-naphthalenedicarboxylate), was investigated in simulated sand dust environment with ATM tape-scraper tribosystem under various conditions of loads and sliding distances. The surface profiles of worn tape were measured with a surface profiler in order to calculating the wear cross-section areas and the wear volumes. The specific wear rates of polymer tapes were calculated under load conditions of 0.6, 1 and 1.5 N, and wear mechanisms were investigated with optical topography photos. As main results, the specific wear rates show stage variations in the wear process and the wear resistance of polymer tape shows good relationship with the mechanical deformation factors. In consideration of the service life, four wear models are generalized according to the magnitude of specific wear rates,which include no wear, mild wear, normal wear and severe wear model and the corresponding wear mechanisms for the four wear models are discussed with typical worn topographies. Based on the wear models and corresponding wear mechanisms, the abrasive wear maps of two polymer tapes servicing in sand dust environments are concluded for its industrial applications.

  17. Comparative evaluation of effect of complete denture wears on the flow rate of saliva in both medicated and apparently healthy patients (United States)

    Sonthalia, Abhay; Chandrasekaran, Arun P.; Mhaske, Sheetal P.; Lau, Mayank; Joshy, V. R.; Attokaran, George


    Aim and Objectives: In the denture wearing people, saliva is necessary to create adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension that ultimately leads to the increased retention of the denture. Medications have some influence on the flow rate of saliva and denture retention. The present study evaluates the effect of complete denture wear on the flow rate of saliva in both medicated and apparently healthy patients. Materials and Methods: The participants were 42 edentulous individuals aged 35–70 years requiring complete denture prostheses. The participants were divided into two groups of medicated and unmedicated. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected at 24 h and 3 months after the insertion of new complete dentures in both the groups. The data obtained were analyzed using Student's paired t-test and unpaired t-test. Intergroup changes were compared with unpaired t-test. Intragroup changes were compared with paired t-test using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 22.0. Results: In the unmedicated group, the mean salivary flow rate was high at 24 h after denture insertion when compared to before denture insertion (P = 0.001 VHS). In the medicated group, the observation was highly significant (P = 0.007 HS) 24 h after denture insertion and after 3 months (P = 0.02 S) when compared to before denture insertion. Conclusion: No significant difference in the salivary flow rate was found 3 months after denture insertion when compared to before denture insertion for both the medicated and unmedicated groups. PMID:27382537

  18. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. (United States)

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong; He, Xiangui; Li, Qiangqiang; Wang, Weijie; Zhu, Jianfeng


    To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was

  19. Factors contributing to rapid wear and osteolysis in hips with modular acetabular bearings made of hylamer. (United States)

    Scott, D L; Campbell, P A; McClung, C D; Schmalzried, T P


    There have been several reports of osteolysis associated with rapid wear of Hylamer. A detailed analysis of retrieved implants and tissues can identify factors contributing to rapid wear and osteolysis. The mean linear wear rate of 12 liners was 0.49 mm/y, and 11 of 12 hips had progressive retroacetabular osteolysis. The average patient age was 50 years, and the mean implantation time was 50 months. All liners were sterilized by gamma irradiation in air. There was an 11-month difference in the average shelf-life of the 3 liners that were white and those that were darker in color. The volumetric wear rate of the white liners was 30% less than that of the others, suggesting a difference in the wear resistance of the liners as a function of shelf life. The mean average surface roughness (Ra) and the mean maximum surface roughness (R(max)) of the femoral heads were increased 3-fold and 50-fold compared with typical values for unused femoral heads. Evidence of 3-body wear, such as metal particles embedded in the liners, was commonly present. The pattern of backside liner deformation and burnishing was consistent with relative motion between the liner and the shell. In addition to generating Hylamer wear particles, repetitive axial motion between the liner and shell could generate fluid pressure, which transmitted through holes in the acetabular shell could cause or contribute to the development of retroacetabular osteolysis. Hylamer particles of variable shape and size, consistent with generation by several wear modes, were isolated from periprosthetic tissues.

  20. Effects of Nitrogen Volumetric Flow Rate on Properties of MAO/TiN Composite Coatings on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy%氮气流量对AZ31B镁合金表面MAO/TiN涂层性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔学军; 魏劲松; 宁闯明; 金永中; 林修洲


    为了提高镁合金的装饰性及耐腐抗磨性能,采用微弧氧化(MAO)和多弧离子镀技术制备了MAO/TiN复合涂层.利用SEM、XRD、纳米压痕仪及电化学工作站等考察氮气(N2)流量对涂层结构及性能的影响.结果表明:随着N2流量的增加,TiN涂层的颜色由淡黄色到金黄色再到红黄色变化,涂层表面的熔滴粒子数量增多,大尺寸颗粒数量减少,膜层更致密;涂层硬度和耐腐抗磨性能先增大后降低;当N2流量为130 mL/min时,涂层表现出较高的硬度(13.6 GPa)、较低的磨损量(0.8 mg)和自腐蚀电流密度(约1.6 μA/cm2).N2流量通过控制涂层中N/Ti原子的比例决定了涂层的颜色、微结构、物相组成及性能,涂层内部的孔隙、微裂纹等结构缺陷是导致涂层耐腐抗磨性能较差的关键因素.%To improve the decorativeness,corrosion and wear resistance of magnesium (Mg) alloys,an MAO/TiN composite coating was prepared through combing the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with multi-arc ion plating on AZ31B Mg alloy.The effects of N2 volumetric flow rate on the structure and properties of the coating were investigated using SEM,XRD,nanometer indentation tester and electrochemical test system.The results indicate that with N2 increasing,the color of TiN layer is changed from light yellow to gold yellow and finally brownish red;the droplet particle is increased in number but the particles with larger size are reduced;and the coating becomes more denser.These cause the hardness,corrosion and wear resistance of the coating to increase first and then decrease.The coating presente higher hardness (13.6 GPa),lower wear rate (0.8 mg) and corrosion current density (1.6 μA/cm2) at 130 mL/min.The rate of N/Ti atoms is tailored through the N2 flow rate,so it can be concludes that the N2 flow rate should be responsible for the color,micro-structure,phase composition,corrosion and wear resistance of the coating.The defects like pores and cracks are playing key

  1. Cerebral volumetric abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis type 1: associations with parent ratings of social and attention problems, executive dysfunction, and autistic mannerisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, S.C.; Loitfelder, M.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Swaab, H.; Verbist, B.M.; Arkink, E.B.; Buchem, M.A. van; Veer, I.M.


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder, in which social and cognitive problems are highly prevalent. Several commonly observed central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in NF1 might underlie these social and cognitive problems. Cerebral volumetric abnormalities

  2. Prediction of Wear in Crosslinked Polyethylene Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Netter


    Full Text Available Wear-related complications remain a major issue after unicompartmental arthroplasty. We used a computational model to predict knee wear generated in vitro under diverse conditions. Inverse finite element analysis of 2 different total knee arthroplasty designs was used to determine wear factors of standard and highly crosslinked polyethylene by matching predicted wear rates to measured wear rates. The computed wear factor was used to predict wear in unicompartmental components. The articular surface design and kinematic conditions of the unicompartmental and tricompartmental designs were different. Predicted wear rate (1.77 mg/million cycles was very close to experimental wear rate (1.84 mg/million cycles after testing in an AMTI knee wear simulator. Finite element analysis can predict experimental wear and may reduce the cost and time of preclinical testing.

  3. The relative influence of five variables on the in vitro wear rate of uncrosslinked UHMWPE acetabular cup liners. (United States)

    Lewis, Gladius; Fencl, Robert M; Carroll, Michael; Collins, Tim


    The wear factors, k(exp)(in 10(-6)mm(3)N(-1)m(-1)), of two sets of hemispherical uncrosslinked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene UHMWPE acetabular cup liners, when articulated against 28-mm-diameter Co-Cr alloy femoral heads, were determined in a hip joint wear simulator. All test conditions used were the same for both sets, with the exception that in one set (comprising six liners), the bovine serum concentration in the test lubricant (P) was 25vol%, while it was 90vol% for the other set (comprising seven liners). For each liner in each set, the values of the following independent or explanatory variables were determined: the tensile toughness (U, in MJm(-3)) of the UHMWPE; the degree of crystallinity (%C) of the UHMWPE; the mean surface roughness (R(a), in microm) of the liner; and the radial clearance between the femoral head and the liner (DeltaL, in mm). All the results in both sets were combined and correlational analyses were performed between k(exp), on the one hand, and various combinations of U, %C,R(a),DeltaL, and P, on the other hand. It was found that the strongest correlations were obtained when P was included, but that %C and U are also important variables. Within the range of values of the independent variables used, the recommended relationship isk(exp)=460U(0.72)%C(-5.29)P(-0.66)(adjustedr(2)=0.858). This relationship has many potential uses, such as for screening uncrosslinked UHMWPEs that are being considered as candidates for fabricating acetabular cup liners, and for conducting studies of the sensitivity of k(exp) to a change in a value of a specified independent variable (with the values of all the other independent variables held constant). These uses, as well as the study limitations, are discussed in detail.

  4. Tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek Ivan


    Full Text Available Tooth wear is the loss of dental hard tissue that was not caused by decay and represents a common clinical problem of modern man. In the etiology of dental hard tissue lesions there are three dominant mechanisms that may act synergistically or separately:friction (friction, which is caused by abrasion of exogenous, or attrition of endogenous origin, chemical dissolution of dental hard tissues caused by erosion, occlusal stress created by compression and flexion and tension that leads to tooth abfraction and microfracture. Wear of tooth surfaces due to the presence of microscopic imperfections of tooth surfaces is clinically manifested as sanding veneers. Tribology, as an interdisciplinary study of the mechanisms of friction, wear and lubrication at the ultrastructural level, has defined a universal model according to which the etiopathogenesis of tooth wear is caused by the following factors: health and diseases of the digestive tract, oral hygiene, eating habits, poor oral habits, bruxism, temporomandibular disorders and iatrogenic factors. Attrition and dental erosion are much more common in children with special needs (Down syndrome. Erosion of teeth usually results from diseases of the digestive tract that lead to gastroesophageal reflux (GER of gastric juice (HCl. There are two basic approaches to the assessment of the degree of wear and dental erosion. Depending on the type of wear (erosion, attrition, abfraction, the amount of calcium that was realised during the erosive attack could be determined qualitatively and quantitatively, or changes in optical properties and hardness of enamel could be recorded, too. Abrasion of teeth (abrasio dentium is the loss of dental hard tissue caused by friction between the teeth and exogenous foreign substance. It is most commonly provoked by prosthetic dentures and bad habits, while its effect depends on the size of abrasive particles and their amount, abrasive particle hardness and hardness of tooth

  5. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.


    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  6. Sliding wear resistance of iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Sharma; M Sundararaman; N Prabhu; G L Goswami


    Room temperature dry sliding wear behaviour of iron aluminides containing 28% aluminium and various amounts of chromium has been investigated using pin on disk wear tester. The aluminides were heat treated to have ordered 3 structure. It was found that wear rate of the aluminides increased with the increase of applied normal load and sliding speed. Wear resistance of the aluminides increased with increase in chromium content. SEM observation of the worn surface showed that the microcutting and microploughing were the dominant sliding wear mechanisms.

  7. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyong Mahn [Universal Monitoring and Inspection Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 applied to the detection of tapered wear volumetric indications and depth sizing within the free span area, loose part not present was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation. The experiment to demonstrate the applicability of EPRI ETSS was performed by the employment of the newly prepared STD tube and resulted in ensuring the effectiveness and equivalency of the EPRI ETSS as well. The authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes. The testing results were reviewed with the influences of SG tube material and the support structure. The impact of the tube materials was insignificant and that of the tube support structure showed somewhat conservative results. The testing resulted in successful demonstration of applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG tube wear defects at the tube support. One of the major flaw mechanisms detected in the currently operating domestic OPR-1000 pressurized water reactors(PWR's) steam generator(SG) tubes is wear defect. In general, wear defect has been constantly detected in the upper tube bundle imposed to the flow induced vibration interaction between tube and its support structure, and the quantity of the affected tubes has also shown the tendency to increase as plant operation life is added. In order to take appropriate measures and maintain the structural integrity for the SG tubes, wear defect is currently categorized as active damage mechanism and the tubes containing 40% or greater wear depth of the nominal tube wall thickness shall be plugged per SGMP(SG Management Program) Recently, a fairly large amplitude of wear defects on the Batwing(BW), one of the upper tube support structures in the SG

  8. Wear behaviour of Al 261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mathan Kumar


    Full Text Available Al 2618 matrix material was mixed with the Silicon Nitride (Si3N4, Aluminium Nitride (AlN and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2 reinforced particles. AMC was synthesized successfully by the stir casting method with the various X-wt.% of reinforcements (X = 0,2,4,6,8. Tribological behaviour was studied in this composite with various temperature conditions. The working conditions were Temperature (°C, Load (N, Velocity (m/s and Sliding Distances (m. Before wear testing the mechanical behaviour has been analysed. EDAX was confirmed by the matrix material composition. The Al 2618 alloy and the reinforcement mixers were confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction analysis. Wear rate (mm3/m, Wear resistance (m/mm3, Specific Wear rate (m/Nm and Co-efficient of friction (μ were analysed with various conditions. The worn surfaces were analysed before and after wear testing by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Influence of process parameters and Percentage of contribution were analysed by Taguchi and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA methods. Genetic Algorithm (GA was adopted for optimizing the best and mean of the wear rate and to identify the exact influence of input parameters.

  9. Surface Wear Measurement Using Optical Correlation Technique (United States)

    Acinger, Kresimir


    The coherent optical correlation technique was applied for measuring the surface wear of a tappet (part of car engine), worn by friction with the camshaft. It was found that maximum correlation intensity decays exponentially with the number of wear cycles (i.e. camshaft revolutions). Tappets of the same make have an identical rate of correlation decay. Tappets of different makes have different rates of correlation decay which are in agreement with observed long term wear.

  10. A Multidirectional Tribo-System: Wear of UHMWPE under Sliding, Rolling, and Rotation (United States)

    Patten, Elias Wolfgang

    based on the lowest and highest reasonable amounts of cross-shear that each motion type would generate during a realistic gait cycle: a reciprocating line or a "figure 8" with a 15° crossing angle, no rolling or a 0.4 slide-to-roll ratio, and no rotation or a 1°/mm of rotation. The amount of wear was measured with optical profilometry of the cross-section at the middle of the wear scar, after allowing for a resting period for the material creep to recover. To calculate the amount of cross-shear at this cross-section, the sliding interface was simulated with a computer Matlab model. Multiple definitions of cross-shear were used, including the traditional, cycle-based approaches and newer, memory-based approaches. The wear surfaces were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lamellar microstructure at the wear surface and below the wear surface was examined using an oxidizing etch to remove the amorphous phase. The remaining lamellae were imaged using SEM and their orientations and alignment was quantified using an image analysis program. Wear factors were between 0.3 and 8.7 µm2/(Nm/mm), significantly increasing with motion complexity and cross-shear, with the "figure 8" sliding path having the greatest effect. Volumetric wear rates correlated linearly with the total amount of cross-shear, while wear factors correlated linearly with ratios of cross-shear. The best predictors of the wear factor were the normalized crossing intensity and normalized, memory-based cross-shear ratios, with R2 values of 0.98 and 0.97, although many of the cross-shear ratios also had a good linear fits with wear factor. The kinematic parameters in this experiment did not differentiate the various cross-shear parameters enough to conclusively determine which are most appropriate, although some have a stronger theoretical foundation than others. SEM analysis of the wear scar surface revealed slight scratching and instances of rippling and surface cracking

  11. Wear-resistance of Aluminum Matrix Microcomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kandeva


    Full Text Available A procedure is developed for the study of wear of aluminum alloys AlSi7 obtained by casting, reinforced by TiC microparticles, before and after heat treatment. Tribological study is realized under conditions of friction on counterbody with fixed abrasive. Experimental results were obtained for mass wear, wear rate, wear intensity and wear-resistance of the alloys with different wt% of microparticles.

  12. Wear prediction in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, E.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)


    A procedure to model the wear of surfaces exposed to a fluidized bed is formulated. A stochastic methodology adapting the kinetic theory of gases to granular flows is used to develop an impact wear model. This uses a single-particle wear model to account for impact wear from all possible-particle collisions. An adaptation of a single-particle abrasion model to describe the effects of many abrading particles is used to account for abrasive wear. Parameters describing granular flow within the fluidized bed, necessary for evaluation of the wear expressions, are determined by numerical solution of the fluidized bed hydrodynamic equations. Additional parameters, describing the contact between fluidized particles and the wearing surface, are determined by optimization based on wear measurements. The modeling procedure was used to analyze several bubbling and turbulent fluidized bed experiments with single-tube and tube bundle configurations. Quantitative agreement between the measured and predicted wear rates was found, with some exceptions for local wear predictions. This work demonstrates a methodology for wear predictions in fluidized beds.

  13. Contact lenses and the rate of evaporation measured in vitro; the influence of wear, squalene and wax. (United States)

    Vishnubhatla, Sravya; Borchman, Douglas; Foulks, Gary N


    Accelerated evaporation of tears may contribute to dry eye symptoms. It is not clear whether contact lenses decrease or increase the rate of evaporation of tears. In this study, the rates of evaporation through contact lenses (ERTCL) were measured in vitro to gain insight to this question. Contact lenses were equilibrated with various solutions to determine if they influenced ERTCL in vitro. ERTCL was measured gravimetrically. ERTCL measured in vitro for used contact lenses was about 20% faster than for buffer alone suggesting that natural tear components bound to the lenses changed the ERTCL. One natural tear component that binds to contact lenses is waxes. Equilibration of contact lenses with wax increased the ERTCL by about 30% suggesting that waxes might potentially increase ERTCL in vivo. Squalene, found in sebum and possibly meibum was infused into the contact lenses as a step toward decreasing the ERTCL. Squalene decreased ERTCL by over 60% in vitro. Soaking a contact lens in DuraSite(®) with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) did not alter the ERTCL. ERTCL were about 40% higher than the evaporation rate of DuraSite(®) alone or without BAK. In addition to lowering the ERTCL, the squalene in contact lenses could be a source of terpenoids to replace the terpenoids deficient in patients with MGD. If the ERTCL could be minimized in vivo, contact lenses could potentially be used to relieve dry eye symptoms in patients with evaporative dry eye.

  14. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear. (United States)

    Del Castillo, Luis F; da Silva, Ana R Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I; Aguilella, M; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente


    We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (P(O2) ) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors. (1) METHODS: Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low P(O2)) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  15. Wear of hard materials by hard particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.


    Hard materials, such as WC-Co, boron carbide, titanium diboride and composite carbide made up of Mo2C and WC, have been tested in abrasion and erosion conditions. These hard materials showed negligible wear in abrasion against SiC particles and erosion using Al2O3 particles. The WC-Co materials have the highest wear rate of these hard materials and a very different material removal mechanism. Wear mechanisms for these materials were different for each material with the overall wear rate controlled by binder composition and content and material grain size.

  16. Energy savings and higher volumetric loading rate achieved in the conventional anoxic-oxic process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier. (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyu; Liu, Fengyuan; Zheng, Shaokui


    This is the first study to achieve a short HRT (∼2h for the A/O reactor), high MLSS (∼10gL(-1)), and high volumetric loading (∼3.7kg CODm(-3)d(-1) and ∼0.6kg NH4-Nm(-3)d(-1)) in the A/O process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier (∼4h settling time), which we refer to as the high-performance A/O process (HP-A/O) in this paper. Over 258days of continuous operation, with a decrease in HRT from 12 to 2h, remarkable COD (95±3%), NH4(+)-N (98±2%), TN (79±5%), and TP (74±10%) removals were stably achieved, while the air requirement significantly decreased by 22%. The HP-A/O process offers advantages over the conventional A/O process (6-8h for A/O reactor, 3-5gL(-1)MLSS, and ∼1.0kg CODm(-3)d(-1)) for sewage treatment in terms of its lower energy consumption, smaller footprint and reactor requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. White Matter Lesion Assessment in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls: Reliability Comparisons between Visual Rating, a Manual, and an Automatic Volumetrical MRI Method—The Gothenburg MCI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olsson


    Full Text Available Age-related white matter lesions (WML are a risk factor for stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. Different requirements are imposed on methods for the assessment of WML in clinical settings and for research purposes, but reliability analysis is of major importance. In this study, WML assessment with three different methods was evaluated. In the Gothenburg mild cognitive impairment study, MRI scans from 152 participants were used to assess WML with the Fazekas visual rating scale on T2 images, a manual volumetric method on FLAIR images, and FreeSurfer volumetry on T1 images. Reliability was acceptable for all three methods. For low WML volumes (2/3 of the patients, reliability was overall lower and nonsignificant for the manual volumetric method. Unreliability in the assessment of patients with low WML with manual volumetry may mainly be due to intensity variation in the FLAIR sequence used; hence, intensity standardization and normalization methods must be used for more accurate assessments. The FreeSurfer segmentations resulted in smaller WML volumes than the volumes acquired with the manual method and showed deviations from visible hypointensities in the T1 images, which quite likely reduces validity.

  18. [Wear and different restorative materials--a review]. (United States)

    Beyth, N; Sharon, E; Lipovetsky, M; Smidt, A


    Wear of materials is a complex and unpredictable phenomenon. The variables affecting the mechanism of wear include the properties of the two contacting materials and the surrounding and interfacial media. This paper reviews the dental wear of different restorative materials and their counter effect on the tooth structure. It presents the updated classifications for tooth surface lesions termed dental wear, and discusses the wear behavior of various restorative materials. Some guidelines for restorative material selection are given. Clinical wear bears a multifactorial etiology, understanding the mechanism of action is an important step in an appropriate restoration material selection. Each material selected should meet the individual wear behavior and needs. Individual factors may enhance the wear rates: aggressive tooth brushing, parafunctions, diet, acidic/aqueous environment, surface geometry, and diminished tooth support. Supportive treatment following restoration is important to monitor wear rates.

  19. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha


    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  20. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Task 3, Traditional approaches to wear prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, J.A.


    Contamination of the lube-oil with hard abrasive particles leads to a three-body abrasive wear mechanism that highly accelerates piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-fueled diesel engines. One approach to reducing that wear is to modify the size and orientation of surface asperities on the cylinder to enhance the formation of a hydrodynamic film, and to provide avenues of escape for particles that would otherwise be trapped in the wear zone. Another approach is to introduce additives into the contaminated lube-oil that further enhance hydrodynamic film formation, form chemical films on the wearing surfaces, or form films on the contaminant particles. This work focuses on defining the effects of cylinder liner surface finish, various configurations of slots in the cylinder liner surface, and various additives in the contaminated lube-oil on the wear process. Wear tests were initiated in a bench apparatus using coal-ash contaminated lube-oil to test the various wear configurations. The results of these tests indicate that the formation of a hydrodynamic film between the ring and cylinder specimens is enhanced by increasing surface roughness, and by orienting the surface asperities normal to the direction of ring travel but modifications to the cylinder liner surface did not greatly reduce the wear rate. Additives to the lubricant seemed to have a much more significant effect on wear, with a dispersant additive highly accelerating the wear, while a detergent additive was able to reduce the wear almost to the rate achieved where there was no contaminant.

  1. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  2. Concrete ice abrasion rig and wear measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamsutdinova, G.; Rike, P.B.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Jacobsen, S.


    The wear of concrete material due to ice movement is a challenge for offshore and coastal structures. Concrete surfaces exposed to moving ice are subjected to wear at various rates depending on concrete and ice properties. At NTNU, Department of Structural Engineering, concrete ice abrasion phenomen

  3. Concrete ice abrasion rig and wear measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamsutdinova, G.; Rike, P.B.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Jacobsen, S.


    The wear of concrete material due to ice movement is a challenge for offshore and coastal structures. Concrete surfaces exposed to moving ice are subjected to wear at various rates depending on concrete and ice properties. At NTNU, Department of Structural Engineering, concrete ice abrasion phenomen

  4. A new methodology for predictive tool wear (United States)

    Kim, Won-Sik

    An empirical approach to tool wear, which requires a series of machining tests for each combination of insert and work material, has been a standard practice for industries since early part of the twentieth century. With many varieties of inserts and work materials available for machining, the empirical approach is too experiment-intensive that the demand for the development of a model-based approach is increasing. With a model-based approach, the developed wear equation can be extended without additional machining experiments. The main idea is that the temperatures on the primary wear areas are increasing such that the physical properties of the tool material degrade substantially and consequently tool wear increases. Dissolution and abrasion are identified to be the main mechanisms for tool wear. Flank wear is predominantly a phenomenon of abrasion as evident by the presence of a scoring mark on the flank surface. Based on this statement, it is reasonable to expect that the flank-wear rate would increase with the content of hard inclusions. However, experimental flank wear results did not necessary correspond to the content of cementite phase present in the steels. Hence, other phenomena are believed to significantly affect wear behavior under certain conditions. When the cutting temperature in the flank interface is subjected to high enough temperatures, pearlitic structure austenizes. During the formation of a new austenitic phase, the existing carbon is dissolved into the ferrite matrix, which will reduce the abrasive action. To verify the austenitic transformation, turning tests were conducted with plain carbon steels. The machined surface areas are imaged using X-ray diffraction the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). On the other hand, crater wear occurs as a result of dissolution wear and abrasive wear. To verify the wear mechanisms of crater wear, various coating inserts as well as uncoated inserts were

  5. Microtomography evaluation of dental tissue wear surface induced by in vitro simulated chewing cycles on human and composite teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bedini


    Full Text Available In this study a 3D microtomography display of tooth surfaces after in vitro dental wear tests has been obtained. Natural teeth have been compared with prosthetic teeth, manufactured by three different polyceramic composite materials. The prosthetic dental element samples, similar to molars, have been placed in opposition to human teeth extracted by paradontology diseases. After microtomography analysis, samples have been subjected to in vitro fatigue test cycles by servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. After the fatigue test, each sample has been subjected again to microtomography analysis to obtain volumetric value changes and dental wear surface images. Wear surface images were obtained by 3D reconstruction software and volumetric value changes were measured by CT analyser software. The aim of this work has been to show the potential of microtomography technique to display very clear and reliable wear surface images. Microtomography analysis methods to evaluate volumetric value changes have been used to quantify dental tissue and composite material wear.

  6. Wearing gloves in the hospital (United States)

    ... gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves ... Wearing gloves in the hospital helps prevent the spread of germs. This helps protect both patients and health care workers from infection.

  7. Flexible Volumetric Structure (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)


    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  8. Wear Debris Analysis:Fundamental Principle of Wear-Graphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭; 王伟华; 殷勇辉; 王成焘


    A new wear-graphy technology was developed, which can simultaneously identify the shape and composition of wear debris, for both metals and non-metals.The fundamental principles of the wear-graphy system and its wear-gram system are discussed here.A method was developed to distribute wear debris on a slide uniformly to reduce overlapping of wear debris while smearing.The composition identification analyzes the wear debris using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy spectrum, infrared-thermal imaging and X-ray imaging technology.A wear debris analysis system based on database techniques is demonstrated, and a visible digitized wear-gram is acquired based on the information of wear debris with image collection and processing of the wear debris.The method gives the morphological characteristics of the wear debris, material composition identification of the wear debris, intelligent recognition of the wear debris, and storage and management of wear debris information.

  9. An Investigation into the Behavior of Disc Blake Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer A. H.Jassim


    Full Text Available A real method of predication brake pad wear ,could lead to substantiol economies of time and money. This paper describes how such a procedure has been used and gives the results to establish is reliability by comparing the predicted wear with that which actually occurs in an existing service. The experimental work was carried out on three different commercial samples ,tested under different operation conditions (speed,load,time...etcusing a test ring especially modified for this purpose. Abrasive wear is mainly studied , since it is the type of wear that takes place in such arrangements. Samples wear tested in presences of sand or mud between the mating surfaces under different operational conditions of speed, load and braking time .Mechanical properties of the pad material samples (hardness, young,s modulus and collapse load under pure bending condition wear established . The thermal conductivity and surface roughness of the pad material wear also found in order to enable comparison between the surface condition before and after testing. Sliding velocity had a small effect on the wear rate but it had great effect on friction coefficient. Wear rate was affected mainly by the surface temperature which causing a reduction friction coefficient and increasing the wear rate. Surface roughness had almost no effect on the wear rate since it was proved experimentally ,that the surface becomes softer during operation .mechanical properties of the pad material had fluctuating effect on wear rate. The existence of solid particles between pad and disc increasing wear rate and friction coefficient while the mud caused a reduction in wear rate of the pad surface since it acts as a lubricant absorbing the surface heat generated during sliding the area of contact between pad and disc. wear rate obtained experimentally agreed fairly well that found from empirically obtained equations.

  10. Wear numbers for ball cup and journal bearings


    Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.


    A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in millimetres, the wear modulus in newtons per square millimetre, the maximum wear depth rate of the cup or the cylindrical bearing in millimetres per second, the force between the mating surfaces in newto...

  11. Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis (United States)

    Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.


    Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady

  12. Modeling wear of cast Ti alloys. (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S; Koike, Marie; Okabe, Toru


    The wear behavior of Ti-based alloys was analyzed by considering the elastic-plastic fracture of individual alloys in response to the relevant contact stress field. Using the contact stresses as the process driving force, wear was computed as the wear rate or volume loss as a function of hardness and tensile ductility for Ti-based cast alloys containing an alpha, alpha+beta or beta microstructure with or without the intermetallic precipitates. Model predictions indicated that wear of Ti alloys increases with increasing hardness but with decreasing fracture toughness or tensile ductility. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data to elucidate the roles of microstructure in wear and contrasted against those in grindability.

  13. Assessment of variations in wear test methodology. (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cresus V D; Weig, Karin; Filho, Thales R M; Barros, Renata N


    The properties of composite resin for dental fillings were improved by development, but its weakness continues to be its wear strength. Several tests have been proposed to evaluate wear in composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to verify how polishing and the type of abrasive can influence the wear rate of composite resin. The test was carried out on two groups. In one group we employed an ormocer and a hybrid composite that was polished group the composite was polished with the same abrasive paper plus a 1 microm and 0.25 microm grit diamond paste. A three-body wear test was performed using the metal sphere of the wear test machine, the composite and an abrasive. A diamond paste and aluminum oxide dispersion were used as abrasive. Analysis of the results showed that there was no difference between polishing techniques, but revealed a difference between abrasives.

  14. Role of PET in improving wear properties of PP in dry sliding condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somit Neogi; S A R Hashmi; Navin Chand


    The sliding wear of isotactic polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and their blends was evaluated as a function of applied pressure and composition against a stainless steel counter face in dry condition. Wear rate decreases with the addition of PET in the blend. The wear was observed in two stages, the moderate wear and high wear while increasing the applied pressure on test samples. The addition of PET in PP helps in increasing the limit of moderate wear towards the high-pressure side. Microstructure and worn surfaces of samples were observed by scanning electron microscope. The wear phenomenon has been discussed based on wear losses and worn surfaces.

  15. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  16. Does a micro-grooved trunnion stem surface finish improve fixation and reduce fretting wear at the taper junction of total hip replacements? A finite element evaluation. (United States)

    Ashkanfar, Ariyan; Langton, David J; Joyce, Thomas J


    The generation of particulate debris at the taper junction of total hip replacements (THRs), can cause failure of the artificial hip. The taper surfaces of femoral heads and trunnions of femoral stems are generally machined to a certain roughness to enhance fixation. However, the effect of the surface roughness of these surfaces on the fixation, wear and consequently clinical outcomes of the design is largely unknown. In this study, we asked whether a micro-grooved trunnion surface finish (1) improves the fixation and (2) reduces the wear rate at the taper junction of THRs. We used 3D finite element (FE) models of THRs to, firstly, investigate the effect of initial fixation of a Cobalt-Chromium femoral head with a smooth taper surface mated with a Titanium (1) micro-grooved and (2) smooth, trunnion surface finishes. Secondly, we used a computational FE wear model to compare the wear evolution between the models, which was then validated against wear measurements of the taper surface of explanted femoral heads. The fixation at the taper junction was found to be better for the smooth couplings. Over a 7 million load cycle analysis in-silico, the linear wear depth and the total material loss was around 3.2 and 1.4 times higher for the femoral heads mated with micro-grooved trunnions. It was therefore concluded that smooth taper and trunnion surfaces will provide better fixation at the taper junction and reduce the volumetric wear rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wear and microstructure in fine ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijande-Diaz, R.; Belzunce, J.; Fernandez, E. (ETS de Ingenieros Industriales, Area de Ingeneria Mecanica, Gijon (Spain)); Rincon, A.; Perez, M.C. (Inst. de Fisica-Quimica ' Roco Solano' , CSIC, Madrid (Spain))


    This paper presents a study of the wear resistance of two ceramic, plasma sprayed coatings of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Tests were carried out using an LWF-1 standard machine, with lineal contact, under dry friction, abrasion and lubricant conditions. The purpose of the tests were to study how load and speed affect material wear. Results show the lower wear rate of the ceramic coating compared with the steel one, as well as how remarkably load affects wear. On the other hand, however, considering the speed ranges used, wear resistance does not depend significantly on speed. The paper proves that the wear process follows Czichos' law. At the same time, reformulation of Archard's equation allows us to quantify wear using easily measurable factors such as pressure, speed, hardness, and those factors typically featuring this type of coatings, e.g. porosity. Also, a micrographic study of the coatings carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope has evidenced three stages in the wear mechanism: (a) plastic deformation of particles; (b) crack nucleation and propagation; and (c) loosening of ceramic particles. (orig.).

  18. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, J.A.


    Contamination of the lube-oil with hard abrasive particles leads to a three-body abrasive wear mechanism that highly accelerates piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-fueled diesel engines. One approach to reducing that wear is to modify the size and orientation of surface asperities on the cylinder to enhance the formation of a hydrodynamic film, and to provide avenues of escape for particles that would otherwise be trapped in the wear zone. Another approach is to introduce additives into the contaminated lube-oil that further enhance hydrodynamic film formation, form chemical films on the wearing surfaces, or form films on the contaminant particles. This work focuses on defining the effects of cylinder liner surface finish, various configurations of slots in the cylinder liner surface, and various additives in the contaminated lube-oil on the wear process. Wear tests were initiated in a bench apparatus using coal-ash contaminated lube-oil to test the various wear configurations. The results of these tests indicate that the formation of a hydrodynamic film between the ring and cylinder specimens is enhanced by increasing surface roughness, and by orienting the surface asperities normal to the direction of ring travel but modifications to the cylinder liner surface did not greatly reduce the wear rate. Additives to the lubricant seemed to have a much more significant effect on wear, with a dispersant additive highly accelerating the wear, while a detergent additive was able to reduce the wear almost to the rate achieved where there was no contaminant.

  19. Polymer wear evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerbon, Mikkel; Sivebæk, Ion Marius


    the safety of the patients. Prediction of the wear of polymers is complicated by the low thermal conductivity of this kind of material. It implies that any acceleration of testing conditions by increased contact pressure and/or sliding velocity will make the polymer fail due to exaggerated heat buildup......Polymer wear plays an increasing role in manufacturing of machine parts for e.g. medical devices. Some of these have an expected lifetime of five to eight years during which very little wear of the components is acceptable. Too much wear compromises the dosage accuracy of the device and thereby....... This is not the kind of wear observed in medical devices. In the present work a method was developed capable of evaluating the wear progression in polymer-polymer contacts. The configuration of the setup is injection moulded specimens consisting of an upper part having a toroid shape and a lower flat part. The sliding...

  20. Polymer wear evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerbon, Mikkel; Sivebæk, Ion Marius


    Polymer wear plays an increasing role in manufacturing of machine parts for e.g. medical devices. Some of these have an expected lifetime of five to eight years during which very little wear of the components is acceptable. Too much wear compromises the dosage accuracy of the device and thereby...... the safety of the patients. Prediction of the wear of polymers is complicated by the low thermal conductivity of this kind of material. It implies that any acceleration of testing conditions by increased contact pressure and/or sliding velocity will make the polymer fail due to exaggerated heat buildup....... This is not the kind of wear observed in medical devices. In the present work a method was developed capable of evaluating the wear progression in polymer-polymer contacts. The configuration of the setup is injection moulded specimens consisting of an upper part having a toroid shape and a lower flat part. The sliding...

  1. The practice of QCC management tools to reduce the defect rate of wearing wristband in pediatric units%运用品管圈降低儿童病房腕带佩戴缺陷率的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高樱; 罗顺清; 李晓君; 钱勇


    目的:探讨品管圈管理工具在提高儿童病房腕带佩戴率中的作用。方法:运用品管圈对儿童病房腕带佩戴缺陷进行质量分析、改进,并对实施品管圈活动前、后状况进行比较。结果:儿童病房腕带佩戴缺陷率由实施品管圈活动前的89.2%降低至实施后的34.4%。结论:应用品管圈质量改进工具可提高患儿腕带佩戴的依从性及佩戴率,同时能保障医疗安全、提高圈员运用品管圈管理工具解决临床实际问题的能力,该方法值得儿童病房推广应用。%Objective: To study the effects of Quality Control Circle (QCC) management tools on improving the rate of wristband wearing in pediatricc units. Methods: Firstly, we established QCC group. Secondly, we performed QCC steps. Finally, we compared the situations before and after the implementation of QCC by quality management tools. Results: In pediatric units, the defect rate of wristband wearing was 89.2% before the implementation of QCC. However, the rate reduced to 34.4% after the implementation of QCC. Conclusion: It can improve the compliance and rate ofwristband wearing of children by QCC quality tools. Meanwhile, it can protect medical safety, improve the satisfactions of patients, and increase the abilities of member of QCC group to solvethe clinical problems. This method should be promoted in pediatric units.

  2. Image fusion analysis of volumetric changes after interstitial low-dose-rate iodine-125 irradiation of supratentorial low-grade gliomas. (United States)

    Julow, Jeno; Major, Tibor; Mangel, László; Bajzik, Gábor; Viola, Arpad


    The aim of this study was to compare the volumes of tumor necrosis, reactive zone and edema with the three-dimensional dose distributions after brachytherapy treatments of gliomas. The investigation was performed an average of 14.2 months after low-dose-rate (125)I interstitial irradiation of 25 inoperable low-grade gliomas. The prescribed dose was 50-60 Gy to the tumor surface. Dose planning and image fusion were performed with the BrainLab-Target 1.19 software. In the CT/ MRI images, the "triple ring" (tumor necrosis, reactive ring and edema) developing after the interstitial irradiation of the brain tumors was examined. The images with the triple ring were fused with the planning images, and the isodose curves were superimposed on them. The volumes of the three regions were measured. The average dose at the necrosis border was determined from the isodose distribution. For quantitative assessment of the dose distributions, the dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), homogeneity index (HI), coverage index (CI) and conformal index (COIN) were calculated. The relative volumes of the different parts of the triple ring after the interstitial irradiation compared to the reference dose volume were the following: necrosis, 40.9%, reactive zone, 47.1%, and edema, 367%. The tumor necrosis developed at 79.1 Gy on average. The average DNR, HI, CI and COIN were 0.45, 0.24, 0.94 and 0.57, respectively. The image fusion analysis of the volume of tumor necrosis, reactive ring and edema caused by interstitial irradiation and their correlation with the dose distribution provide valuable information for patient follow-up, treatment options, and effects and side effects of radio therapy.

  3. Estimation of lava flow field volumes and volumetric effusion rates from airborne radar profiling and other data: Monitoring of the Nornahraun (Holuhraun) 2014/15 eruption in Iceland (United States)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Högnadóttir, Thordís; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudbjörnsson, Snaebjörn; Lárusson, Örnólfur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Riishuus, Morten; Magnússon, Eyjólfur


    . We discuss the used methods and their range of application in detail, present the resulting volume estimates of the new lava field and pinpoint the implications with emphasis on the temporal evolution of its effusion rate.

  4. Microstructure-Wear Resistance Correlation and Wear Mechanisms of Spark Plasma Sintered Cu-Pb Nanocomposites (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Siddharth; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit


    The dispersion of a softer phase in a metallic matrix reduces the coefficient of friction (COF), often at the expense of an increased wear rate at the tribological contact. To address this issue, unlubricated fretting wear tests were performed on spark plasma sintered Cu-Pb nanocomposites against bearing steel. The sintering temperature and the Pb content as well as the fretting parameters were judiciously selected and varied to investigate the role of microstructure (grain size, second-phase content) on the wear resistance properties of Cu-Pb nanocomposites. A combination of the lowest wear rate (~1.5 × 10-6 mm3/Nm) and a modest COF (~0.4) was achieved for Cu-15 wt pct Pb nanocomposites. The lower wear rate of Cu-Pb nanocomposites with respect to unreinforced Cu is attributed to high hardness (~2 to 3.5 GPa) of the matrix, Cu2O/Fe2O3-rich oxide layer formation at tribological interface, and exuding of softer Pb particles. The wear properties are discussed in reference to the characteristics of transfer layer on worn surface as well as subsurface damage probed using focused ion beam microscopy. Interestingly, the flash temperature has been found to have insignificant effect on the observed oxidative wear, and alternative mechanisms are proposed. Importantly, the wear resistance properties of the nanocomposites reveal a weak Hall-Petch-like relationship with grain size of nanocrystalline Cu.

  5. Adhesive Wear of Rollers in Vacuum (United States)

    Shaeef, Iqbal; Krantz, Timothy L.


    This work was done to support NASA's James Webb Space Telescope that is equipped with a Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph and Micro Shutter Assembly (MSA). A MSA mechanism's qualification test in cryogenic vacuum at 30deg K for 96K cycles resulted in roller wear and formation of some debris. Lab tests in vacuum were conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to understand the wear of Ti6Al4V mated with 440F steel rollers. Misalignment angle was found to have the most significant effect on debris formation. At misalignment angle of 1.4deg, significant amount of wear debris were formed within 50,000 cycles. Very few wear particles were found for a zero misalignment angle, and the total wear was small even after 367,000 cycles. The mode of wear in all the tests was attributed to adhesion, which was clearly evident from video records as well as the plate-like amalgamated debris material from both rollers. The adhesive wear rate was found to be approximately proportional to the misalignment angle. The wear is a two-way phenomenon, and the mixing of both roller materials in wear debris was confirmed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and EDX spectra. While there was a net loss of mass from the steel rollers, XRF and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra showed peaks of Ti on steel rollers, and peaks of Fe on Ti rollers. These results are useful for designers in terms of maintaining appropriate tolerances to avoid misalignment of rolling elements and the resulting severe wear

  6. Calculation of the Intensity of Adhesive-Fatigue Wear of Cutting Tools (United States)

    Bibik, V.; Ivushkina, N.; Arhipova, D.


    On the base of kinetic equation of strength the authors suggest the method carbide tools wear intensity calculation allowing comparing wear resistance basing on tool material thermal diffusivity coefficient. The authors obtain equations of tool wear resistance dependences upon its thermal diffusivity which show close correlation between these parameters. The results of wear intensity calculations correspond well to the experimental results under the cutting rates corresponding to the region of adhesive-fatigue wear. The inserts with low thermal diffusivity coefficient are characterized by lower wear rate at the inial and normal stages of wear.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov


    Full Text Available Real assessment of wear in technical devices, construction structures, minings, their elements and connections is of great importance for provision of operational security and efficiency. Natural properties of the overwhelming majority of materials follow to probabilistic (stochastic laws due to various reasons (external influence, processing technologies and others. An assessment of physical wear rate of buildings and structures and their elements is carried out in the former republics of the USSR mainly in accordance with external physical signs (deflections, cracks, layer separations, etc. but wear percentage is often calculated on the basis of replacement cost in comparison with the initial one even without taking into account inflation which did not officially exist in the USSR. In this case destruction or failure of structure or their elements are considered as 100 % wear.The paper proposes a new methodology for assessment of physical wear rate in accordance with probability ratio of nofailure operation (reliability, minimum ratio is assigned to admissible limit value in conformity with technical requirements for the technical devices, construction structures, minings in question, their elements and connections. In this context minimum permissible wear probability (reliability is taken as 100 % wear rate and its initial index is considered as 0 % wear rate. That is why wear intensity in time depends on type of value probability distribution while determining the rate of physical property. The proposed methodology is intended for probabilistic wear assessment in case of relatively simple changes in strength properties of materials (for example, within the elastic limit.

  8. Dry friction and wear properties of intermetallics MoSi2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张厚安; 刘心宇; 陈平; 唐果宁


    The dry friction and wear properties of intermetallics MoSi2 against 45 steel under different loads were investigated with M-2 type friction and wear tester. Scanning electric microscope (SEM) equipment with microprobe was employed to analyze the morphology of the friction surface. Results show that the dry friction and wear properties are deeply affected by load. The wear rate of MoSi2 at the load of 80 N is the maximum which is 36.1 μg/m. On the condition of the load of 150 N, MoSi2 material has the better friction and wear properties: friction coefficient is 0.28 and wear rate is 10.6μg/m. With the load increasing, the main friction mechanisms change from microslip and plastic deformation to adhesive effect, and the main wear mechanisms change from plough-groove wear and oxidation-fatigue wear to adhesive wear.

  9. Quantification of in vitro wear of a synthetic meniscus implant using gravimetric and micro-CT measurements. (United States)

    Elsner, Jonathan J; Shemesh, Maoz; Shefy-Peleg, Adaya; Gabet, Yankel; Zylberberg, Eyal; Linder-Ganz, Eran


    A synthetic meniscus implant was recently developed for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis with knee pain associated with medial joint overload. The implant is distinctively different from most orthopedic implants in its pliable construction, and non-anchored design, which enables implantation through a mini-arthrotomy without disruption to the bone, cartilage, and ligaments. Due to these features, it is important to show that the material and design can withstand knee joint conditions. This study evaluated the long-term performance of this device by simulating loading for a total of 5 million gait cycles (Mc), corresponding to approximately five years of service in-vivo. All five implants remained in good condition and did not dislodge from the joint space during the simulation. Mild abrasion was detected by electron microscopy, but µ-CT scans of the implants confirmed that the damage was confined to the superficial surfaces. The average gravimetric wear rate was 14.5 mg/Mc, whereas volumetric changes in reconstructed µ-CT scans point to an average wear rate of 15.76 mm(3)/Mc (18.8 mg/Mc). Particles isolated from the lubricant had average diameter of 15 µm. The wear performance of this polycarbonate-urethane meniscus implant concept under ISO-14243 loading conditions is encouraging.

  10. 7-Be Implantation in Plastics for Prosthesis Wear Studies (United States)

    Greife, Uwe; Erikson, L.; Patel, N.; Wimmer, M.; Dwiwedi, Y.; Laurent, M.; Chipps, K.; Blackmon, J.; Kozub, R.; Bardayan, D.; Gross, C.; Stracener, D.; Smith, M.; Nesaraya, C.; Rehm, E.; Ahmed, I.; Greene, J.


    The current generation of highly cross linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (PE) for hip and knee joint replacement have achieved such low in vitro wear rates that efforts have been underway to develop more sensitive methods to measure polyethylene wear. The most widely used technique, the gravimetric method, suffers from the notable disadvantage that mass gain by fluid absorption can considerably exceed mass loss by wear, making the wear measurement inaccurate, sometimes even leading to negative ``wear'' values. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the use of a radioactive tracer, beryllium-7 (7-Be), to circumvent the problem of fluid absorption and thereby achieve a much more sensitive and accurate wear measurement. This proof of principle study demonstrated the general feasibility of 7-Be implantation (performed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of Oak Ridge National Laboratory) for PE wear analysis.

  11. Effect of Alloying Elements on Thermal Wear of Cast Hot-Forging Die Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-qi; CHEN Kang-min; CUI Xiang-hong; JIANG Qi-chuan; HONG Bian


    The effect of main alloying elements on thermal wear of cast hot-forging die steels was studied. The wear mechanism was discussed. The results show that alloying elements have significant influences on the thermal wear of cast hot-forging die steels. The wear rates decrease with an increase in chromium content from 3% to 4% and molybdenum content from 2% to 3%, respectively. With further increase of chromium and molybdenum contents, chromium slightly reduces the wear resistance and molybdenum severely deteriorates the wear resistance with high wear rate. Lower vanadium/carbon ratio (1.5-2.5) leads to a lower wear resistance with higher wear rate. With an increase in vanadium/carbon ratio, the wear resistance of the cast steel substantially increases. When vanadium/carbon ratio is 3, the wear rate reaches the lowest value. The predominant mechanism of thermal wear of cast hot-forging die steels are oxidation wear and fatigue delamination. The Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 or lumps of brittle wear debris are formed on the wear surface.

  12. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.


    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  13. Metodologia para avaliação do desgaste em ferramentas simétricas de mobilização do solo Methodology for assessment of wear rate in symmetrical soil-engaging tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio L. T. Machado


    Full Text Available A correta avaliação e previsão do tempo de vida útil dos mecanismos que atuam no rompimento do solo, são importantes na análise de equipamentos. O desgaste deste tipo de ferramenta (ponteiras sulcadoras de semeadoras, de escarificadores e de subsoladores depende de vários fatores, entre eles as condições do solo e características geométricas e construtivas das ferramentas. A taxa de desgaste das ferramentas de mobilização do solo, normalmente é determinada através da sua perda de massa. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma metodologia diferenciada, ágil e de fácil execução, para avaliação do desgaste de ferramentas simétricas que promovem a mobilização do solo. A análise da variação da configuração geométrica da ferramenta foi obtida por fotografia digital utilizando-se, posteriormente, um programa computacional para o seu desenho. Utilizaram-se ponteiras sulcadoras de adubo de semeadora de plantio direto como ferramenta de mobilização de solo. Os resultados possibilitaram verificar que o desgaste é melhor determinado pelo método da fotografia digital que pelo método tradicional (perda de massa. A vantagem do método proposto reside basicamente em sua agilidade e precisão.The correct evaluation and prediction of the durability of soil-engaging mechanisms are important factors in the analysis of the agricultural equipments. The wear of these tools (planters furrow openers, chisel and subsoiler rippers is dependent on various factors, among them the soil conditions and the geometric and constructive characteristics of the tool. The wear rate of the soil-engaging tools is usually determined through loss of mass. The analysis of the variation of the geometric configuration of the tool was assessed through digital photography, afterwards a software was used to design them. The objective of the study was to use a differentiated, agile methodology of easy execution, for evaluation of the wear of soil

  14. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.


    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  15. Test Facility for Volumetric Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, M.; Dibowski, G.; Pfander, M.; Sack, J. P.; Schwarzbozl, P.; Ulmer, S.


    Long-time testing of volumetric absorber modules is an inevitable measure to gain the experience and reliability required for the commercialization of the open volumetric receiver technology. While solar tower test facilities are necessary for performance measurements of complete volumetric receivers, the long-term stability of individual components can be tested in less expensive test setups. For the qualification of the aging effects of operating cycles on single elements of new absorber materials and designs, a test facility was developed and constructed in the framework of the KOSMOSOL project. In order to provide the concentrated solar radiation level, the absorber test facility is integrated into a parabolic dish system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Several new designs of ceramic absorbers were developed and tested during the last months. (Author)

  16. Wear behavior of austenite containing plate steels (United States)

    Hensley, Christina E.

    As a follow up to Wolfram's Master of Science thesis, samples from the prior work were further investigated. Samples from four steel alloys were selected for investigation, namely AR400F, 9260, Hadfield, and 301 Stainless steels. AR400F is martensitic while the Hadfield and 301 stainless steels are austenitic. The 9260 exhibited a variety of hardness levels and retained austenite contents, achieved by heat treatments, including quench and tempering (Q&T) and quench and partitioning (Q&P). Samples worn by three wear tests, namely Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel (DSRW), impeller tumbler impact abrasion, and Bond abrasion, were examined by optical profilometry. The wear behaviors observed in topography maps were compared to the same in scanning electron microscopy micrographs and both were used to characterize the wear surfaces. Optical profilometry showed that the scratching abrasion present on the wear surface transitioned to gouging abrasion as impact conditions increased (i.e. from DSRW to impeller to Bond abrasion). Optical profilometry roughness measurements were also compared to sample hardness as well as normalized volume loss (NVL) results for each of the three wear tests. The steels displayed a relationship between roughness measurements and observed wear rates for all three categories of wear testing. Nanoindentation was used to investigate local hardness changes adjacent to the wear surface. DSRW samples generally did not exhibit significant work hardening. The austenitic materials exhibited significant hardening under the high impact conditions of the Bond abrasion wear test. Hardening in the Q&P materials was less pronounced. The Q&T microstructures also demonstrated some hardening. Scratch testing was performed on samples at three different loads, as a more systematic approach to determining the scratching abrasion behavior. Wear rates and scratch hardness were calculated from scratch testing results. Certain similarities between wear behavior in scratch testing

  17. Effect of Nitrogen Implantation on Metal Transfer during Sliding Wear under Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Autry


    Full Text Available Nitrogen implantation in Interstitial-Free steel was evaluated for its impact on metal transfer and 1100 Al rider wear. It was determined that nitrogen implantation reduced metal transfer in a trend that increased with dose; the Archard wear coefficient reductions of two orders of magnitude were achieved using a dose of 2e17 ions/cm2, 100 kV. Cold-rolling the steel and making volumetric wear measurements of the Al-rider determined that the hardness of the harder material had little impact on volumetric wear or friction. Nitrogen implantation had chemically affected the tribological process studied in two ways: directly reducing the rider wear and reducing the fraction of rider wear that ended up sticking to the ISF steel surface. The structure of the nitrogen in the ISF steel did not affect the tribological behavior because no differences in friction/wear measurements were detected after postimplantation heat treating to decompose the as-implanted ε-Fe3N to γ-Fe4N. The fraction of rider-wear sticking to the steel depended primarily on the near-surface nitrogen content. Covariance analysis of the debris oxygen and nitrogen contents indicated that nitrogen implantation enhanced the tribo-oxidation process with reference to the unimplanted material. As a result, the reduction in metal transfer was likely related to the observed tribo-oxidation in addition to the introduction of nitride wear elements into the debris. The primary Al rider wear mechanism was stick-slip, and implantation reduced the friction and friction noise associated with that wear mechanism. Calculations based on the Tabor junction growth formula indicate that the mitigation of the stick-slip mechanism resulted from a reduced adhesive strength at the interface during the sticking phase.

  18. Thin hard crest on the edge of ceramic acetabular liners accelerates wear in edge loading. (United States)

    Sanders, Anthony P; Dudhiya, Parth J; Brannon, Rebecca M


    Ceramic acetabular liners may exhibit a small, sharp crest-an artifact of discontinuous machining steps--at the junction between the concave spherical surface and the interior edge. On 3 ceramic liners, this crest was found to form a 9° to 11° deviation from tangency. Edge loading wear tests were conducted directly on this crest and on a smoother region of the edge. The crest elicited 2 to 15 times greater volumetric wear on the femoral head. The propensity of the crest to rapidly (machining protocols might be a root cause of stripe wear and squeaking in ceramic acetabular bearings.

  19. Tool Wear Estimate in Milling Operation by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many researches show that, in metal cutting process, tool wear rate depends on some cutting process parameters, such as temperature at tool face, contact pressure and relative sliding velocity at tool/chip and tool/workpiece interfaces. Finite element method(FEM) application enables the estimate of these parameters and the tool wear. A tool wear estimate program based on chip formation and heat transfer analysis is designed and compiled with Python to calculate the wear rate and volume, and update tool geometry according to the tool wear. The progressive flank and crater wears in milling operation are estimated by the program. The FEM code ABAQUS/Explicit and Standard are employed to analyze chip formation and heat transfer process.

  20. Wear characterization of abrasive waterjet nozzles and nozzle materials (United States)

    Nanduri, Madhusarathi

    Parameters that influence nozzle wear in the abrasive water jet (AWJ) environment were identified and classified into nozzle geometric, AWJ system, and nozzle material categories. Regular and accelerated wear test procedures were developed to study nozzle wear under actual and simulated conditions, respectively. Long term tests, using garnet abrasive, were conducted to validate the accelerated test procedure. In addition to exit diameter growth, two new measures of wear, nozzle weight loss and nozzle bore profiles were shown to be invaluable in characterizing and explaining the phenomena of nozzle wear. By conducting nozzle wear tests, the effects of nozzle geometric, and AWJ system parameters on nozzle wear were systematically investigated. An empirical model was developed for nozzle weight loss rate. To understand the response of nozzle materials under varying AWJ system conditions, erosion tests were conducted on samples of typical nozzle materials. The effect of factors such as jet impingement angle, abrasive type, abrasive size, abrasive flow rate, water pressure, traverse speed, and target material was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on eroded samples as well as worn nozzles to understand the wear mechanisms. The dominant wear mechanism observed was grain pullout. Erosion models were reviewed and along the lines of classical erosion theories a semi-empirical model, suitable for erosion of nozzle materials under AWJ impact, was developed. The erosion data correlated very well with the developed model. Finally, the cutting efficiency of AWJ nozzles was investigated in conjunction with nozzle wear. The cutting efficiency of a nozzle deteriorates as it wears. There is a direct correlation between nozzle wear and cutting efficiency. The operating conditions that produce the most efficient jets also cause the most wear in the nozzle.

  1. Magnetic volumetric hologram memory with magnetic garnet. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru


    Holographic memory is a promising next-generation optical memory that has a higher recording density and a higher transfer rate than other types of memory. In holographic memory, magnetic garnet films can serve as rewritable holographic memory media by use of magneto-optical effect. We have now demonstrated that a magnetic hologram can be recorded volumetrically in a ferromagnetic garnet film and that the signal image can be reconstructed from it for the first time. In addition, multiplicity of the magnetic hologram was also confirmed; the image could be reconstructed from a spot overlapped by other spots.

  2. Evaluation of Two Total Hip Bearing Materials for Resistance to Wear Using a Hip Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. St. John


    Full Text Available Electron beam crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE 32 mm cups with cobalt alloy femoral heads were compared with gamma-irradiation sterilized 26 mm cups and zirconia ceramic heads in a hip wear simulator. The testing was performed for a total of ten million cycles with frequent stops for cleaning and measurement of mass losses due to wear. The results showed that the ceramic on UHMWPE bearing design exhibited higher early wear than the metal on highly crosslinked samples. Once a steady state wear rate was reached, the wear rates of the two types of hip bearing systems were similar with the ceramic on UHMPWE samples continuing to show a slightly higher rate of wear than the highly crosslinked samples. The wear rates of each of the tested systems appear to be consistent with the expectations for low rates of wear in improved hip replacement systems.

  3. Microstructural aspects and wear behavior of sinter hardened distaloy HP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhi Moghaddam, K.; Ghambari, M.; Farhangi, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Solimanjad, N.; Bergmark, A. [Hoeganaes AB, Bruksgatan, Hoeganaes (Sweden); Khorsand, H. [K.N. Toosi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Effect of cooling rate during sinter hardening on the microstructure and wear behavior of sintered steel grade Distaloy HP has been studied. Wear performances are closely related to macro and micro hardness of the materials. Dry sliding wear tests have been conducted using a reciprocating pin on flat wear testing machine under normal loads of 25, 35 and 45N and at a constant speed of 0.3 m/s. The samples were sinter hardened at different cooling rates 0.5-3 C/s in order to investigate the influence of microstructure and hardness on wear behavior. It has been shown that, sintering process and cooling rate change the microstructure and hence the hardness and wear behavior of the material. The best wear resistance was detected at a cooling rate of 3 C/s. At this cooling rate the material had an almost martensitic microstructure and the wear rate was some how independent of the applied load. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Association between Severity of Tooth Wear and Dentinal Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ayer


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Tooth wear (attrition, abrasion, erosion, and abfraction is perceived globally as ever increasing problem. Several outcome of the tooth wear are hypersensitivity, esthetic problems, functional impairment, annoyance to the patient, and fracture of the tooth. Among these, the measurable and more commonly reported outcome is hypersensitivity to stimuli. Although dentin hypersensitivity is a common clinical condition and is generally reported by the patient after experiencing a sharp, short pain caused by one of the several different external stimuli, it is often inadequately understood. None of the scientific literature available till date attempted to establish the relationship between tooth wear and dentin hypersensitivity which could be a key factor in monitoring those patients.  The aim of the study was to estimate the association between severity of teeth wear and sensitivity in the patients with reported dentinal hypersensitivity.Materials & Methods: Fifty patients with dentin hypersensitivity were investigated for tooth wear. Tooth wear measured using exact tooth wear index and level of sensitivity to stimuli was recorded using a numerical rating scale. Results: Enamel wear at cervical region of teeth showed a positive correlation (p=.010, similarly, dentin wear at cervical region of teeth showed positive correlation and significant association (p<.001 with dentinal hypersensitivity.Conclusion: The observation supports a significant association between severities of tooth surface wear and dentinal hypersensitivity.

  5. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho


    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  6. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies


    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  7. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Reinders

    Full Text Available Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  8. Optical wear monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Getnet S; Desilva, Upul P.; He, Chengli; Ulerich, Nancy H.


    A gas turbine includes first and second parts having outer surfaces located adjacent to each other to create an interface where wear occurs. A wear probe is provided for monitoring wear of the outer surface of the first part, and includes an optical guide having first and second ends, wherein the first end is configured to be located flush with the outer surface of the first part. A fiber bundle includes first and second ends, the first end being located proximate to the second end of the optical guide. The fiber bundle includes a transmit fiber bundle comprising a first plurality of optical fibers coupled to a light source, and a receive fiber bundle coupled to a light detector and configured to detect reflected light. A processor is configured to determine a length of the optical guide based on the detected reflected light.

  9. Ceramic-like wear behaviour of human dental enamel. (United States)

    Arsecularatne, J A; Hoffman, M


    This paper reports a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of subsurfaces of enamel specimens following in vitro reciprocating wear tests with an enamel cusp sliding on a flat enamel specimen under hydrated conditions. The obtained results show that crack formation occurred in the wear scar subsurface. The path followed by these cracks seems to be dictated either by the histological structure of enamel or by the contact stress field. Moreover, the analysis of a set of enamel wear results obtained from the literature and application of fracture-based models, originally developed for ceramics, correlate well, confirming the similar wear processes taking place in these materials. This analysis also reveals a marked influence of coefficient of friction on the enamel wear rate: for a higher coefficient of friction value, enamel wear can be severe even under forces generated during normal operation of teeth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racek, O


    Glass forming materials (critical cooling rate <10{sup 4}K.s{sup -1}) are promising for their high corrosion and wear resistance. During rapid cooling, the materials form an amorphous structure that transforms to nanocrystalline during a process of devitrification. High hardness (HV 1690) can be achieved through a controlled crystallization. Thermal spray process has been used to apply coatings, which preserves the amorphous/nanocomposite structure due to a high cooling rate of the feedstock particles during the impact on a substrate. Wear properties have been studied with respect to process conditions and feedstock material properties. Application specific properties such as sliding wear resistance have been correlated with laboratory tests based on instrumented indentation and scratch tests.

  11. Impact wear behaviors of Hadfield manganese steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; XU Yun-hua; CEN Qi-hong; ZHU Jin-hua


    Impact wear behaviors of Hadfield manganese steel at different impact angles were investigated. The results of impact wear tests show that there exists a critical impact load for Hadfield steel. The wear rate suddenly turns down after some impact cycles when the impact load is greater than the critical load. The critical impact load is smaller than 8.2 J in this research because the nano-sized austenitic grains embedded in amorphous delay the crack propagation in subsurface. From high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) examination of subsurface microstructure, it is found that a large amount of nano-sized grains embedded in bulk amorphous matrix are fully developed and no martensitic transformation occurs during the impact wear process. The analytical results of worn surface morphology and debris indicate that the initiation of crack, propagation and spalling are restricted in the amorphous phase, resulting in the size distribution of debris in nano-sizes, which is the reason why the wear rate of Hadfield steel is greatly decreased at high impact load.

  12. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.


    Pin surfaces were analysed by laser profilometry. Two roughness parameters, R(a) and the fractal dimension, were investigated as a first step towards methods of quantitative wear mechanism mapping. Both parameters were analysed for their relationship to the severity and prevalence of a mechanism....

  13. Effect of Polyethylene Crosslinking and Bearing Design on Wear of Unicompartmental Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Netter, Jonathan; Hermida, Juan C; D'Alessio, Jerry; Kester, Mark; D'Lima, Darryl D


    Wear and polyethylene damage continue to be important factors affecting outcomes of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. We compared two design rationales for unicompartmental arthroplasty: fully congruent mobile bearings; or moderately conforming fixed bearings using experimental and computational wear simulation. Experimental wear rates were 3.89 (±0.12) mg/million cycles for the highly crosslinked Triathlon PKR fixed bearing compared to 18.35 (±0.19) mg/million cycles for the low crosslinked Oxford mobile bearing. Finite element analysis was used to calculate the effect of crosslinking and backside wear. Increase in polyethylene crosslinking reduced wear by 68% while backside wear comprised 46% of the total wear in the mobile bearing. Increasing conformity may not be the sole predictor of wear performance and highly crosslinked fixed-bearing polyethylene insert can also provide high wear performance.

  14. Combining Diagnosis of the Casing and Tooljoint Wear in Mud Fluid While Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建春; 张来斌; 温东; 余磊


    A ground monitoring system was developed to diagnose casing and tooljoint wear in a well during drilling by combining the analysis of wear debris with detection of the tooljoints.The result shows that the wear debris concentration in the circulating drilling mud in a well reflects the total wear rate of the tribo-elements in the well, while the wear detection of a tooljoint can indicate its wear loss between two contiguous times of drill-pipe lifting.A diagnosis method that integrates the two types of information was developed to identify severe wear regions in well casing.Theoretical analyses and field test show that the severe casing wear region can be located relatively accurately by the integrated method.This method presents a new ground casing wear diagnosis approach with good real-time results.

  15. Experimental study on wear failure course of gas-valve/valve-seat in engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-cai; YAN Hang-zhi


    The wear failure course of gas-valve/valve-seat in engine was investigated with a simulating tester. The results show that the failure of the contact conical surface is mainly caused by the elastic and plastic deformation and the fatigue micro-crack and spalling. The creep-deformation and corrosion atmosphere accelerated wear failure course at the high temperature. The wear failure course of the gas-valve/valve-seat in engine follows general wear rules of mechanical elements, but the rate of wear in the sharp wear stage is faster.

  16. Experimental Research on the Determination of the Coefficient of Sliding Wear under Iron Ore Handling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen


    Full Text Available The handling of iron ore bulk solids maintains an increasing trend due to economic development. Because iron ore particles have hard composites and irregular shapes, the bulk solids handling equipment surface can suffer from severe sliding wear. Prediction of equipment surface wear volume is beneficial to the efficient maintenance of worn areas. Archard’s equation provides a theoretical solution to predict wear volume. To use Archard’s equation, the coefficient of sliding wear must be determined. To our best knowledge, the coefficient of sliding wear for iron ore handling conditions has not yet been determined. In this research, using a pin-on-disk tribometer, the coefficients of sliding wear for both Sishen particles and mild steel are determined with regard to iron ore handling conditions. Both naturally irregular and spherical shapes of particles are used to estimate average values of wear rate. Moreover, the hardness and inner structures of Sishen particles are examined, which adds the evidence of the interpretation of wear results. It is concluded that the coefficients of sliding wear can vary largely for both Sishen particle and mild steel. The wear rate decreases from transient- to steady-state. The average coefficient of sliding wear is capable of predicting wear with respect to long distances at the steady-state. Two types of sliding friction are distinguished. In addition, it is found that the temperature rise of the friction pairs has negligible influence on wear rate.

  17. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave (United States)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.


    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  18. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jeremiah D. [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45504 (United States)


    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  19. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U


    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality.

  20. Wear Behavior of an Unstable Knee: Stabilization via Implant Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Reinders


    Full Text Available Background. Wear-related failures and instabilities are frequent failure mechanisms of total knee replacements. High-conforming designs may provide additional stability for the joint. This study analyzes the effects of a ligamentous insufficiency on the stability and the wear behavior of a high-conforming knee design. Methods. Two simulator wear tests were performed on a high-conforming total knee replacement design. In the first, a ligamentous-stable knee replacement with a sacrificed anterior cruciate ligament was simulated. In the second, a ligamentous-unstable knee with additionally insufficient posterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament was simulated. Wear was determined gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. Implant kinematics was recorded during simulation. Results. Significantly higher wear rates (P≤0.001 were observed for the unstable knee (14.58±0.56 mg/106 cycles compared to the stable knee (7.97 ± 0.87 mg/106 cycles. A higher number of wear particles with only small differences in wear particle characteristics were observed. Under unstable knee conditions, kinematics increased significantly for translations and rotations (P≤0.01. This increase was mainly attributed to higher tibial posterior translation and internal rotations. Conclusion. Higher kinematics under unstable test conditions is a result of insufficient stabilization via implant design. Due to the higher kinematics, increased wear was observed in this study.

  1. Saliva parameters and erosive wear in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, N.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Jager, D.H.J.; Ruben, J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between several parameters of saliva and erosive wear in adolescents. (Un-)stimulated saliva was collected from 88 adolescents with erosion and 49 controls (age 16 ± 1 years). Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity were determined immediately.

  2. Saliva Parameters and Erosive Wear in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, N.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.; Jager, D. H. J.; Ruben, J.; Bronkhorst, E. M.; Truin, G. J.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between several parameters of saliva and erosive wear in adolescents. (Un-)stimulated saliva was collected from 88 adolescents with erosion and 49 controls (age 16 +/- 1 years). Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity were determined immediately.

  3. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison (United States)

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.


    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ∼0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  4. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.


    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the

  5. Wear Resistance and Wear Mechanism of a Hot Dip Aluminized Steel in Sliding Wear Test (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyong; Hao, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yao; Gu, Lingyun; Ren, Yu; Zheng, Ruipeng


    Sliding wear experiments were conducted on a hot dip aluminized steel to investigate its wear resistance and wear mechanism. The wear tests were also carried out on a hot dip galvanized steel and the base material (steel Q345) as a comparison. Results show that the wear resistance and hardness of the hot dip aluminized steel are significantly higher than that of the hot dip galvanized steel and the steel Q345 at room temperature. The better wear resistance of the hot dip aluminized steel attributes mainly to the formation of a transition layer containing abundant Fe-Al intermetallic compounds and the transformation of wear-resisting oxides during the friction process. The main phase in the transition layer is Fe2Al5. The thickness of the transition layer is about 90-120 μm. When the wear load increases from 3 N to 19 N, the wear type of the aluminized layer transform from adhesive wear (3 N) into abrasive wear (7 N) and finally into slight wear mixed with oxidation (higher than 11 N).

  6. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.


    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen IVANOV


    Full Text Available On the basis of a known relationship, an enhanced model for specific tire wear per kilometer has been developed. It is appropriate for practical use - for evaluation of the influence of different factors. Two types of experiments have been carried out with a testing device - one without sideslip, but with a known longitudinal slip, and the other one with the same longitudinal slip but also with a known sideslip. As a result, the coefficients of the proportion of the developed model have been evaluated. After the model validation, an analytical investigation concerning the influence of tire pressure, sideslip and longitudinal slip on the tire wear has been carried out. The results are presented graphically.

  8. Sliding Wear and Fretting Wear of DLC-Based, Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Coatings (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pohlchuck, B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Zabinski, J. S.; Sanders, J. H.; Voevodin, A. a.; Wu, R. L. C.


    Improving the tribological functionality of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films--developing, good wear resistance, low friction, and high load-carrying capacity-was the aim of this investigation. Nanocomposite coatings consisting of an amorphous DLC (a-DLC) top layer and a functionally graded titanium-titanium carbon-diamondlike carbon (Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC) underlayer were produced on AISI 440C stainless steel substrates by the hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The resultant DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometry. Two types of wear experiment were conducted in this investioation: sliding friction experiments and fretting wear experiments. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted to examine the wear behavior of an a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC-coated AISI 440C stainless steel disk in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel ball in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air. Although the wear rates for both the coating and ball were low in all three environments, the humid air and dry nitrogen caused mild wear with burnishing, in the a-DLC top layer, and the ultrahigh vacuum caused relatively severe wear with brittle fracture in both the a-DLC top layer and the Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC underlayer. For reference, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (H-DLC) films produced on a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coatings by using an ion beam were also examined in the same manner. The H-DLC films markedly reduced friction even in ultrahigh vacuum without sacrificing wear resistance. The H-DLC films behaved much like the a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coating in dry nitrogen and humid air, presenting low friction and low wear. Fretting wear experiments were conducted in humid air (approximately 50% relative humidity) at a frequency of 80 Hz and an amplitude of 75 micron on an a

  9. Nanoscale wear as a stress-assisted chemical reaction. (United States)

    Jacobs, Tevis D B; Carpick, Robert W


    Wear of sliding contacts leads to energy dissipation and device failure, resulting in massive economic and environmental costs. Typically, wear phenomena are described empirically, because physical and chemical interactions at sliding interfaces are not fully understood at any length scale. Fundamental insights from individual nanoscale contacts are crucial for understanding wear at larger length scales, and to enable reliable nanoscale devices, manufacturing and microscopy. Observable nanoscale wear mechanisms include fracture and plastic deformation, but recent experiments and models propose another mechanism: wear via atom-by-atom removal ('atomic attrition'), which can be modelled using stress-assisted chemical reaction kinetics. Experimental evidence for this has so far been inferential. Here, we quantitatively measure the wear of silicon--a material relevant to small-scale devices--using in situ transmission electron microscopy. We resolve worn volumes as small as 25 ± 5 nm(3), a factor of 10(3) lower than is achievable using alternative techniques. Wear of silicon against diamond is consistent with atomic attrition, and inconsistent with fracture or plastic deformation, as shown using direct imaging. The rate of atom removal depends exponentially on stress in the contact, as predicted by chemical rate kinetics. Measured activation parameters are consistent with an atom-by-atom process. These results, by direct observation, establish atomic attrition as the primary wear mechanism of silicon in vacuum at low loads.

  10. Engine oil wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Farhanah


    Full Text Available Lubricants play a vital role in an internal combustion engine to lubricate parts and help to protect and prolong the engine life. Lubricant also will help to reduce wear by creating lubricating film between the moving parts hence reduce metal-to-metal contacts. Engine oil from three different manufacturers with the same SAE viscosity grade available in market does not mean it will have the same lubricity for an engine. In this study, commercial mineral lubrication oil (SAE 10W-30 from three manufacturers was investigated to compare the lubrication performance at three different temperatures (40˚C, 70˚C and 100˚C in 60 minutes time duration by using four ball wear tester. The speed will be varied from 1000 rpm to 2500 rpm. Results show that all three lubricants have different lubricity performance; the smaller the wear scar, the better the lubricant since the lubricant can protect the moving surfaces from direct metal-to-metal contact occur.

  11. Effect of Cl– on the corrosive wear of AISI 321 stainless steel in H2SO4 solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanliang Huang; Xiaoxia Jiang; Sizuo Li


    The effect of Cl– on the corrosive wear behaviour of AISI 321 stainless steel in H2SO4 solution was studied via the corrosive wear rate, the load bearing capacity of passive film and the relationship between pitting and corrosive wear. There is a critical load at natural potential, below which the corrosive wear rate is slightly lowered by Cl–, while above which is increased. At natural potential there are more pits at low load than that at a higher one in the wear tracks and the pits are also deeper. The load bearing capacity is lowered by Cl– at passive region and then the corrosive wear rate increased.

  12. In Vivo Wear Performance of Cobalt-Chromium Versus Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Total Knee Replacements. (United States)

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Teeter, Matthew G; Guenther, Leah E; Burnell, Colin D; Bohm, Eric R; Naudie, Douglas R


    This study examines the damage and wear on the polyethylene (PE) inserts from 52 retrieved Genesis II total knee replacements to identify differences in tribological performance between matched pairs of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral components. Observer damage scoring and microcomputed tomography were used to quantify PE damage and wear, respectively. No significant differences were found between CoCr and OxZr groups in terms of PE insert damage, surface penetration, or wear. No severe damage such as cracking or delamination was noted on any of the 52 PE inserts. Observer damage scoring did not correlate with penetrative or volumetric PE wear. The more costly OxZr femoral component does not demonstrate clear tribological benefit over the standard CoCr component in the short term with this total knee replacement design.

  13. Tribological behavior and wear mechanism of resin-matrix contact strip against copper with electrical current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Chuan-jun; CHEN Zhen-hua; CHEN Ding; YAN Hong-ge; HE Feng-yi


    The resin-matrix pantograph contact strip (RMPCS), which has excellent abrasion resistance with electrical current and friction-reducing function, was developed in view of the traditional contact strips with high maintenance cost, high wear rate with electrical current and severe damage to the copper conducting wire. The characteristics of worn surfaces, cross-section and typical elemental distributions of RMPCS were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS).The wear behavior and arc discharge of RMPCS against copper were investigated with self-made electrical wear tester. The results show that the electrical current plays a critical role in determining the wear behavior, and the wear rate of the RMPCS against copper with electrical current is 2.7-5.8 times higher than the value without electrical current. The wear rate of the contact strip increases with the increase of the sliding speed and electrical current density. The main wear mechanism of RMPCS against copper without electrical current is low stress grain abrasive and slightly adhesive wear, while arc erosion wear and oxidation wear are the dominate mechanism with electrical current, which is accompanied by adhesive wear during the process of wear.

  14. Pure mechanical wear loss measurement in corrosive wear

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanliang Huang; Xiaoxia Jiang; Sizuo Li


    The method for the measurement of the pure mechanical wear loss for 321 stainless steel, 1045 steel and pure iron in the study of the synergy between corrosion and wear was studied. The methods studied included the measurement in distilled water, by cathodic protection and by adding inhibitor KI, and all were compared with the wear loss in air. The experiment showed that the pure mechanical wear losses and friction coefficients obtained by the three methods were close to each other and can be used to calculate the various wear components in the study of the interaction of corrosion and wear, but the measurements in distilled water for pure iron and 1045 steel are not recommended due to their corrosion.

  15. Wear of nanofilled dental composites at varying filler concentrations. (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O


    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nanofiller concentration on the mechanisms of wear of a dental composite. Nanofilled composites were fabricated with a bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate polymer and 40 nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25, 50, and 65 wt %). The elastic modulus, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites and the unfilled resin were measured. The materials (n = 8) were tested in the modified wear testing device at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles with 20N force at 1 Hz. A 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist were used. The worn composite and antagonist surfaces were analyzed with noncontact profilometry and SEM. The volumetric wear data indicated that there are significant differences between filler concentrations and cycles (p composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and modulus and increased flexural strength up to 50% fill. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the resin and 25% filled materials exhibited cracking and failed by fatigue and the 50 and 65% filled materials exhibited microcutting and failed by abrasive wear. Based on the results of this study, composite manufacturers are recommended to use a filler concentration between 25 and 50% when using nanosized filler particles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Optimization of Process Parameters of Tool Wear in Turning Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Barman


    Full Text Available Tool Wear is of great apprehension in machining industries since itaffects the surface quality, dimensional accuracy and production cost of the materials / components. In the present study twenty seven experiments were conducted as per 3 parameter 3 level full factorial design for turning operation of a mild steel specimen with high speed steel (HSS cutting tool. An experimental investigation on cutting tool wear and a mathematical model for tool wear estimation is reported in this paper where the model was simulated by computer programming and it has been found that this model is capable of estimating the wear rate of cutting tool and it provides an optimum set of process parameters for minimum tool wear.

  17. Enhanced DLC wear performance by the presence of lubricant additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Paula de Castro Costa


    Full Text Available Lubricant additives play significant role for reducing friction and wear of mechanical elements. The additives presented in 5W30 oil were developed for metal surfaces. However, they have been used in engine pieces covered with DLC coatings because they also offer the potential to reduce friction losses and wear in automotive applications. The friction and wear tests were carried out by using a UMT-CETR ball-on-disk tribometer in rotational mode under 5W30 synthetic oil at 100 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the presence of Mo and S in the wear tracks. These elements are from decomposition of ZDDP and MoDTC additives producing MoS2 in DLC surface, which offers enhanced durability by low wear rate.

  18. Quasi-nano wear mechanism under repeated impact contact loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new quasi-nano wear mechanism (QNWM) has been proposed in this paper based on the facts of wear curve turning under high energy impact contact loading.Its characteristic is that the wear rate of QNWM is only 1/10-1/3 that of delamination mechanism at the same energy density.The diameters of wear debris and pits on the worn surfaces fall into the quasi-nanometer scale (about 50-120 nm).The necessary and sufficient conditions,which bring about the QNWM,are:(i) the nano-structure (nano-crystalline + amorphous phase) in impact contact surface layer has formed by the intensive impact strain;(ii) the delamination wear cracking in sub-surface layer must be restrained;(iii) the microcracks of QNWM are produced in amorphous phase of surface nano-structure layer rather than in nano-crystalline.

  19. The biochemical characteristics of wear testing lubricants affect polyethylene wear in orthopaedic pin-on-disc testing. (United States)

    Guenther, Leah E; Turgeon, Thomas R; Bohm, Eric R; Brandt, Jan-M


    Lubricant protein concentration is known to affect crosslinked polyethylene wear in in vitro testing; however, the biochemical nature of these lubricants may also have a significant effect on wear and dictate its clinical relevance. A modified approach to pin-on-disc testing was implemented to explore the effect of four biochemically different lubricants on the wear of two types of crosslinked polyethylene materials (XLK™ and Marathon™; DePuy Synthes, Warsaw, IN, USA). XLK was associated with higher wear rates than Marathon. In comparison to lubricants containing deionized water, lubricants containing phosphate buffered saline solution and hyaluronic acid increased osmolality by up to 1.2 times and thermal stability by up to 1.4 times. This biochemical change reduced wear by up to 12.5 times. Wear rates for XLK and Marathon differed by a factor of 3.2 using lubricants with phosphate buffered saline solution as the dilutive media, but only 2.0 for lubricants with deionized water. Interestingly, varying the concentration of hyaluronic acid did not have a significant effect on wear, and differences between XLK and Marathon wear rates were not found to be statistically significant when hyaluronic acid was added to the lubricant. The findings of this study showed that increasing the osmolality and thermal stability of lubricants to more clinical levels decreased wear; however, the effect of hyaluronic acid on wear may not be apparent in simplistic pin-on-disc testing. It was suggested that phosphate buffered saline solution be used as the dilutive media of choice in order to better differentiate the ranking of materials while maintaining some clinical relevance.

  20. The Wear Behavior of HVOF Sprayed Near-Nanostructured WC-17%Ni(80/20)Cr Coatings in Dry and Slurry Wear Conditions (United States)

    Ben Mahmud, Tarek A.; Atieh, Anas M.; Khan, Tahir I.


    The ability to deposit nanostructured feedstock by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) spray offers potential improvements in coating hardness, wear resistance and toughness for applications in the oil sands industry. In this study, the wear behavior of a near-nanostructured coating was compared under dry and slurry abrasive wear test using an uncoated AISI-1018 low-carbon steel substrate as a reference. The coating microstructures were analyzed in the as-sprayed, dry and slurry test conditions using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements. Wear behavior of the steel and coating surfaces were assessed using a pin-on-plate wear test under various loads. The results showed that a coating could be successfully deposited using the HVOF spraying technique and with retention of the near-nanosized WC dispersion within the coating structure. The wear rate under dry test conditions was greater for the steel and coating compared to tests performed under slurry conditions. Examination of the wear tracks revealed that the wear mechanism was different for the two test conditions. Wear in the dry test condition resulted from 2-body abrasion, while 3-body abrasion dominated wear in slurry conditions. The latter showed lower wear rates due to a lubricating effect of the oil.

  1. An Influence of Parameters of Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining On Wear of Tool Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan


    a novel modeling and analysis approachof the tool wear in micro-EDM using a systematic statistical method exemplifying theinfluences of capacitance, feed rate and voltage on the tool wear ratio. The associationbetween tool wear ratio and the input factors is comprehended by using main effectplots......, interaction effects and regression analysis. A maximum variation of four-fold inthe tool wear ratio have been observed which indicated that the tool wear ratio variessignificantly over the trials. As the capacitance increases from 1 to 10 nF, the increasein tool wear ratio is by 33%. An increase in voltage...... as well as capacitance would leadto an increase in the number of charged particles, the number of collisions amongthem, which further enhances the transfer of the proportion of heat energy to the toolsurface. Furthermore, to model the tool wear phenomenon, a regression relationshipbetween tool wear ratio...

  2. Sliding Wear and Friction Behavior of Fuel Rod Material in Water and Dry State (United States)

    Park, Jin Moo; Kim, Jae Hoon; Jeon, Kyeong Lak; Park, Jun Kyu

    In water cooled reactors, the friction between spacer grid and fuel rod can lead to severe wear and it is an important topic to study. In the present study, sliding wear behavior of zirconium alloy was investigated in water and dry state using the pin-on-disc sliding wear tester. Sliding wear resistance of zirconium alloy against heat treated inconel alloy was examined at room temperature. The parameters in this study were sliding velocity, axial load and sliding distance. The wear characteristics of zirconium alloy was evaluated by friction coefficient, specific wear rate and wear volume. The micro-mechanisms responsible for wear in zirconium alloy were identified to be micro-cutting, micro-pitting, delamination and micro-cracking of deformed surface zone.

  3. Wear of nanofilled dental composites in a newly-developed in vitro testing device (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.

    Purpose. In vivo wear of dental composites can lead to loss of individual tooth function and the need to replace a composite restoration. To evaluate the wear performance of new and existing dental composites, we developed a novel system for measuring in vitro wear and we used this system to analyze the mechanisms of wear of nanofilled composite materials. Methods. A modified wear testing device was designed based on the Alabama wear testing machine. The new device consists of: (1) an antagonist which is lowered to and raised from the composite specimen by weight loading, (2) a motorized stage to cause the antagonist to slide 2mm on the composite surface, and (3) pumps for applying lubricant to the specimens. Various testing parameters of the device were examined before testing, including the impulse force, the third-body medium, the lubricant and antagonist. The parameters chosen for this study were 20N at 1Hz with a 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist. Three nano-composites were fabricated with a BisGMA polymer matrix and 40nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25%, 50% and 65%). The mechanical properties of the composites were measured. The materials were then tested in the modified wear testing device under impact wear, sliding wear and a combination of impact and sliding wear. The worn surfaces were then analyzed with a non-contact profilometer and SEM. Results. The volumetric wear data indicated that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and decreased toughness. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the 25% filled materials failed by fatigue and the 50% and 65% filled materials failed by abrasive wear. Impact wear produced fretting in this device and sliding wear is more aggressive than impact wear. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study and previous studies on this topic, manufacturers are recommended to use a filler

  4. Dry sliding wear behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 杨德庄; 武万良; 杨士勤


    The dry sliding wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy sliding against GCr15 steel under different velocities(between 0.2 and 1.2 m/s)and applied loads(from 30 to 90 N)were tested using a pin-on-disk tester in air. The wear occurred on both surfaces of the tested couplings. The wear rate of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy ranged from 23.0 to 123.8 mg/km. The wear of Ti-6Al-4V samples was in severe wear. The wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V samples increased with the increasing of load and shows a minimum on the curves of wear rate versus sliding velocity. SEM morphologies of worn surfaces and debris were observed. Phases in the debris were analyzed by means of XRD spectra.

  5. Wear Behavior and Mechanism of H13 Steel in Different Environmental Media (United States)

    Li, Xinxing; Zhou, Yin; Cao, Huan; Li, Yixian; Wang, Lan; Wang, Shuqi


    Sliding wear tests were performed for H13 steel in atmosphere, distilled water, 3.5% NaCl, and 5% NaOH water solutions under various loads on a pin-on-disk wear tester. The results showed that for different environmental media, the wear rate of H13 steel in atmosphere was the maximum and that in 3.5% NaCl solution was the minimum. The maximum wear rate in atmosphere was caused by a larger quantity of heat produced in the friction process. In this case, the adhesive wear prevailed. In three wet environments, the mild wear prevailed due to the good lubrication and cooling capacity of media as well as corrosion product film on worn surface. In distilled water, the wear mechanism was a typical fatigue wear. On the other hand, in 3.5% NaCl and 5% NaOH solutions, corrosive wear prevailed. The minimum wear rate in 3.5% NaCl solution was attributed to the protective function of corrosion product film. On the contrary, noncompact corrosion product film in 5% NaOH solution resulted in higher wear rate.

  6. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S


    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  7. Wear of polymers and composites

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelbary, Ahmed


    In the field of tribology, the wear behaviour of polymers and composite materials is considered a highly non-linear phenomenon. Wear of Polymers and Composites introduces fundamentals of polymers and composites tribology. The book suggests a new approach to explore the effect of applied load and surface defects on the fatigue wear behaviour of polymers, using a new tribometer and thorough experiments. It discusses effects of surface cracks, under different static and cyclic loading parameters on wear, and presents an intelligent algorithm, in the form of a neural network, to map the relations

  8. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.


    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  9. Consideration of Wear Rates at High Velocity (United States)


    37 α ferrite or alpha phase iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 ux horizontal displacement degree of freedom . . . . . . . . . 85 uy vertical...strength steel Fe-18Ni-9Co-5Mo- Ti-Al, which reflects the chemical composition, by percent weight, of nickel, cobalt , molybdenum, titanium, and aluminum... ferrite , or alpha phase iron. When held at equilibrium at temperatures of 590◦C (1100◦F) and above under equilibrium conditions, the structure will

  10. Small peripheral lung carcinomas with five-year post-surgical follow-up: assessment by semi-automated volumetric measurement of tumour size, CT value and growth rate on TSCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Shusuke [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Nagano Health Promotion Corporation, Inasato, Nagano (Japan); Hanaoka, Takaomi [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Department of Chest Surgery, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Ogata, Hiroyuki [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Division of Clinical Laboratory and Pathology, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Takayama, Fumiyoshi [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Ichinose Neurosurgery Hospital, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, Tomofumi [Iida Municipal Hospital, Iida, Nagano (Japan); Haniuda, Masayuki [Aichi Medical University, Division of Chest Surgery, Aichi (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuhiko [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Matsumoto (Japan); Okaya-Enrei Hospital, Okaya, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, Ryoichi [National Chushin Matsumoto Hospital, Matsumoto (Japan); Yoshida, Kazuo [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Matsumoto (Japan); Honda, Takayuki [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)


    To retrospectively assess the utility of semi-automated measurements by stratification of CT values of tumour size, CT value and doubling time (DT) using thin-section computed tomography (CT) images. The post-surgical outcomes of favourable and problematic tumours (more advanced p stage than IA, post-surgical recurrence or mortality from lung cancer) were compared using the measured values. The computed DTs were compared with manually measured values. The study subjects comprised 85 patients (aged 33-80 years, 48 women, 37 men), followed-up for more than 5 years postoperatively, with 89 lung lesions, including 17 atypical adenomatous hyperplasias and 72 lung cancers. DTs were determined in 45 lesions. For problematic lesions, whole tumour diameter and density were >18 mm and >-400 HU, respectively. The respective values for the tumour core (with CT values of -350 to 150 HU) were >15 mm and >-70 HU. Analysis of tumour core DTs showed interval tumour progression even if little progress was seen by standard tumour volume DT (TVDT). Software-based volumetric measurements by stratification of CT values provide valuable information on tumour core and help estimate tumour aggressiveness and interval tumour progression better than standard manually measured 2D-VDTs. (orig.)

  11. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large d...

  12. [Infants wearing teething necklaces]. (United States)

    Taillefer, A; Casasoprana, A; Cascarigny, F; Claudet, I


    Numerous infants wear teething necklaces, a quack remedy with a real risk of strangulation or aspiration of small beads. Evaluate parental perceptions and beliefs about the use of teething necklaces and analyze parental knowledge about the associated dangers. Between March and July 2011, in three different pediatric units of a tertiary children's hospital and a general hospital in Toulouse and Montauban (southwest France), voluntary parents were invited to be interviewed about their child wearing a teething necklace. The interviews were conducted following an anthropological approach: they were recorded and then fully transcribed and analyzed. Parents were informed that the conversation was recorded. During the study period, 48 children were eligible. Eleven families refused to participate, 29 parents were interviewed face to face. The children's mean age was 14 years ± 7 months, the male:female ratio was equal to 0.8 (12 boys, 15 girls). The mean age of children when necklace wearing was started was equal to 4 ± 2 months. The mean mother's age was 31 ± 5 years and 33 ± 4 years for fathers. The parents' religion was mostly Catholic (60%). Teething necklaces were mainly made of amber (n=23). Sales information about the risks associated with the necklaces was for the most part absent (92%). The most frequent positive parental perceptions were analgesic properties and a soothing remedy (73%); a birth accessory and memory (64%); an esthetic accessory (60%); a protective amulet (60%); and an alternative or additional element to other traditional therapeutics (55%). The negative parental perceptions (n=4) were an unnecessary accessory, costume jewelry, a pure commercial abuse of a popular belief, a dangerous item with a risk of strangulation, and the absence of proof of its efficacy. Although parents concede that teeth eruption is benign, they fear its related symptoms. To a natural phenomenon a natural response: they use a necklace to satisfy the analogy. The

  13. Switch wear leveling (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron


    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  14. Low friction wear resistant graphene films (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Berman, Diana; Erdemir, Ali


    A low friction wear surface with a coefficient of friction in the superlubric regime including graphene and nanoparticles on the wear surface is provided, and methods of producing the low friction wear surface are also provided. A long lifetime wear resistant surface including graphene exposed to hydrogen is provided, including methods of increasing the lifetime of graphene containing wear surfaces by providing hydrogen to the wear surface.

  15. Tool wear of a single-crystal diamond tool in nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate (United States)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Terano, Motoki


    Tool wear characteristics of a diamond tool in ductile mode machining are presented in this paper. Nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate was conducted to examine the tool wear rate of a single-crystal diamond tool. Effects of lubrication on the tool wear rate were also evaluated. A numerical simulation technique was developed to evaluate the tool temperature and normal stress acting on the wear surface. From the simulation results it was found that the tool temperature does not increase during the machining experiment. It is also demonstrated that tool wear is attributed to the abrasive wear mechanism, but the effect of the adhesion wear mechanism is minor in nano-groove machining. It is found that the tool wear rate is reduced by using water or kerosene as a lubricant.

  16. Friction and Wear Properties of Cold Gas Dynamic Sprayed α-Al2O3-Al Composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu


    Full Text Available Different proportions of α-Al2O3 and pure Al powders were coated onto AZ91D magnesium alloy substrates by cold gas dynamic spray. The microstructure and morphologies of the coatings were observed by scanning electron microscope. The friction and wear properties were tested by a ball-on-disk wear tester. It was found that the interfaces between grains and substrates formed close boundaries. It is revealed that the composite coatings could increase the friction or wear properties of the coatings. It was observed that the wear of coatings was converted from adhesive wear into abrasive wear with α-Al2O3 particles increasing and that the adhesive wear accompanied with abrasive wear would increase the wear rate of coatings.

  17. Friction and wear behavior of steam-oxidized ferrous PM compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, P. Philomen-D-Anaand; GopalaKrishna, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada (India); Palaniradja, K [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)


    This study determines density effect by assessing sintering temperature and graphite content on the dry sliding wear characteristics of steam-treated iron materials using a pin-on-disk wear test. The specimens were prepared from atomized premixed iron base powders and contained 0.1 to 1.0 wt.% carbon compacted at different densities (5.9 g/cc to 6.8 g/cc). The specimens were sintered for 1 h at different sintering temperatures (1090°C to 1130°C), and then subjected to continuous steam treatment at 540°C for 95 min through in situ Powder metallurgy (PM) technique. Steam treatment was proposed to improve the wear performances of the components of PM. Wear tests were conducted using a pin-on-disk-type machine. Load ranged from 20 N to 60 N. Sliding distance and sliding velocity of 312 m and 0.26 m/s, respectively, were adopted for all tests. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze wear surface. Increased density and graphite content reduced the wear rate of steam-treated materials. Hardness increased with increasing graphite content. Wear mechanism, wear rate map, and wear maps were drawn for the test result data. Wear transition map identified mild, severe, and ultra-severe wear regimes as functions of applied load.

  18. Friction and Wear of Sintered Alumina at High Temperature


    Senda, Tetsuya; TAKAHASHl, Chiori; UEMATSU, Susumu; Amada, Shigeyasu


    The frictional behavior of alumina ceramics was investigated at various temperatures up to 1200℃. The coefficient of friction decreased with increasing temperature and this temperature dependency became more pronounced as higher contact pressures were applied. Wear loss at room temperature could be interpreted as being caused by one of either two different behavior modes. These have a rate difference of a factor of ten. At temperatures higher than 800℃, the wear loss was far less than that at...

  19. Indirect multisignal monitoring and diagnosis of drill wear


    Jantunen, Erkki


    A machine tool utilisation rate can be improved by an advanced condition monitoring system using modern sensor and signal processing techniques. A drilling test and analysis program for indirect tool wear measurement forms the basis of this thesis. For monitoring the drill wear a number of monitoring methods such as vibration, acoustic emission, sound, spindle power and axial force were tested. The signals were analysed in the time domain using statistical methods such as root mean square (rm...

  20. Evaluation Of Saltstone Mixer Paddle Configuration For Improved Wear Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M.; Fowley, M. D.; Pickenheim, B. R.


    A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum), was used to minimize run time while maximizing wear rate. Two paddle configurations were tested, with the first four paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles. The first configuration was all flat paddles, with the first paddle not aligned with the augers and is consistent with present SPF mixer. The second configuration had helical paddles for the first three stages after the augers and a flat paddle at the fourth stage. The first helical paddle was aligned with the auger flight for the second configuration. The all flat paddle configuration wear rate was approximately double the wear rate of the helical paddles for the first two sets of paddles after the augers. For both configurations, there was little or no wear on the third and fourth paddle sets based on mass change, indicating that the fully wetted premix materials are much less abrasive than the un-wetted or partially wetted premix. Additionally, inspection of the wear surface of the paddles at higher magnification showed the flat paddles were worn much more than the helical and is consistent with the wear rates. Aligning the auger discharge flight with the first set of helical paddles was effective in reducing the wear rate as compared to the flat paddle configuration. Changing the paddle configuration from flat to helical resulted in a slight increase in rheological properties. Although, both tests produced grout-like material that is within the processing rage of the SPF, it should be noted that cement is not included in the premix and water was used rather than salt solution, which does affect the rheology of the fresh grout. The higher rheological properties from the helical wear test are most likely due to the reduced number of shearing paddles in the mixer. In addition, there is variation in the rheological data for each wear test. This is most likely due to the way that the dry feeds enter the mixer from the dry feeder. The

  1. Interaction of sulfuric acid corrosion and mechanical wear of iron (United States)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.


    Friction and wear experiment were conducted with elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid at concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.00007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid). Load and reciprocating sliding speed were kept constant. With the most dilute acid concentration of 0.00007 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At slightly higher concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent (1 N), the well-established high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid and decreased somewhat to 50 percent acid in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It was apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established that rapidly attacked the wear area. Under the conditions where direct corrosion losses were highest, the coefficient of friction was the lowest.

  2. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.


    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Wear and Corrosion of Cast Al Alloy Piston with and without Brake Oil


    Olawale Olarewaju Ajibola; Daniel Toyin Oloruntoba


    The effects of wear and corrosion of cast AA6061 aluminium alloy were studied with and without brake fluid using a wear jig while the corrosion rate was determined in brake fluid for 70 days under two experimental set-ups. The tests, yielded 0.00000123 g/mm2/min highest wear rate at 147000 wear cycles and 0.0334 mg/mm2/yr as the highest corrosion rate within the early 39th day of immersion in oil, the values being considered comparatively lower than those obtained for Al alloy in most common ...

  4. Toward Zero Micro/Macro-Scale Wear Using Periodic Nano-Layered Coatings. (United States)

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Devizenko, Alexander Yu; Khadem, Mahdi; Zubarev, Evgeniy N; Kondratenko, Valeriy V; Kim, Dae-Eun


    Wear is an important phenomenon that affects the efficiency and life of all moving machines. In this regard, extensive efforts have been devoted to achieve the lowest possible wear in sliding systems. With the advent of novel materials in recent years, technology is moving toward realization of zero wear. Here, we report on the development of new functional coatings comprising periodically stacked nanolayers of amorphous carbon and cobalt that are extremely wear resistant at the micro and macro scale. Because of their unique structure, these coatings simultaneously provide high elasticity and ultrahigh shear strength. As a result, almost zero wear was observed even after one million sliding cycles without any lubrication. The wear rate was reduced by 8-10-fold compared with the best previously reported data on extremely low wear materials.

  5. Wear and cutting performance of diamond composite material-a comparison with tungsten carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-sheng; J. N. Boland


    A series of wear and rock cutting tests were undertaken to assess the wear and cutting performance of a thermally stable diamond composite (TSDC). The wear tests were conducted on a newly designed wear testing rig in which a rotating aluminium oxide grinding wheel is turned (also known as machined) by the testing tool element.The rock cutting tests were performed on a linear rock-cutting planer. The thrust and cutting forces acting on the tool were measured during these tests. A tungsten carbide element was also studied for comparative purposes. The wear coefficients of both materials were used to evaluate wear performance while cutting performance was assessed by tool wear and the rates of increase in forces with cutting distance.

  6. Sliding wear and friction behavior of zirconium alloy with heat-treated Inconel718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H., E-mail: [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.M. [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.K.; Jeon, K.L. [Nuclear Fuel Technology Department, Korea Nuclear Fuel, 1047 Daedukdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    In water-cooled nuclear reactors, the sliding of fuel rod can lead to severe wear and it is an important issue to sustain the structural integrity of nuclear reactor. In the present study, sliding wear behavior of zirconium alloy in dry and water environment using Pin-On-Disk sliding wear tester was investigated. Wear resistance of zirconium alloy against heat-treated Inconel718 pin was examined at room temperature. Sliding wear tests were carried out at different sliding distance, axial load and sliding speed based on ASTM (G99-05). The results of these experiments were verified with specific wear rate and coefficient of friction. The micro-mechanisms responsible for wear in zirconium alloy were identified to be microcutting and microcracking in dry environment. Moreover, micropitting and delamination were observed in water environment.

  7. Characterization and Empirical Modelling of Sliding Wear on Sintered Aluminium-Graphite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrishraj Doraisamy


    Full Text Available Aluminium-graphite composites were synthesized using powder metallurgy route. Graphite was added as reinforcement in the range of 0, 3, and 6 weight % and composites were prepared by P/M. Microstructural analysis of the newly synthesized composites was carried out using SEM. The hardness of the composites was studied using Vickers microhardness tester, by applying a load of 1 kg for 5 sec. Also the amount of porosity was determined. Further the wear test was conducted on the sintered specimens using pin-on-disc wear apparatus according to ASTM-G99 standards. A regression model was developed to predict the wear rate of the specimen. Then the worn images were studied using SEM based on response surface methodology in order to understand the various wear mechanisms involved. The study revealed that mild wear, oxidational wear, plowing, cutting, and plastic deformation are the main mechanisms responsible for causing the wear.

  8. Microstructural effects on the sliding wear resistance of a cobalt-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, A. (Dept. of Materials, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kurz, W. (Dept. of Materials, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland))


    The influence of the microstructure on the dry sliding wear resistance of a hypo-eutectic Stellite 6 alloy was investigated under conditions leading to severe metallic wear of the hardfacing alloy. Conventional chill casting as well as laser surface cladding were used to produce a wide range of solidification microstructures. The hardness of the alloy was strongly dependent on the microstructure and in particular on the size of the dendrites. Under the sliding conditions investigated, severe delamination wear of the Stellite occurred. High coefficients of friction were measured and the structure in the subsurface was completely destroyed by the resulting stress cycles. During the stationary wear regime, no dependence of the wear rate on the as-solidified microstructure could therefore be determined. However, a strong influence on the wear resistance of alloying elements which affect the matrix properties was observed. Suggestions are made for the improvement of the wear resistance of such alloys under similar sliding conditions. (orig.)

  9. Tool wear mechanism in turning of novel wear-resisting aluminum bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪东惠; 夏伟; 张大童; 郭国文; 邵明


    Tool wear and wear mechanism during the turning of a wear-resisting aluminum bronze have been stud-ied. Tool wear samples were prepared by using M2 high-speed steel and YW1 cemented carbide tools to turn a novelhigh strength, wear resisting aluminum bronze without coolant and lubricant. Adhesion of workpiece materials wasfound on tool's surface. Under the turning condition used in this study major wear mechanisms for turning aluminumbronze using M2 high-speed steel tool are diffusion wear, adhesive wear and plastic deformation and shear on thecrater. Partial melting of high-speed steel on the rake plays a role in the tool wear also. Major wear mechanisms forturning aluminum bronze using YW1 cemented carbide tool are diffusion wear, attrition wear and sliding wear. Tocontrol the machining temperature is essential to reduce tool wear.

  10. Research on a Diamond Tip Wear Mechanism in Atomic Force Microscope-based Micro/nano-machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The object is to investigate the wear of an atomic forcemicroscope (AFM) diamond tip when conducting micro/nano-machining on single crystal silicon surface. The experimental research and theoretical analysis were carried out on the worn tip in terms of wear rate, wear mechanism and the effect of the tip wear on micro-machining process. The wear rate was calculated as 1.7(10~10mm3/(N*m) by using a theoretical model combined with the experimental results. Through an integration of an AFM observation on the worn tip features with the FEM simulation of the stress distribution, in addition to the unit cutting force calculation on the AFM diamond tip, the wear mechanism of the AFM diamond tip was concluded as mainly chemical wear, and the wear process was also elaborated as well.

  11. Effect of porosity on wear resistance of SiCp/Cu composites prepared by pressureless infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lin; QU Xuan-hui; DUAN Bo-hua; HE Xin-bo; QIN Ming-li


    The influence of porosity on the wear behavior of high volume fraction (61%) SiCp/Cu composite produced by pressureless infiltration was studied using a sliding, reciprocating and vibrating(SRV) machine. SiCp/Cu composites slid against hardened GCr15 bearing steel ball in the load range of 40-200 N. The results show that the wear rate increases with increasing porosity. The composite containing low porosity shows excellent wear resistance, which is attributed to the presence of mechanically mixed layer on the worn surface. In this case, the dominant wear mechanism is oxidative wear. Comparatively, the composite containing high porosity exhibits inferior wear resistance. Fracture and spalling of the particles are considered as the main causes of severe wear. Third body abrasion is the controlling wear mechanism. In addition, porosity has more important influence on wear rate at high load than at low load. This is associated with the fact that the fracture and spalling of particles is a process of crack initiation and propagation. At lower load, the pores beneath the worn surface can not propagate significantly, while the pores become unstable and easily propagate under high load, which results in a higher wear rate.

  12. Pulse sequence for dynamic volumetric imaging of hyperpolarized metabolic products (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles H.; Chen, Albert P.; Lustig, Michael; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Lupo, Janine; Xu, Duan; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Pauly, John M.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.


    Dynamic nuclear polarization and dissolution of a 13C-labeled substrate enables the dynamic imaging of cellular metabolism. Spectroscopic information is typically acquired, making the acquisition of dynamic volumetric data a challenge. To enable rapid volumetric imaging, a spectral-spatial excitation pulse was designed to excite a single line of the carbon spectrum. With only a single resonance present in the signal, an echo-planar readout trajectory could be used to resolve spatial information, giving full volume coverage of 32 × 32 × 16 voxels every 3.5 s. This high frame rate was used to measure the different lactate dynamics in different tissues in a normal rat model and a mouse model of prostate cancer.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Image Segmentation and its Volumetric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul R. Ambalkar


    Full Text Available Image processing techniques make it possible to extract meaningful information from medical images. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been widely applied in biological research and diagnostics because of its excellent soft tissue contrast, non-invasive character, high spatial resolution and easy slice selection at any orientation. The MRI-based brain volumetric is concerned with the analysis of volumes and shapes of the structural components of the human brain. It also provides a criterion, by which we recognize the presence of degenerative diseases and characterize their rates of progression to make the diagnosis and treatments as a easy task. In this paper we have proposed an automated method for volumetric measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and used Self Organized Map (SOM clustering method for their segmentations. We have used the MRI data set of 61 slices of 256×256 pixels in DICOM standard format

  14. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.


    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  15. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm


    . This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° x 90° field-of-view was achieved. Data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 x 32 elements 2-D phased array......Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...... transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak- temporal...

  16. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System (United States)


    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  17. Experimental Study of the Hygrothermal Effect on Wear Behavior of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhel Abbas. Abdulla


    Full Text Available The hygrothermal effect on the wear behavior of composite material (fiberglass and polyester resin vf=40% was investigated experimentally in this work. The study includes manufacturing of test device (pin on disc according to ASTM G 99. In order to study the hygrothermal effect on wear behavior of composite materials the hygrothermal chamber was manufactured. The experimental results show that the wear of glass fiber/polyester increased with increasing the load, sliding speed and sliding distance. The load and sliding distance were more effective on the wear of the composite rather than sliding speed. Also, it has been revealed that, the hygrothermal is considerable effect that, the wear rate of glass fiber/polyester without hygrothermal effect is lower than wear with hygrothermal effect. Applied load is the wear factor that has the highest physical influence on the wear of composites materials than other wear factors. Also, the wear of glass fiber/polyester without hygrothermal effect is lower than wear with hygrothermal effect.

  18. Influence of applied load on wear behavior of C/C-Cu composites under electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yin


    Full Text Available Using carbon fiber needled fabrics with Cu-mesh and graphite powder as the preform, Cu mesh modified carbon/carbon(C/C-Cu composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD with C3H6 and impregnation-carbonization (I/C with furan resin. C/C composites, as a comparison, were also prepared. Their microstructures and wear morphologies were observed by optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. Wear behavior of C/C and C/C-Cu composites under different applied loads were investigated on a pin-on-disc wear tester. The results show that Cu meshes are well dispersed and pyrolytic carbon is in rough laminar structure. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The current-carrying capacity of C/C-Cu composites increases and the arc discharge is hindered as the applied load increases from 40 N to 80 N. Both C/C and C/C-Cu composites had good wear properties. The mass wear rate of C/C-Cu composites under 80 N was only 4.2% of that under 60 N. In addition, C/C-Cu composites represent different wear behaviors because wear mechanisms of arc erosion, abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and oxidative wear are changing under different applied loads.

  19. Sensor of total hip arthoplasty wear designed on principle of scanning profilometry (United States)

    Rössler, Tomas; Mandat, Dusan; Gallo, Jiri; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Pochmon, Michal; Havranek, Vitezslav


    Total hip arthroplasty significantly improves the quality of life in majority of patients with osteoarthritis. However, prosthetic wear is a problem because of inducing the development of aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis which needs the revision surgery. Thus, the polyethylene wear measurement is the central to contemporary orthopaedics and this interesting has encouraged the development and improvement of both radiologic (in vivo) and non-radiologic (in vitro) methods for polyethylene wear quantification. The principles of polyethylene liner wear measurements are predominantly geometric; nevertheless, the realization of individual types of in vivo measurements brings with it the necessity of many simplifications and compromising steps to acquire approximately accurate values. In fact, the volumetric wear can be obtained by mathematical conversion based on the most linear shift of femoral head in the cup. However, such approach is understood to be somewhat insufficient. Our ongoing research pointed to the development of optical non-contact method for wear measurement and its results are introduced in this paper including the methodology designed for the usability validation of the method for the given purpose and the description of sensor, its principle, technical realization, design and parameters.

  20. They shall wear fringes. (United States)

    Sugar, M


    The multiple functions of clothes include utility, protection, rivalry, disguise, camouflage, display for seduction purposes, aggression, totemism, and status. Here the focus is on a decorative and distinctive hierarchical aspect of ancient dress, the tsitsit or fringes, whose original function is long absent, but that has endured for 3,500 years in Judaism. The beginning of their use beyond the totemic appears related to issues of changing identity from slavery to liberty, endowing noble status, exhibitionism, a symbol of identity, identification with the aggressor, a talisman, and potency. It is conceptualized that they became a symbol, or a specifier, that helped promote group cohesion in ex-slaves who were frightened, dependent, anxious, and not hopeful about their future. The tsitsit aided the development of a new identity and made all Israelites equal and noble to the observer. The durability of this symbol to the present is evident in its daily wear, as an accompaniment to daily prayers, as well as in its use as a burial shroud for males. It appears that the tsitsit have additional multiple functions. These are the promise of oral and genital satisfaction, and the pleasure of the after-life, superego warnings and control of sexual impulses, protection, survival value, and affirmation. Since they offer sublimation with acceptable gratification of instincts, the tsitsit have become ritualized and endure.

  1. Use of GPR technique in surveying gravel road wearing course (United States)

    Saarenketo, Timo; Vesa, Heikki


    antenna surface reflection method, represents well the suction properties of the wearing course. High dielectric values reflect the water sensitive and frost susceptible wearing course materials where as low values reveal the lack of binder. A quality rating of the wearing course by its dielectrics and layer thickness is also suggested. In the measuring results analysis and presentations, GIS-maps proved to be invaluable.

  2. The Delamination Theory of Wear (United States)


    junctions, it is still based on the assumption that the deformation occurs at the asperities. Rabinowicz [14] advanced an adhesion theory of friction...shown that bronze particles were indeed bigger than steel particles. The compilation of wear particle sizes given by Rabinowicz [14] also indicates...Waterhouse [32] has shown that, in fact, fretting occurs by delamination. 6) Minimum Load for Loose Particle Formation Rabinowicz [14] found that no wear

  3. The fractal characterization of wear particles in relation to the wear status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The topography and distribution of wear particles produced in the wear process containmuch information about the wear status. Fractal geometry is applied in this paper to describe thewear particle accumulation in order to characterize the wear status change. The sliding wear test isperformed on a pin-on-disc apparatus using steel disc and brass pin. The investigation resultsshow that wear particle accumulation presents a strong bi-fractal behavior. Also, the fractal dimen-sion varies in correspondence to the wear status change. A new fractal index characterizing thewear particle accumulation is put forward. The wear tests of brass pin demonstrate that the fractalindex is effective in describing the wear status change.

  4. Critical component wear in heavy duty engines

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, P A


    The critical parts of a heavy duty engine are theoretically designed for infinite life without mechanical fatigue failure. Yet the life of an engine is in reality determined by wear of the critical parts. Even if an engine is designed and built to have normal wear life, abnormal wear takes place either due to special working conditions or increased loading.  Understanding abnormal and normal wear enables the engineer to control the external conditions leading to premature wear, or to design the critical parts that have longer wear life and hence lower costs. The literature on wear phenomenon r

  5. Enhanced wear resistance by compressive strengthening : A novel combination of laser and ion implantation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, H. de; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    In general, neon implantation is not very effective in reducing wear rates. However, neon implantation into laser-melted steel turns out to reduce the wear rate substantially as a result of a conversion of residual tensile stresses into compressive ones. Nitrogen implantation, on the other hand, at


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Sit; Y.H. Lu; H. Chen; Z.F. Zhou; Y.G. Shen; K.Y. Li


    Friction and sliding wear behaviour of Ti-B-N coatings against AISI440C steel ball and WC-6wt%Co ball were studied by using pin-on-disk tribometer along with microstructure characterization using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is shown that the wear resistance of film depended on the wear mechanism. In the case of AISI440C steel, adhesive wear were pre-dominant and the wear rate increased sharply to a maximum when N content reach ~38at. %. This might be related to the change of film microstructure and phase configuration, so the least adhesive transfer of tribo-film was observed. If WC-6wt% Co ball was used, less deformation wear debris was observed, this was responsible for the rise of wear rate. Despite of different wear modes, friction coefficients in both cases were found to depend mainly on the formation and the amount of h-BN phase. Elemental analysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that oxygen participated in the wear behavior by reacting with films to form the debris comprised of various types of Ti oxide including TiO, TiO2 and Ti2O3 ,which increased wear resistance.

  7. Wear of sequentially enhanced 9-Mrad polyethylene in 10 million cycle knee simulation study. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Riichiro; Williams, Paul Allen; Shoji, Hiromu; Hirakawa, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Kengo; Tsukamoto, Mikiko; Clarke, Ian C


    Highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXPE) has been shown to be effective in reducing wear in total hip replacements. HXPE has not found widespread use in TKR, because the crosslinking inevitably leads to reductions in critical properties such as toughness and fatigue strength. Sequentially enhanced crosslinking (SXPE) have been suggested for improved wear resistance for tibial inserts with maintenance of mechanical properties and anticipated high oxidation resistance superior to conventional polyethylene (XLPE). We compared the wear of SXPE (9Mrad) to XLPE inserts (3Mrad) to 10 million cycles. Triathlon femoral condyles were identical in both. This is the first wear study of SXPE inserts. According to the power law relating irradiation dose to wear of XLPE inserts, wear of 9 Mrad inserts should be reduced by 70% compared to 3Mrad controls. The wear rates of the SXPE inserts were reduced by 86% at 10 million cycles duration, somewhat greater than predicted. The one prior investigation by the manufacturer reported a 79% wear reduction for SXPE compared to controls in a 5 million cycle simulator study in knee design and test parameters. There were important differences between the two studies. Nevertheless there clearly appeared to be a major benefit for sequentially enhanced polyethylene in tibial inserts. This combined wear reduction of 80-85% with improved oxidation resistance and retention of mechanical properties may prove beneficial for active patients who may otherwise risk high wear rates over many years of use.

  8. Transitions in Wear and Friction of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Copper Matrix Composite Sliding Against AISI-1045 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The friction and wear properties of carbon fiber reinforced copper matrix composite in dry sliding against AISI-1045 steel was evaluated by a block-on-ring test machine. It was shown that the low frictional factor and wear rate of the composite block could be maintained when pressure or velocity was below a certain value. But when the pressure or velocity exceeded the critical value, the friction factor and wear rate tended to increase rapidly with pressure and sliding velocity. The morphologies, elemental compositions, and surface profile of worn composite surfaces at different wear stages were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and profile-meter. It was found that low values of friction and wear were due to a thin solid film forming on the surface of the composite block which includes carbon and copper at a mild wear stage. The film could impede adhesion and provide some degree of self-lubrication. When the film included more metal elements and were damaged, severe wear happened, and the wear rate increased sharply. As a result, a transition diagram in friction and wear was constructed, which provided pressure and velocity conditions of change from mild wear and low friction to severe wear and high friction for the wear-resisting design.

  9. Study of Wear of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt


    Full Text Available A study was made of the erosion of blades of pitched blade impellers in a suspension of solid particles in a liquid under a turbulent regime of flow of an agitated charge. The wear of the impeller is described by an analytical approximation in exponential form, and the influence of the pitch angle on the impeller blade wear was studied experimentally. It follows from the results of the experiments made that the wear rate of the pitched blade impellers increases linearly with the decreasing pitch angle within the interval a Î á15°; 45° ń. The proposed form of radial profile of the leading edge of the impeller blade enables us to calculate the surface of the worn blade. This quantity significantly decreases with the length of the period when the blades are affected by the solid particles, and its values calculated according to the suggested profile of the worn blade fit fairly well with the experimentally determined values. The results of the experiments performed are valid for homogeneous distribution of solid particles in an agitated suspension.

  10. A review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application (United States)

    Syazwani, H.; Mebrahitom, G.; Azmir, A.


    This paper discusses a review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application. Wear of the nozzle becomes a major problem since it may affect the water jet machining performance. Design, materials, and life of the nozzle give significance effect to the nozzle wear. There are various parameters that may influence the wear rate of the nozzle such as nozzle length, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle diameter, orifice diameter, abrasive flow rate and water pressure. The wear rate of the nozzle can be minimized by controlling these parameters. The mechanism of wear in the nozzle is similar to other traditional machining processes which uses a cutting tool. The high pressure of the water and hard abrasive particles may erode the nozzle wall. A new nozzle using a tungsten carbide-based material has been developed to reduce the wear rate and improve the nozzle life. Apart from that, prevention of the nozzle wear has been achieved using porous lubricated nozzle. This paper presents a comprehensive review about the wear of abrasive water jet nozzle.

  11. The effect of Tricresyl-Phosphate (TCP) as an additive on wear of Iron (Fe) (United States)

    Ghose, Hiren M.; Ferrante, John; Honecy, Frank C.


    The effect of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as an antiwear additive in lubricant trimethyol propane triheptanoate (TMPTH) was investigated. The objective was to examine step loading wear by use of surface analysis, wetting, and chemical bonding changes in the lubricant. The investigation consisted of steploading wear studies by a pin or disk tribometer, the effects on wear related to wetting by contact angle and surface tension measurements of various liquid systems, the chemical bonding changes between lubricant and TCP chromatographic analysis, and by determining the reaction between the TCP and metal surfaces through wear scar analysis by Auger emission spectroscopy (AES). The steploading curve for the base fluid alone shows rapid increase of wear rate with load. The steploading curve for the base fluid in presence of 4.25 percent by volume TCP under dry air purge has shown a great reduction of wear rate with all loads studied. It has also been found that the addition of 4.25 percent by volume TCP plus 0.33 percent by volume water to the base lubricant under N2 purge also greatly reduces the wear rate with all loads studied. AES surface analysis reveals a phosphate type wear resistant film, which greatly increases load-bearing capacity, formed on the iron disk. Preliminary chromatographic studies suggest that this film forms either because of ester oxidation or TCP degradation. Wetting studies show direct correlation between the spreading coefficient and the wear rate.

  12. Wear Performance of Sequentially Cross-Linked Polyethylene Inserts against Ion-Treated CoCr, TiNbN-Coated CoCr and Al2O3 Ceramic Femoral Heads for Total Hip Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fabry


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biotribology of current surface modifications on femoral heads in terms of wettability, polyethylene wear and ion-release behavior. Three 36 mm diameter ion-treated CoCr heads and three 36 mm diameter TiNbN-coated CoCr heads were articulated against sequentially cross-linked polyethylene inserts (X3 in a hip joint simulator, according to ISO 14242. Within the scope of the study, the cobalt ion release in the lubricant, as well as contact angles at the bearing surfaces, were investigated and compared to 36 mm alumina ceramic femoral heads over a period of 5 million cycles. The mean volumetric wear rates were 2.15 ± 0.18 mm3·million cycles−1 in articulation against the ion-treated CoCr head, 2.66 ± 0.40 mm3·million cycles−1 for the coupling with the TiNbN-coated heads and 2.17 ± 0.40 mm3·million cycles−1 for the ceramic heads. The TiNbN-coated femoral heads showed a better wettability and a lower ion level in comparison to the ion-treated CoCr heads. Consequently, the low volumes of wear debris, which is comparable to ceramics, and the low concentration of metal ions in the lubrication justifies the use of coated femoral heads.

  13. Friction and wear of iron in sulfuric acid (United States)

    Rengstorff, G. W. P.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.


    Elemental iron sliding on aluminum oxide in aerated sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from very dilute (0.000007 N; i.e., 4 ppm) to very concentrated (96 percent acid) was studied. Load and reciprocating sliding speeds were kept constant. With the most dilute acid of 0.7 to 0.0002 N, a complex corrosion product formed that was friable and often increased friction and wear. At concentrations of 0.001 N, metal losses were essentially by wear alone. Because no buildup of corrosion products occurred, this acid concentration became the standard from which to separate metal loss from direct corrosion and mechanical wear losses. When the acid concentration was increased to 5 percent, the high corrosion rate of iron in sulfuric acid strongly dominated the total wear loss. This strong corrosion increased to 30 percent acid, and decreased somewhat at 50 percent in accordance with expectations. However, the low corrosion of iron expected at acid concentrations of 65 to 96 percent was not observed in the wear area. It is apparent that the normal passivating film was being worn away and a galvanic cell established which rapidly attached to the wear area.

  14. Wear Performance of Cu-Alloyed Austempered Ductile Iron (United States)

    Batra, Uma; Batra, Nimish; Sharma, J. D.


    An investigation was carried out to examine the influence of structural and mechanical properties on wear behavior of austempered ductile iron (ADI). Ductile iron (DI) samples were austenitized at 900 °C for 60 min and subsequently austempered for 60 min at three temperatures: 270, 330, and 380 °C. Microstructures of the as-cast DI and ADIs were characterized using optical and scanning microscopy, respectively. The structural parameters, volume fraction of austenite, carbon content of austenite, and ferrite particle size were determined using x-ray diffraction technique. Mechanical properties including Vicker's hardness, 0.2% proof strength, ultimate tensile strength, ductility, and strain hardening coefficient were determined. Wear tests were carried out under dry sliding conditions using pin-on-disk machine with a linear speed of 2.4 m/s. Normal load and sliding distance were 45 N and 1.7 × 104 m, respectively. ADI developed at higher austempering temperature has large amounts of austenite, which contribute toward improvement in the wear resistance through stress-induced martensitic transformation, and strain hardening of austenite. Wear rate was found to depend on 0.2% proof strength, ductility, austenite content, and its carbon content. Study of worn surfaces and nature of wear debris revealed that the fine ausferrite structure in ADIs undergoes oxidational wear, but the coarse ausferrite structure undergoes adhesion, delamination, and mild abrasion too.

  15. 120mm M830A1 Heat Round Wear Life Prediction (United States)


    MABL CFD boundary layer cannon model, MACE thermal cannon model, MACE wear and erosion cannon model, and BL cannon coating-substrate wear and erosion...round history. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2 Computational 120mm M830A1 thermo-chemistry, interior-ballistics, CFD boundary layer, thermal, wear, and...Vm input matls. properties input g-w kinetic rate input microscopic matl void input (cracks,pits,interf, surf ) thermocouple input rounds-types

  16. Changes in food processing and occlusal dental wear during the early agricultural period in northwest Mexico. (United States)

    Watson, James T


    Crown dimensions and occlusal surface wear rate and wear plane were evaluated using paired first and second mandibular molars from a sample of 84 Early Agricultural period (1600 B.C.-A.D. 200) skeletons from northwest Mexico. Although this period represents a major shift in subsistence strategies in the Sonoran Desert, from food-foraging to agriculture, archaeological and dental pathology studies have identified this period as one of relative dietary stability. It was therefore predicted that very little variation in occlusal wear would have occurred between the early phase (San Pedro: 1600-800 B.C.) and late phase (Cienega: 800 B.C.-A.D. 200). Comparison of crown diameters identified some phenotypic differences between sexes but not between archaeological phases. Molar occlusal surfaces were then divided into four quadrants, and wear scores recorded for each quadrant. Principle axis analysis was performed between total wear scores of paired, adjacent first and second mandibular molars to assess rate and occlusal wear plane over time. The analysis demonstrated that both wear rate and wear plane increased from the early to the late phase of the Early Agricultural period. These results indicate that although diet may have indeed remained stable during this period in the Sonoran Desert increases in the rate of wear and wear plane may reflect changes in food-processing techniques. It is suggested that more intensive processing of agricultural products during the Cienega phase simultaneously softened the diet to create more tooth-contact wear and introduced more grit to cause faster and more angled wear on the molar occlusal surfaces.

  17. The wear of cross-linked polyethylene against itself. (United States)

    Joyce, T J; Ash, H E; Unsworth, A


    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) may have an application as a material for an all-plastic surface replacement finger joint. It is inexpensive, biocompatible and can be injection-moulded into the complex shapes that are found on the ends of the finger bones. Further, the cross-linking of polyethylene has significantly improved its mechanical properties. Therefore, the opportunity exists for an all-XLPE joint, and so the wear characteristics of XLPE sliding against itself have been investigated. Wear tests were carried out on both reciprocating pin-on-plate machines and a finger function simulator. The reciprocating pin-on-plate machines had pins loaded at 10 N and 40 N. All pin-on-plate tests show wear factors from the plates very much greater than those of the pins. After 349 km of sliding, a mean wear factor of 0.46 x 10(-6) mm3/N m was found for the plates compared with 0.021 x 10(-6) mm3/N m for the pins. A fatigue mechanism may be causing this phenomenon of greater plate wear. Tests using the finger function simulator give an average wear rate of 0.22 x 10(-6) mm3/N m after 368 km. This sliding distance is equivalent to 12.5 years of use in vivo. The wear factors found were comparable with those of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against a metallic counterface and, therefore, as the loads across the finger joint are much less than those across the knee or the hip, it is probable that an all-XLPE finger joint will be viable from a wear point of view.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.H. Wu; Z.S. Zou; W. Wu


    The effects of operation parameters of combined blowing converter on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between slag and steel are studied with a cold model with water simulating steel, oil simulating slag and benzoic acid as the transferred substance between water and oil. The results show that, with lance level of 2.Im and the top blowing rate of 25000Nm3/h, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient changes most significantly when the bottom blowing rate ranges from 384 to 540Nm3/h. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient reaches its maximum when the lance level is 2. lm, the top blowing rates is 30000Nm3/h, and the bottom blowing rate is 384Nrr3/h with tuyeres located symmetrically at 0.66D of the converter bottom.

  19. Dry friction and wear characteristics of MoSi2 against ahoy steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ping; ZHANG Hou'an; TANG Guoning; LI Songwen


    The dry friction and wear characteristics of three kinds of friction couples under different loads, MoSi2/45 tempered steel, MoSi2/45 quenched steel, and MoSi2/CrWMn steel, were investigated by using a friction and wear tester. SEM and X-ray diffraction were employed to analyze the microphotograph of the worn surface and the phase of worn pieces in order to reveal the wear mechanisms of MoSi2 material. The results show that MoSi2/CrWMn steel friction pair has good dry friction and wear properties under the load of 80 N, where the friction coefficient is 0.255 and the wear rate of MoSi2 is only 14.72 But under the load of 150 N, it is MoSi2/45 tempered steel friction pair that has good tribological properties,MoSi2 under low loads is brittle fracture. With the increase of load, the main wear mechanism of MoSi2 against 45 quenched steel or CrWMn steel is adhesive wear. However, the wear mechanism of MoSi2 against 45 tempered steel is changed from oxidation-fatigue wear to adhesive wear.

  20. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing (United States)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre


    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  1. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases during follow-up--initial results. (United States)

    Fabel, Michael; Bolte, H; von Tengg-Kobligk, H; Bornemann, L; Dicken, V; Delorme, S; Kauczor, H-U; Heller, M; Biederer, J


    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible evaluation. The current standard is RECIST measurement with its inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is an alternative for therapy monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases using a software prototype in a follow-up setting. MSCT was performed in 50 patients covering the chest, abdomen and pelvis. A total of 174 suspicious lymph nodes were evaluated by two radiologists regarding short axis diameters and volumetric analysis using semi-automated software. Quality of segmentation, time, maximum diameter and volume were documented. Variability of the derived change rates was computed as the standard deviation of the difference of the obtained respective change rates. The software performance provides robust volumetric analysis. Quality of segmentation was rated acceptable to excellent in 76-79% by each reader. Mean time spent per lesion was 38 s. The variability of change in effective diameters was 10.6%; for change rates of RECIST maximum diameter variability was 27.5%. Semi-automated volumetric analysis allows fast and convenient segmentation of most lymph node metastases. Compared with RECIST the inter-observer-variability in baseline and follow-up is reduced. This should principally allow subtle changes to be subclassified within the RECIST stable range as minor response [-15% to +10%].

  2. Cavitation wear resistance of engine bearing materials (United States)

    Rac, Aleksandar


    The resistance to cavitation erosion of aluminum alloy, and cast and sinte-red lead-bronze, materials which are most frequently used for engine bearings, has been evaluated. The tests were carried out in motor oil at a temperature of 80 C, using a magnetostrictive vibratory tester (20 kHz). The results showed that the cavitation erosion resistance was the greatest in cast lead-bronze. On the contrary, sintered lead-bronze, though of the same chemical composition, had the greatest erosion rate. Additionally, the investigation of the overlay plated bearings showed the overlay was nonresistive to this type of wear.

  3. Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, James L. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a specific type of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in which the gantry speed, multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, and dose rate vary continuously during delivery. A treatment planning system for VMAT is presented. Methods: Arc control points are created uniformly throughout one or more arcs. An iterative least-squares algorithm is used to generate a fluence profile at every control point. The control points are then grouped and all of the control points in a given group are used to approximate the fluence profiles. A direct-aperture optimization is then used to improve the solution, taking into account the allowed range of leaf motion of the MLC. Dose is calculated using a fast convolution algorithm and the motion between control points is approximated by 100 interpolated dose calculation points. The method has been applied to five cases, consisting of lung, rectum, prostate and seminal vesicles, prostate and pelvic lymph nodes, and head and neck. The resulting plans have been compared with segmental (step-and-shoot) IMRT and delivered and verified on an Elekta Synergy to ensure practicality. Results: For the lung, prostate and seminal vesicles, and rectum cases, VMAT provides a plan of similar quality to segmental IMRT but with faster delivery by up to a factor of 4. For the prostate and pelvic nodes and head-and-neck cases, the critical structure doses are reduced with VMAT, both of these cases having a longer delivery time than IMRT. The plans in general verify successfully, although the agreement between planned and measured doses is not very close for the more complex cases, particularly the head-and-neck case. Conclusions: Depending upon the emphasis in the treatment planning, VMAT provides treatment plans which are higher in quality and/or faster to deliver than IMRT. The scheme described has been successfully introduced into clinical use.

  4. Calculation of wear (f.i. wear modulus) in the plastic cup of a hip joint prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.


    The wear equation is applied to the wear process in a hip joint prosthesis and a wear modulus is defined. The sliding distance, wear modulus, wear volume, wear area, contact angle and the maximum normal stress were calculated and the theoretical calculations applied to test results. During the wear

  5. Multiscale Modeling of Wear Degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro


    Cylinder liners of diesel engines used for marine propulsion are naturally subjected to a wear process, and may fail when their wear exceeds a specified limit. Since failures often represent high economical costs, it is utterly important to predict and avoid them. In this work [4], we model the wear process using a pure jump process. Therefore, the inference goal here is to estimate: the number of possible jumps, its sizes, the coefficients and the shapes of the jump intensities. We propose a multiscale approach for the inference problem that can be seen as an indirect inference scheme. We found that using a Gaussian approximation based on moment expansions, it is possible to accurately estimate the jump intensities and the jump amplitudes. We obtained results equivalent to the state of the art but using a simpler and less expensive approach.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Wear Degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro


    Cylinder liners of diesel engines used for marine propulsion are naturally subjected to a wear process, and may fail when their wear exceeds a specified limit. Since failures often represent high economical costs, it is utterly important to predict and avoid them. In this work [4], we model the wear process using a pure jump process. Therefore, the inference goal here is to estimate: the number of possible jumps, its sizes, the coefficients and the shapes of the jump intensities. We propose a multiscale approach for the inference problem that can be seen as an indirect inference scheme. We found that using a Gaussian approximation based on moment expansions, it is possible to accurately estimate the jump intensities and the jump amplitudes. We obtained results equivalent to the state of the art but using a simpler and less expensive approach.

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Wear Degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro


    Cylinder liners of diesel engines used for marine propulsion are naturally subjected to a wear process, and may fail when their wear exceeds a specified limit. Since failures often represent high economical costs, it is utterly important to predict and avoid them. In this work [4], we model the wear process using a pure jump process. Therefore, the inference goal here is to estimate: the number of possible jumps, its sizes, the coefficients and the shapes of the jump intensities. We propose a multiscale approach for the inference problem that can be seen as an indirect inference scheme. We found that using a Gaussian approximation based on moment expansions, it is possible to accurately estimate the jump intensities and the jump amplitudes. We obtained results equivalent to the state of the art but using a simpler and less expensive approach.

  8. Sliding wear behavior of high velocity arc sprayed Fe-Al coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子新; 徐滨士; 马世宁; 张伟


    The friction and wear behavior of Fe-Al intermetallics based coating produced by high velocity arc spraying technique under dry sliding at room temperature were investigated using a ball-on-disc tribotester. The effect of sliding speed on friction coefficient and wear of the coating was studied. The worn surface of the coating was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to explore sliding friction and wear mechanism. The results show that the variations of friction coefficient can be divided into three distinct steps during the trail. Both the friction coefficient and the wear of the coating increase with increased sliding speed due to accelerated crack propagation rate and lamellar structure with poor ductility of the coating. The coating surface is subjected to alternately tensile stress and compression stress during sliding wear process, and the predominant wear mechanism of the coatings appears to be brittle fracture and delamination.

  9. The influence of malrotation and femoral component material on patellofemoral wear during gait. (United States)

    Vanbiervliet, J; Bellemans, J; Verlinden, C; Luyckx, J P; Labey, L; Innocenti, B; Vandenneucker, H


    Complications involving the patellofemoral joint, caused by malrotation of the femoral component during total knee replacement, are an important cause of persistent pain and failure leading to revision surgery. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify the influence of femoral component malrotation on patellofemoral wear, and to determine whether or not there is a difference in the rate of wear of the patellar component when articulated against oxidised zirconium (OxZr) and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) components. An in vitro method was used to simulate patellar maltracking for both materials. Both rates of wear and changes in height on the patellar articular surface were measured. The mean rates of wear measured were very small compared to standard tibiofemoral wear rates. When data for each femoral component material were pooled, the mean rate of wear was 0.19 mm3/Mcycle (sd 0.21) for OxZr and 0.34 mm3/Mcycle (sd 0.335) for CoCr. The largest change in height on each patella varied from -0.05 mm to -0.33 mm over the different configurations. The results suggest that patellar maltracking due to an internally rotated femoral component leads to an increased mean patellar wear. Although not statistically significant, the mean wear production may be lower for OxZr than for CoCr components.

  10. Anisotropic mechanical amorphization drives wear in diamond. (United States)

    Pastewka, Lars; Moser, Stefan; Gumbsch, Peter; Moseler, Michael


    Diamond is the hardest material on Earth. Nevertheless, polishing diamond is possible with a process that has remained unaltered for centuries and is still used for jewellery and coatings: the diamond is pressed against a rotating disc with embedded diamond grit. When polishing polycrystalline diamond, surface topographies become non-uniform because wear rates depend on crystal orientations. This anisotropy is not fully understood and impedes diamond's widespread use in applications that require planar polycrystalline films, ranging from cutting tools to confinement fusion. Here, we use molecular dynamics to show that polished diamond undergoes an sp(3)-sp(2) order-disorder transition resulting in an amorphous adlayer with a growth rate that strongly depends on surface orientation and sliding direction, in excellent correlation with experimental wear rates. This anisotropy originates in mechanically steered dissociation of individual crystal bonds. Similarly to other planarization processes, the diamond surface is chemically activated by mechanical means. Final removal of the amorphous interlayer proceeds either mechanically or through etching by ambient oxygen.

  11. Wear resistance of a metal surface modified with minerals (United States)

    Kislov, S. V.; Kislov, V. G.; Balasch, P. V.; Skazochkin, A. V.; Bondarenko, G. G.; Tikhonov, A. N.


    The article describes the advantages of the new technology of mineral coating of metal products for the friction pair of mechanical systems. It presents the research results of the wear rate of the samples made of 12X13 steel (X12Cr13) with mineral layers, in the experiments with a piston ring sliding inside a cylinder liner with grease. The wear rate of the samples with mineral layers is lower almost by two factors than that of the samples made of grey foundry iron and untreated samples. As the result of slip/rolling abrasion tests of parts with mineral layers under conditions of high contact pressure, a suggestion was made concerning probable mechanics of surface wear.

  12. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S


    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt.

  13. Detailed study of oxidation/wear mechanism in lox turbopump bearings (United States)

    Chase, T. J.; McCarty, J. P.


    Wear of 440C angular contact ball bearings of the phase 2 high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) has been studied by means of various advanced nondestructive techniques (NDT) and modeled with reference to all known material, design, and operation variables. Three modes dominating the wear scenario were found to be the adhesive/sheer peeling (ASP), oxidation, and abrasion. Bearing wear was modeled in terms of the three modes. Lacking a comprehensive theory of rolling contact wear to date, each mode is modeled after well-established theories of sliding wear, while sliding velocity and distance are related to microsliding in ball-to-ring contacts. Microsliding, stress, temperature, and other contact variables are evaluated with analytical software packages of SHABERTH(TM)/SINDA(TM) and ADORE(TM). Empirical constants for the models are derived from NIST experiments by applying the models to the NIST wear data. The bearing wear model so established precisely predicts quite well the average ball wear rate for the HPOTP bearings. The wear rate has been statistically determined for the entire population of flight and development bearings based on Rocketdyne records to date. Numerous illustrations are given.

  14. Degradation of titanium drillpipe from corrosion and wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferg, T.E.; Aldrich, C.S. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)); Craig, B.D. (Metallurgical Consultants Inc., Montebello (United States))


    Drilling deeper than 35,000 ft is limited by the extreme hook loads of steel drillpipe and temperature constraints of aluminum drillpipe. Titanium Alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Beta C have been proposed for use in drillpipe for wells deeper than 35,000 ft because of their high strength/weight ratios, superior high-temperature corrosion resistance, and thermal stability. Their suitability in drilling environments, however, has not been evaluated. To determine the corrosion and wear characteristics of two types of titanium-alloy drillpipe under dogleg conditions, a test cell was constructed to test titanium drillpipe joints in contact with API Spec. 5CT Grade P-110 casing in different drilling muds. Titanium-alloy pipe and Grade P-110 casing wear rates were measured, and tests showed that both titanium-alloy pipes exhibited much greater wear than did steel drillpipe in water-based mud under the same conditions. Test data showed that the total wear rate of Alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Beta C in a drilling environment is a combination of mechanical wear and corrosion.

  15. Testing of a Fiber Optic Wear, Erosion and Regression Sensor (United States)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.


    The nature of the physical processes and harsh environments associated with erosion and wear in propulsion environments makes their measurement and real-time rate quantification difficult. A fiber optic sensor capable of determining the wear (regression, erosion, ablation) associated with these environments has been developed and tested in a number of different applications to validate the technique. The sensor consists of two fiber optics that have differing attenuation coefficients and transmit light to detectors. The ratio of the two measured intensities can be correlated to the lengths of the fiber optic lines, and if the fibers and the host parent material in which they are embedded wear at the same rate the remaining length of fiber provides a real-time measure of the wear process. Testing in several disparate situations has been performed, with the data exhibiting excellent qualitative agreement with the theoretical description of the process and when a separate calibrated regression measurement is available good quantitative agreement is obtained as well. The light collected by the fibers can also be used to optically obtain the spectra and measure the internal temperature of the wear layer.

  16. Erosive Wear and Wear Mechanism of in situ TiCp/Fe Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaojing LIU; Zhiliang NING; Fengzhen LI; Xiurong YAO; Shanzhi REN


    The base structure of in situ TiCP/Fe composites fabricated under industrial condition was changed by different heat treatments. Erosive wear tests were carried out and the results were compared with that of wear-resistant white cast iron. The results suggest that the wear resistance of the in situ TiCp/Fe composite is higher than that of wear-resistant white cast iron under the sand erosive wear condition. The wear mechanism of the wear-resistant white cast iron was a cycle process that base surface was worn and carbides were exposed, then carbides was broken and wear pits appeared. While the wear mechanism of in situ TiCp/Fe composite was a cycle process that base surface was worn and TiC grains were exposed and dropped. The wear resistance of in situ TiCp/Fe composite was lower than that of wear-resistant white cast iron under the slurry erosive wear condition. Under such circumstance,the material was not only undergone erosive wear but also electrochemistry erosion due to the contact with water in the medium. The wear behaviours can be a combination of two kinds of wear and the sand erosive wear is worse than slurry erosive wear.

  17. Targeted computational probabilistic corroboration of experimental knee wear simulator: the importance of accounting for variability. (United States)

    Strickland, M A; Dressler, M R; Render, T; Browne, M; Taylor, M


    Experimental testing is widely used to predict wear of total knee replacement (TKR) devices. Computational models cannot replace this essential in vitro testing, but they do have complementary strengths and capabilities, which make in silico models a valuable support tool for experimental wear investigations. For effective exploitation, these two separate domains should be closely corroborated together; this requires extensive data-sharing and cross-checking at every stage of simulation and testing. However, isolated deterministic corroborations provide only a partial perspective; in vitro testing is inherently variable, and relatively small changes in the environmental and kinematic conditions at the articulating interface can account for considerable variation in the reported wear rates. Understanding these variations will be key to managing uncertainty in the tests, resulting in a 'cleaner' investigation environment for further refining current theories of wear. This study demonstrates the value of probabilistic in silico methods by describing a specific, targeted corroboration of the AMTI knee wear simulator, using rigid body dynamics software models. A deterministic model of the simulator under displacement-control was created for investigation. Firstly, a large sample of experimental data (N>100) was collated, and a probabilistic computational study (N>1000 trials) was used to compare the kinetic performance envelopes for in vitro and in silico models, to more fully corroborate the mechanical model. Secondly, corresponding theoretical wear-rate predictions were compared to the experimentally reported wear data, to assess the robustness of current wear theories to uncertainty (as distinct from the mechanical variability). The results reveal a good corroboration for the physical mechanics of the wear test rig; however they demonstrate that the distributions for wear are not currently well-predicted. The probabilistic domain is found to be far more sensitive at

  18. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kulandaivelu; P Senthil Kumar; S Sundaram


    This paper examines the flank and crater wear characteristics of coated carbide tool inserts during dry turning of steel workpieces. A brief review of tool wear mechanisms is presented together with new evidence showing that wear of the TiC layer on both flank and rake faces is dominated by discrete plastic deformation, which causes the coating to be worn through to the underlying carbide substrate when machining at high cutting speeds and feed rates. Wear also occurs as a result of abrasion, as well as cracking and attrition, with the latter leading to the wearing through the coating on the rake face under low speed conditions. When moderate speeds and feeds are used, the coating remains intact throughout the duration of testing. Wear mechanism maps linking the observed wear mechanisms to machining conditions are presented for the first time. These maps demonstrate clearly that transitions from one dominant wear mechanism to another may be related to variations in measured tool wear rates. Comparisons of the present wear maps with similar maps for uncoated carbide tools show that TiC coatings dramatically expand the range of machining conditions under which acceptable rates of tool wear might be experienced. However, the extent of improvement brought about by the coatings depends strongly on the cutting conditions, with the greatest benefits being seen at higher cutting speeds and feed rates. Among these methods, tool condition monitoring using Acoustic Techniques (AET) is an emerging one. Hence, the present work was carried out to study the stability, applicability and relative sensitivity of AET in tool condition monitoring in turning.

  19. Wear of Steel and Ti6Al4V Rollers in Vacuum (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Shareef, Iqbal


    This investigation was prompted by results of a qualification test of a mechanism to be used for the James Webb Space Telescope. Post-test inspections of the qualification test article revealed some loose wear debris and wear of the steel rollers and the mating Ti6Al4V surfaces. An engineering assessment of the design and observations from the tested qualification unit suggested that roller misalignment was a controlling factor. The wear phenomena were investigated using dedicated laboratory experiments. Tests were done using a vacuum roller rig for a range of roller misalignment angles. The wear in these tests was mainly adhesive wear. The measured wear rates were highly correlated to the misalignment angle. For all tests with some roller misalignment, the steel rollers lost mass while the titanium rollers gained mass indicating strong adhesion of the steel with the titanium alloy. Inspection of the rollers revealed that the adhesive wear was a two-way process as titanium alloy was found on the steel rollers and vice versa. The qualification test unit made use of 440F steel rollers in the annealed condition. Both annealed 440F steel rollers and hardened 440C rollers were tested in the vacuum roller rig to investigate possibility to reduce wear rates and the risk of loose debris formation. The 440F and 440C rollers had differing wear behaviors with significantly lesser wear rates for the 440C. For the test condition of zero roller misalignment, the adhesive wear rates were very low, but still some loose debris was formed

  20. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo


    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated as a fun...... is increased. Altogether, the model is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for a quantitative analysis of the effect of process conditions. Based on the presented findings and considerations, examples of future work are mentioned for the further improvement of the model.......The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...

  1. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing. (United States)

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J


    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.

  2. Effect of temperature on friction and wear behavior of CuO-zirconia composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valefi, Mahdiar; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.


    Results of wear tests using an alumina ball sliding against 5 wt% copper oxide doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (CuO-TZP) ceramics are reported as a function of temperature up to 700 °C. The specific wear rate and friction coefficient are strongly dependent on temperature. Below a critical

  3. Effect of temperature on friction and wear behavior of CuO-zirconia composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valefi, M.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.; Winnubst, A.J.A.


    Results of wear tests using an alumina ball sliding against 5 wt% copper oxide doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (CuO-TZP) ceramics are reported as a function of temperature up to 700 °C. The specific wear rate and friction coefficient are strongly dependent on temperature. Below a critical

  4. Instantaneous monitoring of wear on a micro-nanometer scale through hard coatings by synchroton radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Inge Lise; Belin, M.

    rate varies strongly from one position to another in the wear track. The ridges, grooves as well as the transport of debris from the track were for the first time followed on a micrometer level, confirming the stochastic nature of this type of wear. Most of the features are generated within the first...

  5. Wear behaviour of discontinuous aramid fibre reinforced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofste, JM; Smit, HHG; Pennings, AJ


    The wear of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene has generated new concern regarding the long-term clinical performance of total joint replacements. To extend the lifetime of artificial joints, it is necessary to decrease tt-le wear rate of UHMWPE. One possible solution is the incorporation of a

  6. Should School Nurses Wear Uniforms? (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 2001


    This 1958 paper questions whether school nurses should wear uniforms (specifically, white uniforms). It concludes that white uniforms are often associated with the treatment of ill people, and since many people have a fear reaction to them, they are not necessary and are even undesirable. Since school nurses are school staff members, they should…

  7. Tooth wear patterns in the deciduous dentition. (United States)

    Warren, John J; Yonezu, Takuro; Bishara, Samir E


    Tooth wear is common in the deciduous dentition. A recent study suggests that tooth wear in the deciduous dentition is related to subsequent tooth wear in adults, so that early identification of factors related to tooth wear could be of long-term benefit. The purposes of this study were to describe patterns of tooth wear in the deciduous dentition and to relate tooth wear to occlusal characteristics and longitudinal dietary patterns. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of a cohort of children recruited at birth from Iowa hospitals. Stone casts were obtained in the deciduous dentition stage, and 355 children, 4 to 5 years old, met the selection criteria. Tooth wear was categorized for each tooth as none, mild, moderate, or severe, and related to occlusal characteristics and longitudinal data on fruit juice and soft drink consumption. All children exhibited some tooth wear on at least 1 tooth, and nearly 16% of them had at least 1 tooth with severe wear. Tooth wear was generally more severe in the maxillary arch and the anterior teeth. Severe tooth wear on the molars was significantly related to posterior crossbites, but severe tooth wear on the incisors was related to Class III canine relationships. There were no statistically significant relationships between tooth wear and soft drink or fruit juice consumption. Based on our results, we concluded that mild tooth wear is universal in the deciduous dentition, but only a few occlusal factors are related to severe tooth wear. Tooth wear was not related to any dietary patterns we investigated.

  8. Alternate paddle configuration for improved wear resistance in the saltstone mixer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Saltstone Production Facility has a 10-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer that mixes the premix dry feeds and low-level waste salt solution to make fresh (uncured) saltstone. Inspection of the mixer in January 2013 showed significant wear on the third, fourth and fifth paddle pairs after the conveying augers. A 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer was used to test alternate paddle configurations for use in the 10-inch mixer to decrease the wear rate on the paddles. Two wear tests were conducted to investigate a method of reducing wear on the mixer paddles. The first test (wear test 2a) had a paddle configuration similar to the currently installed 10-inch mixer in the SPF. This test established baseline wear. The second test (wear test 2b) had a reconfigured paddle arrangement that replaced the flat paddles with helical paddles for paddle pairs 2 - 6 and aligned paddle pair 1 with the augers. The intent of the reconfiguration was to more effectively convey the partially wetted dry feeds through the transition region and into the liquid feed where paddle wear is reduced due to dry feeds and salt solution being mixed at the intended water to premix ratio. The design of the helical paddles provides conveyance through the transition region to the liquid feed inlet. The alignment with the auger is aimed to provide a smoother transition (minimizing the discontinuity between the auger and paddle pair 1) into the downstream paddles. A soft metal with low wear resistance (6000 series aluminum) was used for the wear testing paddles to determine wear patterns while minimizing run time and maximizing wear rate. For the two paddle configurations tested using the scaled 2-inch Readco-Kurimoto continuous mixer, with the first six paddles after the augers replaced by the wear paddles and the remaining paddles were stainless steel. Since the 10-inch SPF mixer is designed with the liquid inlet centered over paddle pairs 5 and 6, the scaled 2-inch mixer was configured the

  9. Improvements of harrows wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warouma Arifa


    Full Text Available Wear is the main reason for the loss of performance of the parts for agricultural machinery. It leads to the degradation of the soil working quality. This work aims to highlight the wear resistance of the harrows discs manufactured, consolidated and sharpened differently. The tests were conducted in the laboratory and the field of the Faculty of Exploitation and Repair of Agricultural Machinery of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine in 2015. The technical equipment consists of devices for consolidation by electric discharge and for measurement the linear wear of discs, a harrow, a sand test bed, a tractor and discs made of different materials and technologies. Some parameterized were collected during the laboratory test each 5 ha and up to 20 ha of operation and in the fields each 30 ha until the time limit of exploitation. The Laboratory tests have shown that after twenty (20 ha of operation, the wear resistance of the experimental discs made of steel 65G and consolidated by electric discharge with simultaneous grinding (sharpening angle of 30° is 2.95 times higher than the discs in series made of steel 28MnB5. The field experiment gave the following results: According to agro technical requirements, the plowing depth limit of serial discs made of steel 28MnB5 was reached after an operating duration of 120 ha while for experimental discs made of steel 65G and consolidated by electric discharge with simultaneous grinding (sharpening angle of 30 degrees this duration is of 156 ha. The diameter wear limit of experimental discs was reached after an operating duration of 179 ha against 154 ha for the serial ones. Therefore, the new technology can be applied during the manufacture and / or the repair of the discs.

  10. Performance of Flame Sprayed Ni-WC Coating under Abrasive Wear Conditions (United States)

    Harsha, S.; Dwivedi, D. K.; Agarwal, A.


    This paper describes the influence of a post spray heat treatment on the microstructure, microhardness and abrasive wear behavior of the flame sprayed Ni-WC (EWAC 1002 ET) coating deposited on the mild steel. Coatings were deposited by using an oxy-acetylene flame spraying torch (Superjet Eutalloy L & T, India). The wear behavior of the coating was evaluated using a pin on disc wear system against SiC abrasive medium of 120 and 600 grades at 5, 10, 15, and 20 N normal load. Results revealed that the influence of normal load on wear is governed by the microstructure, hardness and abrasive grit size. The heat treatment increased average microhardness of the coating. However, it was found that the hardness does not correctly indicate the abrasive wear resistance of Ni-WC coating in an as sprayed and heat treated condition. The heat treatment of the coating improved its abrasive wear resistance against fine abrasive medium while the wear resistance against coarse abrasive was found to be a function of a normal load. At low-normal load (5 and 10 N) the heat treated coating showed lower-wear rate than as spayed coating while at high-normal loads (15 and 20 N) heat treated coating was subjected to higher-wear rate than as sprayed coating. In general, an increase in normal load increased the wear rate. The scanning electron microscopy study indicated that the wear largely takes place by groove formation and scoring of eutectic matrix and the fragmentation of the carbide particles.

  11. Needs and challenges in precision wear measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.


    Accurate, precise wear measurements are a key element in solving both current wear problems and in basic wear research. Applications range from assessing durability of micro-scale components to accurate screening of surface treatments and thin solid films. Need to distinguish small differences in wear tate presents formidable problems to those who are developing new materials and surface treatments. Methods for measuring wear in ASTM standard test methods are discussed. Errors in using alterate methods of wear measurement on the same test specimen are also described. Human judgemental factors are a concern in common methods for wear measurement, and an experiment involving measurement of a wear scar by ten different people is described. Precision in wear measurement is limited both by the capabilities of the measuring instruments and by the nonuniformity of the wear process. A method of measuring wear using nano-scale indentations is discussed. Current and future prospects for incorporating advanced, higher-precision wear measurement methods into standards are considered.

  12. An Evaluation of High Velocity Wear (United States)


    x10F~ -4 [18:18-19]. Authors such as Hutchings and Rabinowicz however, do not explicitly limit equation (12) to plastic wear. They suggest that...Surface Melting of Rotating Bands. Wear, Vol. 38, 235- 243 21. Rabinowicz , E. (1965). Friction and Wear of Materials (Second ed.). New York, NY

  13. Backside Wear Analysis of Retrieved Acetabular Liners with a Press-Fit Locking Mechanism in Comparison to Wear Simulation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Puente Reyna


    Full Text Available Backside wear due to micromotion and poor conformity between the liner and its titanium alloy shell may contribute to the high rates of retroacetabular osteolysis and consequent aseptic loosening. The purpose of our study was to understand the wear process on the backside of polyethylene liners from two acetabular cup systems, whose locking mechanism is based on a press-fit cone in combination with a rough titanium conical inner surface on the fixation area. A direct comparison between in vitro wear simulator tests (equivalent to 3 years of use and retrieved liners (average 13.1 months in situ was done in order to evaluate the backside wear characteristics and behavior of these systems. Similar wear scores between in vitro tested and retrieved liners were observed. The results showed that this locking mechanism did not significantly produce wear marks at the backside of the polyethylene liners due to micromotion. In all the analyzed liners, the most common wear modes observed were small scratches at the cranial fixation zone directly below the rough titanium inner surface of the shell. It was concluded that most of the wear marks were produced during the insertion and removal of the liner, rather than during its time in situ.

  14. Single step full volumetric reconstruction optical coherence tomography utilizing compressive sensing (United States)

    Chen, Luoyang; Liu, Jiansheng; cheng, Jiangtao; Liu, Haitao; Zhou, Hongwen


    3D optical coherence tomography imaging (OCT) combined with compressive sensing (CS) has been proved to be an attractive and effective tool in a variety of fields, such as medicine and biology. To achieve high quality imaging while using as less CS sampling rate as possible is the goal of this approach. Here we present an innovative single step fully 3D CS-OCT volumetric image recovery method, in which 3D OCT volumetric image of the object is compressively sampled via our proposed CS coding strategies in all three dimensions while its sparsity is simultaneously taken into consideration in every direction. The object can be directly recovered as the whole volume reconstruction via our advanced full 3D CS reconstruction algorithm. The numerical simulations of a human retina OCT volumetric image reconstruction by our method demonstrate a PSNR of as high as 38dB at a sampling rate of less than 10%.

  15. Comparative gravimetric wear analysis in mobile versus fixed-bearing posterior stabilized total knee prostheses. (United States)

    Delport, Hendrik P; Sloten, Jos Vander; Bellemans, Johan


    Polyethylene (PE) wear is the limiting factor for the longevity of a conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Excessive wear leads to loosening and eventual implant failure. The aim of our in vitro study was to investigate wear of a PE tibial insert on a rotating platform as compared to the same insert fixed to the tibial baseplate and articulating with a similar femoral component. All tests were performed at Endolab Laboratories, Rosenheim, Germany using a knee joint simulator following ISO 14243-1. Three specific configurations were tested and compared to a loaded soak control: (1) the rotating platform using machined polyethylene (PE), (2) fixed bearing using machined PE, (3) fixed bearing using compression-moulded PE. Calf serum with a high protein concentration of 30 g/l was chosen as test lubricant. PE wear was measured gravimetrically using the ISO 14243-2 protocol. The total wear rates found for all systems tested were low. The mean wear rate was 1.40 mg per million cycles for the moulded fixed bearing, 4.07 mg per million cycles for the machined fixed bearing type and 0.82 mg per million cycles for the machined rotating platform bearing type. We conclude that the TKA system we tested (Performance, Biomet, Warsaw, IND, USA) demonstrated very low gravimetric wear. The wear rate of the same implant in the fixed mode compared to the rotating platform mode was four times higher.

  16. Effect of ageing treatment on wear properties and electrical conductivity of Cu–Cr–Zr alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Sağlam; Dursun Özyürek; Kerim Çetinkaya


    In this study, the effect of ageing processes on the wear behaviour and electrical conductivity was investigated. Prior to solid solution heat treatment at 920°C and ageing at 470°C, 500°C and 530°C for 1 h, 2 h and 3 h, respectively, the prepared samples were homogenized at 920°C for 1 h. After the ageing processes, all samples were characterized in terms of electrical conductivity, scanning electron microscope (with energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS)) and hardness (HV5). In wear tests, pin-on-disc type standard wearing unit was used. As a result, starting from 1 h aged specimens, orderly increase of electrical conductivity was defined. From EDS analyses it was observed that Cr rate increases as precipitates grow. With increase of Cr rate there was also a defined rise of electrical conductivity. From the wear tests, it was observed that the least wear loss was in Cu–Cr–Zr alloy aged at 500°C for 2 h and the most wear loss was in specimens aged at 530°C for 2 h. Furthermore, it was observed that the friction coefficient values resulting from wear rate were overlapped with hardness results and there is a decrease tendency of friction coefficient as wear distance increases.

  17. RPP-WPT Slurry Wear Evaluation: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.


    Tests are planned to measure the wear rates in scaled flow loops that represent full-scale systems in Pretreatment sections of the Waste Treatment Plant to be built as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) River Protection Project. Those tests are to be done in the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center at the DOE Savannah River Site.

  18. Volumetric measurement of tank volume (United States)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)


    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  19. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography. (United States)

    Wanders, Johanna O P; Holland, Katharina; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Mann, Ritse M; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico


    To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density categories. Of all the examinations, 21.6% were categorized as density category 1 ('almost entirely fatty') and 41.5, 28.9, and 8.0% as category 2-4 ('extremely dense'), respectively. We identified 667 screen-detected and 234 interval cancers. Interval cancer rates were 0.7, 1.9, 2.9, and 4.4‰ and false positive rates were 11.2, 15.1, 18.2, and 23.8‰ for categories 1-4, respectively (both p-trend density categories: 85.7, 77.6, 69.5, and 61.0% for categories 1-4, respectively (p-trend density, automatically measured on digital mammograms, impacts screening performance measures along the same patterns as established with ACR breast density categories. Since measuring breast density fully automatically has much higher reproducibility than visual assessment, this automatic method could help with implementing density-based supplemental screening.

  20. Investigation of the time-dependent wear behavior of veneering ceramic in porcelain fused to metal crowns during chewing simulations. (United States)

    Guo, Jiawen; Tian, Beimin; Wei, Ran; Wang, Weiguo; Zhang, Hongyun; Wu, Xiaohong; He, Lin; Zhang, Shaofeng


    The excessive abrasion of occlusal surfaces in ceramic crowns limits the service life of restorations and their clinical results. However, little is known about the time-dependent wear behavior of ceramic restorations during the chewing process. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the dynamic evolution of the wear behavior of veneering porcelain in PFM crowns as wear progressed, as tested in a chewing simulator. Twenty anatomical metal-ceramic crowns were prepared using Ceramco III as the veneering porcelain. Stainless steel balls served as antagonists. The specimens were dynamically loaded in a chewing simulator with 350N up to 2.4×10(6) loading cycles, with additional thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C. During the testing, several checkpoints were applied to measure the substance loss of the crowns' occlusal surfaces and to evaluate the microstructure of the worn areas. After 2.4×10(6) cycles, the entire wear process of the veneering porcelain in the PFM crowns revealed three wear stages (running-in, steady and severe wear stages). The occlusal surfaces showed traces of intensive wear on the worn areas during the running-in wear stage, and they exhibited the propagation of cracks in the subsurface during steady wear stage. When the severe wear stage was reached, the cracks penetrated the ceramic layer, causing the separation of porcelain pieces. It also exhibited a good correlation among the microstructure, the wear loss and the wear rate of worn ceramic restorations. The results suggest that under the conditions of simulated masticatory movement, the wear performance of the veneering porcelain in PFM crowns indicates the apparent similarity of the tribological characteristics of the traditional mechanical system. Additionally, the evaluation of the wear behavior of ceramic restorations should be based on these three wear stages.

  1. Effect of microseparation and third-body particles on dual-mobility crosslinked hip liner wear. (United States)

    Netter, Jonathan D; Hermida, Juan C; Chen, Peter C; Nevelos, James E; D'Lima, Darryl D


    Large heads have been recommended to reduce the risk of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty. One of the issues with larger heads is the risk of increased wear and damage in thin polyethylene liners. Dual-mobility liners have been proposed as an alternative to large heads. We tested the wear performance of highly crosslinked dual-mobility liners under adverse conditions simulating microseparation and third-body wear. No measurable increase in polyethylene wear rate was found in the presence of third-body particles. Microseparation induced a small increase in wear rate (2.9mm(3)/million cycles). A finite element model simulating microseparation in dual-mobility liners was validated using these experimental results. The results of our study indicate that highly crosslinked dual-mobility liners have high tolerance for third-body particles and microseparation.

  2. New Method for Evaluating Thermal Wear of Rolls in Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-sheng; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong


    A new method was developed by a thermal wear machine to evaluate the thermal wear of rolls in steel rolling process.The steel strip and rolls were simulated by upper and lower heating disks.The upper heating disk could be kept at a temperature of over 900℃ by induction heating.The pressure between the disks as high as 323.2 MPa could be achieved and the slipping rate could be 12.7%.The thermal wear of high speed steel(HSS)roll material,the wear rate of the HSS roll,and the SEM morphology of a worn HSS roll surface were investigated.This method was useful and could be employed to simulate friction and wear between strip and roll during the strip rolling process.

  3. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China. (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming


    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  4. Comparison of Wear Resistance Between Innovative Composites and Nano- and Microfilled Composite Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background One of the most common causes of failure in class 2 posterior composite restorations is occlusal and proximal wear. Estelite composites used supra-nano monodispersing spherical fillers and a new photoinitiator, and the manufacturer claimed that the wear of these composites is less than 1 mm3 volumetric wear. Objectives Compare the wear resistance of new Estelite composites with that of other composites generations. Materials and Methods Thirty-five specimens were evaluated in five groups: three kinds of Estelite composites (Estelite Sigma Quick, Estelite Flow Quick, and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow, Filtek Z350, and Filtek Z250. All specimens were prepared in 25 mm disks and cured with laboratory light for 120 seconds (60 s for each side. Then, they were polished by 600 grit sand paper and stored for one week in distilled water at room temperature. We used a two-body abrasion test and the pin-on-disk method with distilled water as medium. All specimens were worn under 15 N load, 0.05 m/seconds speed, 100 m distance, and steatite ceramic balls antagonists. After wearing, we measured wear volume by calculating the wear track cross-section area with a profilometer and analyzed the data with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Results The wear amounts of the composites are as follows in order: Estelite sigma quick (1886.9 ± 518.5 μm2, Estelite flow quick (2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2, Estelite high flow (3206 ± 2445.1 μm2, Filtek Z350 (3840 ± 1963.4 μm2, and Filtek Z250 (4667.2 ± 2351.1 μm2. No statistical difference was found among the groups (P value > 0.05. Conclusions Estelite sigma quick composite had wear resistance similar to that of nano- and microfilled composites. Estelite flowable composites demonstrated similar wear resistance to that of a posterior composite.

  5. Tribological performance evaluation of tungsten carbide-based cermets and development of a fracture mechanics wear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, R.B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Applied Research Lab.; Conway, J.C. Jr. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Applied Research Lab.; Amateau, M.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Applied Research Lab.; Brezler, R.A. III [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Applied Research Lab.


    Tungsten carbide tools may exhibit sudden brittle fracture at high stresses such as are encountered in shear and slitter knives. This has limited the use of tungsten carbide tools to certain applications in spite of their high hardness and wear resistance. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the tribological performance of selected cermets and develop a fracture mechanics wear model. Six compositions of WC-Co materials (Co ranging from 4 to 30% by weight) with or without TiC, NbC, TaC, or Mo{sub 2}C were selected for relating wear modes of these tool materials to pertinent mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and hardness. The influence of mechanical properties such as Young`s modulus, hardness, fracture toughness, modulus of rupture, and Weibull modulus on wear rates and wear modes of the selected materials is presented and discussed. The major mechanisms of wear in WC-Co materials are discussed as they apply to the development of suitable relationships between wear and mechanical properties. The wear process is by the transfer of steel from the ring to the cemented carbide block specimens, initiation of mode I cracks normal to the mating surface, propagation of mode II cracks parallel to the wear surfaces and the subsequent separation of platelets with adhered WC and Co particles through adhesive forces with the steel ring. The wear rates of the cermets do not show a consistent relationship with mode I or mode II fracture toughness, but a general trend of decreasing wear rate with hardness is seen. This suggests that the tribological performance of these cermets depends on certain specific functions of pertinent parameters including fracture toughness, hardness, applied load, coefficient of friction and microstructural characteristics. A fracture mechanics-based wear model has been developed to relate the steady state wear rate (W{sub ss}) to hardness, mode II fracture toughness, coefficient of friction, and applied load. (orig./MM)

  6. Visualization of volumetric seismic data (United States)

    Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael; Ashfaq Ahmed, Khawar; Gajewski, Dirk


    Mostly driven by demands of high quality subsurface imaging, highly specialized tools and methods have been developed to support the processing, visualization and interpretation of seismic data. 3D seismic data acquisition and 4D time-lapse seismic monitoring are well-established techniques in academia and industry, producing large amounts of data to be processed, visualized and interpreted. In this context, interactive 3D visualization methods proved to be valuable for the analysis of 3D seismic data cubes - especially for sedimentary environments with continuous horizons. In crystalline and hard rock environments, where hydraulic stimulation techniques may be applied to produce geothermal energy, interpretation of the seismic data is a more challenging problem. Instead of continuous reflection horizons, the imaging targets are often steep dipping faults, causing a lot of diffractions. Without further preprocessing these geological structures are often hidden behind the noise in the data. In this PICO presentation we will present a workflow consisting of data processing steps, which enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, followed by a visualization step based on the use the commercially available general purpose 3D visualization system Avizo. Specifically, we have used Avizo Earth, an extension to Avizo, which supports the import of seismic data in SEG-Y format and offers easy access to state-of-the-art 3D visualization methods at interactive frame rates, even for large seismic data cubes. In seismic interpretation using visualization, interactivity is a key requirement for understanding complex 3D structures. In order to enable an easy communication of the insights gained during the interactive visualization process, animations of the visualized data were created which support the spatial understanding of the data.

  7. Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M


    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000\\/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.

  8. An Investigation of the High Rate Volumetric Properties of Snow. (United States)


    1 o. t "r111’ us"’I by St .a~w’Iv~~ iadl . I u 1I ’I ’(1700: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a IW l’r-idi:f II a io t .i 1 lil J!’,U1 I ILI’’ intr11 1 i M",0 1011

  9. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... deviations from the ideal micro tool shape, dramatically changing the cutting edge profile as well as rake and clearance angles. This critically affects the performance of the micro tool leading to increased cutting forces and micro tool deflections with detrimental effects on the accuracy of the machined...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  10. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.


    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Effect of Alloying Elements on Nano-ordered Wear Property of Magnesium Alloys (United States)

    Yagi, Takahiro; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi; Somekawa, Hidetoshi


    The effect of alloying elements on nano-ordered wear properties was investigated using fine-grained pure magnesium and several types of 0.3 at. pct X (X = Ag, Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Y, and Zn) binary alloys. They had an average grain size of 3 to 5 μm and a basal texture due to their production by the extrusion process. The specific wear rate was influenced by the alloying element; the Mg-Ca and Mg-Mn alloys showed the best and worst wear property, respectively, among the present alloying elements, which was the same trend as that for indentation hardness. Deformed microstructural observations revealed no formation of deformation twins, because of the high activation of grain boundary-induced plasticity. On the contrary, according to scratched surface observations, when grain boundary sliding partially contributed to deformation, these alloys had large specific wear rates. These results revealed that the wear property of magnesium alloys was closely related to the plastic deformation mechanism. The prevention of grain boundary sliding is important to improve the wear property, which is the same as that of a large-scale wearing configuration. One of the influential factors is the change in the lattice parameter with the chemical composition, i.e., ∂( c/ a)/∂ C. An alloying element that has a large value of ∂( c/ a)/∂ C effectively enhances the wear property.

  12. Sliding Wear Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Zirconia Coating on Cast Aluminum against Silicon Carbide Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thuong-Hien LE; Young-Hun CHAE; Seock-Sam KIM


    The sliding wear behaviors of ZrO2-22 wt pct MgO (MZ) and ZrO2-8 wt pct Y2O3 (YZ) coatings deposited on a cast aluminum alloy with bond layer (NiCrCoAlY) by plasma spray were investigated under dry test conditions at room temperature. Under all load conditions, the wear mechanisms of the MZ and YZ coatings were almost the same.The material transfer and pullout were involved in the wear process of the studied coatings under the test conditions.The wear rate of the MZ coating was less than that of the YZ coating. While increasing the normal load, the wear rates of the MZ and YZ coatings increased. SEM was used to examine the worn surfaces and to elucidate likely wear mechanisms. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the worn surfaces indicated that material transfer occurred in the direction from the SiC ball to the disk. Fracture toughness had a significant influence on the wear performance of the coatings. It was suggested that the material transfer played an important role in the wear behavior.

  13. Dry Friction and Wear Characteristics of Rare-Earth/MoSi2 Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张厚安; 龙春光; 陈平; 刘心宇


    The dry friction and wear characteristics of rare earth/MoSi2 composite against 45 steel under different loads were investigated by using an M-200 type friction and wear tester. SEM and XRD were used to analyze the morphology of the friction surface and the phase of worn piece in order to reveal the wear mechanism of rare-earth/MoSi2 composite. Results show that the relationships of friction coefficient, μ, or wear rate, W, of MoSi2 and RE/MoSi2 composite to loads, p, can be fitted well with the following function: μ(or W)= a+bp+cp2+dp3+ep4, where a, b, c, d and e are fitting constants depending on materials and confidence. MoSi2 and rare-earth/MoSi2 composite have excellent wear resistance. When load is in the range of 80~120 N, the wear rate of RE/MoSi2 composite is lower than that of MoSi2 material by about 65%. The main wear mechanism of rare-earth/MoSi2 composite is adhesive wear.

  14. Hydraulic System Wear Debris Analysis. (United States)


    drawn. Each one-=L sample was drawn with a clean plastic pipette of one-mL capacity. The samples were placed in clean Ferrogram preparation bottles ...and from cavities in a block which held linear seals into sampling bottles . Several photographs of this debris , which was deposited on Ferro- grams...silicon in the glass overshadowed the elements of the wear debris . To overcome this difficulty, the Ferrogram should be pre- pared on a carbon-filled

  15. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E. [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); Keeser, D. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innenstadtkliniken Medical Centre, Munich (Germany)


    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  16. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  17. Improvement of Scratch and Wear Resistance of Polymers by Fillers Including Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Brostow


    Full Text Available Polymers have lower resistance to scratching and wear than metals. Liquid lubricants work well for metals but not for polymers nor for polymer-based composites (PBCs. We review approaches for improvement of tribological properties of polymers based on inclusion of fillers. The fillers can be metallic or ceramic—with obvious consequences for electrical resistivity of the composites. Distinctions between effectiveness of micro- versus nano-particles are analyzed. For example, aluminum nanoparticles as filler are more effective for property improvement than microparticles at the same overall volumetric concentration. Prevention of local agglomeration of filler particles is discussed along with a technique to verify the prevention.

  18. Improvement of Scratch and Wear Resistance of Polymers by Fillers Including Nanofillers. (United States)

    Brostow, Witold; Lobland, Haley E Hagg; Hnatchuk, Nathalie; Perez, Jose M


    Polymers have lower resistance to scratching and wear than metals. Liquid lubricants work well for metals but not for polymers nor for polymer-based composites (PBCs). We review approaches for improvement of tribological properties of polymers based on inclusion of fillers. The fillers can be metallic or ceramic-with obvious consequences for electrical resistivity of the composites. Distinctions between effectiveness of micro- versus nano-particles are analyzed. For example, aluminum nanoparticles as filler are more effective for property improvement than microparticles at the same overall volumetric concentration. Prevention of local agglomeration of filler particles is discussed along with a technique to verify the prevention.

  19. Ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and cyclic stability of fluorine and nitrogen co-doped carbon microspheres (United States)

    Zhou, Junshuang; Lian, Jie; Hou, Li; Zhang, Junchuan; Gou, Huiyang; Xia, Meirong; Zhao, Yufeng; Strobel, Timothy A.; Tao, Lu; Gao, Faming


    Highly porous nanostructures with large surface areas are typically employed for electrical double-layer capacitors to improve gravimetric energy storage capacity; however, high surface area carbon-based electrodes result in poor volumetric capacitance because of the low packing density of porous materials. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of 521 F cm-3 in aqueous electrolytes for non-porous carbon microsphere electrodes co-doped with fluorine and nitrogen synthesized by low-temperature solvothermal route, rivaling expensive RuO2 or MnO2 pseudo-capacitors. The new electrodes also exhibit excellent cyclic stability without capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles in both acidic and basic electrolytes at a high charge current of 5 A g-1. This work provides a new approach for designing high-performance electrodes with exceptional volumetric capacitance with high mass loadings and charge rates for long-lived electrochemical energy storage systems.

  20. Ni foam cathode enables high volumetric H2 production in a microbial electrolysis cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Valuable, “green” H2 can be produced with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To achieve a high volumetric production rate of high purity H2, a continuous flow MEC with an anion exchange membrane, a flow through bioanode and a flow through Ni foam cathode was constructed. At an electrical energy in

  1. Wear and Corrosion of Cast Al Alloy Piston with and without Brake Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olarewaju Ajibola


    Full Text Available The effects of wear and corrosion of cast AA6061 aluminium alloy were studied with and without brake fluid using a wear jig while the corrosion rate was determined in brake fluid for 70 days under two experimental set-ups. The tests, yielded 0.00000123 g/mm2/min highest wear rate at 147000 wear cycles and 0.0334 mg/mm2/yr as the highest corrosion rate within the early 39th day of immersion in oil, the values being considered comparatively lower than those obtained for Al alloy in most common wet abrasion test and corrosion in aqueous solutions as previously reported in literature. The material loss rates to wear and corrosion were determined from the equations relating to wear and corrosion based on the ASTM designations. The results show that the combined actions of wear and corrosion contribute to the total loss of piston material immersed in brake oil. This is greater than either of their effects individually on cast Al alloy in the brake oil.

  2. Wear-testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis : UHMWPE and PTFE against a metal ball, in water and in serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, JP; Verkerke, GJ; de Bont, LGM; Liem, RSB


    For a temporomandibular joint prosthesis, an estimation of the wear rate was needed, prior to patient application. Therefore, we determined the in vitro wear rate of the ball-socket articulation of this prosthesis, consisting of a metal head and an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) c

  3. Wear, strength, modulus and hardness of CAD/CAM restorative materials. (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Bansal, Ritika; Burgess, John O


    To measure the mechanical properties of several CAD/CAM materials, including lithium disilicate (e.max CAD), lithium silicate/zirconia (Celtra Duo), 3 resin composites (Cerasmart, Lava Ultimate, Paradigm MZ100), and a polymer infiltrated ceramic (Enamic). CAD/CAM blocks were sectioned into 2.5mm×2.5mm×16mm bars for flexural strength and elastic modulus testing and 4mm thick blocks for hardness and wear testing. E.max CAD and half the Celtra Duo specimens were treated in a furnace. Flexural strength specimens (n=10) were tested in a three-point bending fixture. Vickers microhardness (n=2, 5 readings per specimen) was measured with a 1kg load and 15s dwell time. The CAD/CAM materials as well as labial surfaces of human incisors were mounted in the UAB wear device. Cusps of human premolars were mounted as antagonists. Specimens were tested for 400,000 cycles at 20N force, 2mm sliding distance, 1Hz frequency, 24°C, and 33% glycerin lubrication. Volumetric wear and opposing enamel wear were measured with non-contact profilometry. Data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis (alpha=0.05). Specimens were observed with SEM. Properties were different for each material (pCAD and Celtra Duo were generally stronger, stiffer, and harder than the other materials. E.max CAD, Celtra Duo, Enamic, and enamel demonstrated signs of abrasive wear, whereas Cerasmart, Lava Ultimate, Paradigm MZ100 demonstrated signs of fatigue. Resin composite and resin infiltrated ceramic materials have demonstrated adequate wear resistance for load bearing restorations, however, they will require at least similar material thickness as lithium disilicate restorations due to their strength. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of Tool Wear and Overcut in EDM Process with Rotary Tool and Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Teimouri


    Full Text Available Tool wear and workpiece overcut have been studied in electrical discharge machining process with rotational external magnetic field and rotational electrode. Experiments have been divided to three main regimes, namely, low-energy regime, middle-energy regime, and high-energy regime. The influence of process parameters were investigated on electrode wear rate and overcut. Results indicate that applying a magnetic field around the machining gap increases the electrode wear rate and overcut. Also, rotation of the tool has negative effect on overcut.

  5. Porosity and wear resistance of flame sprayed tungsten carbide coatings (United States)

    Winarto, Winarto; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Rooscote, Didi


    Thermal-sprayed coatings offer practical and economical solutions for corrosion and wear protection of components or tools. To improve the coating properties, heat treatment such as preheat is applied. The selection of coating and substrate materials is a key factor in improving the quality of the coating morphology after the heat treatment. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the effect of preheat temperatures, i.e. 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, on porosity and wear resistance of tungsten carbide (WC) coating sprayed by flame thermal coating. The powders and coatings morphology were analyzed by a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDS), whereas the phase identification was performed by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD). In order to evaluate the quality of the flame spray obtained coatings, the porosity, micro-hardness and wear rate of the specimens was determined. The results showed that WC coating gives a higher surface hardness from 1391 HVN up to 1541 HVN compared to that of the non-coating. Moreover, the wear rate increased from 0.072 mm3/min. to 0.082 mm3/min. when preheat temperature was increased. Preheat on H13 steel substrate can reduce the percentage of porosity level from 10.24 % to 3.94% on the thermal spray coatings.

  6. Effects of Wearing a Helmet on Thermal Balance While Cycling in the Heat. (United States)

    Gisolfi, C V; Rohlf, D P; Navarude, S N; Hayes, C L; Sayeed, S A


    In brief: Many cyclists refuse to wear helmets because they produce discomfort and drag. To determine the effects of wearing a helmet on thermal balance and rating of perceived exertion while cycling in the heat, six male competitive cyclists aged 19 to 32 rode a stationary bicycle attached to a road-racing simulator in an environmentally controlled chamber for two hours at 70% V O2 max. Measurements were taken of rectal and skin temperatures, V O2, heart rate, sweat rate, and rating of perceived exertion. The results showed that (under the experimental conditions used) wearing a helmet while cycling in the heat does not alter thermal balance or cardiovascular strain compared with not wearing a helmet.

  7. Tool Wear Analysis due to Machining In Super Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishetty Ashwin


    Full Text Available This paper presents tool wear study when a machinability test was applied using milling on Super Austenitic Stainless Steel AL6XN alloy. Eight milling trials were performed under two cutting speeds, 100 m/min and 150 m/min, combined with two feed rates at 0.1mm/tooth and 0.15 mm/tooth and two depth of cuts at 2 mm and 3 mm. An Alicona 3D optical surface profilometer was used to scan cutting inserts flank and rake face areas for wear. Readings such as maximum and minimum deviations were extracted and used to analyse the outcomes. Results showed various types of wear were generated on the tool rake and flank faces. The common formed wear was the crater wear. The formation of the build-up edge was observed on the rake face of the cutting tool.

  8. Wear tests in a hip joint simulator of different CoCrMo counterfaces on UHMWPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Mora, V.A.; Hoffmann, M.; Stroosnijder, R. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Gil, F.J. [CREB, Dept. Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:


    The objective in this work was to study the effect of different material counterfaces on the Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear behavior. The materials used as counterfaces were based on CoCrMo: forged with hand polished and mass finished, CoCrMo coating applied on the forged CoCrMo alloy obtained by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). A hip joint simulator was designed and built for these studies. The worn surfaces were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the hand polished CoCrMo alloy caused the higher UHMWPE wear of the acetabular cups. The CoCrMo coating caused the least UHMWPE wear, while the mass finished CoCrMo alloy caused an intermediate UHMWPE wear. It is shown that the wear rates obtained in this work are closer to clinical studies than to similar hip joints simulator studies.

  9. Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Studies of Fly Ash Reinforced AA-6351 Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uthayakumar


    Full Text Available Fly ash particles are potentially used in metal matrix composites due to their low cost, low density, and availability in large quantities as waste by-products in thermal power plants. This study describes multifactor-based experiments that were applied to research and investigation on dry sliding wear system of stir-cast aluminum alloy 6351 with 5, 10, and 15 wt.% fly ash reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs. The effects of parameters such as load, sliding speed, and percentage of fly ash on the sliding wear, specific wear rate, and friction coefficient were analyzed using Grey relational analysis on a pin-on-disc machine. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was also employed to investigate which design parameters significantly affect the wear behavior of the composite. The results showed that the applied load exerted the greatest effect on the dry sliding wear followed by the sliding velocity.

  10. Temperature effect of friction and wear characteristics for solid lubricating graphite (United States)

    Kim, Yeonwook; Kim, Jaehoon


    Graphite is one of the effective lubricant additives due to its excellent high-temperature endurance and self-lubricating properties. In this study, wear behavior of graphite used as sealing materials to cut off hot gas is evaluated at room and elevated temperature. Wear occurs on graphite seal due to the friction of driving shaft and graphite. Thus, a reciprocating wear test to evaluate the wear generated for the graphite by means of the relative motion between a shaft material and a graphite seal was carried out. The friction coefficient and specific wear rate for the changes of applied load and sliding speed were compared under different temperature conditions considering the actual operating environment. Through SEM observation of the worn surface, the lubricating film was observed and compared with test conditions.

  11. Friction and wear of HNBR with different fillers under dry rolling and sliding conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Peroxide cured hydrogenated acrylonitrile/butadiene rubber (HNBR compounds with 20 parts per hundred rubber (phr active fillers, such as carbon black (CB, multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT and silica were produced and their friction and wear properties under unlubricated rolling and sliding conditions were evaluated. The network-related properties of the HNBR compounds were deduced from dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The coefficient of friction (COF and the specific wear rate (Ws were determined in different home-made test rigs. The CB and MWCNT containing HNBR compounds exhibited the best resistance to rolling and sliding wear, respectively, among the HNBR systems studied. The worn surfaces were inspected in scanning electron microscope (SEM and the wear mechanisms were analyzed and discussed in respect to the types of wear and fillers.

  12. Abrasive Wear Study of NiCrFeSiB Flame Sprayed Coating (United States)

    Sharma, Satpal


    In the present study, abrasive wear behavior of NiCrFeSiB alloy coating on carbon steel was investigated. The NiCrFeSiB coating powder was deposited by flame spraying process. The microstructure, porosity and hardness of the coatings were evaluated. Elemental mapping was carried out in order to study the distribution of various elements in the coating. The abrasive wear behavior of these coatings was investigated under three normal loads (5, 10 and 15 N) and two abrasive grit sizes (120 and 320 grit). The abrasive wear rate was found to increase with the increase of load and abrasive size. The abrasive wear resistance of coating was found to be 2-3 times as compared to the substrate. Analysis of the scanning electron microscope images revealed cutting and plowing as the material removal mechanisms in these coatings under abrasive wear conditions used in this investigation.

  13. Analysis of factors associated with seatbelt wearing among rear passengers in Malaysia. (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Isah, Noradrenalina; Othman, Ihamah; Syed Rahim, Sharifah-Allyana; Paiman, Noorfaradilla


    A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 793 rear passengers in Malaysia. Logistic regression was performed to analyse the association of rear seatbelt wearing with 12 independent variables. Seven factors were significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing. Experience of being stopped by an enforcement officer for not wearing rear seatbelt yielded the highest odds ratio 2.3 (p = 0.002) followed by self-consciousness (odds ratio 1.7; p = 0.004), attitude (odds ratio 1.5, p = 0.001), and knowledge (odds ratio 1.4, p = 0.004). Age of participants and their perception of being caught by an enforcement officer were also significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing, odds ratios were 1.03 (p = 0.004) and 1.1 (p = 0.004), respectively. In contrast, level of education was negatively associated with rear seatbelt wearing (odds ratio 0.59, p = 0.003). It was concluded that enforcement activities, knowledge and attitude on seatbelt wearing play a very important role in improving the rate of rear seatbelt wearing. Thus, efforts to increase these factors should be the special focus in designing education and social marketing activities to advocate rear seatbelt wearing.

  14. Abrasive Wear of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Shape Memory Stainless Steel: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Silva, Christian Egidio Da; Bernardi, Heide Heloise; Otubo, Jorge


    This study was developed to understand the influence of chemical composition and austenitic grain size on the wear resistance in stainless shape memory steel. A two-body abrasive wear device was used to understand the wear mechanism involved. They were tested pins with the following chemical composition: Fe-10.3Mn-5.3Si-9.9Cr-4.9Ni-0.006C and Fe-14.2Mn-5.3Si-8.8Cr-4.6Ni-0.008C after being austenitized at 900 and 1050 °C, followed by water quenching. The surface characterization was performed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the roughness profile evaluation was also conducted. The weight loss was measured after conducting the wear testing, and the wear rates were estimated. The results demonstrated that the alloy with less manganese and higher chromium content has the best wear resistance (between 17.5 and 18.9%). With an increase of the austenitic grain size there was a small reduction on the wear resistance (between 3.0 and 4.1%). The chemical composition demonstrated to have higher influence on the wear behavior than the austenitic grain size.

  15. Casting fabrication of in situ Al3Ti-Al composites and their wear behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tijun; Li Jian; Hao Yuan


    The Al3li intermetallic reinforced pure Al, Al-13Si and Al-17Cu matrix composites were prepared by casting method. Their microstructures and dry sliding wear behaviors at room temperature and 100℃ were particularly investigated. The results indicated that the Al3Ti phases in these composites were all in flaky form. But the aspect ratio of the Al3Ti platelets decreased with the increase of Ti content in the pure AI, Al-Cu and Al-Si matrix composites, in order of effectiveness. The effect of Si on the Al3Ti morphology seemed to be greater than that of Cu. The distributions of the Al3Ti platelets were different in the different matrix composites, leading to different grain refining effects. Except for the sub-wear regime of adhesive wear, the plastic deformation induced wear was a dominant wear mechanism for all of the composites at room temperature and 100℃. Increasing the testing temperature, decreasing the Al3Ti content or the hardness of materials could enhance these two wear mechanisms, and thus increase the wear rate. The Al-Cu matrix composite had the best wear resistance, while the pure Al matrix composite showed the worst for the same Ti content. These differences or changes were attributed to the differences in materials' hardness or the strengthening effects of the Al3Ti platelets.

  16. Three years in vivo wear: core-ceramic, veneers, and enamel antagonists. (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F; Rose, William F; Barrett, Allyson A; Oliveira, Erica R; Yang, Mark C K; Clark, Arthur E; Anusavice, Kenneth J


    Test the hypotheses that there are equivalent wear rates for enamel-versus-enamel and ceramic-versus-enamel, analyzing the in vivo wear of crown ceramics, their natural enamel antagonists, and the corresponding two contralateral teeth; and, that bite force does not correlate with the wear. A controlled, clinical trial was conducted involving patients needing full coverage crowns opposing enamel antagonists. Bite forces were measured using a bilateral gnathodynamometer. Single-unit restorations of metal/ceramic (Argedent 62, Argen Corp/IPS d.SIGN veneer); or, core-ceramic/veneer from either, Empress2/Eris, or e.max Press core/e.max Ceram glaze (ceramics: Ivoclar Vivadent, USA) were randomly assigned, fabricated and cemented. Impressions were made of the ceramic crowns, as well as each maxillary and mandibular quadrant at one week (baseline) and one, two and three years. Resulting models were scanned (3D laser scanner). Maximum wear was calculated by superimposing baseline with annual images. There were a total of thirty-six crowns required for thirty-one patients. Each restoration had three associated enamel teeth: crown, (1) antagonist, (2) contralateral and (3) contralateral-antagonist. SAS PROC MIXED (α=0.05) indicated no statistical significance for mean maximum wear among crown ceramics, enamel antagonists and contralaterals. However, enamel wear was statistically significant in relation to intraoral location (p=0.04) and among years (p<0.02). Analyzed alone, the enamel contralateral-antagonist exhibited significantly greater wear (p<0.001). Considering all wear sites, there was no correlation with bite force (p=0.15). The ceramics and their antagonists exhibited in vivo wear rates within the range of normal enamel. Future studies should examine the wear implications of the contralateral-antagonist enamel. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 高硼低碳耐磨合金磨料磨损性能研究%Study on Abrasive Wear Performance of High Boron Low Carbon Wear-resistant Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻健梅; 王顺波; 苏广才; 汤宏群


    借助光学显微镜和SEM电镜观察,运用磨损试验手段及对比研究法,研究了高硼低碳耐磨合金的磨料磨损性能.结果表明,在中、低冲击工况下,高硼低碳耐磨合金的磨损质量损失、相对磨损率均小于高铬铸铁和高锰钢,且磨面磨损形成的沟槽少,压坑小,这显示出了良好的耐磨料磨损性.%The high boron low carbon wear-resistant alloy abrasive wear performance was researched by OM, SEM observation, wear test methods and comparision approach. The results show that in the medium or low impact conditions, the wear mass loss and relative wear rate of high boron low carbon wear-resistant alloy are less than that of high chromium cast iron and high manganese steel. The number of the wear grooves and the pits on the wear surface morphology is smaller, which shows the good characteristics in abrasive wear performance of high boron low carbon wear-resistant alloy.

  18. Effects of some material and experimental variables on the slurry wear characteristics of zinc-aluminum alloys (United States)

    Prasad, B. K.; Modi, O. P.; Jha, A. K.; Patwardhan, A. K.


    In this study, the slurry wear behavior of a zinc-based alloy has been examined by the sample rotation method over a range of traversal speeds and distances. The influence of adding silicon to the alloy system on its wear characteristics has also been examined. The wear rate of the samples increased with increasing traversal distance initially, attained a peak, and then tended to decrease at longer distances. The initial increase in wear rate with distance was attributed to the indenting effect of the slurry constituents ( i.e., liquid droplets and the erodant particles) associated with the corrosive action of the liquid in slurry. On the contrary, factors such as entrapment of the erodant mass as well as the corrosion products in the cavities formed on the specimen surfaces could lead to the decrease in wear rate at longer traversal distances. The existence of silicon particles in the alloy microstructure led to improved wear resistance of the alloy system. This was due to the resistance offered by the hard silicon particles against the impinging action of the slurry constituents. Attainment of the wear rate peak at longer traversal distances in the case of the silicon-containing alloy over the one without the element further substantiated the superior wear resistance offered by the silicon particles. Traversal speed led to higher wear rates irrespective of the test conditions and material composition due to the more severe attack of the medium on the specimen surface. However, the presence of silicon particles in the alloy microstructure offered improved wear resistance (inverse of wear rate).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GhulamMustafa; LiuXuefeng


    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed. The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models. The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joy's. This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes of nonmanifold topology.

  20. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo


    guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhukouski


    Full Text Available Due to the specific character of problems in the field of ionizing radiation spectroscopy, the R&D and making process of standard volumetric activity metal samples (standard samples for calibration and verification of spectrometric equipment is not only expensive, but also requires the use of highly qualified experts and a unique specific equipment. Theoretical and experimental studies performed have shown the possibility to use imitators as a set of alternating point sources of gamma radiation and metal plates and their use along with standard volumetric activity metal samples for calibration of scintillation-based detectors used in radiation control in metallurgy. Response functions or instrumental spectra of such spectrometer to radionuclides like 137Cs, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co, 54Mn, 232Th, 226Ra, 65Zn, 125Sb+125mTe, 106Ru+106Rh, 94Nb, 110mAg, 233U, 234U, 235U and 238U are required for calibration in a given measurement geometry. Standard samples in the form of a probe made of melt metal of a certain diameter and height are used in such measurements. However, the production of reference materials is costly and even problematic for such radionuclides as 94Nb, 125Sb+125mTe, 234U, 235U  etc. A recognized solution to solve this problem is to use the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Instrumental experimental and theoretical spectra obtained by using standard samples and their imitators show a high compliance between experimental spectra of real samples and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models, between spectra of real samples and the ones of their imitators and finally, between experimental spectra of real sample imitators and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models. They also have shown the adequacy and consistency of the approach in using a combination of metal scattering layers and reference point gamma-ray sources instead of standard volumetric activity metal samples. As for using several reference point gamma-ray sources

  2. Development of wear resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselkorn, M.H. (Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States))


    Improved fuel economy and a reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, insulating the combustion chamber components will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150{degree}C to over 300{degree}C. Existing ring/liner materials can not withstand these higher operating temperatures and for this reason, new materials need to be developed for this critical tribological interface. The overall goal of this program is the development of piston ring/cylinder liner material pairs which would be able to provide the required friction and wear properties at these more severe operating conditions. More specifically, this program first selected, and then evaluated, potential d/wear resistant coatings which could be applied to either piston rings an or cylinder liners and provide, at 350{degree}C under lubricated conditions, coefficients of friction below 0.1 and wear rates of less than 25 {times} lO{sup {minus}6} mm/hour. The processes selected for applying the candidate wear resistant coatings to piston rings and/or cylinder liners were plasma spraying, chemical vapor, physical vapor and low temperature arc vapor deposition techniques as well as enameling techniques.

  3. Positional change of the condylar heads after wearing complete denture on dental cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Ho; Kim, Jae Duk; Chung, Chae Heon [Department of Dental Science Graduate School and Oral Biology Research, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the position of the mandibular condyle within articular fossa by a CBCT after wearing complete denture (CD). CBCT of 34 temporomandibular joints were taken from 9 male and 8 female patients with CB Mercuray{sup TM} (Hitachi, Japan) before and after wearing a CD for rehabilitation. Position of mandibular condyle within articular fossa at centric occlusion was evaluated with Vimplant2.0{sup TM} (CyberMed, Korea) on the central parasagittal view and curved panoramic coronal view of the condylar head. A statistical evaluation was done with SPSS. The range of anteroposterior positional rate (AP) of condylar head within articular fossa was -16-5 and -10-12 respectively on the right and left sides. Before wearing CD, the AP rate showed discrepancy between right and left sides (p<0.05). After wearing CD, both condyles showed a tendency to decrease in posterior condylar position (right side; p<0.05). The average discrepancy between right and left side in mediolateral positional rate (MD) was 15.5 and 4.5 respectively before and after wearing CD. The improvement was observed in mediolateral relationship of both condylar heads after wearing CD (p<0.01). Before wearing CD, the average horizontal angle of long axis of condylar head was 79.6 {+-} 2.7 .deg. C and 80.1 {+-} 5.7 .deg. C respectively on the right and left sides. After wearing CD, both condyles were rotated in the same direction in average on axial plane. We observed with CBCT the significant clinical evidence in case of positional change of mandibular condyle after wearing complete denture.

  4. Wing wear reduces bumblebee flight performance in a dynamic obstacle course. (United States)

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Alexander, Teressa M; Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A


    Previous work has shown that wing wear increases mortality in bumblebees. Although a proximate mechanism for this phenomenon has remained elusive, a leading hypothesis is that wing wear increases predation risk by reducing flight manoeuvrability. We tested the effects of simulated wing wear on flight manoeuvrability in Bombus impatiens bumblebees using a dynamic obstacle course designed to push bees towards their performance limits. We found that removing 22% wing area from the tips of both forewings (symmetric wear) caused a 9% reduction in peak acceleration during manoeuvring flight, while performing the same manipulation on only one wing (asymmetric wear) did not significantly reduce maximum acceleration. The rate at which bees collided with obstacles was correlated with body length across all treatments, but wing wear did not increase collision rate, possibly because shorter wingspans allow more room for bees to manoeuvre. This study presents a novel method for exploring extreme flight manoeuvres in flying insects, eliciting peak accelerations that exceed those measured during flight through a stationary obstacle course. If escape from aerial predation is constrained by acceleration capacity, then our results offer a potential explanation for the observed increase in bumblebee mortality with wing wear.

  5. Effect of periwinkles shell particle size on the wear behavior of asbestos free brake pad (United States)

    Amaren, S. G.; Yawas, D. S.; Aku, S. Y.

    The effect of periwinkle shell particle size on the wear behavior of asbestos free brake pad has been investigated. The asbestos free brake pad produced by varying the periwinkle shell particles was from +125 to +710 μm with phenolic resin as the binder. The wear test was performed using pin on disk machine by varying the sliding speed, applied load, temperatures and periwinkle shell particle size. Full factorial design of four factor-two levels and analysis of variance were used in the study of the wear test. The results shown that wear rate increases with increasing the sliding speed, load, temperatures and periwinkle particle size. The co-efficient of friction obtained is within the recommended standard for automobile brake pad. The +125 μm particles of periwinkles gave the best wear resistance. Factorial design of the experiment can be successfully employed to describe the wear behavior of the samples and developed linear equation for predicting wear rate within selected experimental conditions. The results of this research indicate that periwinkle shell particles can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad manufacture.

  6. Wear Resistances of CO2 Corrosion Product Films in the Presence of Sand Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinling; ZHU Shidong; LIU Luzhen; QU Chengtun; YAN Yongli; YANG Bo


    Wear resistances of CO2 corrosion product iflms formed on P110 carbon steel at different CO2 partial pressures were investigated in water sand two-phase lfow by weight loss method, and the microstructures and compositions of corrosion product iflms were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the wear rate of CO2 corrosion product iflms increased until a maximum and then decreased with the increasing of the film-forming pressure, and the maximum occurred at 2 MPa. However, the maximal corrosion rate and the loose and porous CO2 corrosion product iflms were obtained at 4 MPa. And the wear rate decreased and then went to be lfat with increasing test time. Furthermore, the microstructures and compositions of corrosion product iflms and the impact and wear of sand particles played an important role on wear resistances. In addition, the wear rate and corrosion rate were iftted by cubic polynomial, respectively, which were well in accordance with the measured results.

  7. Modeling of Complex Wear Behavior Associated with Grid-to-Rod Fretting in Light Water Nuclear Reactors (United States)

    Blau, P. J.; Qu, J.; Lu, R.


    Fretting wear damage to fuel cladding from flow-induced vibrations can be a significant concern in the operation of light water nuclear reactors. For years, research on the grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) phenomena has been underway in countries where nuclear power production is a significant industry. Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors, an effort has been underway to develop and test an engineering wear model for zirconium alloy fuel rod cladding against a supporting grid. The multi-stage model accounts for oxide layers and wear rate transitions. This paper describes the basis for a GTRF engineering wear model, the physical significance of the wear factor it contains, and recent progress toward model validation based on a fretting wear testing apparatus that accounts for coolant temperature, pressure, and the presence of periodic impacts (gaps) in grid/rod contact.

  8. Modeling of Complex Wear Behavior Associated with Grid-to-Rod Fretting in Light Water Nuclear Reactors (United States)

    Blau, P. J.; Qu, J.; Lu, R.


    Fretting wear damage to fuel cladding from flow-induced vibrations can be a significant concern in the operation of light water nuclear reactors. For years, research on the grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) phenomena has been underway in countries where nuclear power production is a significant industry. Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors, an effort has been underway to develop and test an engineering wear model for zirconium alloy fuel rod cladding against a supporting grid. The multi-stage model accounts for oxide layers and wear rate transitions. This paper describes the basis for a GTRF engineering wear model, the physical significance of the wear factor it contains, and recent progress toward model validation based on a fretting wear testing apparatus that accounts for coolant temperature, pressure, and the presence of periodic impacts (gaps) in grid/rod contact.

  9. Structural transformations and tribological properties of amorphous alloys upon wear at room and cryogenic temperatures (United States)

    Korshunov, L. G.; Chernenko, N. L.; Goikhenberg, Yu. N.


    The abrasive wear resistance of the Fe64Co30Si3B3, Co86.5Cr4Si7B2.5, Fe73.5Nb3Cu1Si13.5B9, and Fe82.6Nb5Cu3Si8B1.4 commercial amorphous alloys (ribbon 0.03 mm thick and 12 mm wide) has been investigated under the conditions of abrasive and adhesive wear upon sliding friction. The character of fracture of the surface and structural transformations that occur in these materials upon wear have been studied by the metallographic and electron-microscopic methods. It has been shown that at room and cryogenic (-196°C) temperatures of tests the abrasive wear resistance of the amorphous alloys is two-three times lower than that of tool steels Kh12M and U8. A comparatively small abrasive wear resistance of the amorphous alloys is explained by local softening of these materials in the process of wear. Under the conditions of adhesive wear of like friction pairs at room temperature in air and argon, the amorphous alloys are characterized by the rate of wear that is smaller approximately by an order of magnitude than in steels 12Kh13 and 12Kh18N9. It has been established that upon wear the deformed surface layer of the alloys under study retains a predominantly amorphous state but in local sections of this layer nanocrystalline structures that consist of crystals of bcc and fcc phases and borides are formed. The possible effects of this partial crystallization on the microhardness, friction coefficient, and wear resistance of these alloys have been considered.

  10. Wear behaviour of cross-linked polyethylene assessed in vitro under severe conditions. (United States)

    Affatato, Saverio; Bersaglia, Gianluca; Rocchi, Mirko; Taddei, Paola; Fagnano, Concezio; Toni, Aldo


    The polyethylene (PE) for hip implants presents serious clinical problems; the production of debris may induce adverse tissue reactions that may lead to extensive bone loss around the implant and consequently osteolysis and implant loosening. Several attempts have been made to improve the wear properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). More recently the attention of various researchers has been focused on cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), due to its improved wear resistance with respect to conventional UHMWPE. This study was aimed at comparing the wear performances of clinically available acetabular liners (Zimmer Inc.) made of electron beam XLPE and conventional UHMWPE. To evaluate the influence of the material properties on wear, conventional UHMWPE and XLPE acetabular cups were tested against deliberately scratched CoCrMo femoral heads (Ra = 0.12-0.14 microm) in a hip joint wear simulator run for 3 million cycles with bovine calf serum as lubricant. Gravimetric measurements revealed significant differences between the wear behaviours of the two sets of acetabular cups: XLPE exhibited a wear rate about 40 times lower than conventional UHMWPE. Raman spectroscopy coupled to partial least-squares analysis was used to evaluate the possible crystallinity changes induced by mechanical stress (and thus the material wear resistance): only the UHMWPE cup which showed the highest weight loss displayed significant crystallinity changes. These results were correlated to the thickness of the plasticity-induced damage layer. The wear debris produced during the tests were isolated according to a validated protocol and imaged by scanning electron microscopy . The wear particles produced by XLPE were smaller than those produced by UHMWPE; the latter were observed as fibrillar and agglomerated particles. The mean equivalent circle diameter was 0.71 and 0.26 microm for UHMWPE and XLPE, respectively.

  11. Erosive wear of selected materials for fossil energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Thomas A.; Rawers, James C.; Tylczak, Joseph H.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.


    A number of materials have been evaluated to determine their erosion resistance for fossil energy applications. This is part of a larger program to study wear and corrosion at Albany Research Center. This paper will present the results for some of these materials, including FeAl, FeAl cermets, WC-Co cemented carbides, Si3N4-MoSi2, Si3N4, Stellite 6B, white cast irons and 440C steel. Trends in erosion rates due to material properties and erosive conditions will be presented. FeAl cermets performed well compared to the WC-Co cemented carbides. The interparticle spacing of the WC-Co cemented carbides correlated with the erosion rate. The erosion rate of the WC-Co cemented carbides decreased as the interparticle spacing decreased. It is important to realize that erosion resistance is not an intrinsic material property, but is a system response. A change in the wear environment can significantly alter the relative rankings of materials with respect to their wear rate. For example, at relatively low velocities, the carbides in the white cast irons are more erosion resistant than the matrix, while at higher velocities the matrix is more erosion resistant.

  12. Dynamic and kinematic effects in the friction and wear of rubber (United States)

    Gerrard, David Peter

    Research is presented which focuses on the micro-mechanical processes that dominate the friction and wear of rubber. New test concepts and equipment were developed to study the dynamic and kinematic effects involved in these processes. Several new analytical tools were presented to explain the observed results in quantifiable terms. Experiments conducted on filled NR confirmed that a transition in wear behavior does not occur across a wide range of power inputs. Examination of the debris distributions across the contact revealed that an agglomeration process of intrinsic particles occurs, the extent of which is purely a function of distance from the contact's leading edge. This revelation is used to explain the commonly reported bimodal size distribution of debris generated during rubber wear and to expose the mechanical process that generates intrinsic debris as the primary cause of wear. The effect of contact length (i.e. extent of agglomeration) on corresponding friction and wear levels was studied. The effects of dynamically changing slip orientation on the properties of a coated abrasive and the friction and wear of a filled SBR were studied. The process of removal of intrinsic debris from a rubber surface was described in terms of a micro-mechanical fatigue fracture process that occurs at varying rates that are dependent on the frictional work acting on the average intrinsic nodule. The model was successfully tested against previously published data and new data and was shown to account for pressure and abrasive effects with one set of two constants. The potential effects of pattern morphologies on rubber friction and wear were examined as well. The wear patterns showed a clear tendency to roll up as opposed to peeling back. The intrinsic wear model was then applied to a description of pattern wear by assuming that the rate of intrinsic abrasion across a pattern is simply a function of the local pressure distribution which varies from the front to the back

  13. The effect of microstructure on the wear of cobalt-based alloys used in metal-on-metal hip implants. (United States)

    Varano, R; Bobyn, J D; Medley, J B; Yue, S


    The influence of microstructure on the wear of cobalt-based alloys used in metal-on-metal hip implants was investigated in a boundary lubrication regime designed to represent the conditions that occurred some of the time in vivo. These cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys were either wrought, with a total carbon content of 0.05 or 0.23 wt %, cast with a solution-annealing procedure or simply as-cast but not solution annealed. Bars of these different alloy grades were subjected to various heat treatments to develop different microstructures. The wear was evaluated in a linear-tracking reciprocating pin-on-plate apparatus with a 25 per cent bovine serum lubricant. The wear was found to be strongly affected by the dissolved carbon content of the alloys and mostly independent of grain size or the carbide characteristics. The increased carbon in solid solution caused reductions in volumetric wear because carbon helped to stabilize a face-centred cubic crystal structure, thus limiting the amount of strain-induced transformation to a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. Based on the observed surface twining in and around the contact zone and the potentially detrimental effect of the hexagonal close-packed phase, it was postulated that the wear of cobalt-based alloys in the present study was controlled by a deformation mechanism.

  14. Wear Behaviour of Hard Cr Coatings for Cold Forming Tools Under Dry Sliding Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mitrović


    Full Text Available Cr hard coatings are largely used in industry in metal cutting and cold forming processes; This work on quantitative way represents improvement, in terms of wear resistance, which is obtained by depositing Cr hard coating on foundation material. Wear testing is done on tribometer with block –on –disc contact geometry at sliding contact of Cr hard coated sample with steel disc. Testing was performed in conditions without lubrication at variable value of contact parameters (normal load, sliding speed. Cr hard coatings in all contact conditions show smaller values of wear rate.

  15. A statistical model for sliding wear of metals in metal/composite systems (United States)

    Wang, A.; Rack, H. J.


    The wear of a nominally harder single-phase metal sliding against a nominally softer metal-matrix composite containing a dispersion of hard second-phase reinforcement is described by a statistical wear model which considers the effects of local variations in hardness and microstructure on asperity interactions. It was shown theoretically that the wear rate of the unreinforced component varies exponentially with nominal reinforcement volume fraction. Model experiments performed on a SiC(w)-2124 Al composite/17-4 PH steel system confirmed the validity of the theory.

  16. The role of oxidation in the fretting wear process (United States)

    Bill, R. C.


    Fretting experiments were conducted on titanium, a series of Ni-Cr-Al alloys and on some high temperature turbine alloys at room temperature and at elevated temperatures in air and in various inert environments. It was found that, depending on temperature and environment, the fretting behavior of the materials examined could be classified according to four general types of behavior. Briefly, these types of behavior were: (1) the complete absence of oxidation, as in inert environments, generally leading to low rates of fretting wear but high fretting friction; (2) gradual attrition of surface oxide with each fretting stroke, found in these experiments to operate in concert with other dominating mechanisms; (3) rapid oxidation at surface fatigue damage sites, resulting in undermining and rapid disintegration of the load bearing surface; and (4) the formation of coherent, protective oxide film, resulting in low rates of fretting wear. An analytical model predicting conditions favorable to the fourth type of behavior was outlined.

  17. Enamel wear opposing polished and aged zirconia. (United States)

    Burgess, J O; Janyavula, S; Lawson, N C; Lucas, T J; Cakir, D


    Aging of dental zirconia roughens its surface through low temperature degradation. We hypothesized that age-related roughening of zirconia crowns may cause detrimental wear to the enamel of an opposing tooth. To test our hypothesis, we subjected artificially aged zirconia and reference specimens to simulated mastication in a wear device and measured the wear of an opposing enamel cusp. Additionally, the roughness of the pretest surfaces was measured. The zirconia specimens, artificially aged by autoclave, showed no significant increase in roughness compared to the nonaged specimens. Furthermore, no significant difference in material or opposing enamel wear between the aged and nonaged zirconia was seen. All zirconia specimens showed less material and opposing enamel wear than the enamel to enamel control or veneering porcelain specimens. Scanning electron micrographs showed relatively smooth surfaces of aged and nonaged zirconia following wear testing. The micrographs of the veneering ceramic showed sharp fractured edges and fragments of wear debris. Zirconia may be considered a wear-friendly material for restorations opposing enamel, even after simulated aging.

  18. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.


    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  19. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. (United States)

    Efron, Nathan


    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  20. Inhibition of erosive wear by fluoride varnish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A.; Jager, D. H. J.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.


    It has been suggested that fluoride products with a protective mechanical component are advantageous in the prevention of erosive wear. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of fluoride varnish (FV) in the prevention of wear due to erosion and combined erosion and toothbrush abras

  1. Friction and Wear Behaviors of Nanostructured Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong HAN; Yusheng ZHANG; Ke LU


    Nanostructured (ns) materials, i.e., polycrystalline materials with grain sizes in the nanometer regime (typically below 100 nm), have drawn considerable attention in the past decades due to their unique properties such as high strength and hardness. Wear resistance of ns materials, one of the most important properties for engineering materials, has been extensively investigated in the past decades. Obvious differences have been identified in friction and wear behaviors Between the ns materials and their corresponding coarse-grained (cg) counterparts, consistently correlating with their unique structure characteristics and mechanical properties. On the other hand, the superior tribological properties of ns materials illustrate their potential applications under contact loads. The present overview will summarize the important progresses achieved on friction and wear behaviors of ns metallic materials, including ultrafine-grained (ufg) materials in recent years. Tribological properties and effects on friction and wear behaviors of ns materials will be discussed under different wear conditions including abrasive wear, sliding wear, and fretting wear. Their correlations with mechanical properties will be analyzed. Perspectives on development of this field will be highlighted as well.

  2. Inhibition of erosive wear by fluoride varnish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, A.; Jager, D. H. J.; Ruben, J. L.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.


    It has been suggested that fluoride products with a protective mechanical component are advantageous in the prevention of erosive wear. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the effect of fluoride varnish (FV) in the prevention of wear due to erosion and combined erosion and toothbrush

  3. Trends in life jacket wear among recreational boaters: a dozen years (1999-2010) of US observational data. (United States)

    Mangione, Thomas W; Chow, Wendy; Nguyen, Jennifer


    We report results from 12 years of US observational data on life jacket use among recreational boaters based on more than 480,000 boaters in 175,000 boats between 1999 and 2010. The overall wear rate was 21.7 per cent, with sharp differences by age and boat types. We found strong increasing trends in wear rates among youth boaters, but among adults, the only increase was on sailboats. The increasing trend among youth is probably due to a combination of expanding laws for mandatory life jacket use among this age group, and targeted educational campaigns promoting life jacket use for children. Future efforts to increase the prevalence of life jacket wear should target groups with low wear rates and boaters on boats most likely to capsize. Policymakers should give serious consideration to regulations requiring adult boaters to wear life jackets while boating.

  4. Influence of quartz particles on wear in vertical roller mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lucas R.D.; Friis, Henrik; Fundal, Erling;


    statistical planning, a total of 10 tests were arried out with two different limestones and one type of quartz sand. The size distributions were kept constant and only the mixing ratios were varied. It appears from the investigation that mixtures consisting of minerals with different grindabilities result...... in an increased concentration of abrasive particles in the grinding bed ðR2 > 0:99Þ. The present study shows that the quartz concentration in the grinding bed is determining the wear rate....

  5. Problems of locomotive wheel wear in fleet replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lingaytis


    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a research and find out the causes of defects appearing on the wheel thread of freight locomotives 2М62 and SIEMENS ER20CF. Methodology. To find the ways to solve this problem comparing the locomotive designs and their operating conditions. Findings. After examining the nature of the wheel wear the main difference was found: in locomotives of the 2M62 line wears the wheel flange, and in the locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF – the tread surface. After installation on the 2M62 locomotive the lubrication system of flanges their wear rate significantly decreased. On the new freight locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF the flange lubrication systems of the wheel set have been already installed at the factory, however the wheel thread is wearing. As for locomotives 2M62, and on locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF most wear profile skating wheels of the first wheel set. On both locomotive lines the 2М62 and the SIEMENS ER20CF the tread profile of the first wheel set most of all is subject to the wear. After reaching the 170 000 km run, the tread surface of some wheels begins to crumble. There was a suspicion that the reason for crumb formation of the wheel surface may be insufficient or excessive wheel hardness or its chemical composition. In order to confirm or deny this suspicion the following studies were conducted: the examination of the rim surface, the study of the wheel metal hardness and the document analysis of the wheel production and their comparison with the results of wheel hardness measurement. Practical value. The technical condition of locomotives is one of the bases of safety and reliability of the rolling stock. The reduction of the wheel wear significantly reduces the operating costs of railway transport. After study completion it was found that there was no evidence to suggest that the ratio of the wheel-rail hardness could be the cause of the wheel surface crumbling.

  6. Biologically Based Restorative Management of Tooth Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. D. Kelleher


    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of tooth wear is increasing in industrialised nations. Yet, there is no high-level evidence to support or refute any therapeutic intervention. In the absence of such evidence, many currently prevailing management strategies for tooth wear may be failing in their duty of care to first and foremost improve the oral health of patients with this disease. This paper promotes biologically sound approaches to the management of tooth wear on the basis of current best evidence of the aetiology and clinical features of this disease. The relative risks and benefits of the varying approaches to managing tooth wear are discussed with reference to long-term follow-up studies. Using reference to ethical standards such as “The Daughter Test”, this paper presents case reports of patients with moderate-to-severe levels of tooth wear managed in line with these biologically sound principles.

  7. Wear simulation effects on overdenture stud attachments. (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko


    The aim of this study was to evaluate wear effects on overdenture resilient attachments. Six commercially available attachments were investigated: ERA orange and white (EO and EW), Locator pink, white and blue (LRP, LRW and LRB) and OP anchor (OP). Five specimens were used for wear simulation while other two specimens served as controls. Fifteen thousands insertion-removal cycles were simulated. Dimensional changes and surface characteristics were evaluated using light microscopy and SEM, respectively. Sudden decrease of retentive force was characteristic for EO and EW attachments. Retentive force of Locator attachments fluctuated throughout the wear simulation period. Dimensional changes and surface wear was more expressed on plastic cores than on plastic rings of attachment males. Based on SEM analysis, some of the specimens obtained smoother surface after wear simulation. Mechanism of retention loss of resilient overdenture attachments can be only partially explained by dimensional changes and surface alterations.

  8. Effect of Produced Fluid on the Wear Behavior of Grade D Sucker Rod and N80 Type Tubing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanTingjun; WangKuisheng


    Inuestigated wear tests of grade D sucker rod and N80 tubing with a produced liquid are the effect of the water cut of produced,liquid on the wear rate and the wear coefficient of the friction pair. And presented here is a comparison of tribological performance of tubing/sucker rod with sprayed tubing/sucker rod and tubing/sprayed sucker rod. The results show that one of the main reasons for wear failure between the sucker rod and the tubing is a high water cut of the produced liquid. The wear rate increases greatly when the water cut ranges from 70% to 85%, and increases gradually when the water cut is less than 70% or more than 85%. The higher the water cut is, the greater the wear rate will be. SEM (scanning electron microscope) micrographs show that the worn surface of the tubing is smoother, with shallow grooves, when the water cut is 55%; when the water cut is 95%, there are broader and deeper grooves on the worn surface. The results also show that the wear rate of the sprayed wear-resistant coating of sucker rod/tubing is less than that of the unsprayed sucker rod/tubing.

  9. Wear behaviour of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys used in metal-on-metal hip implants (United States)

    Varano, Rocco

    The influence of carbon (C) content, microstructure, crystallography and mechanical properties on the wear behaviour of metal-on-metal (MM) hip implants made from commercially available cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys designated as American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) grade F1537, F75 and as-cast were studied in this work. The as-received bars of wrought CoCrMo alloys (ASTM F1537 of either about 0.05% or 0.26% C) were each subjected to various heat treatments to develop different microstructures. Pin and plate specimens were fabricated from each bar and were tested against each other using a linear reciprocating pin-on-plate apparatus in 25% by volume bovine serum solution. The applied normal load was 9.81 N and the reciprocating plate had a sinusoidal velocity with an average speed of 26 mm/s. The wear was measured gravimetrically and it was found to be most strongly affected by alloy C content, irrespective of grain size or carbide morphology. More precisely, the wear behaviour was directly correlated to the dissolved C content of the alloys. Increased C in solid-solution coincided with lower volumetric wear since C helps to stabilize the face-centred cubic (FCC) crystal structure thus limiting the amount of strain induced transformation (SIT) to the hexagonal close-packed crystal structure (HCP). Based on the observed surface twinning in and around the contact zone and the potentially detrimental effect of the HCP phase, it was postulated that the MM wear behaviour of CoCrMo alloys in the present study was controlled by a deformation mechanism, rather than corrosion or tribochemical reactions.

  10. Micro-separation in vitro produces clinically relevant wear of ceramic-ceramic total hip replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevelos, J.; Fisher, J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Ingham, E. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Div. of Microbiology; Doyle, C. [Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Newbury (United Kingdom); Streicher, R. [Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Kilchberg (Switzerland); Nevelos, A. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Bradford (United Kingdom)


    Typical clinical wear rates for well-positioned first generation ceramic-ceramic total hip arthroplasties (THAs) were of the order of 1-5 mm{sup 3}/year. This wear took the form of a 'stripe' of worn area on the heads with an Ra of approximately 0.1 {mu}m. As-manufactured unworn areas have an average Ra of 0.005 {mu}m Ra. This wear pattern has not been recorded following standard simulator testing with typical wear rates of less than 0.1 mm{sup 3} per million cycles. Therefore new material combinations for ceramic-ceramic total hip arthroplasty cannot be validated using standard hip simulator testing methods. However, recent fluoroscopy studies have shown that the head and cup of total hip replacements can separate during normal gait. This separation would lead to rim contact upon heel strike as shown in Figure 1. (orig.)

  11. Dry sliding wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air and vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 杨德庄; 何世禹; 武万良


    Differences in wear rate, morphology of the worn surface and debris, and the microstructure in subsurface of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy after wear in air and vacuum were compared. The wear rate of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air is higher than that in vacuum in all the ranges of sliding velocities and applied loads. The wear of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in air is controlled by a combination of abrasion, oxidation and delamination with micro-cracks remaining in subsurface. Under the vacuum condition, the surface layer of Ti-6Al-4V alloy experiences a severe plastic deformation on a great scale, which results in an ultra-fine microstructure.

  12. Process Optimization and Wear Behavior of Red Mud Reinforced Aluminum Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Shanmugavel


    Full Text Available This work presents the application of hybrid approach for optimizing the dry sliding wear behavior of red mud based aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs. The essential input parameters are identified as applied load, sliding velocity, wt.% of reinforcement, and hardness of the counterpart material, whereas the output responses are specific wear rate and Coefficient of Friction (COF. The Grey Relational Analysis (GRA is performed to optimize the multiple performance characteristics simultaneously. The Principle Component Analysis (PCA and entropy methods are applied to evaluate the values of weights corresponding to each output response. The experimental result shows that the wt.% of reinforcements (Q=34.9% followed by the sliding velocity (Q=34.5% contributed more to affecting the dry sliding wear behavior. The optimized conditions are verified through the confirmation test, which exhibited an improvement in the grey relational grade of specific wear rate and COF by 0.3 and 0.034, respectively.

  13. Wear and corrosion resistance of laser remelted and plasma sprayed Ni and Cr coatings on copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁工英; 黄俊达; 安耿


    Nickel and chromium coatings were produced on the copper sheet using plasma spraying and laser remelting. The sliding wear test was achieved on a block-on-ring tester and the corrosion test was carried out in an acidic atmosphere. The corrosive behaviors of both coatings and original copper samples were investigated by using an impedance comparison method. The experimental results show that the nickel and chromium coatings display better wear resistance and corrosion resistance relative to the original pure copper sample. The wear resistance of the coatings is 8 - 12 times as large as original samples, and the wear resistance of laser remelted samples is better than that of plasma sprayed ones. The corrosion resistance of laser remelted nickel and chromium samples is better than that of plasma sprayed samples respectively. The corrosion rate of chromium coatings is less than that of nickel coatings, and the laser remelted Cr coating exhibits the least corrosion rate.

  14. Comparison of Wear and Oxidation in Retrieved Conventional and Highly Cross-Linked UHMWPE Tibial Inserts. (United States)

    Currier, Barbara H; Currier, John H; Franklin, Katherine J; Mayor, Michael B; Reinitz, Steven D; Van Citters, Douglas W


    Two groups of retrieved tibial inserts from one manufacturer's knee system were analyzed to evaluate the effect of a highly cross-linked bearing surface on wear and in vivo oxidation. The two groups ((1) conventional gamma-inert sterilized and (2) highly cross-linked, coupled with the same rough (Ra=0.25) Ti-6Al-4V tray) were matched with statistically similar in vivo duration and patient variables. The retrieved inserts were analyzed for ketone oxidation and wear in the form of dimensional change. The difference in oxidation rate between highly cross-linked and conventional gamma-inert sterilized inserts did not reach statistical significance. Observations suggest that the majority of wear can be accounted for by the backside interface with the rough Ti-6Al-4V tray; however, wear measured by thickness-change rate was statistically indistinguishable between the two bearing materials.

  15. Corrosion-wear behavior of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in acid and alkaline solutions (United States)

    Fu, Li-cai; Qin, Wen; Yang, Jun; Liu, Wei-min; Zhou, Ling-ping


    The corrosion-wear behavior of a nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy disc coupled with a Si3N4 ball was investigated in acid (pH 3) and alkaline (pH 9) aqueous solutions. The dry wear was also measured for reference. The average friction coefficient of Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 solution was approximately 0.2, which was lower than those observed for Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 3 solution and in the case of dry wear. The fluctuation of the friction coefficient of samples subjected to the pH 9 solution also showed similar characteristics. The wear rate in the pH 9 solution slightly increased with increasing applied load. The wear rate was approximately one order of magnitude less than that in the pH 3 solution and was far lower than that in the case of dry wear, especially at high applied load. The wear traces of Fe88Si12 alloy under different wear conditions were examined and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the tribo-chemical reactions that involve oxidation of the worn surface and hydrolysis of the Si3N4 ball in the acid solution were restricted in the pH 9 aqueous solution. Thus, water lubrication can effectively improve the wear resistance of nanocrystalline Fe88Si12 alloy in the pH 9 aqueous solution.

  16. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets. [friction and wear experiments (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.


    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined, and etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the tungsten carbide (WC) and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation, and the wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation, and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  17. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)


    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  18. Energetic aspects of boring tools wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarová Edita


    Full Text Available In the process of rock desintegration a boring tool is subjected to the wear. From a viewpoint of the bit wear, changes on the contact of operating tool with rock at its one-shot and rerun load or overload by external forces are technically significant. Theis change results in the degradation of bit working properties and the output of desintegration also decreases. In the major part of cases, together with the bit wear, the contact area of a tool with a rock massifs enhanced and this fact causes an increase of fines (dust creation during the desintegration. The wear is always connected with a friction, forces action, deformation, damage, and the increased mechanical work consumption. As to energetic aspects of bit wear, the wear was observed as a function of bore length and in the most of cases as a dependence of the operating time. A linear dependence between the wear intensity (bit wear per unit of bore length and the specific energy of desintegration (energy consumed per volume unit of desintegrated rock was experimentally verified. Thus, the changes of bit wear can be implicitly observed by monitoring the specific energy. At the same time, the specific energy is a function of input parameters of the desintegration process and in the field of applicable external forces it shows an extreme (minimum. Therefore, the specific energy is useful for the extreme optimisation of the rock desintegration process from the viewpoint of the bit wear. It was mathematically proven that the tool output at the desintegration exponentially decreases with the amount of work consumed in the rock desintegration. The derivation of this knowledge comes out from the Krendelev equation.

  19. Disentangling volumetric and hydrational properties of proteins. (United States)

    Voloshin, Vladimir P; Medvedev, Nikolai N; Smolin, Nikolai; Geiger, Alfons; Winter, Roland


    We used molecular dynamics simulations of a typical monomeric protein, SNase, in combination with Voronoi-Delaunay tessellation to study and analyze the temperature dependence of the apparent volume, Vapp, of the solute. We show that the void volume, VB, created in the boundary region between solute and solvent, determines the temperature dependence of Vapp to a major extent. The less pronounced but still significant temperature dependence of the molecular volume of the solute, VM, is essentially the result of the expansivity of its internal voids, as the van der Waals contribution to VM is practically independent of temperature. Results for polypeptides of different chemical nature feature a similar temperature behavior, suggesting that the boundary/hydration contribution seems to be a universal part of the temperature dependence of Vapp. The results presented here shine new light on the discussion surrounding the physical basis for understanding and decomposing the volumetric properties of proteins and biomolecules in general.

  20. All Photons Imaging Through Volumetric Scattering (United States)

    Satat, Guy; Heshmat, Barmak; Raviv, Dan; Raskar, Ramesh


    Imaging through thick highly scattering media (sample thickness ≫ mean free path) can realize broad applications in biomedical and industrial imaging as well as remote sensing. Here we propose a computational “All Photons Imaging” (API) framework that utilizes time-resolved measurement for imaging through thick volumetric scattering by using both early arrived (non-scattered) and diffused photons. As opposed to other methods which aim to lock on specific photons (coherent, ballistic, acoustically modulated, etc.), this framework aims to use all of the optical signal. Compared to conventional early photon measurements for imaging through a 15 mm tissue phantom, our method shows a two fold improvement in spatial resolution (4db increase in Peak SNR). This all optical, calibration-free framework enables widefield imaging through thick turbid media, and opens new avenues in non-invasive testing, analysis, and diagnosis. PMID:27683065

  1. Un-lubricated sliding wear performance of unalloyed austempered ductile iron under high contact stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimba, J.; Samandi, M.; Yu, D.; Chandra, T.; Navara, E.; Simbi, D.J


    The dry sliding wear behaviour of unalloyed austempered ductile iron (ADI) was studied in a reciprocating tribotester using contact loads in the range 40-140 N. The results obtained show that austempering in the temperature range 325-375 deg. C significantly improves the tribological properties of the unalloyed spheroidal graphite iron. The friction coefficient was reduced by a factor of ten (10) with the wear resistance increasing by several orders of magnitude. The improvement in wear performance was attributed to: the lubricity inherent the graphite nodules, the increase in initial hardness brought about by the ausferrite structure, and the work hardening of the surface as retained austenite is transformed to martensite by plastic deformation, and in the process reducing considerably the sensitivity of the specific wear rate to loading. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results pertaining to the wear tracks suggest that two main wear mechanisms are responsible for material removal in the unlubricated sliding wear of ADI, namely, plastic yielding and oxidation, with the latter producing hard oxide particles that act as abrasives. Massive plastic yielding followed by delamination and sometimes oxidation accounts for material loss in the much softer as cast ductile spheroidal graphite iron.

  2. Microstructure and wear resistance of in situ porous TiO/Cu composites (United States)

    Qin, Qingdong; Huang, Bowei; Li, Wei


    An in situ porous TiO/Cu composite is successfully prepared using powder metallurgy by the reaction of Ti2CO and Cu powder. Morphological examination of the composite shows that the porosity of composites lies in the range between 10.2% and 35.2%. Dry sliding un-lubricated wear tests show that the wear resistance of the composite is higher than that of the Cu-Al alloy ingot. The coefficient of friction test shows that, as the volume fraction of the reinforced phase increases, the coefficient of friction decreases. The wear rate variation trend of the oil-lubricated wear test results is similar to that of the un-lubricated wear test results. The coefficient of friction for oil lubrication is similar for different volume fractions of the reinforced phase. The wear resistance of the composite at a sliding velocity of 200 rpm is slightly larger than that at 50 rpm. The porosity of the composites enhances the high-velocity oil-lubricated sliding wear resistance.

  3. Finite element analysis of stress and wear characterization in total ankle replacements. (United States)

    Jay Elliot, Bradley; Gundapaneni, Dinesh; Goswami, Tarun


    Total Ankle Arthroplasty is performed in order to reduce the pain and loss of ambulation in patients with various forms of arthritis and trauma. Although replacement devices fail by a number of mechanisms, wear in the polyethylene liner constitutes one of the dominating failure modes. This leads to instability and loosening of the implant. Mechanisms that contribute to wear in the liners are high contact and subsurface stresses that break down the material over time. Therefore, it is important to understand the gait that generates these stresses. Methods to characterize and decrease wear in Ohio Total Ankle Replacements (TARs) have been performed in this research. This research utilizes finite element analysis of Wright State University (WSU) patented TAR models. From the Finite element analysis (FEA) results, mathematical models of contact conditions and wear mechanics were developed. The maximum wear rate values obtained in the study (at 25.598MPa, 3.74mm(3)/year) and maximum surface Mises stress obtained with new optimization model (11.52MPa) seem to be comparable with the maximum wear values obtained in other similar studies. These models were used to determine the best methods for wear characterization and reduction. Furthermore, optimization models were developed based on geometry of the implants. These equations optimize geometry, thus congruency and anatomical simulations for total ankle implants.

  4. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) and its in situ BMG matrix composites with diameter of 3 mm were fabricated by conventional Cu-mould casting method and the dry sliding wear behaviour of the BMG and composites was investigated. Compared to the pure BMG, the composites exhibited a markedly improved wear resistance from 10 to 48% due to the existence of various volume fractions of the ductile $\\beta$-Zr dendritic phase embedded in the glassy matrix. The composites showed lower friction coefficient and wear rate than the pure BMG. Meanwhile, the surface wearing of the composite with a proper amount of $\\beta$-Zr dendrites was less severe compared to that of the pure BMG. The worn surface of the composite was covered with mild grooves and some fine wear debris, which exhibited the characteristic of a mild abrasive wear. The improvement of the wear resistance of the composite with the proper amount of $\\beta$-Zr crystalline phase is attributed to the fact that the $\\beta$-Zr crystalline phase distributed in the amorphous matrix has some effective load bearing, plastic deformation and work hardening ability to decrease strain accumulation and the release of strain energy in the glassy matrix, restrict the expanding of shear bands and cracks, and occur plastic deformation homogeneously.

  5. A Technique for Volumetric CSG Based on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen


    In this paper, a new technique for volumetric CSG is presented. The technique requires the input volumes to correspond to solids which fulfill a voxelization suitability criterion. Assume the CSG operation is union. The volumetric union of two such volumes is defined in terms of the voxelization...

  6. Effects of cutting parameters on tool insert wear in end milling of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Jing; Wu, Baohai; Zhang, Dinghua


    Titanium alloy is a kind of typical hard-to-cut material due to its low thermal conductivity and high strength at elevated temperatures, this contributes to the fast tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys. The influence of cutting conditions on tool wear has been focused on the turning process, and their influence on tool wear in milling process as well as the influence of tool wear on cutting force coefficients has not been investigated comprehensively. To fully understand the tool wear behavior in milling process with inserts, the influence of cutting parameters on tool wear in the milling of titanium alloys Ti6Al4V by using indexable cutters is investigated. The tool wear rate and trends under different feed per tooth, cutting speed, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut are analyzed. The results show that the feed rate per tooth and the radial depth of cut have a large influence on tool wear in milling Ti6Al4V with coated insert. To reduce tool wear, cutting parameters for coated inserts under experimental cutting conditions are set as: feed rate per tooth less than 0.07 mm, radial depth of cut less than 1.0 mm, and cutting speed sets between 60 and 150 m/min. Investigation on the relationship between tool wear and cutting force coefficients shows that tangential edge constant increases with tool wear and cutter edge chipping can lead to a great variety of tangential cutting force coefficient. The proposed research provides the basic data for evaluating the machinability of milling Ti6Al4V alloy with coated inserts, and the recommend cutting parameters can be immediately applied in practical production.

  7. Fault Wear During Earthquake-Like Slip-Events in Laboratory Experiments (United States)

    Reches, Z.; Chang, J. C.; Boneh, Y.; Lockner, D. A.


    We present fault-wear observations from experiments conducted on a rotary shear apparatus with samples made of solid rock of ring structure 7 cm in diameter and 1 cm wide.. The experimental procedure is designed to simulate the slip along a fault patch that is activated by an instantaneous shear loading associated with a propagating earthquake front. For this objective, the apparatus accumulates a finite amount of energy in a 225 kg flywheel that is engaged to the sample through a fast-acting clutch. Slip along the sample is initiated when the flywheel torque exceeds the critical strength of the sample, and the slip seized when the flywheel kinetic energy is consumed. During the experiment, we continuously monitored the fault slip-velocity, its surface closure, the normal and shear stresses across the fault, and its temperature. We present results of 34 experiments, 19 of them with Sierra White granite samples and 15 with Kasota dolomite samples. The samples were loaded under normal stress up to 7 MPa. In a typical experiment, the velocity rose quickly (measured closure across the fault blocks, and presented here by the unit W= [(micron of surface wear) / (meter of slip distance)] (see Boneh et al., this meeting). The maximum calculated wear-rate in these experiments approaches 20,000 microm/m. We recognized three distinct modes of wear-rate variations with respect to the measured friction: (1) An initial, short stage of high dilation-rate with slight (~10%) increase of the associated friction; this stage was followed by long period of low wear-rate accompanied with a moderate to large friction drop (30-50%); (2) Under relatively high peak velocities of 0.5-1.0 m/s, the samples displayed initial high wear-rate (fault-surface closure) that quickly decays to steady-state stage of low wear-rate; and (3) Under low slip-velocity conditions (velocity <0.1 m/s), the experimental fault did not display a discernable wear-rate pattern. The present experiments reveal large

  8. Investigation on Friction and Wear of Cold Rolled High Strength Steel against an AISI52100 Counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Hur


    Full Text Available This article investigates the friction and wear of cold rolled high strength steel at various displacement amplitudes. Reciprocal sliding tests are carried out using a ball-on-flat testing apparatus. The tangential force occurring at the contact surface between a high strength steel specimen and an AISI52100 ball is measured during the tests. After each test, the worn surface profile on the steel specimen is determined. Experimental results show that the ratio of the maximum tangential to the normal force remains at 0.7 after an initial rapid increase, and the ratio does not greatly change according to the imposed displacement amplitudes (in the range of 0.05 mm and 0.3 mm. The wear volume loss on the steel specimen increases according to the number of cycles. It is determined that the wear rate of the specimen changes with respect to the imposed displacement amplitude. That is, the wear rate rapidly increases within the displacement amplitude range of 0.05 mm to 0.09 mm, while the wear rate gradually increases when the displacement amplitude is greater than 0.2 mm. The obtained results provide the friction and wear behaviors of cold rolled high strength steel in fretting and reciprocal sliding regimes.

  9. Epoxy matrix composites filled with micro-sized LD sludge: wear characterization and analysis (United States)

    Purohit, Abhilash; Satapathy, Alok


    Owing to the very high cost of conventional filler materials in polymer composites, exploring the possibility of using low cost minerals and industrial wastes for this purpose has become the need of the hour. In view of this, the present work includes the development and the wear performance evaluation of a new class of composites consisting of epoxy and microsized LD sludge. LD sludge or the Linz-Donawitz Sludge (LDS) are the fine solid particles recovered after wet cleaning of the gas emerging from LD convertors during steel making. Epoxy composites filled with different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of LDS are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear trials are performed on the composite specimens under different test conditions as per ASTM G 99 following a design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's orthogonal arrays. The Taguchi approach leads to the recognition of most powerful variables that predominantly control the wear rate. This parametric analysis reveals that LDS content and sliding velocity affects the specific wear rate more significantly than normal load and sliding distance. Furthermore with increase in LDS content specific wear rate of the composite decreases for a constant sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extended range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN).

  10. Atomic-scale wear of amorphous hydrogenated carbon during intermittent contact: a combined study using experiment, simulation, and theory. (United States)

    Vahdat, Vahid; Ryan, Kathleen E; Keating, Pamela L; Jiang, Yijie; Adiga, Shashishekar P; Schall, J David; Turner, Kevin T; Harrison, Judith A; Carpick, Robert W


    In this study, we explore the wear behavior of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM, an intermittent-contact AFM mode) tips coated with a common type of diamond-like carbon, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), when scanned against an ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) sample both experimentally and through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Finite element analysis is utilized in a unique way to create a representative geometry of the tip to be simulated in MD. To conduct consistent and quantitative experiments, we apply a protocol that involves determining the tip-sample interaction geometry, calculating the tip-sample force and normal contact stress over the course of the wear test, and precisely quantifying the wear volume using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. The results reveal gradual wear of a-C:H with no sign of fracture or plastic deformation. The wear rate of a-C:H is consistent with a reaction-rate-based wear theory, which predicts an exponential dependence of the rate of atom removal on the average normal contact stress. From this, kinetic parameters governing the wear process are estimated. MD simulations of an a-C:H tip, whose radius is comparable to the tip radii used in experiments, making contact with a UNCD sample multiple times exhibit an atomic-level removal process. The atomistic wear events observed in the simulations are correlated with under-coordinated atomic species at the contacting surfaces.

  11. Tribological Wear Behaviour and Hardness Measurement of SiC, Al2O3 Reinforced Al. Matrix Hybrid Composite (United States)

    Subramanian, Senthil Murugan; Vijayan, Jegan; Muthaiah, Velmurugan


    In the present study, Aluminium Matrix Hybrid Composite (AMHC) of 6061-T6 alloy reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) particulate and further addition of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) particulate was fabricated by stir casting process. The wear resistance and frictional properties of that AMHC were studied by performing dry sliding wear test using a pin on disk wear tester. The experiments were conducted at a constant sliding velocity of 1.57 m/s and sliding distance of 1800 m under loading conditions of 10 and 20 N. Further tests were also carried out by keeping Al2O3 percentage (7%) constant and increasing the SiC percentage (10, 15, and 20%). The results show that the reinforcement of the metal matrix with SiC and Al2O3 reduces the wear rate range and also indicate that the wear of the test specimen increases with the increasing load and sliding distance. The coefficient of friction increases with load and increasing volume content of reinforcement. The worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope to study the wear mechanism. By using wear mechanism analysis, the wear surfaces and wear properties of AMHC were determined.

  12. A new method for in-situ measurement of nano-friction and nano-wear of thin films by using the Triboindenter TI-950


    Broitman, Esteban


    The Triboindenter present many advantages for the measurement of friction and wear at the nanoscale. A reciprocating multi-cycle linear test can be programmed, from where it is possible to obtain simultaneously the friction force and wear rate from the lateral force and vertical displacement sensors, respectively. The friction values have high precision but the wear data is usually wrong in long duration tests because the drift rate is only measured just before the test start. Alternatively, ...

  13. Wear Characteristics of Metallic Biomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hussein


    Full Text Available Metals are extensively used in a variety of applications in the medical field for internal support and biological tissue replacements, such as joint replacements, dental roots, orthopedic fixation, and stents. The metals and alloys that are primarily used in biomedical applications are stainless steels, Co alloys, and Ti alloys. The service period of a metallic biomaterial is determined by its abrasion and wear resistance. A reduction in the wear resistance of the implant results in the release of incompatible metal ions into the body that loosen the implant. In addition, several reactions may occur because of the deposition of wear debris in tissue. Therefore, developing biomaterials with high wear resistance is critical to ensuring a long life for the biomaterial. The aim of this work is to review the current state of knowledge of the wear of metallic biomaterials and how wear is affected by the material properties and conditions in terms of the type of alloys developed and fabrication processes. We also present a brief evaluation of various experimental test techniques and wear characterization techniques that are used to determine the tribological performance of metallic biomaterials.

  14. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.


    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  15. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.


    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  16. Dimensional Description of On-line Wear Debris Images for Wear Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tonghai; PENG Yeping; DU Ying; WANG Junqun


    As one of the most wear monitoring indicator, dimensional feature of individual particles has been studied mostly focusing on off-line analytical ferrograph. Recent development in on-line wear monitoring with wear debris images shows that merely wear debris concentration has been extracted from on-line ferrograph images. It remains a bottleneck of obtaining the dimension of on-line particles due to the low resolution, high contamination and particle’s chain pattern of an on-line image sample. In this work, statistical dimension of wear debris in on-line ferrograph images is investigated. A two-step procedure is proposed as follows. First, an on-line ferrograph image is decomposed into four component images with different frequencies. By doing this, the size of each component image is reduced by one fourth, which will increase the efficiency of subsequent processing. The low-frequency image is used for extracting the area of wear debris, and the high-frequency image is adopted for extracting contour. Second, a statistical equivalent circle dimension is constructed by equaling the overall wear debris in the image into equivalent circles referring to the extracted total area and premeter of overall wear debris. The equivalent circle dimension, reflecting the statistical dimension of larger wear debris in an on-line image, is verified by manual measurement. Consequently, two preliminary applications are carried out in gasoline engine bench tests of durability and running-in. Evidently, the equivalent circle dimension, together with the previously developed concentration index, index of particle coverage area (IPCA), show good performances in characterizing engine wear conditions. The proposed dimensional indicator provides a new statistical feature of on-line wear particles for on-line wear monitoring. The new dimensional feature conveys profound information about wear severity.

  17. Characteristics of highly cross-linked polyethylene wear debris in vivo. (United States)

    Baxter, Ryan M; MacDonald, Daniel W; Kurtz, Steven M; Steinbeck, Marla J


    Despite the widespread implementation of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liners to reduce the clinical incidence of osteolysis, it is not known if the improved wear resistance will outweigh the inflammatory potential of HXLPE wear debris generated in vivo. Thus, we asked: What are the differences in size, shape, number, and biological activity of polyethylene wear particles obtained from primary total hip arthroplasty revision surgery of conventional polyethylene (CPE) versus remelted or annealed HXLPE liners? Pseudocapsular tissue samples were collected from revision surgery of CPE and HXLPE (annealed and remelted) liners, and digested using nitric acid. The isolated polyethylene wear particles were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Tissues from both HXLPE cohorts contained an increased percentage of submicron particles compared to the CPE cohort. However, the total number of particles was lower for both HXLPE cohorts, as a result there was no significant difference in the volume fraction distribution and specific biological activity (SBA; the relative biological activity per unit volume) between cohorts. In contrast, based on the decreased size and number of HXLPE wear debris there was a significant decrease in total particle volume (mm(3)/g of tissue). Accordingly, when the SBA was normalized by total particle volume (mm(3)/gm tissue) or by component wear volume rate (mm(3)/year), functional biological activity of the HXLPE wear debris was significantly decreased compared to the CPE cohort. Indications for this study are that the osteolytic potential of wear debris generated by HXLPE liners in vivo is significantly reduced by improvements in polyethylene wear resistance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Characteristics of highly cross-linked polyethylene wear debris in vivo (United States)

    Baxter, Ryan M.; MacDonald, Daniel W.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla J.


    Despite the widespread implementation of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liners to reduce the clinical incidence of osteolysis, it is not known if the improved wear resistance will outweigh the inflammatory potential of HXLPE wear debris generated in vivo. Thus, we asked: What are the differences in size, shape, number, and biological activity of polyethylene wear particles obtained from primary total hip arthroplasty revision surgery of conventional polyethylene (CPE) versus remelted or annealed HXLPE liners? Pseudocapsular tissue samples were collected from revision surgery of CPE and HXLPE (annealed and remelted) liners, and digested using nitric acid. The isolated polyethylene wear particles were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Tissues from both HXLPE cohorts contained an increased percentage of submicron particles compared to the CPE cohort. However, the total number of particles was lower for both HXLPE cohorts, as a result there was no significant difference in the volume fraction distribution and specific biological activity (SBA; the relative biological activity per unit volume) between cohorts. In contrast, based on the decreased size and number of HXLPE wear debris there was a significant decrease in total particle volume (mm3/g of tissue). Accordingly, when the SBA was normalized by total particle volume (mm3/gm tissue) or by component wear volume rate (mm3/year), functional biological activity of the HXLPE wear debris was significantly decreased compared to the CPE cohort. Indications for this study are that the osteolytic potential of wear debris generated by HXLPE liners in vivo is significantly reduced by improvements in polyethylene wear resistance. PMID:23436587

  19. Improve Wear Resistance on Al 332 Alloy Matrix- Micro -Nano Al2O3 Particles Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawnaq Ahmed Mohamed


    Full Text Available The wear behavior of alumina particulate reinforced A332 aluminium alloy composites produced by a stir casting process technique were investigated. A pin-on-disc type apparatus was employed for determining the sliding wear rate in composite samples at different grain size (1 µm, 12µm, 50 nm and different weight percentage (0.05-0.1-0.5-1 wt% of alumina respectively. Mechanical properties characterization which strongly depends on microstructure properties of reinforcement revealed that the presence of ( nano , micro alumina particulates lead to simultaneous increase in hardness, ultimate tensile stress (UTS, wear resistances. The results revealed that UTS, Hardness, Wear resistances increases with the increase in the percentage of reinforcement of Al2O3 when compared to the base alloy A332. The wear rates of the composites were considerably less than that of the aluminum alloy at all applied loads with increasing percentage of reinforcement when compared to the base alloy A332.

  20. Study on mild and severe wear of 7075 aluminum alloys by high-speed wire electrical discharge machining (United States)

    Xu, Jinkai; Qiu, Rongxian; Xia, Kui; Wang, Zhichao; Xu, Lining; Yu, Huadong


    The recast and the carbon layers were fabricated on 7075Al alloys surface by the high-speed wire electrical discharge machining (HS-WEDM) technologyunder various working parameters. The mechanical properties and friction behaviors of the layers were investigated by UMT. 7075 Al alloys were used to do dry sliding wear tests on a pin-ondisk wear tester at room temperature under various contact pressures. 7075 Al alloys had almost the same wear regularity as a function of sliding velocity and rated frequency. The hardness of recast layer was improved. And this method can enhance durability of 7075 Al alloy effectively.The transition to severe wear occurred at a higher load (12N) for asmachined samples, compared with 7075 matrix (9N), the as-machined samples exhibited lower wear rates within the tested loading range.

  1. Erosion wear behaviour and mechanism of abradable seal coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The erosion wear behaviour and mechanism of several middle temperature seal coatings were investigated by a CMS-100 self-made vacuum sand erosion machine. The results show that the relationship between the erosion mass loss and the erosion time is linear, the coatings hold a maximum erosion rate at 60° impact angle, and the relationship between the erosion rate and the impact speed is an exponential function. The speed exponent increases with the increase of the impact angle. At 90° impact, indentations and extruded lips were generated on the coating surface subjected to impact. With repetitive impact by the abrasive particles, the extruded lips were work-hardened and peeled off, while flattened metal phase grains were impacted repeatedly, loosed and debonded. At 30° impact, the erosion wear of the coating is characterized by micro-cutting, plowing and tunneling via pores and non-metal phase. The model of the erosion mechanism is advanced on the basis of the above-mentioned erosion wear behaviour.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors evaluated the usefulness of nanoscale boehmite crystals as a filler for anti-wear and anti-corrosion polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) coatings exposed to a very harsh, 300 C corrosive geothermal environment. The boehmite fillers dispersed uniformly into the PPS coating, conferring two advanced properties: First, they reduced markedly the rate of blasting wear; second, they increased the PPS's glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was reduced three times when 5wt% boehmite was incorporated into the PPS. During exposure for 15 days at 300 C, the PPS underwent hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulfide linkages by the sulfite linkages. However, such molecular alteration did not significantly diminish the ability of the coating to protect carbon steel against corrosion. In fact, PPS coating filled with boehmite of {le} 5wt% adequately mitigated its corrosion in brine at 300 C. One concern in using this filler was that it absorbs brine. Thus, adding an excess amount of boehmite was detrimental to achieving the maximum protection afforded by the coatings.

  3. Tribological property and wear mechanism of undercooled Ni-Pb monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉; 杨根仓; 郝维新; 喇培清; 刘维民; 许丽君


    The tribological properties of Ni-31.440% Pb monotectic alloys were measured by using a SRV reciprocating tribo-tester. The effects of load, sliding speed and melt undercooling on wear rate of the sample were investigated. The worn surface of Ni-31.44%Pb was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The results show that the wear properties of the samples undercooled by 80 K and 310 K are obviously superior, which is attributed to more efficient transfer of Pb from the bulk material to the worn surface. The lubricating film is identified as a mixture of Ni2 O3 and PbO by XPS analysis. At the same load and sliding speed, the predominant wear mechanisms can be identified as oxidative wear for the lower and larger undercooling,and plastic deformation and fracture for the medium undercooling.

  4. Wear and friction of oxidation-resistant mechanical carbon graphites at 650 C in air (United States)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisnader, D. W.


    Studies were conducted to determine the friction and wear properties of experimental carbon-graphites. Hemispherically tipped carbon-graphite rider specimens were tested in sliding contact with rotating Inconel X-750 disks in air. A surface speed of 1.33 m/sec, a load of 500 g, and a specimen temperature of 650 C were used. Results indicate: (1) hardness is not a major factor in determining friction and wear under the conditions of these studies. (2) Friction and wear as low as or lower than those observed for a good commercial seal material were attained with some of the experimental materials studied. (3) The inclusion of boron carbide (as an oxidation inhibitor) has a strong influence on wear rate. (4) Phosphate treatment reduces the friction coefficient when boron carbide is not present in the base material.

  5. Wear Response of Aluminium 6061 Composite Reinforced with Red Mud at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dabral


    Full Text Available The present work is focused on the investigations on dry sliding wear behaviour of aluminium metal matrix composite at room and elevated temperature. Aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with red mud are prepared by stir casting method. The experiments are planned using Taguchi technique. An orthogonal array, analysis of variance and signal to noise ratio are used to check the influence of wear parameters like temperature, percentage of reinforcement, mesh size, load, sliding distance and sliding speed on dry sliding wear of composites. The optimal testing parameters are found and their values are calculated which are then compared with predicted values. A reasonable agreement is found between predicted and actual values. The model prepared in the present work can be effectively used to predict the specific wear rate of the composites.

  6. Predominant factor determining wear properties of β-type and (α+β)-type titanium alloys in metal-to-metal contact for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Narita, Kengo; Cho, Ken


    The predominant factor determining the wear properties of a new titanium alloy, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr (TNTZ) and a conventional titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V extra-low interstitial (Ti64) was investigated for TNTZ and Ti64 combinations in metal-to-metal contacting bio-implant applications. The worn surfaces, wear debris, and subsurface damages were analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron-back scattered diffraction analysis. The volume loss of TNTZ is found to be larger than that of Ti64, regardless of the mating material. The wear track of TNTZ exhibits the galled regions and severe plastic deformation with large flake-like debris, indicative of delamination wear, which strongly suggests the occurrence of adhesive wear. Whereas, the wear track of Ti64 have a large number of regular grooves and microcuttings with cutting chip-like wear debris and microfragmentation of fine oxide debris, indicative of abrasive wear combined with oxidative wear. This difference in the wear type is caused by severe and mild subsurface deformations of TNTZ and Ti64, respectively. The lower resistance to plastic shearing for TNTZ compared to that of Ti64 induces delamination, resulting in a higher wear rate.

  7. Effect of Fly Ash and Carbon Reinforcement on Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harekrushna Sutar


    Full Text Available This paper explains the sliding wear performance of red mud, fly ash, and carbon composite coating on mild steel. The complex mixture of red mud, fly ash, and carbon is plasma sprayed at 9 kW operating power level. The coatings are examined to study the coating morphology, XRD phase transformation, wear rate, and wear morphology. Wear rate (in terms of cumulative mass loss with sliding time has been demonstrated in the study. At first pure red mud is plasma coated to observe the coating characteristics and then compounded with 20% carbon, 30% carbon, and 20% carbon + 30% fly ash, separately by weight and sliding wear test conducted using pin on disc wear tester. The trial was performed at fixed track diameter of 100 mm and at sliding speed of 100 rpm (0.523 m/s at a load of 30 N. The results are compared. Declined cumulative mass loss by inclusion of fly ash and carbon is seen. This might be due to augmented interfacial tension and dense film build-up at boundary layer.

  8. Wear behavior of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed Zr-based metallic glass composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yugeswaran, S., E-mail: [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kobayashi, A., E-mail: [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Suresh, K., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Rao, K.P., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Subramanian, B., E-mail: [CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zr-based metallic glass composite coatings are prepared by gas tunnel plasma torch. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing plasma current increases crystallinity amount and hardness of coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating produced at 300 A plasma current gives minimum sliding wear rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating produced at higher plasma current gives lower erosive wear rate. - Abstract: Gas tunnel type plasma spraying is a prospective method to produce metallic glass composite coatings with high quality due to its noteworthy feature of process controllability. In this study, Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 30}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 5} metallic glass composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimum spraying conditions with selected plasma currents. The formation mechanism, sliding, and erosive wear behaviors of the coatings with respect to plasma current was examined. The phase and thermal analyses as well as microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings produced at different plasma currents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. The sliding and erosive wear behaviors of the coatings were studied using a pin-on-disc and a specially designed erosive wear tester, respectively. The results showed that an increase in plasma current increased the crystalline content in the metallic glass composite coatings, which enhanced the hardness and wear resistance of the coatings.

  9. Effects of hybrid composition of LCP and glass fibres on abrasive wear of reinforced LLDPE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A R Hashmi; Ajay Naik; Navin Chand


    The hybrid of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) fibres and glass fibres (GF) provide a combination of modulus and toughness to semi-crystalline linear-low-density-polyethylene (LLDPE). LCP and GF fibres reinforced composites were studied using two-body abrasion tester under different applied loads. Two sets of fibre reinforced LLDPE, 10 and 20 vol%, were investigated. The contents of LCP and glass fibres were varied as 25, 50, 75 and 100 vol% of overall volume of fibres in LLDPE. The effect of replacing glass fibre with LCP fibre on wear is reported. Wear loss increased with the applied loads and glass fibre contents in LLDPE. The replacements of glass fibres with LCP fibres improved abrasive wear resistance of composite. The composite containing 20 vol% of glass fibres in LLDPE showed the specific wear rate nearly double to that of LCP fibre reinforced LLDPE. Incorporation of LCP fibre improved wear resistance of glass fibre reinforced LLDPE. Worn surfaces were studied using SEM. Glass fibres were broken in small debris and removed easily whereas LCP fibres yielded to fibrillation during abrasive action. The overall wear rate was governed by the composition and test conditions.

  10. Effect of La2O3 content on wear resistance of alumina ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tingting; ZHOU Jian; WU Bolin; LI Wenjie


    In order to improve the wear resistance, a kind of alumina ceramic with good wear resistance was created in an Al2O3-CaCO3-SiO2-MgO-La2O3 (ACSML) system. The effects of La2O3 content on sintering temperature, bulk density, and wear rate were investigated. The wear rate of sample was as low as 0.0393‰. The wear resistance of the sample containing La2O3 has im-proved 43% than that of the sample without La2O3. Appropriate La2O3 doping could inhibit grain growth, enhance density, and purify grain boundary. La2O3 could diffuse into Al2O3 to form a solid solution and react with Al2O3 to form high-aluminum low-lanthanum complex oxides. The combination among Al2O3, the solid solution layer, and the layer of high-aluminum low-lanthanum complex oxides combined closely, which could improve grain boundary cohesion. Besides, the homogeneous distributions of elements made uniform structure. Finally, the wear resistance of alumina ceramic was improved.

  11. Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Functionally Graded Nano-SiC/2014Al Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan


    Functionally graded 2014Al/SiC composites (FGMs) with varying volume fractions (1-7%) of nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The effect of n-SiCp content on corrosion and wear behaviors was studied. The microstructures of composites were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of the composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization scans in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Corrosion results show that corrosion current of composite layer with 3 vol.% n-SiC was much lower than that of 2014Al matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were assessed by microhardness tests and ball-on-disk wear tests. As the applied load changed from 15 to 30 N, wear rates of the composites increased significantly and the wear mechanism transformed from mild to severe wear regime. It also shows that 3 vol.% n-SiCp/2014Al composite layer observed the lowest wear rate where adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms played a major role. These results suggest that the n-SiCp are effective candidates for fabricating FGMs for the applications demanding a tough core and a hard, wear or corrosion resisting surface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Metin ERTUNÇ


    Full Text Available In this study, wear mechanisms on cutting tools, especially for the drill bits, during the cutting operation have been investigated. As the importance of full automation in industry has gained substantial importance, tool wear condition monitoring during the cutting operation has been the subject of many investigators. Tool condition monitoring is very crucial in order to change the tool before breakage. Because tool breakage can cause considerable economical damage to both the machine tool and workpiece. In this paper, the studies on the monitoring of drill bit wear in literature have been introduced; the direct/indirect techniques used and sensor fusion techniques have been summarized. The methods which were proposed to determine tool wear evolution as processing the sensor signals collected have been provided and their references have been given for detailed information.

  13. Wear measurement of highly cross-linked UHMWPE using a 7Be tracer implantation technique. (United States)

    Wimmer, Markus A; Laurent, Michel P; Dwiwedi, Yasha; Gallardo, Luis A; Chipps, Kelly A; Blackmon, Jeffery C; Kozub, Raymond L; Bardayan, Daniel W; Gross, Carl J; Stracener, Daniel W; Smith, Michael S; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Erikson, Luke; Patel, Nidhi; Rehm, Karl E; Ahmad, Irshad; Greene, John P; Greife, Uwe


    The very low wear rates achieved with the current highly cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) used in joint prostheses have proven to be difficult to measure accurately by gravimetry. Tracer methods are therefore being explored. The purpose of this study was to perform a proof-of-concept experiment on the use of the radioactive tracer beryllium-7 ((7)Be) for the determination of in vitro wear in a highly cross-linked orthopedic UHMWPE. Three cross-linked and four conventional UHMWPE pins made from compression-molded GUR 1050, were activated with 10(9) to 10(10) (7)Be nuclei using a new implantation setup that produced a homogenous distribution of implanted nuclei up to 8.5 μm below the surface. The pins were tested for wear in a six-station pin-on-flat apparatus for up to 7.1 million cycles (178 km). A Germanium gamma detector was employed to determine activity loss of the UHMWPE pins at preset intervals during the wear test. The wear of the cross-linked UHMWPE pins was readily detected and estimated to be 17 ± 3 μg per million cycles. The conventional-to-cross-linked ratio of the wear rates was 13.1 ± 0.8, in the expected range for these materials. Oxidative degradation damage from implantation was negligible; however, a weak dependence of wear on implantation dose was observed limiting the number of radioactive tracer atoms that can be introduced. Future applications of this tracer technology may include the analysis of location-specific wear, such as loss of material in the post or backside of a tibial insert.

  14. Reciprocating sliding wear behavior of alendronate sodium-loaded UHMWPE under different tribological conditions. (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jing; Yang, Dan; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie


    The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), a potential drug to treat osteolysis, under different normal loads and lubrication conditions. A mixture of UHMWPE powder and ALN (1.0 wt.%) solution was dried and hot pressed. The static and dynamic friction coefficients of UHMWPE-ALN were slightly higher than those of UHMWPE except under normal load as 10 N and in 25 v/v % calf serum. The specific wear rates of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE were the lowest in 25 v/v % calf serum compared to those in deionized water or physiological saline. In particular, the specific wear rate of UHMWPE-ALN was lower than that of UHMWPE at 50 N in 25 v/v % calf serum. The main wear mechanisms of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN in deionized water and UHMWPE in physiological saline were abrasive. The main wear mechanism of UHMWPE-ALN in physiological saline was micro-fatigue. In 25 v/v % calf serum, the main wear mechanism of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN was abrasive wear accompanied with plastic deformation. The results of Micro-XRD indicated that the molecular deformation of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE under the lower stress were in the amorphous region but in the crystalline region at the higher stress. These results showed that the wear of UHMWPE-ALN would be reduced under calf serum lubricated, which would be potentially applied to treat osteolysis.

  15. A Study of Slipper and Rail Wear Interaction at Low Speed (United States)


    taking care of the boys, a house and a dog and for not getting discouraged. I pray that they will learn as I have how important it is to ensure Yahovah...wear, delamination wear, seizure wear, melt wear, severe oxidational wear and adhesive wear. Adhesive wear comprised of three zones: low speed...model is experiencing seizure or melt wear, then something is wrong with the model. Lim and Ashby also published on their wear map the normalized wear

  16. A new contrast-assisted method in microcirculation volumetric flow assessment (United States)

    Lu, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Yeh, Chih-Kuang


    Microcirculation volumetric flow rate is a significant index in diseases diagnosis and treatment such as diabetes and cancer. In this study, we propose an integrated algorithm to assess microcirculation volumetric flow rate including estimation of blood perfused area and corresponding flow velocity maps based on high frequency destruction/contrast replenishment imaging technique. The perfused area indicates the blood flow regions including capillaries, arterioles and venules. Due to the echo variance changes between ultrasonic contrast agents (UCAs) pre- and post-destruction two images, the perfused area can be estimated by the correlation-based approach. The flow velocity distribution within the perfused area can be estimated by refilling time-intensity curves (TICs) after UCAs destruction. Most studies introduced the rising exponential model proposed by Wei (1998) to fit the TICs. Nevertheless, we found the TICs profile has a great resemblance to sigmoid function in simulations and in vitro experiments results. Good fitting correlation reveals that sigmoid model was more close to actual fact in describing destruction/contrast replenishment phenomenon. We derived that the saddle point of sigmoid model is proportional to blood flow velocity. A strong linear relationship (R = 0.97) between the actual flow velocities (0.4-2.1 mm/s) and the estimated saddle constants was found in M-mode and B-mode flow phantom experiments. Potential applications of this technique include high-resolution volumetric flow rate assessment in small animal tumor and the evaluation of superficial vasculature in clinical studies.

  17. Third abrasive wear mode: is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Câmara Cozza


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose an initial discussion on the characterization of a third abrasive wear mode. The results obtained in a previous work [1] under different test conditions revealed the occurrence of the superposition of the “rolling” and “grooving” abrasive wear modes. This phenomenon was denoted “micro-rolling abrasion” due to the observation that “rolling abrasion” was found to act on “grooving abrasion”.

  18. Biotribology :articular cartilage friction, wear, and lubrication


    Schroeder, Matthew O


    This study developed, explored, and refined techniques for the in vitro study of cartilage-on-cartilage friction, deformation, and wear. Preliminary results of in vitro cartilage-on- cartilage experiments with emphasis on wear and biochemistry are presented. Cartilage-bone specimens were obtained from the stifle joints of steers from a separate controlled study. The load, sliding speed, and traverse of the lower specimens were held constant as lubricant and test length were varied. Lubric...

  19. Effect of femoral head size on the wear of metal on metal bearings in total hip replacements under adverse edge-loading conditions. (United States)

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M


    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have shown low-wear rates under standard hip simulator conditions; however, retrieval studies have shown large variations in wear rates and mechanisms. High-wear in vivo has caused catastrophic complications and has been associated with steep cup-inclination angle (rotational malpositioning). However, increasing the cup-inclination angle in vitro has not replicated the increases in wear to the same extent as those observed in retrievals. Clinically relevant wear rates, patterns, and particles were observed in vitro for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings when microseparation (translational malpositioning) conditions were introduced into the gait cycle. In the present study, 28 and 36-mm MoM bearings were investigated under adverse conditions. Increasing the cup angle from 45° to 65° resulted in a significant increase in the wear rate of the 28 mm bearings. However, for the 36 mm bearings, head-rim contact did not occur under the steep cup-angle condition, and the wear rate did not increase. The introduction of microseparation to the gait cycle significantly increased the wear rate of the MoM bearings. Cup angle and head size did not influence the wear rate under microseparation conditions. This study indicated that high-in vivo wear rates were associated with edge loading due to rotational malpositioning such as high-cup-inclination angle and translational malpositioning that could occur due to several surgical factors. Translational malpositioning had a more dominant effect on the wear rate. Preclinical simulation testing should be undertaken with translational and rotational malpositioning conditions as well as standard walking cycle conditions defined by the ISO standard. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL


    run for hundreds of hours in heavy-duty diesels provided insights into the kinds of complexity that the contact conditions in engines can produce, and suggested the physical basis for the current approach to modeling. The model presented here involves four terms, two representing the valve response and two for its mating seat material. The model's structure assumes that wear that takes place under a complex combination of plastic deformation, tangential shear, and oxidation. Tribolayers form, are removed, and may reform. Layer formation affects the friction forces in the interface, and in turn, the energy available to do work on the materials to cause wear. To provide friction data for the model at various temperatures, sliding contact experiments were conducted from 22 to 850 C in a pin-on-disk apparatus at ORNL. In order to account for the behavior of different materials and engine designs, parameters in all four terms of the model can be adjusted to account for wear-in and incubation periods before the dominant wear processes evolve to their steady-state rates. For example, the deformation rate is assumed to be maximum during the early stages of operation, and then, due to material work-hardening and the increase in nominal contact area (which reduces the load per unit area), decreases to a lower rate at long times. Conversely, the rate of abrasion increases with time or number of cycles due to the build-up of oxides and tribo-layers between contact surfaces. The competition between deformation and abrasion results in complex, non-linear behavior of material loss per cycle of operation. Furthermore, these factors are affected by valve design features, such as the angle of incline of the valve seat. Several modeling scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the wear profile versus number of cycles changes in response to: (a) different relative abrasion rates of the seat and valve materials, (b) the friction coefficient as a function of temperature, (c) the

  1. Flank wear analysing of high speed end milling for hardened steel D2 using Taguchi Method (United States)

    Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza, Muataz; Ibrahim, Nur Asmawiyah bt; Adesta, Erry T. Y.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.


    One of the main challenges for any manufacturer is how to decrease the machining cost without affecting the final quality of the product. One of the new advanced machining processes in industry is the high speed hard end milling process that merges three advanced machining processes: high speed milling, hard milling and dry milling. However, one of the most important challenges in this process is to control the flank wear rate. Therefore a analyzing the flank wear rate during machining should be investigated in order to determine the best cutting levels that will not affect the final quality of the product. In this research Taguchi method has been used to investigate the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and determine the best level s to minimize the flank wear rate up to total length of 0.3mm based on the ISO standard to maintain the finishing requirements.

  2. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi


    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  3. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution (United States)

    Wieneke, Bernhard


    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data.

  4. Pseudomembranous candidiasis in patient wearing full denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiana Nurdiana


    Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. Candida albicans is a harmless commensal organism inhabiting the mouths but it can change into pathogen and invade tissue and cause acute and chronic disease. Dentures predispose to infection with Candida in as many as 65% of elderly people wearing full upper dentures. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to discuss thrush in patient wearing full denture which rapidly developed. Case: This paper report a case of 57 year-old man who came to the Oral Medicine Clinic Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University with clinical appearance of pseudomembranous candidiasis (thrush. Case Management: Diagnosis of this case is confirmed with microbiology examination. Patient was wearing full upper dentures, and from anamnesis known that patient wearing denture for 24 hours and he had poor oral hygiene. Patient was treated with topical (nystatin oral suspension and miconazole oral gel and systemic (ketoconazole antifungal. Patient also instructed not to wear his denture and cleaned white pseudomembrane on his mouth with soft toothbrush. Conclusion: Denture, habit of wearing denture for 24 hours, and poor oral hygiene are predisposing factors of thrush and it can healed completely after treated with topical and systemic antifungal.

  5. Statistical Trend Analysis of Wear Metal Concentration Measurements - Calculation of Significant Wear Metal Production Rates (United States)


    confortably within the 95% confidence band. As anticipated by our error analysis, the point-to-point values of the projected trend, displayed in the...A, lie confortably within the confidence limits, with the exception of the last point, upon the basis of which a T code was issued. The regression

  6. The enhancement of wear properties of squeeze-cast A356 composites reinforced with B{sub 4}C particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazahery, Ali; Shabani, Mohsen Ostad [Islamic Azad Univ., Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present study, squeeze-cast A356 matrix composites reinforced with B{sub 4}C particles were prepared and different volume fractions of B{sub 4}C particles of various sizes were incorporated into the aluminum alloy by a mechanical stirrer. Wear properties of the unreinforced alloy and composites with different vol.% of boron carbide particles were measured and compared. It is noted that composites exhibit better wear resistance compared to the unreinforced alloy. According to the differences in wear rates of the composites, two separate wear-rate regimes were identified as low- and high-wear-rate regimes. It is observed that all the composite samples reinforced with 1 {mu}m B{sub 4}C particles show high wear-rate, regardless of the particle volume fraction. However, none of the samples containing 50 {mu}m particles display this type of wear regime. Microscopic examination using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer, was carried out on the worn surfaces, subsurfaces, and debris. Rough and smooth regions are distinguished on the worn surface of the composites similar to the unreinforced alloy. (orig.)

  7. Tribopolymerization as an anti-wear mechanism. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furey, M.J.


    The primary objective of this activity is to obtain the necessary data which would enhance, promote, and encourage the introduction of advanced lubrication technology into the marketplace. This includes (a) defining specific but different applications, (b) establishing the limits or ranges of applied loads, speeds, and temperatures over which the concept of tribopolymerization would work in reducing wear and/or friction, (c) continuing in efforts to understand the film-forming process (this rates to (b) above), using this knowledge to develop new and even more effective additives, and (d) exploring possible connections with private and investment companies for the licensing and marketing of products which will reduce friction and wear in a variety of applications. Progress was made in several different but connected areas. These included (a) establishing of load/velocity limits of selected monomers for ceramic lubrication, (b) the discovery of new and effective monomers designed for higher temperature anti-wear applications, (c) improvements and modifications of the high load/high speed pin-on-disk machine, (d) the initiation of related or spin-off projects designed to get their advanced technology into the marketplace, (e) the filing of three new patent applications, and (f) collaborative research with Dr. Kajdas--the co-inventor with Dr. Furey--on tribopolymerization as a novel and effective approach to the boundary lubrication of ceramics and steel. These and other elements of progress made during the first Quarter of 1996 are discussed briefly.

  8. Friction and wear behavior of carbon fiber reinforced brake materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du-qing CHENG; Xue-tao WANG; Jian ZHU; Dong-bua QIU; Xiu-wei CHENG; Qing-feng GUAN


    A new composite brake material was fabri-cated with metallic powders, barium sulphate and modified phenolic resin as the matrix and carbon fiber as the reinforced material. The friction, wear and fade character-istics of this composite were determined using a D-MS friction material testing machine. The surface structure of carbon fiber reinforced friction materials was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Glass fiber-reinforced and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites with the same matrix were also fabricated for comparison. The carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials (CFRFM) shows lower wear rate than those of glass fiber- and asbestos fiber-reinforced composites in the temperature range of 100℃-300℃. It is interesting that the frictional coefficient of the carbon fiber-reinforced friction materials increases as frictional temperature increases from 100℃ to 300℃, while the frictional coefficients of the other two composites decrease during the increasing temperatures. Based on the SEM observation, the wear mechanism of CFRFM at low temperatures included fiber thinning and pull-out. At high temperature, the phenolic matrix was degraded and more pull-out enhanced fiber was demonstrated. The properties of carbon fiber may be the main reason that the CFRFM possess excellent tribological performances.

  9. Tailpipe, resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from on-road vehicles (United States)

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Gillies, John A.; Gertler, Alan W.; Clayton, Russ; Proffitt, David

    Intensive mass and chemical measurements were performed at roadside locations in Reno, Nevada, and Durham/Research Triangle Park), North Carolina to derive tailpipe, resuspended road dust, and brake-wear emission factors from in-use vehicles. Continuous particulate matter (PM) data were utilized to derive total emission factors while integrated PM data were used to attribute the calculated emission factors to different mechanisms using chemical mass balance receptor modeling and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Resuspended road dust and tailpipe emissions were found to be the dominant mechanisms that contribute significantly to the total PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors, respectively. Small contributions from brake-wear were observed at locations where strong braking occurs, but no tire-wear was seen at any sampling location. PM 10 emission rates from light-duty spark ignition (LDSI) vehicles ranged from 40 to 780 mg/km, 10 to 70 mg/km, and 0 to 80 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 10 emission rates from heavy-duty vehicles ranged from 230 to 7800 mg/km, 60 to 570 mg/km, and 0 to 610 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 2.5 emission rates from LDSI vehicles ranged from 2 to 25 mg/km, 10 to 50 mg/km, and 0 to 5 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively. PM 2.5 emission rates from heavy-duty vehicles ranged from 15 to 300 mg/km, 60 to 480 mg/km, and 0 to 15 mg/km per vehicle for road dust, tailpipe, and brake-wear, respectively.

  10. Wear Property of Cast Steel Wheel Material in Rail Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Guo-fa; LIU Yan-lei; ZHANG Bin; FU Xiu-qin; ZHANG Hong; SONG Guo-xiang


    Wear property of material plays a key role in the service time of workpiece.A major objective in the development of new wheel materials is to improve the wear performance.The wear property of B and B+ grade cast steel materials was reported.The results showed that B+ grade cast steel material exhibited better wear property than the B grade material.Carbon content related to the hardness match was the principal factor affecting the wear properties.

  11. Is there evidence for accelerated polyethylene wear in uncemented compared to cemented acetabular components? A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Hugo; van Jonbergen, H.P.W.; Poolman, R.W.; Bulstra, S.K.; van Raay, J.J.A.M.


    Joint arthroplasty registries show an increased rate of aseptic loosening in uncemented acetabular components as compared to cemented acetabular components. Since loosening is associated with particulate wear debris, we postulated that uncemented acetabular components demonstrate a higher polyethyle

  12. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  13. Hyperspectral image classification based on volumetric texture and dimensionality reduction (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Sheng, Yehua; Du, Peijun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Kui


    A novel approach using volumetric texture and reduced-spectral features is presented for hyperspectral image classification. Using this approach, the volumetric textural features were extracted by volumetric gray-level co-occurrence matrices (VGLCM). The spectral features were extracted by minimum estimated abundance covariance (MEAC) and linear prediction (LP)-based band selection, and a semi-supervised k-means (SKM) clustering method with deleting the worst cluster (SKMd) bandclustering algorithms. Moreover, four feature combination schemes were designed for hyperspectral image classification by using spectral and textural features. It has been proven that the proposed method using VGLCM outperforms the gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) method, and the experimental results indicate that the combination of spectral information with volumetric textural features leads to an improved classification performance in hyperspectral imagery.

  14. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter reading systems based on ... damage and also provides the ability to control and manage consumption. ... existing infrastructure of the telecommunications is used in data transmission.

  15. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes (United States)

    List, Hans


    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  16. Wear behaviors of HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by laser remelting under lubricated condition (United States)

    Dejun, Kong; Tianyuan, Sheng


    A HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) sprayed WC-12Co coating was remelted with a CO2 laser. The surface-interface morphologies and phases were analyzed by means of SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and XRD (X-ray diffraction), respectively. The friction and wear behaviors of WC-12Co coating under the dry and lubricated conditions were investigated with a wear test. The morphologies and distributions of chemical elements on worn scar were analyzed with a SEM, and its configured EDS (energy diffusive spectrometer), respectively, and the effects of lubricated condition on COFs (coefficient of friction) and wear performance were also discussed. The results show that the adhesion between the coating and the substrate is stronger after laser remetling (LR), in which mechanical bonding, accompanying with metallurgical bonding, was found. At the load of 80 N, the average COF under the dry and lubricated friction conditions is 0.069, and 0.052, respectively, the latter lowers by 23.3% than the former, and the wear rate under the lubricated condition decreases by 302.3% than that under the dry condition. The wear mechanism under the dry and lubrication conditions is primarily composed of abrasive wear, cracking, and fatigue failure.

  17. In vitro tests of substitute lubricants for wear testing orthopaedic biomaterials. (United States)

    Scholes, Susan C; Joyce, Thomas J


    Bovine serum is the lubricant recommended by several international standards for the wear testing of orthopaedic biomaterials; however, there are issues over its use due to batch variation, degradation, cost and safety. For these reasons, alternative lubricants were investigated. A 50-station Super-CTPOD (circularly translating pin-on-disc) wear test rig was used, which applied multidirectional motion to ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene test pins rubbing against cobalt chromium discs. Thirteen possible alternative lubricants were tested. The use of soy protein as a lubricant gave statistically higher wear, while soya oil, olive oil, Channel Island milk, whole milk, whey, wheatgerm oil, 11 mg/mL egg white, albumin/globulin mix and albumin/globulin/chondroitin sulphate mix all gave statistically lower wear than bovine serum. The lubricants giving the closest wear results to bovine serum were 20 and 40 mg/mL egg white solutions. A light absorbance assay found that these egg white solutions suffered from a high degradation rate that increased with increasing protein content. While egg white solutions offer the best alternative lubricant to bovine serum due to the wear volumes produced, cost-effectiveness and safety of handling, protein degradation will still occur, leading to the need for regular lubricant replacement. Of the lubricants tested in this study, none were found to be superior to bovine serum.

  18. Microstructure and wear behaviour of FeAl-based composites containing in-situ carbides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Iron aluminides containing carbon are promising materials for tribological applications. Because of graphite formation at higher ($>$20 wt%) Al-contents the addition of carbon to FeAl-based alloys has not been successful.The graphite precipitation may be avoided by addition of Zr or Ti. Dry sliding wear behaviour of FeAl based alloys containing 1–1.5wt% carbon with quaternary addition of Ti or Zr has been studied using ball-on-disk wear test. Effect of sliding speeds and applied loads is investigated and correlated with mechanical properties. Wear resistance of FeAl-based alloys is found to be significantly improved on addition of Ti/Zr. This is attributed to the high hardness of alloy carbides. The lower load-bearing capacity of graphite flakes in localized region was found to increase the wear rate of the alloy. The carbides such as Fe$_3$AlC$_{0.5}$, TiC and ZrC are embedded in the matrix after sliding wear without destruction or delamination. This significantly affects the wear resistance of FeAl-based alloys.

  19. Effect Of Laser Hardening On Microstructure And Wear Resistance In Medium. Carbon/Chromium Steels (United States)

    Kusinski, Jan; Thomas, Gareth


    Metallographical (optical, TEM, SEM), spectroscopic, abrasive wear resistance and microhardness investiga-tions of Fe/Cr/Mn/C steels heat-treated by a continuous CO2 laser are described. Laser hardening resulted in wear resistance of 1.4 - 1.6 times better than that of conventionally hardened steels. Laser melting followed by rapid solidification allows formation of a solidified layer with high wear resistance only when the scanning velocity and mass of the samples were sufficient to realize high cooling rates. The variations in the wear resistance and microhardness with distance from the heated surface were similar. The grain refinement caused by rapid laser-heating and high stresses induced during cooling create essentially fine, highly dislocated lath and internally twinned martensites with some amount of stable, interlath retained austenite. This structure has in turn beneficial effects on wear resistance, and toughness. Laser-heat treatment for deep melting of the surface layers of the steels shows only a small improvement in wear resistance. Such heat-treatment results in delta ferrite retention (10Cr steel) and chromium segregation to cell-boundaries.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL


    run for hundreds of hours in heavy-duty diesels provided insights into the kinds of complexity that the contact conditions in engines can produce, and suggested the physical basis for the current approach to modeling. The model presented here involves four terms, two representing the valve response and two for its mating seat material. The model's structure assumes that wear that takes place under a complex combination of plastic deformation, tangential shear, and oxidation. Tribolayers form, are removed, and may reform. Layer formation affects the friction forces in the interface, and in turn, the energy available to do work on the materials to cause wear. To provide friction data for the model at various temperatures, sliding contact experiments were conducted from 22 to 850 C in a pin-on-disk apparatus at ORNL. In order to account for the behavior of different materials and engine designs, parameters in all four terms of the model can be adjusted to account for wear-in and incubation periods before the dominant wear processes evolve to their steady-state rates. For example, the deformation rate is assumed to be maximum during the early stages of operation, and then, due to material work-hardening and the increase in nominal contact area (which reduces the load per unit area), decreases to a lower rate at long times. Conversely, the rate of abrasion increases with time or number of cycles due to the build-up of oxides and tribo-layers between contact surfaces. The competition between deformation and abrasion results in complex, non-linear behavior of material loss per cycle of operation. Furthermore, these factors are affected by valve design features, such as the angle of incline of the valve seat. Several modeling scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the wear profile versus number of cycles changes in response to: (a) different relative abrasion rates of the seat and valve materials, (b) the friction coefficient as a function of temperature, (c) the

  1. Effect of acetabular modularity on polyethylene wear and osteolysis in total hip arthroplasty. (United States)

    Young, Anthony M; Sychterz, Christi J; Hopper, Robert H; Engh, Charles A


    Debris from polyethylene wear causes osteolysis. In this study, we examined the effect of acetabular liner modularity on polyethylene wear and osteolysis. We compared forty-one hips (thirty-nine patients) treated with a nonmodular, porous-coated acetabular component with a matched group of forty-one hips (forty patients) treated with a modular acetabular component. The groups were matched by patient gender and age, type of polyethylene material, method of polyethylene sterilization, femoral head size and manufacturer, and stem manufacturer. The mean follow-up period was 5.3 years (range, 3.8 to 6.8 years) for the nonmodular group and 5.5 years (range, 3.8 to 8.0 years) for the modular group. Using serial radiographs and a computer-assisted method, we measured two-dimensional head penetration into the polyethylene liner. Temporal head-penetration data and linear regression analysis were used to calculate the true wear rates. The nonmodular acetabular components demonstrated a lower, but not a significantly lower, mean true wear rate than did the modular components (0.11 compared with 0.16 mm/yr, p = 0.22), and they were associated with a significantly lower rate of osteolysis (2% compared with 22%, p = 0.01). In addition, the true wear rates of the nonmodular components were less variable than those of the modular components. The 95% confidence interval for the wear rates of the nonmodular components (0.08 to 0.13 mm/yr) was nearly half that of the modular group (0.11 to 0.20 mm/yr). The lower and more consistent true wear rates of the nonmodular components could be attributed to the fact that these cups were designed to have greater liner-shell conformity, greater liner thickness, and less liner-shell micromotion than modular components. These design factors could have favorably altered the stress distribution throughout the liner and could have thereby decreased wear. Although nonmodular components may present a partial solution to the problems of wear and

  2. Surface Roughness and Tool Wear on Cryogenic Treated CBN Insert on Titanium and Inconel 718 Alloy Steel (United States)

    Thamizhmanii, S.; Mohideen, R.; Zaidi, A. M. A.; Hasan, S.


    Machining of materials by super hard tools like cubic boron nitride (cbn) and poly cubic boron nitride (pcbn) is to reduce tool wear to obtain dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and more number of parts per cutting edge. wear of tools is inevitable due to rubbing action between work material and tool edge. however, the tool wear can be minimized by using super hard tools by enhancing the strength of the cutting inserts. one such process is cryogenic process. this process is used in all materials and cutting inserts which requires wear resistance. the cryogenic process is executed under subzero temperature -186° celsius for longer period of time in a closed chamber which contains liquid nitrogen. in this research, cbn inserts with cryogenically treated was used to turn difficult to cut metals like titanium, inconel 718 etc. the turning parameters used is different cutting speeds, feed rates and depth of cut. in this research, titanium and inconel 718 material were used. the results obtained are surface roughness, flank wear and crater wear. the surface roughness obtained on titanium was lower at high cutting speed compared with inconel 718. the flank wear was low while turning titanium than inconel 718. crater wear is less on inconel 718 than titanium alloy. all the two materials produced saw tooth chips.

  3. Serial volumetric registration of pulmonary CT studies (United States)

    Silva, José Silvestre; Silva, Augusto; Sousa Santos, Beatriz


    Detailed morphological analysis of pulmonary structures and tissue, provided by modern CT scanners, is of utmost importance as in the case of oncological applications both for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In this case, a patient may go through several tomographic studies throughout a period of time originating volumetric sets of image data that must be appropriately registered in order to track suspicious radiological findings. The structures or regions of interest may change their position or shape in CT exams acquired at different moments, due to postural, physiologic or pathologic changes, so, the exams should be registered before any follow-up information can be extracted. Postural mismatching throughout time is practically impossible to avoid being particularly evident when imaging is performed at the limiting spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a method for intra-patient registration of pulmonary CT studies, to assist in the management of the oncological pathology. Our method takes advantage of prior segmentation work. In the first step, the pulmonary segmentation is performed where trachea and main bronchi are identified. Then, the registration method proceeds with a longitudinal alignment based on morphological features of the lungs, such as the position of the carina, the pulmonary areas, the centers of mass and the pulmonary trans-axial principal axis. The final step corresponds to the trans-axial registration of the corresponding pulmonary masked regions. This is accomplished by a pairwise sectional registration process driven by an iterative search of the affine transformation parameters leading to optimal similarity metrics. Results with several cases of intra-patient, intra-modality registration, up to 7 time points, show that this method provides accurate registration which is needed for quantitative tracking of lesions and the development of image fusion strategies that may effectively assist the follow-up process.

  4. Volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of endovenous laser treatments (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas F.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Schaur, Peter; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel


    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is one of the most common medical conditions with reported prevalence estimates as high as 30% in the adult population. Although conservative management with compression therapy may improve the symptoms associated with CVI, healing often demands invasive procedures. Besides established surgical methods like vein stripping or bypassing, endovenous laser therapy (ELT) emerged as a promising novel treatment option during the last 15 years offering multiple advantages such as less pain and faster recovery. Much of the treatment success hereby depends on monitoring of the treatment progression using clinical imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound. The latter however do not provide sufficient contrast, spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging capacity which is necessary for accurate online lesion assessment during treatment. As a consequence, incidence of recanalization, lack of vessel occlusion and collateral damage remains highly variable among patients. In this study, we examined the capacity of volumetric optoacoustic tomography (VOT) for real-time monitoring of ELT using an ex-vivo ox foot model. ELT was performed on subcutaneous veins while optoacoustic signals were acquired and reconstructed in real-time and at a spatial resolution in the order of 200μm. VOT images showed spatio-temporal maps of the lesion progression, characteristics of the vessel wall, and position of the ablation fiber's tip during the pull back. It was also possible to correlate the images with the temperature elevation measured in the area adjacent to the ablation spot. We conclude that VOT is a promising tool for providing online feedback during endovenous laser therapy.

  5. Increasing wear resistance of copper friction pair with electrically-conductive tribological Cu-Mo-S coatings (United States)

    Zharkov, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. P.; Fedorischeva, M. V.; Sergeev, O. V.; Kalashnikov, M. P.


    The composite solid lubricant Cu-Mo-S coating was produced by pulse magnetron sputtering system. The electrical resistivity of deposited Cu-Mo-S coatings was (22.8±3) × 10-8 Ohm×m. Cu-Mo-S coatings decrease the wear rate of the copper friction pair by 38 times. The decrease in the wear rate occurs owing to the formation of a transferred film on the counterface.

  6. Visualization and volumetric structures from MR images of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Robertson, D.


    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  7. Soft bilateral filtering volumetric shadows using cube shadow maps (United States)

    Ali, Hatam H.; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal; Kolivand, Hoshang


    Volumetric shadows often increase the realism of rendered scenes in computer graphics. Typical volumetric shadows techniques do not provide a smooth transition effect in real-time with conservation on crispness of boundaries. This research presents a new technique for generating high quality volumetric shadows by sampling and interpolation. Contrary to conventional ray marching method, which requires extensive time, this proposed technique adopts downsampling in calculating ray marching. Furthermore, light scattering is computed in High Dynamic Range buffer to generate tone mapping. The bilateral interpolation is used along a view rays to smooth transition of volumetric shadows with respect to preserving-edges. In addition, this technique applied a cube shadow map to create multiple shadows. The contribution of this technique isreducing the number of sample points in evaluating light scattering and then introducing bilateral interpolation to improve volumetric shadows. This contribution is done by removing the inherent deficiencies significantly in shadow maps. This technique allows obtaining soft marvelous volumetric shadows, having a good performance and high quality, which show its potential for interactive applications. PMID:28632740

  8. Volumetric and MGMT parameters in glioblastoma patients: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliadis Georgios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study several tumor-related volumes were assessed by means of a computer-based application and a survival analysis was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre- and postoperative volumetric data in patients harboring glioblastomas. In addition, MGMT (O6-methylguanine methyltransferase related parameters were compared with those of volumetry in order to observe possible relevance of this molecule in tumor development. Methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GBM who underwent radiotherapy with concomitant adjuvant temozolomide. For the purpose of volumetry T1 and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR sequences were used, acquired both pre- and postoperatively (pre-radiochemotherapy. The volumes measured on preoperative MR images were necrosis, enhancing tumor and edema (including the tumor and on postoperative ones, net-enhancing tumor. Age, sex, performance status (PS and type of operation were also included in the multivariate analysis. MGMT was assessed for promoter methylation with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, for RNA expression with real time PCR, and for protein expression with immunohistochemistry in a total of 44 cases with available histologic material. Results In the multivariate analysis a negative impact was shown for pre-radiochemotherapy net-enhancing tumor on the overall survival (OS (p = 0.023 and for preoperative necrosis on progression-free survival (PFS (p = 0.030. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis confirmed the importance of PS in PFS and OS of patients. MGMT promoter methylation was observed in 13/23 (43.5% evaluable tumors; complete methylation was observed in 3/13 methylated tumors only. High rate of MGMT protein positivity (> 20% positive neoplastic nuclei was inversely associated with pre-operative tumor necrosis (p = 0.021. Conclusions Our findings implicate that volumetric parameters may have a significant role in

  9. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers (United States)

    Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose


    This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon

  10. Toward a Philosophy and Theory of Volumetric Nonthermal Processing. (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K


    Nonthermal processes for food preservation have been under intensive investigation for about the past quarter century, with varying degrees of success. We focus this discussion on two volumetrically acting nonthermal processes, high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF), with emphasis on scientific understanding of each, and the research questions that need to be addressed for each to be more successful in the future. We discuss the character or "philosophy" of food preservation, with a question about the nature of the kill step(s), and the sensing challenges that need to be addressed. For HPP, key questions and needs center around whether its nonthermal effectiveness can be increased by increased pressures or pulsing, the theoretical treatment of rates of reaction as influenced by pressure, the assumption of uniform pressure distribution, and the need for (and difficulties involved in) in-situ measurement. For PEF, the questions include the rationale for pulsing, difficulties involved in continuous flow treatment chambers, the difference between electroporation theory and experimental observations, and the difficulties involved in in-situ measurement and monitoring of electric field distribution.

  11. Optical artefact characterization and correction in volumetric scintillation dosimetry (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Hui, Cheukkai; Archambault, Louis; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam


    The goals of this study were (1) to characterize the optical artefacts affecting measurement accuracy in a volumetric liquid scintillator detector, and (2) to develop methods to correct for these artefacts. The optical artefacts addressed were photon scattering, refraction, camera perspective, vignetting, lens distortion, the lens point spread function, stray radiation, and noise in the camera. These artefacts were evaluated by theoretical and experimental means, and specific correction strategies were developed for each artefact. The effectiveness of the correction methods was evaluated by comparing raw and corrected images of the scintillation light from proton pencil beams against validated Monte Carlo calculations. Blurring due to the lens and refraction at the scintillator tank-air interface were found to have the largest effect on the measured light distribution, and lens aberrations and vignetting were important primarily at the image edges. Photon scatter in the scintillator was not found to be a significant source of artefacts. The correction methods effectively mitigated the artefacts, increasing the average gamma analysis pass rate from 66% to 98% for gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement. We conclude that optical artefacts cause clinically meaningful errors in the measured light distribution, and we have demonstrated effective strategies for correcting these optical artefacts.

  12. Femoral head osteonecrosis: Volumetric MRI assessment and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassounas, Athanasios E. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, GR 711 10 (Greece); Fotiadis, Dimitrios I. [Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Ioannina and Biomedical Research Institute-FORTH, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Malizos, Konstantinos N. [Orthopaedic Department, Medical School, University of Thessalia, GR 412 22 Larissa (Greece)]. E-mail:


    Effective treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis (FHON) requires early diagnosis and accurate assessment of the disease severity. The ability to predict in the early stages the risk of collapse is important for selecting a joint salvage procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts in relation to preoperative MR imaging volumetry. We studied 58 patients (87 hips) with FHON. A semi-automated octant-based lesion measurement method, previously described, was performed on the T1-w MR images. The mean time of postoperative follow-up was 7.8 years. Sixty-three hips were successful and 24 failed and converted to total hip arthroplasty within a period of 2-4 years after the initial operation. The rate of failures for hips of male patients was higher than in female patients. The mean lesion size was 28% of the sphere equivalent of the femoral head, 24 {+-} 12% for the successful hips and 37 {+-} 9% for the failed (p < 0.001). The most affected octants were antero-supero-medial (58 {+-} 26%) and postero-supero-medial (54 {+-} 31%). All but postero-infero-medial and postero-infero-lateral octants, showed statistically significant differences in the lesion size between patients with successful and failed hips. In conclusion, the volumetric analysis of preoperative MRI provides useful information with regard to a successful outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ron Matthews


    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston

  14. Gas sorption and the consequent volumetric and permeability change of coal (United States)

    Lin, Wenjuan

    Experimental and numerical investigations of gas sorption on coal, and the subsequent volumetric and permeability changes of the coal were conducted. The goals of the study were to investigate the magnitude of permeability change caused by gas sorption, and develop an algorithm to simulate numerically gas sorption and sorption-induced permeability change. The amount of gas sorption and the subsequent volumetric and permeability change of coal samples as a function of pore pressure and injection gas composition were measured in the laboratory. A constant effective confining pressure (difference between the confining pressure and pore pressure) was maintained in the process of the experiments; therefore, the role of effective stress on permeability was eliminated. Several gases, including pure CO2, pure N2, and binary mixtures of CO2 and N2 of various compositions were used as the injection gas. The coal sample was first allowed to adsorb an injection gas fully at a particular pressure. The total amount (moles) of adsorption was calculated based on a volumetric method. After adsorption equilibrium was reached, gas samples were taken from the equilibrium gaseous phase and analyzed afterwards. The composition of the gaseous phase prior to and after the adsorption was used to calculate the composition of the adsorbed phase based on material balance. Permeability of the sample was then measured by flowing the injection gas through the core at varying pressure gradient or varying flow rate, and an average permeability was obtained based on Darcy's law for compressible systems. The change of the total volume of the core was monitored and recorded in the whole process of the experiment. Volumetric strain was thereby calculated. Experimental results showed that the greater the pressure the greater the amount of adsorption for all tested gases. At the same pressure, the amount of adsorption was greater for CO2 than N2. For the binary mixtures, the greater the fraction of CO 2

  15. Structural transformations in wear resistance of iron- and cobalt-based amorphous alloys during abrasive wear (United States)

    Korshunov, L. G.; Shabashov, V. A.; Chernenko, N. L.


    The wear resistance and structural changes in a number of amorphous alloys based on iron and cobalt and in high-carbon tool steels are studied during wear by a fixed abrasive (crondum, Carborundum) at room temperature and -196°C. The abrasive wear resistance of the amorphous alloys is shown to be 1.6-3.1 lower than that of the high-carbon tool steels having a similar hardness. The relatively low level of the abrasive wear resistance of the amorphous alloys is assumed to be caused by strain softening of their surface during wear. A nanocrystalline structure is found to form in local microvolumes in a thin deformed surface layer of the alloys.

  16. Wear behavior of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating on copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gui-rong; Ma, Ying; Hao, Yuan [Lanzhou University of Technology, Gansu (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals; Song, Wen-ming [Lanzhou University of Technology, Gansu (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals; Lanzhou Petroleum Machinery Institute, Gansu (China); Li, Jian [Wuhan Research Institute of Materials Protection (China); Lu, Jin-jun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu (China). State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication


    Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating was fabricated on copper alloy substrate through vacuum infiltration casting using Ni-based alloying powder and with different WC particle contents as raw materials. The wear behavior of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating was investigated using a block-on-ring tester at different loads and sliding speeds at room temperature. Results show that the wear rate of Ni/WC surface-infiltrated composite coating decreased to approximately one-sixth of the wear rate of the Ni-based alloy infiltrated coating. This phenomenon resulted from the supporting function of WC particles under varying loads applied on the specimen surface and the antifriction effect of the transformation layer. Wear rate was reduced by the Ni/WC-infiltrated composite coating with increasing load, especially when the load exceeded 100 N. The friction coefficient decreased with increasing sliding speed for all infiltrated coatings at any load condition. The reduction in the friction coefficient at high sliding speed was larger than that at low sliding speed with increasing load. The wear mechanism was dominated by oxidation under all experimental conditions and accompanied by adhesion and abrasion mechanisms at high load and high sliding speed.

  17. Sliding wear behavior of E-glass-epoxy/MWCNT composites: An experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindranadh Bobbili


    Full Text Available This investigation has evaluated the sliding wear properties of E-glass-epoxy/MWCNT (multiwalled carbon nanotube composite and Epoxy/MWCNT composite. Four different reinforcements (0, 0.5,1 and 1.5 wt % of MWCNTs are dispersed into an epoxy resin. Design of experiments (DOE and Analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to understand the relationship between control factors (Percentage of reinforcement, Sliding distance, Sliding velocity and Normal load and response measures (specific wear rate and friction coefficient. The control variables such as sliding distance (300, 600, 900 and 1200 m and normal loads of 10, 15, 20 and 25 N and at sliding velocities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 m/s are chosen for this study. It is observed that that the specific wear rate and friction coefficient can be reduced by the addition of MWCNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is used to observe the worn surfaces of the samples. Compared with neat epoxy, the composites with MWCNTs showed a lower mass loss, friction coefficient and wear rate and these parameters decreased with the increase of MWCNT percentage. Microscopic investigation of worn out sample fracture surface has revealed that fiber debonding happens when the stresses at the fiber matrix interface exceeds the interfacial strength, causing the fiber to debond from the matrix. The optimum control variables have been derived to reduce both wear and friction coefficient of composites.

  18. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini


    Full Text Available Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp, to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders. It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction.

  19. Brush seal shaft wear resistant coatings (United States)

    Howe, Harold


    Brush seals suffer from high wear, which reduces their effectiveness. This work sought to reduce brush seal wear by identifying and testing several industry standard coatings. One of the coatings was developed for this work. It was a co-sprayed PSZ with boron-nitride added for a high temperature dry lubricant. Other coatings tested were a PSZ, chrome carbide and a bare rotor. Testing of these coatings included thermal shocking, tensile testing and wear/coefficient of friction testing. Wear testing consisted of applying a coating to a rotor and then running a sample tuft of SiC ceramic fiber against the coating. Surface speeds at point of contact were slightly over 1000 ft/sec. Rotor wear was noted, as well as coefficient of friction data. Results from the testing indicates that the oxide ceramic coatings cannot withstand the given set of conditions. Carbide coatings will not work because of the need for a metallic binder, which oxidizes in the high heat produced by friction. All work indicated a need for a coating that has a lubricant contained within itself and the coating must be resistant to an oxidizing environment.

  20. Hypoxia, overnight wear, and tear stagnation effects on the corneal epithelium: data and proposed model. (United States)

    Lin, Meng C; Polse, Kenneth A


    : To explore the possible mechanisms that may lead to overnight contact lens-associated corneal morbidity by examining data from several corneal epithelial permeability experiments obtained under different environmental and lens fitting paradigms. : Epithelial permeability was assessed by using fluorometry to determine the fluorescein penetration rate from the tear film into the corneal stroma. Changes in this rate provide an index of the corneal epithelial status; increased permeability leads to decreased barrier function. : Hypoxia and tear stagnation during overnight lens wear play a significant role in altering the corneal epithelial barrier function (Povernight contact lens wear.

  1. Accelerated electrospark deposition and the wear behavior of coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P.Z.; Pan, G.S.; Zhou, Y.; Qu, J.X.; Shao, H.S. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School


    Electrospark deposition (ESD) is a coating process that is featured by low heat input to the substrate. Low coating efficiency and other limitations influence its wider application. The present paper introduces newly designed ESD equipment, by which a higher coating rate can be reached. The relationship among coating thickness, surface roughness, and process parameters such as pulse energy, pulse frequency, and deposition time are presented. Electrospark deposition coating by the new equipment on AISI 1045 steel (with WC-8% Co as electrode) increases the wear resistance by 5 to 8 times. The micromechanism is investigated by scanning electron microscopy observation.

  2. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.


    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  3. On The Enhancement of Wear Resistance of Hardened Carbon Tool Steel (AISI 1095) With Cryogenic Quenching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Soundararajan; N.Alagurmurthi; K.Palaniradja


    Many experimental investigations reveal that it is very difficult to have a completely martensitic structure by any hardening process. Some amount of austenite is generally present in the hardened steel. This austenite existing along with martensite is normally referred as the retained austenite. The presence of retained austenite greatly reduces the mechanical properties and such steels do not develop maximum hardness even after cooling at rates higher than the critical cooling rates.Strength can be improved in hardened steels containing retained austenite by a process known as cryogenic quenching.Untransformed austenite is converted into martensite by this treatment. This conversion of retained austenite into martensite results in increased hardness, wear resistance and dimensional stability of steel. Wear can be defined as the progressive loss of materials from the operating surface of a body occurring as a result of relative motion at the surface. Hardness, load,speed, surface roughness, temperature are the major factors which influences wear. Many studies on wear indicate that increasing hardness decreases the wear of a material. With this in mind, to study the surface wear on a surface modified(Cryogenic treated) steel material an attempt has been made in this paper. In this study as a Part -I Hardening was carried out on carbon tool steel (AISI 1095) of different L/D ratio with conventional quenchants like purified water, aqueous solution and Hot mineral oil. As a Part -Ⅱ hardening was followed by quenching was carried out as said in Part- I and the hardened specimen were quenched in liquid Nitrogen which is at sub zero condition. The specimens were tested for its microstructure, hardness and wear loss. The results were compared and analyzed. The alloying elements increases the content of retained austenite hence the material used was AISI1095 (Carbon 0.9%, Si 0.2%, Mn0.4% and the rest Iron)

  4. The effect of lubrication on the friction and wear of Biolox®delta. (United States)

    Ma, L; Rainforth, W M


    The performance of total hip-joint replacements depends strongly on the state of lubrication in vivo. In order to test candidate prosthetic materials, in vitro wear testing requires a lubricant that behaves in the same manner as synovial fluid. The current study investigated three lubricants and looked in detail at the lubrication conditions and the consequent effect on ball-on-flat reciprocating wear mechanisms of Biolox®delta against alumina. Biolox®delta, the latest commercial material for artificial hip-joint replacements, is an alumina-matrix composite with improved mechanical properties through the addition of zirconia and other mixed oxides. Three commonly used laboratory lubricants, ultra pure water, 25 vol.% new-born calf serum solution and 1 wt.% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) solution, were used for the investigation. The lubrication regimes were defined by constructing Stribeck curves. Full fluid-film lubrication was observed for the serum solution whereas full fluid-film and mixed lubrications were observed in both water and the CMC-Na solution. The wear rates in the CMC-Na and new-born calf serum were similar, but were an order of magnitude higher in water. The worn surfaces all exhibited pitting, which is consistent with the transition from mild wear to severe or "stripe" wear. The extent of pitting was greatest in the serum solution, but least in the water. On all worn surfaces, the zirconia appeared to have fully transformed from tetragonal to monoclinic symmetry. However, there was no evidence of microcracking associated with the transformed zirconia. Nevertheless, AFM indicated that zirconia was lost preferentially to the alumina grains during sliding. Thus, the current study has shown conclusively that the wear mechanisms for Biolox®delta clearly depend on the lubricant used, even where wear rates were similar.

  5. Wear Behaviour of Al-6061/SiC Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar


    Aluminium Al-6061 base composites, reinforced with SiC particles having mesh size of 150 and 600, which is fabricated by stir casting method and their wear resistance and coefficient of friction has been investigated in the present study as a function of applied load and weight fraction of SiC varying from 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 %. The dry sliding wear properties of composites were investigated by using Pin-on-disk testing machine at sliding velocity of 2 m/s and sliding distance of 2000 m over a various loads of 10, 20 and 30 N. The result shows that the reinforcement of the metal matrix with SiC particulates up to weight percentage of 35 % reduces the wear rate. The result also show that the wear of the test specimens increases with the increasing load and sliding distance. The coefficient of friction slightly decreases with increasing weight percentage of reinforcements. The wear surfaces are examined by optical microscopy which shows that the large grooved regions and cavities with ceramic particles are found on the worn surface of the composite alloy. This indicates an abrasive wear mechanism, which is essentially a result of hard ceramic particles exposed on the worn surfaces. Further, it was found from the experimentation that the wear rate decreases linearly with increasing weight fraction of SiC and average coefficient of friction decreases linearly with increasing applied load, weight fraction of SiC and mesh size of SiC. The best result has been obtained at 35 % weight fraction and 600 mesh size of SiC.

  6. Adhesive Wear Performance of CFRP Multilayered Polyester Composites Under Dry/wet Contact Conditions (United States)

    Danaelan, D.; Yousif, B. F.

    The tribo-performance of a new engineering composite material based on coconut fibers was investigated. In this work, coconut fibers reinforced polyester (CFRP) composites were developed. The tribo-experiments were conducted by using pin-on-disc machine under dry and wet sliding contact condition against smooth stainless steel counterface. Worn surfaces were observed using optical microscope. Friction coefficient and specific wear rate were presented as a function of sliding distance (0-0.6 km) at different sliding velocities (0.1-0.28 m/s). The effect of applied load and sliding velocity was evaluated. The results showed that all test parameters have significant influence on friction and wear characteristics of the composites. Moreover, friction coefficient increased as the normal load and speed increased, the values were about 0.7-0.9 under dry contact condition. Meanwhile, under wet contact condition, there was a great reduction in the friction coefficient, i.e. the values were about 0.1-0.2. Furthermore, the specific wear rates were found to be around 2-4 (10-3) mm3/Nm under dry contact condition and highly reduced under wet condition. In other words, the presence of water as cleaner and polisher assisted to enhance the adhesive wear performance of CFRP by about 10%. The images from optical microscope showed evidence of adhesive wear mode with transition to abrasive wear mode at higher sliding velocities due to third body abrasion. On the other hand, optical images for wet condition showed less adhesive wear and smooth surfaces.

  7. Temperature-dependent wear mechanisms for magnetron-sputtered AlTiTaN hard coatings. (United States)

    Khetan, Vishal; Valle, Nathalie; Duday, David; Michotte, Claude; Mitterer, Christian; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Choquet, Patrick


    AlTiTaN coatings have been demonstrated to have high thermal stability at temperatures up to 900 °C. It has been speculated that the high oxidation resistance promotes an improved wear resistance, specifically for dry machining applications. This work reports on the influence of temperature up to 900 °C on the wear mechanisms of AlTiTaN hard coatings. DC magnetron-sputtered coatings were obtained from an Al(46)Ti(42)Ta(12) target, keeping the substrate bias at -100 V and the substrate temperature at 265 °C. The coatings exhibited a single-phase face-centered cubic AlTiTaN structure. The dry sliding tests revealed predominant abrasion and tribo-oxidation as wear mechanisms, depending on the wear debris formed. At room temperature, abrasion leading to surface polishing was observed. At 700 and 800 °C, slow tribo-oxidation and an amorphous oxide formed reduced the wear rate of the coating compared to room temperature. Further, an increase in temperature to 900 °C increased the wear rate significantly due to fast tribo-oxidation accompanied by grooving. The friction coefficient was found to decrease with temperature increasing from 700 to 900 °C due to the formation of oxide scales, which reduce adhesion of asperity contacts. A relationship between the oxidation and wear mechanisms was established using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry, confocal microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  8. A View on Wear Mechanism of Metallic Card Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liang; WANG Wen-qiang; NI Huai-sheng


    The wear mechanism of metallic card clothing,used in textile industry, was analyzed. A fast wear test for metallic card clothing racks was developed, which was used as collecting the wear metal particles. The failure type of card clothing was analyzed by the mean of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferro-spectrum technology. The results show that the main wear mechanism of metallic card clothing is low load and high repetition interval fatigue wear caused by friction force between fiber and metal wire teeth.The appropriate quenching microstmcture, which improves the wear resistance of the metallic card clothing rack is also discussed.

  9. Template-assisted low temperature synthesis of functionalized graphene for ultrahigh volumetric performance supercapacitors. (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Qian; Wei, Tong; Jiang, Lili; Zhang, Milin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Fan, Zhuangjun


    We demonstrated the fabrication of functionalized graphene nanosheets via low temperature (300 °C) treatment of graphite oxide with a slow heating rate using Mg(OH)2 nanosheets as template. Because of its dented sheet with high surface area, a certain amount of oxygen-containing groups, and low pore volume, the as-obtained graphene delivers both ultrahigh specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 456 F g(-1) and 470 F cm(-3), almost 3.7 times and 3.3 times higher than hydrazine reduced graphene, respectively. Especially, the obtained volumetric capacitance is the highest value so far reported for carbon materials in aqueous electrolytes. More importantly, the assembled supercapacitor exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 27.2 Wh L(-1), which is among the highest values for carbon materials in aqueous electrolytes, as well as excellent cycling stability with 134% of its initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles. Therefore, the present work holds a great promise for future design and large-scale production of high performance graphene electrodes for portable energy storage devices.

  10. A Solar Volumetric Receiver: Influence of Absorbing Cells Configuration on Device Thermal Performance (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Shuja, S. Z.


    Thermal performance of a solar volumetric receiver incorporating the different cell geometric configurations is investigated. Triangular, hexagonal, and rectangular absorbing cells are incorporated in the analysis. The fluid volume fraction, which is the ratio of the volume of the working fluid over the total volume of solar volumetric receiver, is introduced to assess the effect of cell size on the heat transfer rates in the receiver. In this case, reducing the fluid volume fraction corresponds to increasing cell size in the receiver. SiC is considered as the cell material, and air is used as the working fluid in the receiver. The Lambert's Beer law is incorporated to account for the solar absorption in the receiver. A finite element method is used to solve the governing equation of flow and heat transfer. It is found that the fluid volume fraction has significant effect on the flow field in the solar volumetric receiver, which also modifies thermal field in the working fluid. The triangular absorbing cell gives rise to improved effectiveness of the receiver and then follows the hexagonal and rectangular cells. The second law efficiency of the receiver remains high when hexagonal cells are used. This occurs for the fluid volume fraction ratio of 0.5.

  11. Brain stem and cerebellum volumetric analysis of Machado Joseph disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T Camargos


    Full Text Available Machado-Joseph disease, or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(MJD/SCA3, is the most frequent late onset spinocerebellar ataxia and results from a CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin-3 gene. Previous studies have found correlation between atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem with age and CAG repeats, although no such correlation has been found with disease duration and clinical manifestations. In this study we test the hypothesis that atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem in MJD/SCA3 is related to clinical severity, disease duration and CAG repeat length as well as to other variables such as age and ICARS (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Whole brain high resolution MRI and volumetric measurement with cranial volume normalization were obtained from 15 MJD/SCA3 patients and 15 normal, age and sex-matchedcontrols. We applied ICARS and compared the score with volumes and CAG number, disease duration and age. We found significant correlation of both brain stem and cerebellar atrophy with CAG repeat length, age, disease duration and degree of disability. The Spearman rank correlation was stronger with volumetric reduction of the cerebellum than with brain stem. Our data allow us to conclude that volumetric analysis might reveal progressive degeneration after disease onset, which in turn is linked to both age and number of CAG repeat expansions in SCA 3.

  12. Microfabricated pseudocapacitors using Ni(OH)2 electrodes exhibit remarkable volumetric capacitance and energy density

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra


    Metal hydroxide based microfabricated pseudocapacitors with impressive volumetric stack capacitance and energy density are demonstrated. A combination of top-down photolithographic process and bottom-up chemical synthesis is employed to fabricate the micro-pseudocapacitors (μ-pseudocapacitors). The resulting Ni(OH)2-based devices show several excellent characteristics including high-rate redox activity up to 500 V s-1 and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF cm-2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F cm-3. This volumetric capacitance is two-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based μ-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode architecture. Furthermore, these μ-pseudocapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh cm-3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. The heterogeneous growth of Ni(OH)2 over the Ni surface during the chemical bath deposition is found to be the key parameter in the formation of uniform monolithic Ni(OH)2 mesoporous nanosheets with vertical orientation, responsible for the remarkable properties of the fabricated devices. Additionally, functional tandem configurations of the μ-pseudocapacitors are shown to be capable of powering a light-emitting diode.

  13. The Delamination Theory of Wear - III (United States)


    117. 18 A. P. Orson , J. Mach. Phys. Solids, 2 (1954) 197 - 211, 19 D. R. Wheeler and D, H. Buckley, Wear, 83 (1975) 65. 20 V. C, Scott end H. Wilman...papers were also published In Volume 44 no. I of the Journal Wear, edited by1). Scott . "ELSEVIER SEQUOIA S.A., LAUSANNE, 1977 APproved for public ioleoee...possible without the enthusiasm and support of Messrs. Douglas Scott and VOrnon C, Westoott. This kind of research cannot reodily be undertaken at a

  14. Wear Analysis of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Geer, Tom [ORNL


    The objective of this effort was to investigate and characterize the nature of surface damage and wear to wind turbine gearbox bearings returned from service in the field. Bearings were supplied for examination by S. Butterfield and J. Johnson of the National Wind Technology Center (NREL), Boulder, Colorado. Studies consisted of visual examination, optical and electron microscopy, dimensional measurements of wear-induced macro-scale and micro-scale features, measurements of macro- and micro-scale hardness, 3D imaging of surface damage, studies of elemental distributions on fracture surfaces, and examinations of polished cross-sections of surfaces under various etched and non-etched conditions.

  15. Gradient Index in Wear Debris Image Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVZhi-yong; GAOHui-liang; YANXin-ping


    In order to solve a problem of oil on-line monitoring, this instrument adopts a prinripium of self-focus lens of Gradieat index fiber( GRIN Len) to design optics system and magnetic circuit. For the magnetic circuit, the monitor can catch particle wear debris in oil. And for the optics circuit. GRIN Len can transfer image of debris to apparatus of gather image, e . g, CCD and camera. And the image of debris is transferred to computer for analyzing seize and physiognomy of debris. The character of the monitor is of micro weight, micro volume andcurve imaging And it is directly pluged into oil to catch image of wear particles.

  16. Surface engineering for enhanced performance against wear

    CERN Document Server


    Surface Engineering constitutes a variety of processes and sub processes. Each chapter of this work covers specific processes by experts working in the area. Included for each topic are tribological performances for each process as well as results of recent research. The reader also will benefit from in-depth studies of diffusion coatings, nanocomposite films for wear resistance, surfaces for biotribological applications, thin-film wear, tribology of thermal sprayed coatings, hardfacing, plating for tribology and high energy beam surface modifications. Material scientists as well as engineers working with surface engineering for tribology will be particularly interested in this work.

  17. Wear resistance of laser cladding and plasma spray welding layer on stainless steel surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinlin Wang(王新林); Shihong Shi(石世宏); Qiguang Zheng(郑启光)


    The effect of coatings, which are formed with laser cladding and plasma spray welding on 1Cr18Ni9Ti base metal, on wear resistance is studied, A 5-kW transverse flowing CO2 laser is used for cladding Co base alloy powder pre-placed on the substrate. Comparing with the plasma spray coatings, the spoiled rate of products with laser clad layers was lower and the rate of finished products was higher. Their microstructure is extremely fine. They have close texture and small size grain. Their dilution resulting from the compositions of the base metal and thermal effect on base metal are less. The hardness, toughness,and strength of the laser cladding layers are higher. Wear tests show that the laser layers have higher properties of anti-friction, anti-scour and high-temperature sliding strike. The wear resistance of laser clad layers are about one time higher than that of plasma spray welding layer.

  18. Age determination in roe deer - a new approach to tooth wear evaluated on known age individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas


    integrated in a scoring system. Permanent cheek teeth emerge in May-July in the year after birth, which enables precise age determination of individuals with deciduous premolars. For individuals with permanent cheek teeth, the method provides the correct age for all individuals younger than 13 months...... and > 80% of all individuals between 13 and 24 months old. For older individuals the accuracy decreases, but decent accuracy is achieved to the age of 48 months. Males have higher wear rates than females corroborating recent documentation of sex-specific life history tactics in ungulates. The data...... originate from two separated Danish roe deer populations exposed to contrasting habitats, but no difference in wear rate is found between populations. Thus, previous concern about the validity of age determination methods based on tooth wear may have been overstated. The findings demonstrate that objective...

  19. Rapidly-steered single-element ultrasound for real-time volumetric imaging and guidance (United States)

    Stauber, Mark; Western, Craig; Solek, Roman; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dmitre; Schlosser, Jeffrey


    Volumetric ultrasound (US) imaging has the potential to provide real-time anatomical imaging with high soft-tissue contrast in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic guidance applications. However, existing volumetric US machines utilize "wobbling" linear phased array or matrix phased array transducers which are costly to manufacture and necessitate bulky external processing units. To drastically reduce cost, improve portability, and reduce footprint, we propose a rapidly-steered single-element volumetric US imaging system. In this paper we explore the feasibility of this system with a proof-of-concept single-element volumetric US imaging device. The device uses a multi-directional raster-scan technique to generate a series of two-dimensional (2D) slices that were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) volumes. At 15 cm depth, 90° lateral field of view (FOV), and 20° elevation FOV, the device produced 20-slice volumes at a rate of 0.8 Hz. Imaging performance was evaluated using an US phantom. Spatial resolution was 2.0 mm, 4.7 mm, and 5.0 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions at 7.5 cm. Relative motion of phantom targets were automatically tracked within US volumes with a mean error of -0.3+/-0.3 mm, -0.3+/-0.3 mm, and -0.1+/-0.5 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions, respectively. The device exhibited a mean spatial distortion error of 0.3+/-0.9 mm, 0.4+/-0.7 mm, and -0.3+/-1.9 in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions. With a production cost near $1000, the performance characteristics of the proposed system make it an ideal candidate for diagnostic and image-guided therapy applications where form factor and low cost are paramount.

  20. Influence of processing parameters on microstructure and wear resistance of Ti+TiC laser clad layer on titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wan-liang; SUN Jian-feng; DONG Sheng-min; LIU Rongx-iang


    Laser cladding experiments were carried out on Ti-6Al-4V alloy with Ti+33%TiC(volume fraction) powders. Laser processing parameters were studied systematically to investigate the influences on the surface quality. Microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the clad layer were evaluated. The results show that the laser parameter has considerable influence on microstructure and wear resistance of laser clad layer. With the optimized technical parameters, a clad layer with good surface quality and uniform microstructure was obtained. The microhardness of the clad layer HV0.2 is 1 080, and the wear rate is reduced by 57 times.

  1. Comparison of the Wear Behavior of UHMWPE Lubricated by Human Plasma and Brine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-bo; GE Shi-rong; NORM Gitis; MICHAEL Vinogradov; XIAO Jun


    The effect of plasma and brine lubricants on the friction and wear behavior of UHMWPE were studied by using the geometry of a Si3N4 ball sliding on a UHMWPE disc under patterns of uni-directional reciprocation and bi-directional sliding motions. The worn surface and wear particles produced in these two lubricants were analyzed. Sliding motion pattern affected the friction coefficients lubricated with plasma, while seldom affected that lubricated with brine. UHMWPE lubricated with plasma showed about half of the wear rate of that lubricated with brine. The two rates were 0.75 pg/m and 2.19 pg/m for the two motion patterns, respectively. However, wear particles generated in plasma included a greater amount of small particles, compared to that in brine. In uni-directional reciprocation, the main wear mechanism is ploughing both in plasma and in brine. In bi-directional sliding modes, the significant characteristic is ripples on the worn surface in plasma, while there are oriented fibers on the worn surface in brine.

  2. Wear and transfer characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites under water lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-hong; CHEN Jian-min; ZHOU Hui-di; CHEN Lei


    The tribological characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites under distilled-water-lubricated-sliding and dry-sliding against stainless steel were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine composite microstructures and modes of failure. The typical chemical states of elements of the transfer film on the stainless steel were examined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Wear testing and SEM analysis show that all the composites hold the lowered friction coefficient and show much better wear resistance under water lubricated sliding against stainless steel than those under dry sliding. The wear of composites is characterized by plastic deformation, scuffing, micro cracking, and spalling under both dry-sliding and water lubricated conditions. Plastic deformation, scuffing, micro cracking, and spalling, however, are significantly abated under water-lubricated condition. XPS analysis conforms that none of the materials produces transfer films on the stainless steel counterface with the type familiar from dry sliding, and the transfer of composites onto the counterpart ring surface is significantly hindered while the oxidation of the stainless steel is speeded under water lubrication. The composites hinder transfer onto the steel surface and the boundary lubricating action of water accounts for the much smaller wear rate under water lubrication compared with that under dry sliding. The easier transfer of the composite onto the counterpart steel surface accounts for the larger wear rate of the polymer composite under dry sliding.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Sharief


    Full Text Available In the present investigation, Al2024–Beryl particulate composites were fabricated by stir casting by varying the weight percentage of beryl particulates from 0 wt% to 10 wt% in steps of 2 wt%. The cast Al2024 alloy and its composites have been subjected to solutionizing treatment at a temperature of 495°C for 2 hrs, followed by ice quenching. Microstructural studies were carried out to determine the nature of the structure. The Brinell hardness test was conducted on both the Al2024 alloy and its composites before and after solutionizing. Pin-on disc wear tests were conducted to examine the wear behavior of the Al2024 alloy and its composites. Sliding wear tests were conducted at various applied loads, sliding velocities and sliding distances. The results reveal that the wear rate of the composites is lower than that of the matrix alloy. The wear rate increased with an increasing applied load and sliding distance, and decreased with increasing sliding velocity.

  4. Improved volumetric imaging in tomosynthesis using combined multiaxial sweeps. (United States)

    Gersh, Jacob A; Wiant, David B; Best, Ryan C M; Bennett, Marcus C; Munley, Michael T; King, June D; McKee, Mahta M; Baydush, Alan H


    This study explores the volumetric reconstruction fidelity attainable using tomosynthesis with a kV imaging system which has a unique ability to rotate isocentrically and with multiple degrees of mechanical freedom. More specifically, we seek to investigate volumetric reconstructions by combining multiple limited-angle rotational image acquisition sweeps. By comparing these reconstructed images with those of a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of the reconstructions. In surgical situations, the described tomosynthesis-based system could provide high-quality volumetric imaging without requiring patient motion, even with rotational limitations present. Projections were acquired using the Digital Integrated Brachytherapy Unit, or IBU-D. A phantom was used which contained several spherical objects of varying contrast. Using image projections acquired during isocentric sweeps around the phantom, reconstructions were performed by filtered backprojection. For each image acquisition sweep configuration, a contrasting sphere is analyzed using two metrics and compared to a gold standard CBCT reconstruction. Since the intersection of a reconstructed sphere and an imaging plane is ideally a circle with an eccentricity of zero, the first metric presented compares the effective eccentricity of intersections of reconstructed volumes and imaging planes. As another metric of volumetric reconstruction fidelity, the volume of one of the contrasting spheres was determined using manual contouring. By comparing these manually delineated volumes with a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of reconstructions. The configuration which yielded the highest overall volumetric reconstruction fidelity, as determined by effective eccentricities and volumetric contouring, consisted of two orthogonally-offset 60° L-arm sweeps and a single C-arm sweep which shared a pivot point with one the L-arm sweeps. When compared to a similar configuration that

  5. Friction and wear performance of some thermoplastic polymers and polymer composites against unsaturated polyester (United States)

    Unal, H.; Mimaroglu, A.; Arda, T.


    Wear experiments have been carried out with a range of unfilled and filled engineering thermoplastic polymers sliding against a 15% glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester polymer under 20, 40 and 60 N loads and 0.5 m/s sliding speed. Pin materials used in this experimental investigation are polyamide 66 (PA 66), poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and aliphatic polyketone (APK), glass fibre reinforced polyamide 46 (PA 46 + 30% GFR), glass fibre reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE + 17% GFR), glass fibre reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK + 20% GFR), glass fibre reinforced poly-phylene-sulfide (PPS + 30% GFR), polytetrafluoroethylene filled polyamide 66 (PA 66 + 10% PTFE) and bronze filled pofytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE + 25% bronze) engineering polymers. The disc material is a 15% glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester thermoset polymer produced by Bulk Moulding Compound (BMC). Sliding wear tests were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus under 0.5 m/s sliding speed and load values of 20, 40 and 60 N. The results showed that the highest specific wear rate is for PPS + 30% GFR with a value of 1 × 10 -11 m 2/N and the lowest wear rate is for PTFE + 17% GFR with a value of 9.41 × 10 -15 m 2/N. For the materials and test conditions of this investigation, apart from polyamide 66 and PA 46 + 30% GFR polymers, the coefficient of friction and specific wear rates are not significantly affected by the change in load value. For polyamide 66 and PA 46 + 30% GFR polymers the coefficient of friction and specific wear rates vary linearly with the variation in load values.

  6. Aspects of volumetric efficiency measurement for reciprocating engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.


    Full Text Available The volumetric efficiency significantly influences engine output. Both design and dimensions of an intake and exhaust system have large impact on volumetric efficiency. Experimental equipment for measuring of airflow through the engine, which is placed in the intake system, may affect the results of measurements and distort the real picture of the impact of individual structural factors. This paper deals with the problems of experimental determination of intake airflow using orifice plates and the influence of orifice plate diameter on the results of the measurements. The problems of airflow measurements through a multi-process Otto/Diesel engine were analyzed. An original method for determining volumetric efficiency was developed based on in-cylinder pressure measurement during motored operation, and appropriate calibration of the experimental procedure was performed. Good correlation between the results of application of the original method for determination of volumetric efficiency and the results of theoretical model used in research of influence of the intake pipe length on volumetric efficiency was determined. [Acknowledgments. The paper is the result of the research within the project TR 35041 financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia

  7. Correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear in turning: Numerical and experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balla Srinivasa Prasad


    Full Text Available In this paper, a correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear when in dry turning of AISI 4140 steel using uncoated carbide insert DNMA 432 is analyzed via experiments and finite element simulations. 3D Finite element simulations results are utilized to predict the evolution of cutting forces, vibration displacement amplitudes and tool wear in vibration induced turning. In the present paper, the primary concern is to find the relative vibration and tool wear with the variation of process parameters. These changes lead to accelerated tool wear and even breakage. The cutting forces in the feed direction are also predicted and compared with the experimental trends. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used to detect vibration amplitudes and the usage of Kistler 9272 dynamometer for recording the cutting forces during the cutting process is well demonstrated. A sincere effort is put to investigate the influence of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut on vibration amplitude and tool flank wear at different levels of workpiece hardness. Empirical models have been developed using second order polynomial equations for correlating the interaction and higher order influences of various process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is carried out to identify the significant factors that are affecting the vibration amplitude and tool flank wear. Response surface methodology (RSM is implemented to investigate the progression of flank wear and displacement amplitude based on experimental data. While measuring the displacement amplitude, R-square values for experimental and numerical methods are 98.6 and 97.8. Based on the R-square values of ANOVA it is found that the numerical values show good agreement with the experimental values and are helpful in estimating displacement amplitude. In the case of predicting the tool wear, R-square values were found to be 97.69 and 96.08, respectively for numerical and experimental measures while determining the tool

  8. Increase in the Tibial Slope Reduces Wear after Medial Unicompartmental Fixed-Bearing Arthroplasty of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Weber


    Full Text Available Introduction. Unicompartmental arthroplasty of the knee in patients with isolated medial osteoarthritis gives good results, but survival is inferior to that of total knee prosthesis. Knees may fail because positioning of the prosthesis has been suboptimal. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the tibial slope on the rate of wear of a medial fixed-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. We simulated wear on a medial fixed-bearing unicompartmental knee prosthesis (Univation in vitro with a customised, four-station, and servohydraulic knee wear simulator, which exactly reproduced the walking cycle (International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO 14243-1:2002(E. The medial prostheses were inserted with 3 different posterior tibial slopes: 0°, 4°, and 8° (n = 3 in each group. Results. The wear rate decreased significantly between 0° and 4° slope from 10.4 (SD 0.62 mg/million cycles to 3.22 (SD 1.71 mg/million cycles. Increasing the tibial slope to 8° did not significantly change the wear rate. Discussion. As an increase in the tibial slope reduced the wear rate in a fixed-bearing prosthesis, a higher tibial slope should be recommended. However, other factors that are influenced by the tibial slope (e.g., the tension of the ligament must also be considered.

  9. Wear behaviour of laser melted an ion implanted materials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurs, Hans de


    The emphasis in this thesis is on the development of wear resistant materials by laser melting. Furthermore, the principle aim is to search for the dislocation characteristics common to the wear process in heterogeneous materials. ... Zie: Summary

  10. Comparison of two measurement techniques for clinical wear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, M C; Delong, R; Pintado, M R


    Clinical wear of restorations is generally evaluated by marginal integrity over time. In this study, both a subjective and an objective method for wear assessment are compared, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of each are considered....

  11. Interactions between nonlinear spur gear dynamics and surface wear (United States)

    Ding, Huali; Kahraman, Ahmet


    In this study, two different dynamic models, a finite elements-based deformable-body model and a simplified discrete model, and a surface wear model are combined to study the interaction between gear surface wear and gear dynamic response. The proposed dynamic gear wear model includes the influence of worn surface profiles on dynamic tooth forces and transmission error as well as the influence of dynamic tooth forces on wear profiles. This paper first introduces the nonlinear dynamic models that include gear backlash and time-varying gear mesh stiffness, and a wear model separately. It presents a comparison to experiments for validation of the dynamic models. The dynamic models are combined with the wear model to study the interaction of surface wear and dynamic behavior in both linear and nonlinear response regimes. At the end, several sets of simulation results are used to demonstrate the two-way relationship between nonlinear gear dynamics and surface wear.

  12. ERRATUM: Work smart, wear your hard hat

    CERN Multimedia


    An error appeared in the article «Work smart, wear your hard hat» published in Weekly Bulletin 27/2003, page 5. The impact which pierced a hole in the hard hat worn by Gerd Fetchenhauer was the equivalent of a box weighing 5 kg and not 50 kg.

  13. Reciprocating wear in a steam environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.J.; Gee, M.G. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)


    Tests to simulate the wear between sliding components in steam power plant have been performed using a low frequency wear apparatus at elevated temperatures under static load, at ambient pressure, in a steam environment. The apparatus was modified to accept a novel method of steam delivery. The materials tested were pre-exposed in a flowing steam furnace at temperature for either 500 or 3000 hours to provide some simulation of long term ageing. The duration of each wear test was 50 hours and tests were also performed on as-received material for comparison purposes. Data has been compared with results of tests performed on non-oxidised material for longer durations and also on tests without steam to examine the effect of different environments. Data collected from each test consists of mass change, stub height measurement and friction coefficient as well as visual inspection of the wear track. Within this paper, it is reported that both pre-ageing and the addition of steam during testing clearly influence the friction between material surfaces. (orig.)

  14. Healthy Contact Lens Wear and Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Jennifer Cope explains some basic steps for proper wear and care of soft contact lenses.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  15. Friction and wear of human hair fibres (United States)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.


    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  16. Tribology: Friction, lubrication, and wear technology (United States)

    Blau, Peter J.


    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: introduction and definitions of terms; friction concepts; lubrication technology concepts; wear technology concepts; and tribological transitions. This document is designed for educators who seek to teach these concepts to their students.

  17. Powdered Hexagonal Boron Nitride Reducing Nanoscale Wear (United States)

    Chkhartishvili, L.; Matcharashvili, T.; Esiava, R.; Tsagareishvili, O.; Gabunia, D.; Margiev, B.; Gachechiladze, A.


    A morphology model is suggested for nano-powdered hexagonal boron nitride that can serve as an effective solid additive to liquid lubricants. It allows to estimate the specific surface, that is a hard-to-measure parameter, based on average size of powder particles. The model can be used also to control nanoscale wear processes.

  18. Mind the tracker you wear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyal, Rohit; Dragoni, Nicola; Spognardi, Angelo


    a concern among consumers, because of the sensitive information these devices deal with, like sleeping patterns, eating habits, heart rate and so on. In this paper, we analyse the key security and privacy features of two entry level health trackers from leading vendors (Jawbone and Fitbit), exploring...

  19. Effect of QPQ nitriding time on microstructure and wear resistance of SAF2906 duplex stainless steel (United States)

    Liu, D.; Wu, G. X.; Shen, L. X.


    QPQ salt bath treatment of SAF2906 duplex stainless steel was conducted at 570 °C for 60 min, 90 min,120 min,150 min and 180 min, followed by post-oxidation process with heating temperature of 400°C and holding duration of 30 min. The effect of QPQ nitriding time on microstructure and wear resistance of SAF2906 duplex stainless steel was investigated by means of OM, SEM, XRD, microhardness test, adhesion strength test and wear resistance test. Microstructure observation showed outer layer was composed of Fe3O4. The main phase of the intermediate layer was CrN, αN and Fe2-3N. The main phase of the inner layer was CrN and S. The adhesion strength test of the surface layer-substrate showed the QPQ treated samples have favorable adhesion strength of HF-1 level. With the increase of nitriding time, the growth rate of the compound layer gradually slowed down and the surface hardness first increased and then decreased, and the maximum hardness was 1283 HV0.2 at 150 min. The dry siliding results showed that the wear resistance of the QPQ treated samples was at least 20 times than that of the substrate, and the optimum nitriding time to obtain the best wear resistance is 150 min. The worn surface morphology observation showed the main wear mechanism of the substrate was plough wear, while micro-cutting is the main wear mechanism that causes the damage of the QPQ treated samples.

  20. Using a surrogate contact pair to evaluate polyethylene wear in prosthetic knee joints. (United States)

    Sanders, Anthony P; Lockard, Carly A; Weisenburger, Joel N; Haider, Hani; Raeymaekers, Bart


    With recent improvements to the properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in joint replacements, prosthetic knee and hip longevity may extend beyond two decades. However, it is difficult and costly to replicate such a long in vivo lifetime using clinically relevant in vitro wear testing approaches such as walking gait joint simulators. We advance a wear test intermediate in complexity between pin-on-disk and knee joint simulator tests. The test uses a surrogate contact pair, consisting of a surrogate femoral and tibial specimen that replicate the contact mechanics of any full-scale knee condyle contact pair. The method is implemented in a standard multi-directional pin-on-disk wear test machine, and we demonstrate its application via a two-million-cycle wear test of three different UHMWPE formulations. Further, we demonstrate the use of digital photography and image processing to accurately quantify fatigue damage based on the reduced transmission of light through a damage area in a UHMWPE specimen. The surrogate contact pairs replicate the knee condyle contact areas within -3% to +12%. The gravimetric wear test results reflect the dose of crosslinking radiation applied to the UHMWPE: 35 kGy yielded a wear rate of 7.4 mg/Mcycles, 55 kGy yielded 1.0 mg/Mcycles, and 75 kGy (applied to a 0.1% vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE) yielded 1.5 mg/Mcycles. A precursor to spalling fatigue is observed and precisely measured in the radiation-sterilized (35 kGy) and aged UHMWPE specimen. The presented techniques can be used to evaluate the high-cycle fatigue performance of arbitrary knee condyle contact pairs under design-specific contact stresses, using existing wear test machines. This makes the techniques more economical and well-suited to standardized comparative testing.

  1. A high volume, high throughput volumetric sorption analyzer (United States)

    Soo, Y. C.; Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.; Buckley, P.; Clement, J.


    In this talk we will present an overview of our new Hydrogen Test Fixture (HTF) constructed by the Midwest Research Institute for The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology to test activated carbon monoliths for hydrogen gas storage. The HTF is an automated, computer-controlled volumetric instrument for rapid screening and manipulation of monoliths under an inert atmosphere (to exclude degradation of carbon from exposure to oxygen). The HTF allows us to measure large quantity (up to 500 g) of sample in a 0.5 l test tank, making our results less sensitive to sample inhomogeneity. The HTF can measure isotherms at pressures ranging from 1 to 300 bar at room temperature. For comparison, other volumetric instruments such as Hiden Isochema's HTP-1 Volumetric Analyser can only measure carbon samples up to 150 mg at pressures up to 200 bar. Work supported by the US DOD Contract # N00164-08-C-GS37.

  2. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, M. Brad; Sebright, Jason L.


    Wear and corrosion of structures cuts across industries and continues to challenge materials scientists and engineers to develop cost effective solutions. Industries typically seek mature technologies that can be implemented for production with rapid or minimal development and have little appetite for the longer-term materials research and development required to solve complex problems. The collaborative work performed in this project addressed the complexity of this problem in a multi-year program that industries would be reluctant to undertake without government partnership. This effort built upon the prior development of Advanced Abrasion Resistant Materials conduct by Caterpillar Inc. under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41054. In this referenced work, coatings were developed that exhibited significant wear life improvements over standard carburized heat treated steel in abrasive wear applications. The technology used in this referenced work, arc lamp fusing of thermal spray coatings, was one of the primary technical paths in this work effort. In addition to extending the capability of the coating technology to address corrosion issues, additional competitive coating technologies were evaluated to insure that the best technology was developed to meet the goals of the program. From this, plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding was selected as the second primary technology that was investigated. Specifically, this project developed improved, cost effective surfacing materials and processes for wear and corrosion resistance in both sliding and abrasive wear applications. Materials with wear and corrosion performance improvements that are 4 to 5 times greater than heat treated steels were developed. The materials developed were based on low cost material systems utilizing ferrous substrates and stainless steel type matrix with hard particulates formed from borides and carbides. Affordability was assessed against other competing hard surfacing or coating


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The wear and destruction appearances of hobs are researched. The reasons of the wear and destruction of hobare analyzed. And the influence of the change of the hobbing force and the hobbing temperature on the wear and destruc-tion of hob in gear hobbing is also analyzed. In gear hobbing, the main wear mechanisms are adhesion and ploughingwhen cutting the 20CrMnTi gear using W 18Cr4V high-speed steel hob.

  4. New synthesizing feature parameter of wear particles image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper outlines the application of wavelet analysis method to computering wear par-ticles image processing and introduces the concept of grain parameter for wear particle imagebased on statistical feature parameters. The feature of wear particles image can be obtained fromthe wavelet decomposition and the statistics analysis. Test results showed that grain parametercan be used as a synthesizing feature parameter for wear particle image.

  5. A panorama of tooth wear during the medieval period. (United States)

    Esclassan, Rémi; Hadjouis, Djillali; Donat, Richard; Passarrius, Olivier; Maret, Delphine; Vaysse, Frédéric; Crubézy, Eric


    Tooth wear is a natural phenomenon and a universal occurrence that has existed from the origin of humankind and depends on the way of life, especially diet. Tooth wear was very serious in ancient populations up to the medieval period. The aim of this paper is to present a global view of tooth wear in medieval times in Europe through different parameters: scoring systems, quantity and direction of wear, gender, differences between maxilla and mandible, relations with diet, caries, tooth malpositions and age.

  6. An On-line Ferrograph for Monitoring Machine Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Xiao-jun; JING Min-qing; XIE You-bai


    In order to improve an on-line ferrograph, this paper simulates a three dimensional magnetic field distribution of an electromagnet, builds a sinking motion model of a wear particle, and investigates the motion law of wear particles under two different conditions. Both numeric results and experimental results show that the on-line ferrograph is capable of monitoring machine wear conditions by measuring the concentration and size distribution of wear particles in lubricating oil.

  7. Wear study of Total Ankle Replacement explants by microstructural analysis. (United States)

    Cottrino, S; Fabrègue, D; Cowie, A P; Besse, J-L; Tadier, S; Gremillard, L; Hartmann, D J


    The implantation of Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) prostheses generally gives satisfactory results. However, a high revision rate is associated with the Ankle Evolutive System (AES) implant, due to periprosthetic osteolysis that generates significant cortical lesions and bone cysts in the periprosthetic region. Radioclinical and histological analyses of peri-implant tissues show the presence of numerous foreign particles that may come from the implant. It is known that a precocious wear of materials may lead to an important rate of foreign body in tissues and may generate osteolysis lesions and inflammatory reactions. Thus the objectives of this retrospective study of 10 AES TAR implants (recovered after revision surgeries) are to understand how the prostheses wear out, which part is the most stressed and to determine the nature and size of foreign body particles. A better understanding of friction mechanisms between the three parts of the implant and of the nature and morphology of foreign particles generated was needed to explain the in vivo behavior of the implant. This was achieved using microstuctural and tomographic analysis of both implants parts and periprosthetic tissues.

  8. Multiple sparse volumetric priors for distributed EEG source reconstruction. (United States)

    Strobbe, Gregor; van Mierlo, Pieter; De Vos, Maarten; Mijović, Bogdan; Hallez, Hans; Van Huffel, Sabine; López, José David; Vandenberghe, Stefaan


    We revisit the multiple sparse priors (MSP) algorithm implemented in the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM) for distributed EEG source reconstruction (Friston et al., 2008). In the present implementation, multiple cortical patches are introduced as source priors based on a dipole source space restricted to a cortical surface mesh. In this note, we present a technique to construct volumetric cortical regions to introduce as source priors by restricting the dipole source space to a segmented gray matter layer and using a region growing approach. This extension allows to reconstruct brain structures besides the cortical surface and facilitates the use of more realistic volumetric head models including more layers, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), compared to the standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models. We illustrated the technique with ERP data and anatomical MR images in 12 subjects. Based on the segmented gray matter for each of the subjects, cortical regions were created and introduced as source priors for MSP-inversion assuming two types of head models. The standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models and extended 4-layered head models including CSF. We compared these models with the current implementation by assessing the free energy corresponding with each of the reconstructions using Bayesian model selection for group studies. Strong evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP approach compared to the MSP approach based on cortical patches for both types of head models. Overall, the strongest evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP reconstructions based on the extended head models including CSF. These results were verified by comparing the reconstructed activity. The use of volumetric cortical regions as source priors is a useful complement to the present implementation as it allows to introduce more complex head models and volumetric source priors in future studies.

  9. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key Words: Exchange Rate, Deregulation, Industrial Performance, Co- integration ... and exchange risk there from. In fact ... factors underscore the importance of exchange rate to the economic well being of ..... Wearing. Apparel, Footwear,.

  10. Dry sliding wear behavior of an extruded Mg–Dy–Zn alloy with long period stacking ordered phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Bi


    Full Text Available The dry sliding wear behavior of extruded Mg-2Dy-0.5Zn alloy (at.% was investigated using a pin-on-disk configuration. The friction coefficient and wear rate were measured within a load range 20–760 N at a sliding velocity of 0.785 m/s. Microstructure and wear surface of alloy were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of alloy were tested at room and elevated temperatures. Five wear mechanisms, namely abrasion, oxidation, delamination, thermal softening and melting dominated the whole wear behavior with increasing applied load. The extruded Mg-2Dy-0.5Zn alloy exhibited the better wear resistance as compared with as-cast Mg97Zn1Y2 alloy under the given conditions through contact surface temperature analysis. The improved wear resistance was mainly related to fine grain size, good thermal stability of long period stacking order (LPSO phase and excellent higher-temperature mechanical properties.

  11. Corrosion and wear properties of Ni-Sn-P ternary deposits on mild steel via electroless method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.I. Popoola


    Full Text Available The rising necessity to improve corrosion and wear resistance of metals for engineering applications cannot be over emphasized. This has led to employing diverse models, method and techniques to obtain better corrosion and wear resistances for metallic materials and components which will otherwise fail during service. This work investigated the effect of Ni-P binary and Ni-Sn-P ternary electroless depositions on the corrosion and wear behavior of mild steel. Micro-structural examination using scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis shows finer and more evenly distributed particle orientation across the substrate surface. The Ni-Sn-P ternary deposits on the mild steel displayed from the linear polarization analysis a better corrosion resistance with corrosion rate values of 0.000246 mm/yr as compared with that of the Ni-P binary deposits with 0.016672 mm/yr. Also the coefficient of friction of the unplated sample varies between 0 and 0.08 while for the plated samples the coefficient of friction was relatively lesser and ranged from 0 to 0.02. Significant improvement in corrosion resistance was also indicated by a positive shift in potential. Sliding wear analysis demonstrates consistently enhanced wear resistance of the ternary deposits as well as the binary deposits, with the ternary Sn addition showing better resistance to wear. This work has established that Ni-Sn-P electroless coating of mild steel can be used to improve the corrosion and wear resistance for engineering applications.

  12. Measurement of daily physical activity using the SenseWear Armband: Compliance, comfort, adverse side effects and usability. (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; Tsai, Ling Ling Y; Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A


    Little is known about the acceptability of wearing physical activity-monitoring devices. This study aimed to examine the compliance, comfort, incidence of adverse side effects, and usability when wearing the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for daily physical activity assessment. In a prospective study, 314 participants (252 people with COPD, 36 people with a dust-related respiratory disease and 26 healthy age-matched people) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire following a 7-day period of wearing the SWA. Compliance, comfort levels during the day and night, adverse side effects and ease of using the device were recorded. Non-compliance with wearing the SWA over 7 days was 8%. The main reasons for removing the device were adverse side effects and discomfort. The SWA comfort level during the day was rated by 11% of participants as uncomfortable/very uncomfortable, with higher levels of discomfort reported during the night (16%). Nearly half of the participants (46%) experienced at least one adverse skin irritation side effect from wearing the SWA including itchiness, skin irritation and rashes, and/or bruising. Compliance with wearing the SWA for measurement of daily physical activity was found to be good, despite reports of discomfort and a high incidence of adverse side effects.

  13. The Tribological Performance of Hardfaced/ Thermal Sprayed Coatings for Increasing the Wear Resistance of Ventilation Mill Working Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl


    Full Text Available During the coal pulverizing, the working parts of the ventilation mill are being worn by the sand particles. For this reason, the working parts are usually protected with materials resistant to wear (hardfaced/thermal sprayed coatings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance of four different types of coatings as candidates for wear protection of the mill’s working parts. The coatings were produced by using the filler materials with the following nominal chemical composition: NiFeBSi-WC, NiCrBSiC, FeCrCTiSi, and FeCrNiCSiBMn, and by using the plasma arc welding and flame and electric arc spraying processes. The results showed that Ni-based coatings exhibited higher wear resistance than Fe-based coatings. The highest wear resistance showed coating produced by using the NiFeBSi-WC filler material and plasma transferred arc welding deposition process. The hardness was not the only characteristic that affected the wear resistance. In this context, the wear rate of NiFeBSi-WC coating was not in correlation with its hardness, in contrast to other coatings. The different wear performance of NiFeBSi-WC coating was attributed to the different type and morphological features of the reinforcing particles (WC.

  14. Influence of the electrical sliding speed on friction and wear processes in an electrical contact copper stainless steel (United States)

    Bouchoucha, A.; Chekroud, S.; Paulmier, D.


    Among the various parameters that influence the friction and wear behaviour of a copper-stainless steel couple crossed by an electrical current and in a dry contact is the sliding speed. The tests were carried out under ambient environment and the sliding speed was in the range of 0.2-8 ms -1. The electrical current intensity was varied from 0 to 40 A and held constant during each experiment. The normal load was maintained constant corresponding to an average Hertzian stress of 10 7 Pa. It appears that the friction coefficient and the wear rate increase at first with the speed, reach their maximums, then slowly decrease and tend to constant values. Over the entire range of sliding speeds two types of wear are observed. These latters are essentially mild wear as long as hard debris do not appear at the interface and severe wear when debris consisting of oxides or oxide metal mixture become big enough, they are removed from the surface and have abrasive effect. The results are discussed in terms of observations of wear debris size and composition, wear track study, metallographic study of worn surfaces and friction and electrical contact resistance records.

  15. Associated factors of tooth wear among Malaysian 16-year-olds: a case-control study in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. (United States)

    Saerah, N B; Mastura, N; bin Ismail, A R; Sadiq, M A


    To determine the associated factors of tooth wear (TW) among 16-year-old school children. A random selection of secondary school children from 8 government secondary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia, participated in this case-control study. The Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index and WHO criteria were used to chart tooth wear and dental caries respectively. Saliva analyses used standards recommended by GC Asia Dental. Self-administered questionnaire provided socio-demographic profile of the family, general knowledge of tooth wear, oral hygiene, food and drinks practices and other associated variables for tooth wear. Analysis using multiple logistic regression was performed. Of the 576 children sampled, 40% of the 460 controls were male as were 57% of the 116 in the case group. Multivariate analysis showed gender, monthly household income, carbonated drinks, caries experience, pool swimming, duration of intake of orange juice and hydration rate and viscosity were significantly associated with wear. The factors associated with tooth wear were similar to those encountered in other studies. Oral health promotion activities should emphasise those factors which can be changed. The erosive potential of some foods and drinks require further investigation.

  16. In vivo wear of enamel by a lithia disilicate-based core ceramic used for posterior fixed partial dentures: first-year results. (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F; Young, Henry; Jones, Jack; Yang, Mark; Anusavice, Kenneth J


    This study aimed (1) to test the hypothesis that no significant relationship exists between the magnitude of occlusal clenching force and wear rates of enamel opposing a new core ceramic (e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) used in posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs); and (2) to test the hypothesis that mean annual enamel wear by an experimental core ceramic is comparable to the mean annual enamel wear by enamel of 38 microm. Baseline data were obtained for patients in addition to preliminary impressions of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Thirty ceramic FPDs were processed from a new core ceramic (e.max Press) that was hot pressed and glazed. Patients were recalled 1 year after cementation and evaluated using clinical criteria that included wear assessment of opposing teeth. Impressions were made of the opposing teeth with polyvinylsiloxane impression material and photographs were taken of intraoral occlusal contacts marked with articulating ribbon. Baseline casts and casts made at each recall exam of opposing dentitions were scanned using a 3-dimensional laser scanner (Laserscan 3D, Willytec) and evaluated for wear. A total of 21 occlusal surfaces were analyzed for the presence of wear. Statistical analysis using a linear and quadratic model revealed no significant relationship between occlusal forces and wear rate assuming either a linear model (R2 = 0.018) or a quadratic model (R2 = 0.023). The maximum annual wear of enamel by the glazed core ceramic (e.max Press) was 88.3 microm, which is significantly greater than the annual enamel-by-enamel wear of 38 microm (P < .0001). Further analysis with a larger sample size is needed to determine the relationship between occlusal clenching force and wear rate and the influence of other factors that cause increased wear of enamel by opposing ceramic restorations.

  17. Severe tooth wear: European consensus statement on management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loomans, Bas AC; Opdam, Niek JM; Attin, Thomas


    This paper reports a European expert consensus statement on guidelines for the management of severe tooth wear. It focuses on the definition of physiological versus pathological tooth wear and recommends diagnosis, monitoring and counseling to define the activity of the wear. Restorative...

  18. 16 CFR 423.6 - Textile wearing apparel. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile wearing apparel. 423.6 Section 423.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CARE LABELING OF TEXTILE WEARING APPAREL AND CERTAIN PIECE GOODS AS AMENDED § 423.6 Textile wearing apparel. This section applies to...

  19. A volumetric ablation model of EPDM considering complex physicochemical process in porous structure of char layer (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Xiao-Jing, Yu; Jian-Ming, Ma; Yi-Wen, Guan; Jiang, Li; Qiang, Li; Sa, Yang


    A volumetric ablation model for EPDM (ethylene- propylene-diene monomer) is established in this paper. This model considers the complex physicochemical process in the porous structure of a char layer. An ablation physics model based on a porous structure of a char layer and another model of heterogeneous volumetric ablation char layer physics are then built. In the model, porosity is used to describe the porous structure of a char layer. Gas diffusion and chemical reactions are introduced to the entire porous structure. Through detailed formation analysis, the causes of the compact or loose structure in the char layer and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction between pyrolysis gas and char layer skeleton are introduced. The Arrhenius formula is adopted to determine the methods for calculating carbon deposition rate C which is the consumption rate caused by thermochemical reactions in the char layer, and porosity evolution. The critical porosity value is used as a criterion for char layer porous structure failure under gas flow and particle erosion. This critical porosity value is obtained by fitting experimental parameters and surface porosity of the char layer. Linear ablation and mass ablation rates are confirmed with the critical porosity value. Results of linear ablation and mass ablation rate calculations generally coincide with experimental results, suggesting that the ablation analysis proposed in this paper can accurately reflect practical situations and that the physics and mathematics models built are accurate and reasonable.

  20. Influence of Induction Hardening on Wear Resistance in Case of Rolling Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šofer Michal


    Full Text Available The main aim of the presented paper is to show how heat treatment, in our case the induction hardening, will affect the wear rates as well as the ratcheting evolution process beneath the contact surface in the field of line rolling contact. Used wear model is based on shear band cracking mechanism [1] and non-linear kinematic and isotropic hardening rule of Chaboche and Lemaitre. The entire numerical simulations have been realized in the C# programming language. Results from numerical simulations are subsequently compared with experimental data.