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Sample records for volumetric measurement control

  1. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  2. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  3. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  4. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jeremiah D. [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45504 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  5. Aspects of volumetric efficiency measurement for reciprocating engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric efficiency significantly influences engine output. Both design and dimensions of an intake and exhaust system have large impact on volumetric efficiency. Experimental equipment for measuring of airflow through the engine, which is placed in the intake system, may affect the results of measurements and distort the real picture of the impact of individual structural factors. This paper deals with the problems of experimental determination of intake airflow using orifice plates and the influence of orifice plate diameter on the results of the measurements. The problems of airflow measurements through a multi-process Otto/Diesel engine were analyzed. An original method for determining volumetric efficiency was developed based on in-cylinder pressure measurement during motored operation, and appropriate calibration of the experimental procedure was performed. Good correlation between the results of application of the original method for determination of volumetric efficiency and the results of theoretical model used in research of influence of the intake pipe length on volumetric efficiency was determined. [Acknowledgments. The paper is the result of the research within the project TR 35041 financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia

  6. Volumetric measurement of rock movement using photogrammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benton Donovan J.; Iverson Stephen R.; Martin Lewis A.; Johnson Jeffrey C.; Raffaldi Michael J

    2016-01-01

    NIOSH ground control safety research program at Spokane, Washington, is exploring applications of pho-togrammetry to rock mass and support monitoring. This paper describes two ways photogrammetric techniques are being used. First, photogrammetric data of laboratory testing is being used to correlate energy input and support deformation. This information can be used to infer remaining support toughness after ground deformation events. This technique is also demonstrated in a field application. Second, field photogrammetric data is compared to crackmeter data from a deep underground mine. Accuracies were found to average 8 mm, but have produced results within 0.2 mm of true displacement, as measured by crackmeters. Application of these techniques consists of monitoring overall fault activity by monitoring multiple points around the crackmeter. A case study is provided in which a crackmeter is clearly shown to have provided insufficient information regarding overall fault ground deformation. Photogrammetry is proving to be a useful ground monitoring tool due to its unobtrusiveness and ease of use.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Image Segmentation and its Volumetric Measurement

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    Rahul R. Ambalkar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Image processing techniques make it possible to extract meaningful information from medical images. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been widely applied in biological research and diagnostics because of its excellent soft tissue contrast, non-invasive character, high spatial resolution and easy slice selection at any orientation. The MRI-based brain volumetric is concerned with the analysis of volumes and shapes of the structural components of the human brain. It also provides a criterion, by which we recognize the presence of degenerative diseases and characterize their rates of progression to make the diagnosis and treatments as a easy task. In this paper we have proposed an automated method for volumetric measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and used Self Organized Map (SOM clustering method for their segmentations. We have used the MRI data set of 61 slices of 256×256 pixels in DICOM standard format

  8. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  9. Rapid mapping of volumetric machine errors using distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulewich, D.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to maping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) models the relationship between volumetric error and the current state of the machine, (2) acquiring error data based on distance measurements throughout the work volume; and (3)fitting the error model using the nonlinear equation for the distance. The error model is formulated from the kinematic relationship among the six degrees of freedom of error an each moving axis. Expressing each parametric error as function of position each is combined to predict the error between the functional point and workpiece, also as a function of position. A series of distances between several fixed base locations and various functional points in the work volume is measured using a Laser Ball Bar (LBB). Each measured distance is a non-linear function dependent on the commanded location of the machine, the machine error, and the location of the base locations. Using the error model, the non-linear equation is solved producing a fit for the error model Also note that, given approximate distances between each pair of base locations, the exact base locations in the machine coordinate system determined during the non-linear filling procedure. Furthermore, with the use of 2048 more than three base locations, bias error in the measuring instrument can be removed The volumetric errors of three-axis commercial machining center have been mapped using this procedure. In this study, only errors associated with the nominal position of the machine were considered Other errors such as thermally induced and load induced errors were not considered although the mathematical model has the ability to account for these errors. Due to the proprietary nature of the projects we are

  10. Connectivity network measures predict volumetric atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Talia M; Jahanshad, Neda; Toga, Arthur W; Bernstein, Matt A; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cortical atrophy and disrupted anatomic connectivity, and leads to abnormal interactions between neural systems. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and graph theory can be used to evaluate major brain networks and detect signs of a breakdown in network connectivity. In a longitudinal study using both DWI and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we assessed baseline white-matter connectivity patterns in 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mean age 71.8 ± 7.5 years, 18 males and 12 females) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Using both standard MRI-based cortical parcellations and whole-brain tractography, we computed baseline connectivity maps from which we calculated global "small-world" architecture measures, including mean clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. We evaluated whether these baseline network measures predicted future volumetric brain atrophy in MCI subjects, who are at risk for developing AD, as determined by 3-dimensional Jacobian "expansion factor maps" between baseline and 6-month follow-up anatomic scans. This study suggests that DWI-based network measures may be a novel predictor of AD progression.

  11. Mammographic density estimation with automated volumetric breast density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2014-01-01

    To compare automated volumetric breast density measurement (VBDM) with radiologists' evaluations based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to identify the factors associated with technical failure of VBDM. In this study, 1129 women aged 19-82 years who underwent mammography from December 2011 to January 2012 were included. Breast density evaluations by radiologists based on BI-RADS and by VBDM (Volpara Version 1.5.1) were compared. The agreement in interpreting breast density between radiologists and VBDM was determined based on four density grades (D1, D2, D3, and D4) and a binary classification of fatty (D1-2) vs. dense (D3-4) breast using kappa statistics. The association between technical failure of VBDM and patient age, total breast volume, fibroglandular tissue volume, history of partial mastectomy, the frequency of mass > 3 cm, and breast density was analyzed. The agreement between breast density evaluations by radiologists and VBDM was fair (k value = 0.26) when the four density grades (D1/D2/D3/D4) were used and moderate (k value = 0.47) for the binary classification (D1-2/D3-4). Twenty-seven women (2.4%) showed failure of VBDM. Small total breast volume, history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density were significantly associated with technical failure of VBDM (p = 0.001 to 0.015). There is fair or moderate agreement in breast density evaluation between radiologists and VBDM. Technical failure of VBDM may be related to small total breast volume, a history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density.

  12. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

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    Rachel E. Klaren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV, normalized WM volume (NWMV, and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was significantly associated with NGMV (pr=0.370, p<0.05, NWMV (pr=0.433, p<0.01, hippocampus (pr=0.499, p<0.01, thalamus (pr=0.380, p<0.05, caudate (pr=0.539, p<0.01, putamen (pr=0.369, p<0.05, and pallidum (pr=0.498, p<0.01 volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS.

  13. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  14. Effects of Different Reconstruction Parameters on CT Volumetric Measurement 
of Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong YANG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that volumetric measurements could detect subtle changes in small pulmonary nodules in serial CT scans, and thus may play an important role in the follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and in differentiating malignant nodules from benign nodules. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of different reconstruction parameters on the volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules in chest CT scans. Methods Thirty subjects who underwent chest CT scan because of indeterminate pulmonary nodules in General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from December 2009 to August 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 52 pulmonary nodules were included, and all CT data were reconstructed using three reconstruction algorithms and three slice thicknesses. The volumetric measurements of the nodules were performed using the advanced lung analysis (ALA software. The effects of the reconstruction algorithms, slice thicknesses, and nodule diameters on the volumetric measurements were assessed using the multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures, the correlation analysis, and the Bland-Altman method. Results The reconstruction algorithms (F=13.6, P<0.001 and slice thicknesses (F=4.4, P=0.02 had significant effects on the measured volume of pulmonary nodules. In addition, the coefficients of variation of nine measurements were inversely related with nodule diameter (r=-0.814, P<0.001. The volume measured at the 2.5 mm slice thickness had poor agreement with the volumes measured at 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm, respectively. Moreover, the best agreement was achieved between the slice thicknesses of 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm using the bone algorithm. Conclusion Reconstruction algorithms and slice thicknesses have significant impacts on the volumetric measurements of lung nodules, especially for the small nodules. Therefore, the reconstruction setting in serial CT scans should be consistent in the follow

  15. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Duan, Jianghui [Medical School, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei [Department of Respiration Internal Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  16. The NCS code of practice for the quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Anton; Schuring, Danny; Arends, Mark P.; Vugts, Cornelia A. J. M.; Wolthaus, Jochem W. H.; Lotz, Heidi T.; Admiraal, Marjan; Louwe, Rob J. W.; Öllers, Michel C.; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.

    2016-10-01

    In 2010, the NCS (Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry) installed a subcommittee to develop guidelines for quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments. The report (published in 2015) has been written by Dutch medical physicists and has therefore, inevitably, a Dutch focus. This paper is a condensed version of these guidelines, the full report in English is freely available from the NCS website www.radiationdosimetry.org. After describing the transition from IMRT to VMAT, the paper addresses machine quality assurance (QA) and treatment planning system (TPS) commissioning for VMAT. The final section discusses patient specific QA issues such as the use of class solutions, measurement devices and dose evaluation methods.

  17. Accuracy of CBCT for volumetric measurement of simulated periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlowalia, M S; Patel, S; Anwar, H M S; Cama, G; Austin, R S; Wilson, R; Mannocci, F

    2013-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro-computed tomography (μCT) when measuring the volume of bone cavities. Ten irregular-shaped cavities of varying dimensions were created in bovine bone specimens using a rotary diamond bur. The samples were then scanned using the Accuitomo 3D CBCT scanner. The scanned information was converted to the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) format ready for analysis. Once formatted, 10 trained and calibrated examiners segmented the scans and measured the volumes of the lesions. Intra/interexaminer agreement was assessed by each examiner re-segmenting each scan after a 2-week interval. Micro-CT scans were analysed by a single examiner. To achieve a physical reading of the artificially created cavities, replicas were created using dimensionally stable silicone impression material. After measuring the mass of each impression sample, the volume was calculated by dividing the mass of each sample by the density of the set impression material. Further corroboration of these measurements was obtained by employing Archimedes' principle to measure the volume of each impression sample. Intraclass correlation was used to assess agreement. Both CBCT (mean volume: 175.9 mm3) and μCT (mean volume: 163.1 mm3) showed a high degree of agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.9) when compared to both weighed and 'Archimedes' principle' measurements (mean volume: 177.7 and 182.6 mm3, respectively). Cone beam computed tomography is an accurate means of measuring volume of artificially created bone cavities in an ex vivo model. This may provide a valuable tool for monitoring the healing rate of apical periodontitis; further investigations are warranted. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  19. Control and design of volumetric composition in pultruded hybrid fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hashemi, Fariborz; Tahir, Paridah

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composites consist of two of more fibre phases in a common matrix phase. This is a challenge for the control and design of the volumetric composition and microstructural uniformity of such composites. In the present study, a model is presented for the prediction of the complete volumetric...... composition (i.e. volume fractions of fibres, matrix and porosity) in hybrid fibre composites. The model is based on a constant local fibre volume fraction criterion. Good agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass fibre composites with variable hybrid...... fibre weight mixing ratios. To demonstrate the suitability of the model, simulations are performed for four different cases of volumetric composition in hybrid kenaf/glass composites....

  20. Volumetric measurement of pulmonary nodules at low-dose chest CT : effect of reconstruction setting on measurement variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; de Bock, G.H.; van Klaveren, R.J.; van Ooyen, P.; Tukker, W.; Zhao, Y.; Dorrius, M.D.; Proenca, R.V.; Post, W.J.; Oudkerk, M.

    2010-01-01

    To assess volumetric measurement variability in pulmonary nodules detected at low-dose chest CT with three reconstruction settings. The volume of 200 solid pulmonary nodules was measured three times using commercially available semi-automated software of low-dose chest CT data-sets reconstructed wit

  1. The NCS code of practice for the quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, Anton; Schuring, Danny; Arends, Mark P.; Vugts, Cornelia A. J. M.; Wolthaus, Jochem W. H.; Lotz, Heidi T.; Admiraal, Marjan; Louwe, Rob J. W.; Ollers, Michel C.; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the NCS (Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry) installed a subcommittee to develop guidelines for quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments. The report (published in 2015) has been written by Dutch medical physicists and has therefore, ine

  2. A Methodological Evaluation of Volumetric Measurement Techniques including Three-Dimensional Imaging in Breast Surgery

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    H. Hoeffelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes’ principle under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  3. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffelin, H; Jacquemin, D; Defaweux, V; Nizet, J L

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  4. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual prospect

  5. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual

  6. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

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    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  7. Volumetric intake flow measurements of an IC engine using magnetic resonance velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenhammer, Daniel; Baum, Elias; Peterson, Brian; Böhm, Benjamin; Jung, Bernd; Grundmann, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements are performed in a 1:1 scale model of a single-cylinder optical engine to investigate the volumetric flow within the intake and cylinder geometry during flow induction. The model is a steady flow water analogue of the optical IC-engine with a fixed valve lift of mm to simulate the induction flow at crank-angle bTDC. This setup resembles a steady flow engine test bench configuration. MRV measurements are validated with phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements performed within the symmetry plane of the optical engine. Differences in experimental operating parameters between MRV and PIV measurements are well addressed. Comparison of MRV and PIV measurements is demonstrated using normalized mean velocity component profiles and showed excellent agreement in the upper portion of the cylinder chamber (i.e., mm). MRV measurements are further used to analyze the ensemble average volumetric flow within the 3D engine domain. Measurements are used to describe the 3D overflow and underflow behavior as the annular flow enters the cylinder chamber. Flow features such as the annular jet-like flows extending into the cylinder, their influence on large-scale in-cylinder flow motion, as well as flow recirculation zones are identified in 3D space. Inlet flow velocities are analyzed around the entire valve curtain perimeter to quantify percent mass flow rate entering the cylinder. Recirculation zones associated with the underflow are shown to reduce local mass flow rates up to 50 %. Recirculation zones are further analyzed in 3D space within the intake manifold and cylinder chamber. It is suggested that such recirculation zones can have large implications on cylinder charge filling and variations of the in-cylinder flow pattern. MRV is revealed to be an important diagnostic tool used to understand the volumetric induction flow within engine geometries and is potentially suited to evaluate flow changes due to intake

  8. Accuracy of electrocardiographic-gated versus nongated volumetric intravascular ultrasound measurements of coronary arterial narrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per

    2007-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) allows precise measurements of plaque plus media (P+M) volume and neointimal hyperplasia after coronary artery stenting. Conventional IVUS volumetric analysis is performed mostly without electrocardiographically gated acquisition, and the IVUS images are selected...... in changes between 2 electrocardiographically gated and 2 nongated pullbacks (lumen: 0.37 +/- 1.76 vs -0.23 +/- 2.32 mm(3), p = NS; EEM: 0.25 +/- 3.22 vs -0.94 +/- 4.27 mm(3), p = NS; P+M: -0.18 +/- 3.42 vs -0.74 +/- 3.88 mm(3), p = NS). In conclusion, in moderate atherosclerotic or stented coronary arteries...

  9. Techniques to measure volumetric flow and particulate concentration in stacks with cyclonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, J. D.; Barbin, A. R.; Reece, J. W.; Carter, W. G.; Ferguson, B. B.

    1982-08-01

    It was determined that an in stack venturi can accurately measure volumetric flow in stacks with a severe cyclonic flow profile. The design requirements of the venturi are described. Also described was a low head loss, egg crate shaped device that effectively straightens cyclonic flow. Installation of such a device after a tangential inlet to a tall stack can result in considerable energy savings because it takes less fan power to push the straightened flow. Results to determine the particulate distribution downstream of the egg crate were inconclusive.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A; Spijkerman, J M; Biessels, G J; Hendrikse, J; Petersen, E T

    2016-05-01

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (VCSF) and the T2 of CSF (T2,CSF) was calculated. The correlation between VCSF/T2,CSF and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2 of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T2 of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. • A 1:11 min CSF MRI volumetric sequence can evaluate brain atrophy. • CSF MRI provides accurate atrophy assessment without partial volume effects. • CSF MRI data can be processed quickly without user interaction. • The measured T 2 of the CSF is related to brain atrophy.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  12. Quantification of coronary microvascular resistance using angiographic images for volumetric blood flow measurement: in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Takarada, Shigeho; Molloi, Sabee

    2011-06-01

    Structural coronary microcirculation abnormalities are important prognostic determinants in clinical settings. However, an assessment of microvascular resistance (MR) requires a velocity wire. A first-pass distribution analysis technique to measure volumetric blood flow has been previously validated. The aim of this study was the in vivo validation of the MR measurement technique using first-pass distribution analysis. Twelve anesthetized swine were instrumented with a transit-time ultrasound flow probe on the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Microspheres were injected into the LAD to create a model of microvascular dysfunction. Adenosine (400 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) was used to produce maximum hyperemia. A region of interest in the LAD arterial bed was drawn to generate time-density curves using angiographic images. Volumetric blood flow measurements (Q(a)) were made using a time-density curve and the assumption that blood was momentarily replaced with contrast agent during the injection. Blood flow from the flow probe (Q(p)), coronary pressure (P(a)), and right atrium pressure (P(v)) were continuously recorded. Flow probe-based normalized MR (NMR(p)) and angiography-based normalized MR (NMR(a)) were calculated using Q(p) and Q(a), respectively. In 258 measurements, Q(a) showed a strong correlation with the gold standard Q(p) (Q(a) = 0.90 Q(p) + 6.6 ml/min, r(2) = 0.91, P measure NMR without using a velocity wire, which can potentially be used to evaluate microvascular conditions during coronary arteriography.

  13. Mammographic density measurement: a comparison of automated volumetric density measurement to BIRADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Damases, Christine N.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare mammographic breast density assessment with automated volumetric software with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) categorization by radiologists on two imaging systems. A data set of 120 mammograms was classified by twenty American Board of Radiology (ABR) Examiners. The mammograms were of 20 women (mean age, 60 years; range, 42-89 years). These women were image twice once with GE system and the following year with Hologic system. These images also had their volumetric density classified by using Volpara Density Grade (VDG). The radiologists were asked to estimate the mammographic density according to BIRADS categories (1- 4). There was a moderate agreement between VDG classification and radiologist BIRADS density shown with Cohen's Kappa (K=0.45; pBIRADS having a mean of 2.13 and the mean VDG higher at 2.50 (t = -11.99; pBIRADS showed a positive strong correlation (r=0.84; pBIRADS and VDG AvBD% also showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86; pBIRADS categories for each of the VDG AvBD% classifications. Using Volpara, the Hologic system showed a higher meanAvBD% (10.02 vs. 9.97). However using BIRADS the Hologic systems showed a lower mean (2.05 vs. 2.21). Automated systems demonstrated higher internal validity. The results demonstrated a moderate agreement and a strong correlation between VDG classification and radiologist BIRADS density assessment.

  14. Simultaneous control of volumetric light distribution through turbid media using real-time three-dimensional optoacoustic feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Deán-Ben, X Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Focusing light through turbid media presents a highly fascinating challenge in modern biophotonics. The unique capability of optoacoustics for high resolution imaging of light absorption contrast in deep tissues can provide a natural and efficient feedback to control light delivery in scattering medium. While basic feasibility of using optoacoustic readings as a feedback mechanism for wavefront shaping has been recently reported, the suggested approaches may require long acquisition times making them challenging to be translated into realistic tissue environments. In an attempt to significantly accelerate dynamic wavefront shaping capabilities, we present here a feedback-based approach using real-time three-dimensional optoacoustic imaging assisted with genetic-algorithm-based optimization. The new technique offers robust performance in the presence of noisy measurements and can simultaneously control the scattered wave field in an entire volumetric region.

  15. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the publicly available Laboratory for Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA) software tool: comparison of fully automated area and volumetric density measures in a case-control study with digital mammography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keller, Brad M; Chen, Jinbo; Daye, Dania; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    .... We investigated associations between breast cancer and fully automated measures of breast density made by a new publicly available software tool, the Laboratory for Individualized Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA...

  17. Multicenter assessment of the reproducibility of volumetric radiofrequency-based intravascular ultrasound measurements in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huisman, Jennifer; Egede, Rasmus; Rdzanek, Adam

    2012-01-01

    To assess in a multicenter design the between-center reproducibility of volumetric virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) measurements with a semi-automated, computer-assisted contour detection system in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented. To evaluate the reproducibili...... on average the highest measurement reproducibility. A central analysis for VH-IVUS multicenter studies of lesions prior to PCI should be pursued. Moreover, it may be problematical to pool VH-IVUS data of individual trials analyzed by independent centers.......To assess in a multicenter design the between-center reproducibility of volumetric virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) measurements with a semi-automated, computer-assisted contour detection system in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented. To evaluate the reproducibility...... of volumetric VH-IVUS measurements, experienced analysts of 4 European IVUS centers performed independent analyses (in total 8,052 cross-sectional analyses) to obtain volumetric data of 40 coronary segments (length 20.0 ± 0.3 mm) from target lesions prior to percutaneous intervention that were performed...

  18. Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance measures as biomarkers of brain damage in a small animal model of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Lentz

    Full Text Available There are currently no widely accepted neuro-HIV small animal models. We wanted to validate the HIV-1 Transgenic rat (Tg as an appropriate neuro-HIV model and then establish in vivo imaging biomarkers of neuropathology, within this model, using MR structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI.Young and middle-aged Tg and control rats were imaged using MRI. A subset of middle-aged animals underwent longitudinal repeat imaging six months later. Total brain volume (TBV, ventricular volume (VV and parenchymal volume (PV = TBV-VV were measured. Fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD values of the corpus callosum (CC were calculated from DTI data.TBV and PV were smaller in Tg compared to control rats in young and middle-aged cohorts (p0.05.We detected brain volume loss in the Tg rat, probably due to astrocytic dysfunction/loss, loss of structural/axonal matrix and striatal neuronal loss as suggested by immunofluorescence. Increased MD and decreased FA in the CC probably reflect microstructural differences between the Tg and Control rats which could include increased extracellular space between white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, among other pathologies. We believe that the Tg rat is an adequate model of neuropathology in HIV and that volumetric MR and DTI measures can be potentially used as biomarkers of disease progression.

  19. Heuristic knowledge-based heliostat field control for the optimization of the temperature distribution in a volumetric receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Martin, F.J.; Camacho, E.F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Escuela Superior de Ingenieros; Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria (Spain). Dpto. de Lenguajes y Computacion; Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    The paper presents the development and implementation of a heuristic knowledge-based heliostat control strategy optimizing the temperature distribution within a volumetric receiver at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) power tower plant. The experience in operating the plant has been used in the development of an automatic control strategy that provides an appropriate flux distribution within the volumetric receiver in order to obtain a desired temperature profile, and allows for operation without a continuous intervention of the operator, which is one of the main characteristics,and drawbacks in the exploitation of these kinds of plants. Experimental results are included and discussed in the paper. (author)

  20. Simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with experimentally measured volumetric initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kevin; Sewell, Everest; Krivets, Vitaliy; Greenough, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) are measured in three dimensions in the University of Arizona Vertical Shock Tube using a moving magnet galvanometer system. The resulting volumetric data is used as initial conditions for the simulation of the RMI using ARES at Lawrence-Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The heavy gas is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and the light gas is air. The perturbations are generated by harmonically oscillating the gasses vertically using two loudspeakers mounted to the shock tube which cause Faraday resonance, producing a random short wavelength perturbation on the interface. Planar Mie scattering is used to illuminate the flow field through the addition of propylene glycol particles seeded in the heavy gas. An M=1.2 shock impulsively accelerates the interface, initiating instability growth. Images of the initial condition and instability growth are captured at a rate of 6 kHz using high speed cameras. Comparisons between experimental and simulation results, mixing diagnostics, and mixing zone growth are presented.

  1. Volumetric vessel reconstruction method for absolute blood flow velocity measurement in Doppler OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it not only relates to the properties of the laser and the scattering particles, but also relates to the geometry of both directions of the laser beam and the flow. In this paper, focusing on the analysis of cerebral hemodynamics, we presents a method to quantify the total absolute blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) based on volumetric vessel reconstruction from pure DOCT images. A modified region growing segmentation method is first used to localize the MCA on successive DOCT B-scan images. Vessel skeletonization, followed by an averaging gradient angle calculation method, is then carried out to obtain Doppler angles along the entire MCA. Once the Doppler angles are determined, the absolute blood flow velocity of each position on the MCA is easily found. Given a seed point position on the MCA, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV. Based on experiments conducted using a swept-source optical coherence tomography system, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches in the rodent brain.

  2. In vivo MRI volumetric measurement of prostate regression and growth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcioglu Orhan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse models for treatment of late-stage prostate cancer are valuable tools, but assessing the extent of growth of the prostate and particularly its regression due to therapeutic intervention or castration is difficult due to the location, small size and interdigitated anatomy of the prostate gland in situ. Temporal monitoring of mouse prostate regression requires multiple animals and examination of histological sections. Methods Initially, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed on normal year-old C57/BL6 mice. Individual mice were repeatedly imaged using inhalation anesthesia to establish the reproducibility of the method and to follow hormone manipulation of the prostate volume. Subsequently, MRI fat signal was suppressed using a chemical shift-selective (CHESS pulse to avoid signal contamination and enhance discrimination of the prostate. Results High field (7T MRI provides high resolution (117 × 117 μm in plane, highly reproducible images of the normal mouse prostate. Despite long imaging times, animals can be imaged repeatedly to establish reliability of volume measurements. Prostate volume declines following castration and subsequently returns to normal with androgen administration in the same animal. CHESS imaging allowed discrimination of both the margins of the prostate and the dorsal-lateral lobes of the prostate (DLP from the ventral lobes (VP. Castration results in a 40% reduction in the volume of the DLP and a 75% reduction in the volume of the VP. Conclusion MRI assessment of the volume of the mouse prostate is precise and reproducible. MRI improves volumetric determination of the extent of regression and monitoring of the same mouse over time during the course of treatment is possible. Since assessing groups of animals at each time point is avoided, this improves the accuracy of the measurement of any manipulation effect and reduces the number of animals required.

  3. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  4. Statistical quality control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery using machine log data

    CERN Document Server

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Han, Tae Jin; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to set up statistical quality control for monitoring of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery error using machine log data. Eclipse and Clinac iX linac with the RapidArc system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) is used for delivery of the VMAT plan. During the delivery of the RapidArc fields, the machine determines the delivered motor units (MUs) and gantry angle position accuracy and the standard deviations of MU (sigma_MU; dosimetric error) and gantry angle (sigma_GA; geometric error) are displayed on the console monitor after completion of the RapidArc delivery. In the present study, first, the log data was analyzed to confirm its validity and usability; then, statistical process control (SPC) was applied to monitor the sigma_MU and sigma_GA in a timely manner for all RapidArc fields: a total of 195 arc fields for 99 patients. The sigma_MU and sigma_GA were determined twice for all fields, that is, first during the patient-specific plan QA and then again during th...

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290473683; van der Kleij, L A; Spijkerman, J M; Biessels, G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; Hendrikse, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266590268; Petersen, E T

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were perform

  6. Accuracy of model-based tracking of knee kinematics and cartilage contact measured by dynamic volumetric MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jarred; Monawer, Arezu; Chaudhary, Rajeev; Johnson, Kevin M; Wieben, Oliver; Kijowski, Richard; Thelen, Darryl G

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of knee kinematics and cartilage contact measured by volumetric dynamic MRI. A motor-actuated phantom drove femoral and tibial bone segments through cyclic 3D motion patterns. Volumetric images were continuously acquired using a 3D radially undersampled cine spoiled gradient echo sequence (SPGR-VIPR). Image data was binned based on position measured via a MRI-compatible rotary encoder. High-resolution static images were segmented to create bone models. Model-based tracking was performed by optimally registering the bone models to the volumetric images at each frame of the SPGR-VIPR series. 3D tibiofemoral translations and orientations were reconstructed, and compared to kinematics obtained by tracking fiducial markers. Imaging was repeated on a healthy subject who performed cyclic knee flexion-extension. Cartilage contact for the subject was assessed by measuring the overlap between articular cartilage surfaces. Model-based tracking was able to track tibiofemoral angles and translations with precisions less than 0.8° and 0.5mm. These precisions resulted in an uncertainty of less than 0.5mm in cartilage contact location. Dynamic SPGR-VIPR imaging can accurately assess in vivo knee kinematics and cartilage contact during voluntary knee motion performed in a MRI scanner. This technology could facilitate the quantitative investigation of links between joint mechanics and the development of osteoarthritis.

  7. Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer’s calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.

  8. Statistical quality control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery by using the machine's log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Han, Tae Jin; Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to set up statistical quality control for monitoring the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery error by using the machine's log data. Eclipse and a Clinac iX linac with the RapidArc system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA) are used for delivery of the VMAT plan. During the delivery of the RapidArc fields, the machine determines the delivered monitor units (MUs) and the gantry angle's position accuracy and the standard deviations of the MU ( σMU: dosimetric error) and the gantry angle ( σGA: geometric error) are displayed on the console monitor after completion of the RapidArc delivery. In the present study, first, the log data were analyzed to confirm its validity and usability; then, statistical process control (SPC) was applied to monitor the σMU and the σGA in a timely manner for all RapidArc fields: a total of 195 arc fields for 99 patients. The MU and the GA were determined twice for all fields, that is, first during the patient-specific plan QA and then again during the first treatment. The sMU and the σGA time series were quite stable irrespective of the treatment site; however, the sGA strongly depended on the gantry's rotation speed. The σGA of the RapidArc delivery for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was smaller than that for the typical VMAT. Therefore, SPC was applied for SBRT cases and general cases respectively. Moreover, the accuracy of the potential meter of the gantry rotation is important because the σGA can change dramatically due to its condition. By applying SPC to the σMU and σGA, we could monitor the delivery error efficiently. However, the upper and the lower limits of SPC need to be determined carefully with full knowledge of the machine and log data.

  9. Confiabilidade de medidas volumétricas de estruturas temporais mesiais Reliability of mesial temporal lobe volumetric measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Marchetti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available MOTIVO DO ESTUDO: O desenvolvimento de técnicas confiáveis para a realização de medidas volumétricas de estruturas temporais mesiais (amígdala, hipocampo e giro para-hipocampal em exames de ressonância magnética (RM pode fornecer dados para o estudo de vários transtornos neuropsiquiátricos, particularmente epilepsia do lobo temporal, doença de Alzheimer e esquizofrenia. MÉTODO: Investigamos essas técnicas realizando estudo de confiabilidade intra-observador (IO e entre-observador (EO, envolvendo controles normais, pacientes com epilepsia e pacientes com doença de Alzheimer, através do coeficiente de correlação intra-classe (CCI. RESULTADOS: A confiabilidade IO para as estruturas analisadas variou de 0,93 a 0,99 (pRATIONALE: The development of reliable techniques for volumetric measurement of mesial temporal structures (amygdala, hypocampus and parahypocampal gyrus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can provide data for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders, mainly temporal lobe epilepsy, Alzheimer´s disease and schizophrenia. METHOD: We investigated these techniques performing intraobserver and interobserver reliability study concerning normal controls, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease patients using the intra-class correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Intra-observer reliability of evaluated structures ranged from 0.93 to 0.99 (p<0.001. Inter-observer reliability ranged from 0.70 to 0.95 (p <= 0.001. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the technique of MRI morphometry of mesial temporal regions can be considered a reliable tool which may help in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders, since used by adequately trained clinicians and researchers.

  10. Volumetric apparatus for hydrogen adsorption and diffusion measurements: sources of systematic error and impact of their experimental resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policicchio, Alfonso; Maccallini, Enrico; Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N; Cataldi, Ugo; Abate, Salvatore; Desiderio, Giovanni; Agostino, Raffaele Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The development of a volumetric apparatus (also known as a Sieverts' apparatus) for accurate and reliable hydrogen adsorption measurement is shown. The instrument minimizes the sources of systematic errors which are mainly due to inner volume calibration, stability and uniformity of the temperatures, precise evaluation of the skeletal volume of the measured samples, and thermodynamical properties of the gas species. A series of hardware and software solutions were designed and introduced in the apparatus, which we will indicate as f-PcT, in order to deal with these aspects. The results are represented in terms of an accurate evaluation of the equilibrium and dynamical characteristics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption on two well-known porous media. The contribution of each experimental solution to the error propagation of the adsorbed moles is assessed. The developed volumetric apparatus for gas storage capacity measurements allows an accurate evaluation over a 4 order-of-magnitude pressure range (from 1 kPa to 8 MPa) and in temperatures ranging between 77 K and 470 K. The acquired results are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature.

  11. Effect of Spinal Degenerative Changes on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Central Skeleton as Measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [Hospital ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Floriani, I.; Torri, V.; Li, J.; Kuijk, C. van; Genant, H.K.; Lang, T.F. [Scientific Inst. ' Mario Negri' , Milan (Italy). Biometry and Data Management Unit

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of degenerative changes due to osteoarthritis (OA) at the spine on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Material and Methods: Eighty-four elderly women (mean age 73 {+-}6 years), comprising 33 with vertebral fractures assessed by radiographs and 51 without vertebral fractures, were studied. Trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD were examined at the spine and hip using a helical CT scanner and were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements at the same sites. OA changes visible on the radiographs were categorized into two grades according to severity. Differences in BMD measures obtained in the two groups of patients defined by OA grade using the described radiologic methods were compared using analysis of variance. Standardized difference (effect sizes) was also compared between radiologic methods. Results: Spinal trabecular BMD did not differ significantly between OA grade 0 and OA grade. Spinal cortical and integral BMD measures showed statistically significant differences, as did the lumbar spine DXA BMD measurement (13%, P{approx_equal}0.02). The QCT measurements at the hip were also higher in OA subjects. Femoral trabecular BMD was 3-15% higher in OA grade subjects than in OA grade 0 subjects. The cortical BMD measures in the CT{sub T}OT{sub F}EM and CT{sub T}ROCH ROI's were also higher in the OA subjects. The integral QCT BMD measures in the hip showed difference between grades OA and 0. The DXA measurements in the neck and trochanter ROI's showed smaller differences (9 and 1%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in bone size. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting that trabecular BMD measurements by QCT are influenced by OA. Instead, degenerative changes have an effect on both cortical and integral QCT, and on DXA at the lumbar spine and the hip. For subjects with established OA, assessment of BMD by

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A;

    2016-01-01

    ) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. RESULTS: Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular VCSF increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T2...... of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). CONCLUSION: A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T2 of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus...

  13. Comparison of the radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA) dilution technique with direct volumetric measurements in animal models of peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; De Vriese, An S; Carlsson, Ola; Van Landschoot, Mike; Dheuvaert, Tomy; Lameire, Norbert H; Devriese, An S

    2002-01-01

    Rat models of peritoneal dialysis (PD) are useful for studying the physiology of peritoneal transport and evaluating new osmotic agents. Intraperitoneal (IP) solute concentrations and their evolution over time are easy to measure, but IP volume (IPV) is not. Direct volumetric measurements are the "gold standard:" but they are expensive and do not allow for repetitive measurements in the same animal. The Indicator dilution technique is therefore used as an alternative. However, that technique is based on assumptions that are not always valid. The present study compares direct volume measurement with the Indicator dilution technique [radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA)] to determine the IPV over time curves In a rat model of PD. In series 1, 17 Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled IP with 25 mL 1.36% glucose dialysate through a Teflon catheter. In 9 animals, 0.35 mL dialysate was sampled and discarded at time points 0, 3,15, 30, 60, 180, and 240 minutes. In the other 8 animals, no sampling was performed. At 240 minutes, all 12 animals were humanely killed, and direct volumetric measurements of IPV were performed. In series 2, rats were instilled IP with 25 mL 1.36% glucose dialysate containing 18.5 kBq 1311 RISA. In 9 animals, dialysate was sampled at 0, 3, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120,180, and 240 minutes for the construction of the RISA concentration-over-time curve, and to calculate the elimination constant Ke. At 30, 60, 180, and 240 minutes, dialysate was sampled in 6 different animals (total n = 24) to calculate IPV using the RISA dilution technique. Immediately afterward, the animals were humanely killed, and direct volumetric measurements of IPV were performed. In series 1, after 240 minutes' dwell time, the IPV was lower in the sampled animals as compared with the non sampled animals (27.11 +/- 1.85 mL vs 30.75 +/- 0.59 mL, p = 0.001). In series 2, the evolution of RISA activity in the dialysate over time was described by piecewise linear regression, yielding 3

  14. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk

    2016-09-01

    The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the lower vertical section and a condenser on the upper vertical section. The one-dimensional homogeneous and separated two-phase flow models were used in calculations. The latest minichannel heat transfer correlations available in literature were applied. A numerical analysis of the volumetric flow rate in the steady-state has been done. The experiment was conducted on a specially designed test apparatus. Ultrapure water was used as a working fluid. The results show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured volumetric flow rate at steady-state.

  15. Measurement of anterior and posterior circulation flow contributions to cerebral blood flow. An ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyajian, R A; Schwend, R B; Wolfe, M M; Bickerton, R E; Otis, S M

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis may be useful in answering questions of basic physiological interest in the cerebrovascular circulation. Using this technique, the authors have sought to describe quantitatively the complete concurrent flow relations among all four arteries supplying the brain. The aim of this study of normal subjects was to determine the relative flow contributions of the anterior (internal carotid arteries) and posterior (vertebral arteries) cerebral circulation. Comparisons between the observed and theoretically expected anterior and posterior flow distribution would provide an opportunity to assess traditional rheological conceptions in vivo. Pulsed color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure mean flow rates in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in 21 normal adults. The anterior circulation (internal carotid arteries bilaterally) carried 82% of the brain's blood supply and comprised 67% of the total vascular cross-sectional area. These values demonstrate precise concordance between observations in vivo and the theoretically derived (Hagen-Poiseuille) expected flow distribution. These cerebrovascular findings support the traditional conception of macroscopic blood flow. Further studies using ultrasound-derived volumetric analysis of the brain's arterial flow relations may illuminate the vascular pathophysiology underlying aging, cerebral ischemia, and dementias.

  16. Standardization of a Volumetric Displacement Measurement for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, K. W. Jr.; Kobrick, R. L.; Klaus, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    A limitation has been identified in the existing test standards used for making controlled, two-body abrasion scratch measurements based solely on the width of the resultant score on the surface of the material. A new, more robust method is proposed for analyzing a surface scratch that takes into account the full three-dimensional profile of the displaced material. To accomplish this, a set of four volume- displacement metrics was systematically defined by normalizing the overall surface profile to denote statistically the area of relevance, termed the Zone of Interaction. From this baseline, depth of the trough and height of the plowed material are factored into the overall deformation assessment. Proof-of-concept data were collected and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of this proposed methodology. This technique takes advantage of advanced imaging capabilities that allow resolution of the scratched surface to be quantified in greater detail than was previously achievable. When reviewing existing data analysis techniques for conducting two-body abrasive scratch tests, it was found that the ASTM International Standard G 171 specified a generic metric based only on visually determined scratch width as a way to compare abraded materials. A limitation to this method was identified in that the scratch width is based on optical surface measurements, manually defined by approximating the boundaries, but does not consider the three-dimensional volume of material that was displaced. With large, potentially irregular deformations occurring on softer materials, it becomes unclear where to systematically determine the scratch width. Specifically, surface scratches on different samples may look the same from a top view, resulting in an identical scratch width measurement, but may vary in actual penetration depth and/or plowing deformation. Therefore, two different scratch profiles would be measured as having identical abrasion properties, although they differ

  17. Correlation Between Liver Volumetric Computed Tomography Results and Measured Liver Weight: A Tool for Preoperative Planning of Liver Transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, L.J.; Hol, J.C.; Monshouwer, R.; Prokop, M.; Klein, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Before liver transplant, it is necessary to know the size of the organ in advance of the procedure. We studied the correlation between liver volumetric computed tomography results and liver weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postmortem volumetric computed tomography was conducted on cadavers

  18. A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Elimination Measurements Between a Portable Indirect Calorimeter and Volumetric Capnography Monitor: An In Vitro Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Martinez, Enid E; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2016-03-01

    Gas exchange measurements for carbon dioxide elimination (V̇CO2 ) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2 ) have been used to derive resting energy expenditure and guide energy prescription. Volumetric capnography is used in intensive care units and provides V̇CO2 measurements that could be used for titrating respiratory and nutritional support. We have recently suggested that measuring V̇CO2 may be sufficient to obtain a reasonable estimate of energy expenditure. However, data describing the accuracy of gas exchange measurement devices are limited. We used an in vitro simulation model to test the accuracy of gas exchange measurements by 2 devices: the CCM Express indirect calorimeter and the NM3, a volumetric capnography monitor. A Huszczuk gas injection system combined with a high-fidelity lung simulator was used to simulate V̇O2 and V̇CO2 values in the pediatric and adult range. Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between the measured and simulated values across a range of tidal volumes and gas exchange values. Additionally, agreement between the 2 devices was examined. During the adult simulation with the CCM Express, the mean bias (95% CI) for V̇CO2 values was -12.6% (-16.4 to -8.8%) and -17.5% (-19.9 to -15.1%) for V̇O2 values. For the pediatric simulation with the CCM Express, mean bias for V̇O2 was -14.7% (-16.4 to -13.0%) and V̇CO2 was -10.9% (-13.5 to -8.3%). For the adult and pediatric simulations with the NM3, the bias for V̇CO2 was -8.2% (-15.7 to -0.7%) and -8.3% (-19.4 to -2.8%), respectively. Between the 2 devices, the mean bias was -4.4% (-10.2 to 1.3%) and -2.3% (-11.4 to 6.8%) for the adult and pediatric V̇CO2 simulations, respectively. Currently available portable gas exchange monitors demonstrated acceptable agreement with reference V̇O2 and V̇CO2 values in an in vitro simulation. The devices demonstrated good agreement with each other. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Enhanced gamma ray sensitivity in bismuth triiodide sensors through volumetric defect control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, Paul M.; Baciak, James E.; Nino, Juan C., E-mail: pauljohns@ufl.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, 100 Rhines Hall, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    Some of the more attractive semiconducting compounds for ambient temperature radiation detector applications are impacted by low charge collection efficiency due to the presence of point and volumetric defects. This has been particularly true in the case of BiI{sub 3}, which features very attractive properties (density, atomic number, band gap, etc.) to serve as a gamma ray detector, but has yet to demonstrate its full potential. We show that by applying growth techniques tailored to reduce defects, the spectral performance of this promising semiconductor can be realized. Gamma ray spectra from >100 keV source emissions are now obtained from high quality Sb:BiI{sub 3} bulk crystals with limited concentrations of defects (point and extended). The spectra acquired in these high quality crystals feature photopeaks with resolution of 2.2% at 662 keV. Infrared microscopy is used to compare the local microstructure between radiation sensitive and non-responsive crystals. This work demonstrates that BiI{sub 3} can be prepared in melt-grown detector-grade samples with superior quality and can acquire the spectra from a variety of gamma ray sources.

  20. Why do we need more data on MR volumetric measurements of the fetal lung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubesova, Erika [Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital at Stanford, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Fetal lung hypoplasia is associated with a series of congenital anomalies, particularly the congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Evaluation of the severity of the lung hypoplasia is important for parental counseling, assessment of prognosis and planning of postnatal management. Although a large number of studies have been performed to measure fetal lung volumes in order to predict outcome, there are little data on fetuses younger than 24 weeks of gestation, the age when parental counseling is crucial if termination is considered. Few studies have evaluated prognosis of lung hypoplasia in fetuses with congenital chest anomalies other than congenital diaphragmatic hernia. We review the studies on measurements of the fetal lung volumes by MRI. (orig.)

  1. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Velocity Vector Imaging and Volumetric Flow Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2013-01-01

    scanner SARUS. Measurements are conducted on a carotid artery flow phantom from Danish Phantom Design, and 20 frames are acquired with a constant flow rate of 16.7±0.17 mL/s provided by a Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies CompuFlow 1000 system. The peak velocity magnitude in the vessel is found...

  2. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  3. Measurement of Microsphere Concentration Using a Flow Cytometer with Volumetric Sample Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Choquette, Steven; Gaigalas, A K

    2014-01-01

    Microsphere concentrations are needed to assign equivalent reference fluorophores (ERF) units to microspheres used in quantitative flow cytometry. A flow cytometer with a syringe based sample delivery system was evaluated for the measurement of the concentration of microspheres contained in a vial of lyophilized microspheres certified by BD Biosciences to contain 50,600 microspheres. The concentration was measured by counting the number of microspheres contained in the volume delivered by the flow cytometer and dividing the number by the volume. The syringe volume was calibrated both in the delivery and draw modes, and the results of the volume calibration were summarized by two calibration lines. The delivered volume was obtained by dividing the number of recorded events by the concentration of microsphere count standard in the sample tube. The draw volume was obtained by weighting the sample tube before and after the draw. The slope of the draw volume calibration line was equal to 1.00 with an offset of -13 µL. The slope of the delivered volume calibration was 0.93 suggesting a systematic volume-dependent bias, which can be rationalized as an effect of suspension flow in capillaries. When the sample volume was set to values between 150 µL and 300 µL, both calibration curves gave similar results suggesting that a good estimate of the true delivered volume can be obtained by subtracting 13 µL from the delivered volume indicated by the syringe settings. The number of microspheres in the volume was obtained by passing the suspension contained in the volume through a laser beam and counting the number of events in which the signals from the scattering and fluorescence detectors exceeded threshold values. Measurements were performed with the lyophilized microspheres made by BD Biosciences and fluorescein microspheres (expired reference material RM 8640) in three buffers: a phosphate buffer saline (PBS), a buffer containing PBS and 0.05 % BSA (bovine serum albumin

  4. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  5. Alpha shape theory for 3D visualization and volumetric measurement of brain tumor progression using magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoud Al-Tamimi, Mohammed Sabbih; Sulong, Ghazali; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi

    2015-07-01

    Resection of brain tumors is a tricky task in surgery due to its direct influence on the patients' survival rate. Determining the tumor resection extent for its complete information via-à-vis volume and dimensions in pre- and post-operative Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) requires accurate estimation and comparison. The active contour segmentation technique is used to segment brain tumors on pre-operative MR images using self-developed software. Tumor volume is acquired from its contours via alpha shape theory. The graphical user interface is developed for rendering, visualizing and estimating the volume of a brain tumor. Internet Brain Segmentation Repository dataset (IBSR) is employed to analyze and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of tumor volume. Accuracy of the method is validated by comparing the estimated volume using the proposed method with that of gold-standard. Segmentation by active contour technique is found to be capable of detecting the brain tumor boundaries. Furthermore, the volume description and visualization enable an interactive examination of tumor tissue and its surrounding. Admirable features of our results demonstrate that alpha shape theory in comparison to other existing standard methods is superior for precise volumetric measurement of tumor.

  6. Direct volumetric measurement of gas oversolubility in nanoliquids: beyond Henry's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; El-Chahal, Rayan; Rakotovao, Volainiana; Daniel, Cécile; Miachon, Sylvain; Dalmon, Jean-Alain

    2009-08-24

    The properties of condensed matter are strongly affected by confinement and size effects at the nanoscale. Herein, we measured by microvolumetry the increased solubility of H(2) in a series of solvents (CHCl(3), CCl(4), n-hexane, ethanol, and water) when confined in the cavities of mesoporous solids (gamma-alumina, silica, and MCM-41). Gas/liquid solubilities are enhanced by up to 15 times over the corresponding bulk values for nanoliquid sizes smaller than 15 nm as long as gas/liquid interfaces are mesoconfined in a porous network. Although Henry's law constant apparently no longer applies under these confinement, the concentration of dissolved H(2) still increases linearly with increasing pressure in the range 1-5 bar. We discuss the role and main implications of surface excess concentrations at mesoconfined gas/liquid interfaces in enhancing gas solubility.

  7. Forensic postmortem computed tomography: volumetric measurement of the heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte; Lynnerup, Niels; Jacobsen, Christina

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using the computer software program Mimics(®), we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver. The ex vivo volumes were also compared with the organ weights. Further, we compared the CTR with the ex vivo heart volume and a heart weight-ratio (HWR). Intra- and inter-observer analyses were performed. We found no correlation between the in situ and ex vivo volumes of the heart and liver. However, a highly significant correlation was found between the ex vivo volumes and weights of the heart and liver. No correlations between CTR and the ex vivo heart volume nor with HWR was found. Concerning cardiomegaly, we found no agreement between the CTR and HWR. The intra- and inter-observer analyses showed no significant differences. Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly, as it neither correlated with the ex vivo heart volume nor with the HWR.

  8. Volumetric water control in a large-scale open canal irrigation system with many smallholders: The case of Chancay-Lambayeque in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.M.C.; Vincent, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Volumetric water control (VWC) is widely seen as a means to increase productivity through flexible scheduling and user incentives to apply just enough water. However, the technical and social requirements for VWC are poorly understood. Also, many experts assert that VWC in large-scale open canals

  9. Volumetric thermal measurements using thermo-liquid crystal (TLC) micro-particles in evaporating drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Rodrigo; Marin, Alvaro Gomez; Kaehler, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Freely evaporating sessile droplets develop weak temperature gradients that can generate Marangoni flows at the drop's surface. Quantitative temperature measurements of small gradients at such scales are very difficult. In this work, a method to track the temperature of individual thermo-liquid crystal (TLC) particles is employed to extract the temperature field inside an evaporating droplet. TLC thermography has been investigated for several years but the low quality of individual TLC particles, as well as the methods used to extract temperature from their color appearance, has prevented the development of a reliable approach to track their temperature individually. In order to overcome these challenges, an emulsion of stable non-encapsulated TLC micro particles with a narrower size distribution than that of commercial encapsulated TLC solutions was used along with a multi-variable calibration approach, as opposed to the direct hue-temperature relationship usually implemented (Segura et al., Microfluid Nanofluid, 2012). In addition, an optimized color space was implemented as well as circular polarization filtering to remove background noise and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Using this technique, a 3D temperature-velocity field within a droplet could be simultaneously resolved.

  10. A method for measuring post-extraction alveolar dimensional changes with volumetric computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontá, Hernán; Galli, Federico G; Caride, Facundo; Carranza, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a predictable method for evaluating dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge through cone beam computed tomography (CT). Twenty subjects with single-rooted tooth extraction indication were selected for this preliminary report, which is part of a larger ongoing investigation. After extraction, two CT scans were performed; the first within 24 hours post-extraction (TC1) and the second 6 months (TC2) later. A radiographic guide with a radiopaque element placed along the tooth axis was developed to locate the same plane of reference in two different CT scans. For each patient, backtrack analysis was performed in order to establish the reproducibility error of a predetermined point in space between two CT scans. Briefly, an anatomical landmark was selected and its coordinates to the radiopaque marker were recorded. One week later, the coordinates were followed backwards in the same CT scan to obtain the position where the reference point should be located. A similar process was carried out between two different CT scans taken 6 months apart. The distance between the anatomical reference and the obtained point of position was calculated to establish the accuracy of the method. Additionally, a novel method for evaluating dimensional changes of the alveolus after tooth extraction is presented. The backtrack analysis determined an average within-examiner discrepancy between both measurements from the same CT scan of 0.19 mm. SD +/- 0.05. With the method presented herein, a reference point in a CT scan can be accurately backtracked and located in a second CT scan taken six months later. Taken together they open the possibility of calculating dimensional changes that occur in the alveolar ridge over time, such as post-extraction alveolar resorption, or the bone volume gained after different augmentation procedures.

  11. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT OF MARSSIM FIELD CALIBRATION FOR QUANTIFICATION OF CS-137 VOLUMETRICALLY CONTAMINATED SOILS IN THE BC CONTROLLED AREA USING 2 BY 2 SODIUM IODIDE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAPPIN JL

    2007-10-26

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Technical Basis and Documentation for Field Calibrations of radiation measurement equipment for use in the MARSSIM Seeping Surveys of the BC Controlled Area (BCCA). The Be Controlled Area is bounded on tt1e north by (but does not include) the BCCribs & Trenches and is bounded on the south by Army Loop Road. Parts of the BC Controlled Area are posted as a Contamination Area and the remainder is posted as a Soil Contamination Area. The area is approximately 13 square miles and divided into three zones (Zone A , Zone B. and Zone C). A map from reference 1 which shows the 3 zones is attached. The MARSSIM Scoping Surveys are intended 10 better identify the boundaries of the three zones based on the volumetric (pCi/g) contamination levels in the soil. The MARSSIM Field Calibration. reference 2. of radiation survey instrumentation will determine the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) and an algorithm for converting counts to pCi/g. The instrumentation and corresponding results are not intended for occupational radiation protection decisions or for the release of property per DOE Order 5400.5.

  12. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT OF MARSSIM FIELD CALIBRATION FOR QUANTIFICATION OF CS-137 VOLUMETRICALLY CONTAMINATED SOILS IN THE BC CONTROLLED AREA USING 2 BY 2 SODIUM IODIDE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAPPIN JL

    2007-10-26

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Technical Basis and Documentation for Field Calibrations of radiation measurement equipment for use in the MARSSIM Seeping Surveys of the BC Controlled Area (BCCA). The Be Controlled Area is bounded on tt1e north by (but does not include) the BCCribs & Trenches and is bounded on the south by Army Loop Road. Parts of the BC Controlled Area are posted as a Contamination Area and the remainder is posted as a Soil Contamination Area. The area is approximately 13 square miles and divided into three zones (Zone A , Zone B. and Zone C). A map from reference 1 which shows the 3 zones is attached. The MARSSIM Scoping Surveys are intended 10 better identify the boundaries of the three zones based on the volumetric (pCi/g) contamination levels in the soil. The MARSSIM Field Calibration. reference 2. of radiation survey instrumentation will determine the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) and an algorithm for converting counts to pCi/g. The instrumentation and corresponding results are not intended for occupational radiation protection decisions or for the release of property per DOE Order 5400.5.

  13. Areal and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Geometry at Two Levels of Protein Intake During Caloric Restriction: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, Deeptha; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Zurfluh, Robert; Schlussel, Yvette; Stahl, Theodore J; Gordon, Chris L; SHAPSES, SUE A.

    2010-01-01

    Weight reduction induces bone loss by several factors, and the effect of higher protein (HP) intake during caloric restriction on bone mineral density (BMD) is not known. Previous study designs examining the longer-term effects of HP diets have not controlled for total calcium intake between groups and have not examined the relationship between bone and endocrine changes. In this randomized, controlled study, we examined how BMD (areal and volumetric), turnover markers, and hormones [insulin-...

  14. Accuracy of fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue using MRI: correlation with anthropomorphic breast phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengert, Georg J; Pinker, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Spijker, Sylvia M; Bickel, Hubert; Polanec, Stephan H; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2017-06-01

    To demonstrate the accuracy of fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT), using MRI, and to investigate the impact of different MRI sequences using anthropomorphic breast phantoms as the ground truth. In this study, 10 anthropomorphic breast phantoms that consisted of different known fractions of adipose and protein tissue, which closely resembled normal breast parenchyma, were developed. Anthropomorphic breast phantoms were imaged with a 1.5 T unit (Siemens, Avantofit) using an 18-channel breast coil. The sequence protocol consisted of an isotropic Dixon sequence (Di), an anisotropic Dixon sequence (Da), and T1 3D FLASH sequences with and without fat saturation (T1). Fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of FGT for all anthropomorphic phantoms and sequences was performed and correlated with the amounts of fatty and protein components in the phantoms as the ground truth. Fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurements of FGT with MRI for all sequences ranged from 5.86 to 61.05% (mean 33.36%). The isotropic Dixon sequence yielded the highest accuracy (median 0.51%-0.78%) and precision (median range 0.19%) compared with anisotropic Dixon (median 1.92%-2.09%; median range 0.55%) and T1 -weighted sequences (median 2.54%-2.46%; median range 0.82%). All sequences yielded good correlation with the FGT content of the anthropomorphic phantoms. The best correlation of FGT measurements was identified for Dixon sequences (Di, R(2)  = 0.999; Da, R(2)  = 0.998) compared with conventional T1 -weighted sequences (R(2)  = 0.971). MRI yields accurate, fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurements of FGT, an increasingly important and sensitive imaging biomarker for breast cancer risk. Compared with conventional T1 sequences, Dixon-type sequences show the highest correlation and reproducibility for automated, quantitative, volumetric FGT measurements using anthropomorphic breast

  15. Automated Voxel-Based Analysis of Volumetric Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Data Improves Measurement of Serial Changes in Tumor Vascular Biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coolens, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.coolens@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Driscoll, Brandon [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chung, Caroline [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shek, Tina; Gorjizadeh, Alborz [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Development of perfusion imaging as a biomarker requires more robust methodologies for quantification of tumor physiology that allow assessment of volumetric tumor heterogeneity over time. This study proposes a parametric method for automatically analyzing perfused tissue from volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) scans and assesses whether this 4-dimensional (4D) DCE approach is more robust and accurate than conventional, region-of-interest (ROI)-based CT methods in quantifying tumor perfusion with preliminary evaluation in metastatic brain cancer. Methods and Materials: Functional parameter reproducibility and analysis of sensitivity to imaging resolution and arterial input function were evaluated in image sets acquired from a 320-slice CT with a controlled flow phantom and patients with brain metastases, whose treatments were planned for stereotactic radiation surgery and who consented to a research ethics board-approved prospective imaging biomarker study. A voxel-based temporal dynamic analysis (TDA) methodology was used at baseline, at day 7, and at day 20 after treatment. The ability to detect changes in kinetic parameter maps in clinical data sets was investigated for both 4D TDA and conventional 2D ROI-based analysis methods. Results: A total of 7 brain metastases in 3 patients were evaluated over the 3 time points. The 4D TDA method showed improved spatial efficacy and accuracy of perfusion parameters compared to ROI-based DCE analysis (P<.005), with a reproducibility error of less than 2% when tested with DCE phantom data. Clinically, changes in transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K{sub trans}) were seen when using TDA, with substantially smaller errors than the 2D method on both day 7 post radiation surgery (±13%; P<.05) and by day 20 (±12%; P<.04). Standard methods showed a decrease in K{sub trans} but with large uncertainty (111.6 ± 150.5) %. Conclusions

  16. Accuracy of unidimensional and volumetric ultrasound measurements in predicting good pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounaris, I; Provenzano, E; Vallier, A L; Hiller, L; Iddawela, M; Hilborne, S; Taylor, K; Britton, P; Earl, H M; Sinnatamby, R

    2011-06-01

    Pathological complete response (pCR) is an important predictor of long-term survival in patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). At present, the accuracy of traditional radiological assessments during treatment in predicting pCR is poor. Unidimensional and 3D volumetric ultrasound measurements prior to, after 4 cycles (mid-treatment), and at the end of 8 cycles (end-treatment) of chemotherapy were available from a subset of 55 patients enrolled in Neo-tAnGo, a National Cancer Research Network (NCRN) UK neoadjuvant chemotherapy breast cancer trial. Proportional changes in longest diameter (LD) and volume as well as absolute residual size thresholds were examined for their ability to predict pCR or pCR plus minimal residual disease (pCR/MRD). Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression models were also constructed. At mid-treatment, neither complete radiological response, nor proportional LD or volume changes were found predictive of final pCR. A small residual tumour volume (≤ 1 cm³ vs. > 1 cm³) at mid-treatment, however, was associated with pCR/MRD (P = 0.014). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+ and LR- values were 61%, 77%, 61%, 77%, 2.62 and 0.51, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.689 (P = 0.03). Volume ≤ 1 cm³ at mid-treatment was found significant in a logistic regression (OR: 0.194, P = 0.011). At end-treatment, no ultrasound measurements were found predictive of pCR or pCR/MRD. In conclusion, proportional tumour size changes (the basis of the RECIST criteria) were not found predictive of good pathological response, although residual volume ≤ 1 cm³ at mid-treatment was found to be predictive of pCR/MRD. However, multiple volume and LD thresholds were examined and uncorrected P values presented, increasing the possibility of type I errors. Replication in an

  17. A comparison of substantia nigra T1 hyperintensity in Parkinson's disease dementia, Alzheimer's disease and age-matched controls: Volumetric analysis of neuromelanin imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Ju Yeon; Yun, Won Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Ki Chang; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases.

  18. A high volume, high throughput volumetric sorption analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Y. C.; Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.; Buckley, P.; Clement, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this talk we will present an overview of our new Hydrogen Test Fixture (HTF) constructed by the Midwest Research Institute for The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology to test activated carbon monoliths for hydrogen gas storage. The HTF is an automated, computer-controlled volumetric instrument for rapid screening and manipulation of monoliths under an inert atmosphere (to exclude degradation of carbon from exposure to oxygen). The HTF allows us to measure large quantity (up to 500 g) of sample in a 0.5 l test tank, making our results less sensitive to sample inhomogeneity. The HTF can measure isotherms at pressures ranging from 1 to 300 bar at room temperature. For comparison, other volumetric instruments such as Hiden Isochema's HTP-1 Volumetric Analyser can only measure carbon samples up to 150 mg at pressures up to 200 bar. Work supported by the US DOD Contract # N00164-08-C-GS37.

  19. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong

    2000-01-01

    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  20. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, Jakob [Karolinska Institutet, The Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Stockholm (Sweden); Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Anders [Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  1. Test Facility for Volumetric Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, M.; Dibowski, G.; Pfander, M.; Sack, J. P.; Schwarzbozl, P.; Ulmer, S.

    2006-07-01

    Long-time testing of volumetric absorber modules is an inevitable measure to gain the experience and reliability required for the commercialization of the open volumetric receiver technology. While solar tower test facilities are necessary for performance measurements of complete volumetric receivers, the long-term stability of individual components can be tested in less expensive test setups. For the qualification of the aging effects of operating cycles on single elements of new absorber materials and designs, a test facility was developed and constructed in the framework of the KOSMOSOL project. In order to provide the concentrated solar radiation level, the absorber test facility is integrated into a parabolic dish system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Several new designs of ceramic absorbers were developed and tested during the last months. (Author)

  2. Comparison of Visual Assessment of Breast Density in BI-RADS 4th and 5th Editions With Automated Volumetric Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, So Jung; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare visual assessments of mammographic breast density by radiologists using BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions in correlation with automated volumetric breast density measurements. A total of 337 consecutive full-field digital mammographic examinations with standard views were retrospectively assessed by two radiologists for mammographic breast density according to BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions. Fully automated measurement of the volume of fibroglandular tissue and total breast and percentage breast density was performed with a commercially available software program. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed with kappa statistics. The distributions of breast density categories for both editions of BI-RADS were compared and correlated with volumetric data. Interobserver agreement on breast density category was moderate to substantial (κ = 0.58-0.63) with use of BI-RADS 4th edition and substantial (κ = 0.63-0.66) with use of the 5th edition but without significant difference between the two editions. For intraobserver agreement between the two editions, the distributions of density category were significantly different (p density data, including percentage breast density, were significantly different among density categories (p density assessment had good correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS.

  3. A volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method for measuring kinematics of natural knees with single-plane fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Lu, Tung-Wu; Chen, Chung-Ming; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China) and Department of Physical Therapy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) rigid body and surface kinematics of the natural human knee is essential for many clinical applications. Existing techniques are limited either in their accuracy or lack more realistic experimental evaluation of the measurement errors. The purposes of the study were to develop a volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method, called the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method, for measuring natural knee kinematics with single-plane fluoroscopy to determine experimentally the measurement errors and to compare its performance with that of pattern intensity (PI) and gradient difference (GD) methods. Methods: The WEMS method gives higher priority to matching of longer edges of the digitally reconstructed radiograph and fluoroscopic images. The measurement errors of the methods were evaluated based on a human cadaveric knee at 11 flexion positions. Results: The accuracy of the WEMS method was determined experimentally to be less than 0.77 mm for the in-plane translations, 3.06 mm for out-of-plane translation, and 1.13 deg. for all rotations, which is better than that of the PI and GD methods. Conclusions: A new volumetric model-based 2D to 3D registration method has been developed for measuring 3D in vivo kinematics of natural knee joints with single-plane fluoroscopy. With the equipment used in the current study, the accuracy of the WEMS method is considered acceptable for the measurement of the 3D kinematics of the natural knee in clinical applications.

  4. MRI assessment of relapsed glioblastoma during treatment with bevacizumab: Volumetric measurement of enhanced and FLAIR lesions for evaluation of response and progression—A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, Josef, E-mail: josef.pichler@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Pachinger, Corinna, E-mail: pachingercorinna@gmx.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Pelz, Manuela, E-mail: mauela.pelz@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria); Kleiser, Raimund, E-mail: raimund.kleiser@gespag.at [Wagner Jauregg Weg 15, 4020 Linz, Landesnervenklinik Linz (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metric that is useful for therapy monitoring in patients with relapsed glioblastoma (GBM) during treatment with the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (Bev). We evaluated the feasibility of tumour volume measurement with our software tool in clinical routine and tried to establish reproducible and quantitative parameters for surveillance of patients on treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. Materials and methods: In this retrospective institutional pilot study, 18 patients (11 men, 7 women; mean age 53.5) with recurrent GBM received bevacizumab and irinotecan every two weeks as second line therapy. Follow up scans were assessed every two to four months. Data were collected on a 1.5 T MR System (Siemens, Symphony) with the standard head coil using our standardized tumour protocol. Volumetric measurement was performed with a commercial available software stroketool in FLAIR and T1-c imaging with following procedure: Pre-processing involved cutting noise and electing a Gaussian of 3 × 3 to smooth images, selecting a ROI (region of interest) in healthy brain area of the contra lateral side with quantifying the intensity value, adding 20% to this value to define the threshold level. Only values above this threshold are left corresponding to the tumour lesion. For the volumetric measurement the detected tumour area was circuited in all slices and finally summing up all values and multiplied by slice thickness to get the whole volume. Results: With McDonalds criteria progression was indicated in 14 out of 18 patients. In contrast, volumetric measurement showed an increase of contrast enhancement of >25%, defined as threshold for progression, in 11 patients (78%) and in 12 patients (85%) in FLAIR volume, respectively. 6 patients revealed that volumes in MRI increased earlier than the last scan, which was primarily defined as the date of progression with McDonald criteria, changing PFS after re-evaluation of

  5. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harvel, Charles [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Clark, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gregg Protection Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the ac counting values.

  6. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harvel, Charles [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Clark, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gregg Protection Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    An essential element in an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) program is the measurement of the nuclear material as it is received, moved, processed and shipped. Quality measurement systems and methodologies determine the accuracy of the accountability values. Implementation of a measurement control program is essential to ensure that the measurement systems and methodologies perform as expected. A measurement control program also allows for a determination of the level of confidence in the accounting values.

  7. The Intra-observer Variability of Volumetric Measurement of Pulmonary Nodules: 
Comparison of Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoWan GUO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Software oriented three-dimensional (3D volumetric measurement of pulmonary nodules has been feasible in the follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules, however, its value need a further validation. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively analyze the chest CT data of patients with pulmonary nodules to compare the intra-observer variability of 3D and two-dimensional (2D volumetric measurement. Methods Eighty-six pulmonary nodules in chest CT scans of 79 subjects were retrospectively analyzed. One radiologist measured the nodules twice with a 7 days interval using 2D and 3D methods respectively. The maximal diameter (X, the perpendicular diameter (Y on maximal cross sectional area of the nodule and the caudo-cranial diameter (Z were measured and the volume was calculated by two models: spherical and elliptical model. The 3D measurements were acquired with semi-automated software with manual adjustment on unsatisfied nodule segmentation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of nodule location and morphology on 3D nodule segmentation. ANOVA and correlation test were used to evaluate the difference among three methods. Bland-Altman method was applied to quantify the intra-observer variability. Results Software achieved satisfied segmentation for 86.4% nodules. The irregular and juxtavacular nodules have significantly high odds rations (OR of unsatisfied segmentation as 4.0, 4.5, respectively. The volume measured by three method was significantly different (F=6.5, P=0.012, while the repeated measurements did not led to significant difference (F=1.813, P=0.182. The Spearman correlation efficient between 3D volume and 2D volume with sphere and ellipsoid model was 0.97, 0.88. The 95% limits of agreement of RD between two repeated measurements were -14%-11.6%, -37.7%-39.9% and -39.8%-45.8% for 3D, 2D with elliptical model and spherical model, respectively. Conclusion The 3D volume measurement

  8. The effect of CT scanner parameters and 3D volume rendering techniques on the accuracy of linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of the mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyms, B.J.; Vorperian, H.K.; Gentry, L.R.; Schimek, E.M.; Bersu, E.T.; Chung, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the effect of scanning parameters on the accuracy of measurements from three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3D-CT) mandible renderings. A broader range of acceptable parameters can increase the availability of CT studies for retrospective analysis. Study Design Three human mandibles and a phantom object were scanned using 18 combinations of slice thickness, field of view, and reconstruction algorithm and three different threshold-based segmentations. Measurements of 3D-CT models and specimens were compared. Results Linear and angular measurements were accurate, irrespective of scanner parameters or rendering technique. Volume measurements were accurate with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, but not 2.5 mm. Surface area measurements were consistently inflated. Conclusions Linear, angular and volumetric measurements of mandible 3D-CT models can be confidently obtained from a range of parameters and rendering techniques. Slice thickness is the primary factor affecting volume measurements. These findings should also apply to 3D rendering using cone-beam-CT. PMID:23601224

  9. Measuring electoral control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Hendrik

    2000-01-01

    If voters do not pay attention to whatrepresentatives do, representatives are not stimulatedto be responsive. Therefore, electoral control, theextent to which voters base their vote on thebehaviour of representatives is, at least potentially,an important variable in the explanation of thebehaviour

  10. Prediction of medial tibiofemoral compartment joint space loss progression using volumetric cartilage measurements: Data from the FNIH OA biomarkers consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Demehri, Shadpour [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Roemer, Frank W. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hunter, David J. [Royal North Shore Hospital Sydney, Institute of Bone and Joint Research, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, and Rheumatology Department, Sydney (Australia); Dam, Erik B. [Biomediq, Copenhagen (Denmark); Zikria, Bashir [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kwoh, C.K. [University of Arizona, Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Investigating the association between baseline cartilage volume measurements (and initial 24th month volume loss) with medial compartment Joint-Space-Loss (JSL) progression (>0.7 mm) during 24-48th months of study. Case and control cohorts (Biomarkers Consortium subset from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI)) were defined as participants with (n=297) and without (n=303) medial JSL progression (during 24-48th months). Cartilage volume measurements (baseline and 24th month loss) were obtained at five knee plates (medial-tibial, lateral-tibial, medial-femoral, lateral-femoral and patellar), and standardized values were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression was used with adjustment for known confounders. Artificial-Neural-Network analysis was conducted by Multi-Layer-Perceptrons (MLPs) including baseline determinants, and baseline (1) and interval changes (2) in cartilage volumes. Larger baseline lateral-femoral cartilage volume was predictive of medial JSL (OR: 1.29 (1.01-1.64)). Greater initial 24th month lateral-femoral cartilage volume-loss (OR: 0.48 (0.27-0.84)) had protective effect on medial JSL during 24-48th months of study. Baseline and interval changes in lateral-femoral cartilage volume, were the most important estimators for medial JSL progression (importance values: 0.191(0.177-0.204), 0.218(0.207-0.228)) in the ANN analyses. Cartilage volumes (both at baseline and their change during the initial 24 months) in the lateral femoral plate were predictive of medial JSL progression. (orig.)

  11. [Recommendations for metrological control of measuring equipments in the clinical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontet, M; Giroud, C; Vassault, A; Guitel, F; Perrin, A; Braconnier, F; Férard, G; Beaudeux, J-L

    2009-01-01

    The control of the measuring equipment (balances, mass standards, micropipettes, dilutors, volumetric glassware, thermometers...) is essential to obtain reliable analytical results. This control requires knowledge and use of the main standards, instructions for use, metrological verifications and confirmations as well as creation of checking and standardizing certificates ensuring metrological traceability. These items should help to control the quality of the analytical performances (fidelity and trueness in particular).

  12. A volumetric meter chip for point-of-care quantitative detection of bovine catalase for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingye; Hu, Jie; Choi, Jane Ru; Huang, Yalin; Wang, Xuemin; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2016-09-07

    A volumetric meter chip was developed for quantitative point-of-care (POC) analysis of bovine catalase, a bioindicator of bovine mastitis, in milk samples. The meter chip displays multiplexed quantitative results by presenting the distance of ink bar advancement that is detectable by the naked eye. The meter chip comprises a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer, a double-sided adhesive (DSA) layer and a glass slide layer fabricated by the laser-etching method, which is typically simple, rapid (∼3 min per chip), and cost effective (∼$0.2 per chip). Specially designed "U shape" reaction cells are covered by an adhesive tape that serves as an on-off switch, enabling the simple operation of the assay. As a proof of concept, we employed the developed meter chip for the quantification of bovine catalase in raw milk samples to detect catalase concentrations as low as 20 μg/mL. The meter chip has great potential to detect various target analytes for a wide range of POC applications.

  13. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  14. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content ; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van; Sariowan, S.V.; Gehrels, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test si

  15. Redundant measurements for controlling errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M. H.; Crawford, J. M.; Madeen, M. L.

    1979-07-01

    Current federal regulations for nuclear materials control require consideration of operating data as part of the quality control program and limits of error propagation. Recent work at the BNFP has revealed that operating data are subject to a number of measurement problems which are very difficult to detect and even more difficult to correct in a timely manner. Thus error estimates based on operational data reflect those problems. During the FY 1978 and FY 1979 R and D demonstration runs at the BNFP, redundant measurement techniques were shown to be effective in detecting these problems to allow corrective action. The net effect is a reduction in measurement errors and a significant increase in measurement sensitivity. Results show that normal operation process control measurements, in conjunction with routine accountability measurements, are sensitive problem indicators when incorporated in a redundant measurement program.

  16. Peripheral dose measurements in cervical cancer radiotherapy: a comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy and step-and-shoot IMRT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the peripheral doses resulting from volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques in cervical cancer radiotherapy. Methods Nine patients with cervical cancer had treatment planned with both VMAT and IMRT. A specially designed phantom was used for this study, with ion chambers placed at interest points approximating the position of the breast, thyroid, and lens. The peripheral doses at the phantom interest points were measured and compared between the VMAT and IMRT techniques. Results VMAT provides a potential dosimetric advantage compared with IMRT. The mean (± standard deviation) peripheral dose to the breast point for 1 fraction (2 Gy) during VMAT measured 5.13 ± 0.96 mGy, compared with 9.04 ± 1.50 mGy for IMRT. At the thyroid and lens interest points, the mean (± standard deviation) peripheral dose during VMAT was 2.19 ± 0.33 and 2.16 ± 0.28 mGy, compared with 7.07 ± 0.76 and 6.97 ± 0.91 mGy for IMRT, respectively. VMAT reduced the monitor units used by 28% and shortened the treatment delivery time by 54% compared with IMRT. Conclusion While the dosimetric results are similar for both techniques, VMAT results in a lower peripheral dose to the patient and reduces the monitor-unit usage and treatment delivery time compared with IMRT. PMID:24555547

  17. IMITATION OF STANDARD VOLUMETRIC ACTIVITY METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhukouski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific character of problems in the field of ionizing radiation spectroscopy, the R&D and making process of standard volumetric activity metal samples (standard samples for calibration and verification of spectrometric equipment is not only expensive, but also requires the use of highly qualified experts and a unique specific equipment. Theoretical and experimental studies performed have shown the possibility to use imitators as a set of alternating point sources of gamma radiation and metal plates and their use along with standard volumetric activity metal samples for calibration of scintillation-based detectors used in radiation control in metallurgy. Response functions or instrumental spectra of such spectrometer to radionuclides like 137Cs, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co, 54Mn, 232Th, 226Ra, 65Zn, 125Sb+125mTe, 106Ru+106Rh, 94Nb, 110mAg, 233U, 234U, 235U and 238U are required for calibration in a given measurement geometry. Standard samples in the form of a probe made of melt metal of a certain diameter and height are used in such measurements. However, the production of reference materials is costly and even problematic for such radionuclides as 94Nb, 125Sb+125mTe, 234U, 235U  etc. A recognized solution to solve this problem is to use the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Instrumental experimental and theoretical spectra obtained by using standard samples and their imitators show a high compliance between experimental spectra of real samples and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models, between spectra of real samples and the ones of their imitators and finally, between experimental spectra of real sample imitators and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models. They also have shown the adequacy and consistency of the approach in using a combination of metal scattering layers and reference point gamma-ray sources instead of standard volumetric activity metal samples. As for using several reference point gamma-ray sources

  18. New methodology for simultaneous volumetric and calorimetric measurements: Direct determination of αp and Cp for liquids under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casás, L. M.; Plantier, F.; Bessières, D.

    2009-12-01

    A new batch cell has been developed to measure simultaneously both isobaric thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity from calorimetric measurements. The isobaric thermal expansion is directly proportional to the linear displacement of an inner flexible below and the heat capacity is calculated from the calorimetric signal. The apparatus used was a commercial Setaram C-80 calorimeter and together with this type of vessels can be operated up to 20 MPa and in the temperature range of 303.15-523.15 K, In this work, calibration was carried out using 1-hexanol and subsequently both thermophysical properties were determined for 3-pentanol, 3-ethyl-3-pentanol, and 1-octanol at atmospheric pressure, 5 and 10 MPa, and from 303.15 to 423.15 K in temperature. Finally experimental values were compared with the literature in order to validate this new methodology, which allows a very accurate determination of isobaric thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity.

  19. Un nouveau moyen de mesure absolue du taux gazeux des mélanges gaz-liquides : le SMAC A New Absolute Measurement of the Volumetric Gas Ratio of Gas-Liquid Mixture: the Smac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Du graphe (P, V de la compression d'un mélange gaz-liquide, on peut tirer la valeur du taux volumique de gaz dans le mélange. La vérification théorique et expérimentale de ce principe ainsi que ses limites d'application comme moyen de mesure sont présentées. Ce résultat a été utilisé pour développer un système de mesure de l'aération de l'huile moteur, le SMAC (Système de Mesure d'Aération par Compressibilité. Des exemples d'application, tels que l'étude de la sensibilité de certaines huiles à l'aération, sont exposés. Oil aeration can be a real problem in engine oil circuit. The involved lubrication power decrease and thermic properties changes can damage the engine. Furthermore, the increased compressibility is very dangerous for hydraulic systems like valve lash adjusters. A first step to control this aeration is to be able to measure it. Gammametry is often used but this measurement needs a very precise calibration and is quite complicated and dangerous. A new absolute measurement has been discovered, based on the difference of compressibility between air and oil. It is absolute because the measurement principle is independant of the conditions, The system does not need a new calibration at each new environment. It is valid for any gas-liquid mixture. From the (P, V graph of a gas-liquid mixture compression, one can derive the gas-liquid volumetric ratio. The log-log graph (P/PO, 1-V/VO of a mixture sample pressurization always shows an inflexion point. The y value of this inflexion point (1-V/VO is equal to the volumetric gas ratio of the sample (before compression. This phenomenon is obvious on hydraulic curves (see Annexe 1. To check it, we have proceeded to a theoretical demonstration and an experimental verification. The theoretical demonstration of this principle concludes that the principle is verified as long as the ration P index 0 / alpha B is small. B is the oil bulk modulus, alpha is the volumetric gas ratio

  20. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Udine, Department of Radiology, Udine (Italy); Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Traumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Fischer, Michael A.; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-31

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm{sup 2} (range, 35.6-93.4 cm{sup 2}), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 42.5-108.9 cm{sup 2}) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 40.9-115.9 cm{sup 2}) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm{sup 3}). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  1. Study of the volumetric properties of weakly associated alcohols by means of high-pressure speed of sound measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Salgado, D. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias del Campus de Ourense, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Troncoso, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias del Campus de Ourense, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Plantier, F. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, Groupe Haute Pression, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, BP 1155, 64013 Pau (France)]. E-mail: frederic.plantier@univ-pau.fr; Daridon, J.L. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, Groupe Haute Pression, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, BP 1155, 64013 Pau (France); Bessieres, D. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, Groupe Haute Pression, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, BP 1155, 64013 Pau (France)

    2006-07-15

    The speed of sound in the temperature (303.15 to 373.15) K and pressure range (0.1 to 100) MPa was measured for the liquid 3-pentanol, 3-methyl 3-pentanol, and 3-ethyl-3-pentanol. These results combined with the densities and isobaric heat capacity at atmospheric pressure obtained from the literature were used to calculate the density, and the isentropic and isothermal compressibilities in the same range of pressure and in the temperature interval (303.15 to 368.15) K by means of a predictor-corrector algorithm.

  2. Controllability measures for disturbance rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Skogestad

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Some plants have better "built-in" disturbance rejection capabilities than others, that is, their dynamic resilience (controllability with respect to disturbance rejection is better. In the paper we consider controller independent disturbance measures for six classes of problems:

  3. Measuring Executive Dysfunction Longitudinally and in Relation to Genetic Burden, Brain Volumetrics, and Depression in Prodromal Huntington Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Snyder, Peter J.; Mills, James A.; Duff, Kevin; Westervelt, Holly J.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Lourens, Spencer; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Executive dysfunction (ED) is a characteristic of Huntington disease (HD), but its severity and progression is less understood in the prodromal phase, e.g., before gross motor abnormalities. We examined planning and problem-solving abilities using the Towers Task in HD mutation-positive individuals without motor symptoms (n = 781) and controls (n = 212). Participants with greater disease progression (determined using mutation size and current age) performed more slowly and with less accuracy on the Towers Task. Performance accuracy was negatively related to striatal volume while both accuracy and working memory were negatively related to frontal white matter volume. Disease progression at baseline was not associated with longitudinal performance over 4 years. Whereas the baseline findings indicate that ED becomes more prevalent with greater disease progression in prodromal HD and can be quantified using the Towers task, the absence of notable longitudinal findings indicates that the Towers Task exhibits limited sensitivity to cognitive decline in this population. PMID:23246934

  4. Self-reported weight at birth predicts measures of femoral size but not volumetric BMD in eldery men: MrOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, M Kassim; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Lui, Li-Yung; Cawthon, Peggy; Arden, Nigel K; Lang, Thomas; Lane, Nancy E; Orwoll, Eric; Barrett-Conner, Elizabeth; Nevitt, Michael C; Cooper, Cyrus; Cummings, Steven R

    2011-08-01

    The mechanism whereby poor intrauterine growth increases risk of adult hip fracture is unclear. We report the association between birth weight and proximal femoral geometry and density in community-dwelling elderly men. We used self-reported birth weight, measured adult height and weight and proximal femoral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements of femoral neck axis length, cross-sectional area, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) among the participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a cohort study of community-dwelling US men aged 65 and older. We compared men with birth weight <7 pounds (lower birth weight [LBW]; n = 501) and ≥ 9 pounds (higher birth weight [HBW]; n = 262) with those weighing 7-8.9 pounds (medium birth weight [MBW], referent group; n = 1068) using linear regression adjusting for current age, height, and BMI. The mean age of the 1831 men who had both birth weight and QCT measurements was 73 years (SD 5.9). Compared with the referent MBW, HBW men had concordantly longer femoral neck (+0.16 SD; p = .028) and cross-sectional area (+0.24 SD, p = .001). LBW men had a smaller cross-sectional (-0.26 SD, p < .001) but longer femoral neck for their height (+0.11 SD, p = .05). Neither cortical nor trabecular vBMD at the femoral neck was associated with birth weight. These findings support the hypothesis that the skeletal envelope, but not density, is set, in part, at birth. Further research exploring the association between early developmental factors and lifetime fracture risk is needed and may inform primary preventative strategies for fracture prevention.

  5. Optimal control of quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, Daniel; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Pulses to steer the time evolution of quantum systems can be designed with optimal control theory. In most cases it is the coherent processes that can be controlled and one optimizes the time evolution towards a target unitary process, sometimes also in the presence of non-controllable incoherent processes. Here we show how to extend the GRAPE algorithm in the case where the incoherent processes are controllable and the target time evolution is a non-unitary quantum channel. We perform a gradient search on a fidelity measure based on Choi matrices. We illustrate our algorithm by optimizing a measurement pulse for superconducting phase qubits. We show how this technique can lead to large measurement contrast close to 99%. We also show, within the validity of our model, that this algorithm can produce short 1.4 ns pulses with 98.2% contrast.

  6. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with areal and volumetric measures of bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone: impact of vitamin D-binding protein and its assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielita, T. O.; Leonard, M. B.; Baker, J.; Sayed, S.; Zemel, B. S.; Shults, J.; Herskovitz, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A comparison of the association of different forms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and with areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) demonstrated that bioavailable and free 25(OH)D do not provide a better index of vitamin D status in terms of bone health compared to total 25(OH)D. Introduction This study aims to compare measures of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) using a monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA and assess correlations of total versus estimated free and bioavailable 25(OH)D with BMD and PTH concentrations. Methods DXA and peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) scans were obtained in 304 adults (158 black, 146 white), ages 21–80 years. Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated from total 25(OH)D, DBP, and albumin concentrations. Multivariable linear regression with standardized beta coefficients was used to evaluate associations of bone measures and PTH with total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D. Results Measures of DBP obtained using a monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA were not correlated (rs=0.02, p=0.76). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D based on the polyclonal assay were lower in black versus white participants (p<0.0001); this race difference was not evident using the monoclonal assay. Adjusted for age, sex, calcium intake, and race, all forms of 25(OH)D were negatively associated with PTH, but the absolute coefficient was greatest for total 25(OH)D (−0.34, p<0.001) versus free/bioavailable 25(OH)D (−0.18/−0.24 depending on DBP assay, p≤0.003). In analyses stratified on race, none of the measures of 25(OH)D were associated with BMD across DXA and pQCT sites. Conclusions The monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA yielded highly discrepant measures of DBP, particularly among black individuals, likely related to established race differences in DBP polymorphisms. Contrary to prior studies, our findings indicate that using DBP to estimate bioavailable and free 25(OH)D does not provide a better index of

  7. Correlation between macro texture measures carried out by the volumetric method and by different laser texture meter; Correlacion de medidas de macrotextura tomadas con el metodo volumetrico y con diferentes texturometros lasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra Ruiz, L.; Yanguas Gonzalez, S. J.

    2013-06-01

    The reference value for the measurement of surface macro texture in the Spanish Main Road Network is the MTD or Mean Texture Depth (PMT, Profundidad Media de Textura), obtained by means of the volumetric methods, in accordance with the standard UNE EN 13036-1:12010. The fact that it is a spot measurement that requires road closures makes it an expensive procedure as well as slow and dangerous. In addition to this, the test results are relatively sensitive to the operator, being the procedure not too suitable for systematic surveys. These are some of the reasons that have contributed to the development of texture meter laser devices that can be assembled on board of vehicles, circulating without interfering with the normal traffic flow and providing a parameter named the MPD (Mean Depth Profile). According to the standard UNE-EN ISO 13473-1:2006, it is possible to estimate the texture obtained by volumetric methods, with the parameter ETD (Estimated Texture Depth) through the equation: ETD=0,8 x MPD+0.2 In 2008 CEDEX conducted a study that correlated macro texture measures obtained by means of the volumetric method with such carried out by different laser texture meters. The equations yield a better relation between MPD and MTD were dependent on the measurement device used and were not linear equations type, as is it indicated in the standard, but exponential type equations. (Author) 6 refs.

  8. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  9. BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2010-12-01

    In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate

  10. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  11. Area and volumetric density estimation in processed full-field digital mammograms for risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Cheddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. METHODS: The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol. The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. RESULTS: All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of risk and genetic association.

  12. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  13. Quantitative measurements of inventory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, M W

    1984-11-01

    The use of quantitative measurements for improving inventory management efficiency in hospital pharmacy is reviewed. Proper management of the pharmacy inventory affects the financial operation of the entire hospital. Problems associated with maintaining inadequate or excessive inventory investment are discussed, and the use of inventory valuation and turnover rate for assessing inventory control efficiency is described. Frequency of order placement has an important effect on inventory turnover, carrying costs, and ordering costs. Use of the ABC system of inventory classification for identifying products constituting the majority of inventory dollar investment is outlined, and the economic order value concept is explained. With increasing regulations aimed at controlling hospital costs, pharmacy managers must seek every possible means to improve efficiency. Reducing the amount of money obligated to inventory can substantially improve the financial position of the hospital without requiring a reduction in personnel or quality of service.

  14. 4D-SPECT/CT in orthopaedics: a new method of combined quantitative volumetric 3D analysis of SPECT/CT tracer uptake and component position measurements in patients after total knee arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Helmut; Falkowski, Anna L.; Forrer, Flavio [Kantonsspital Baselland, Institute for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Henckel, Johann [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Hirschmann, Michael T. [Kantonsspital Baselland, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of combined quantitative 3D-volumetric single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT analysis including size, intensity and localisation of tracer uptake regions and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) position. Tc-99m-HDP-SPECT/CT of 100 knees after TKA were prospectively analysed. The anatomical areas represented by a previously validated localisation scheme were 3D-volumetrically analysed. The maximum intensity was recorded for each anatomical area. Ratios between the respective value and the mid-shaft of the femur as the reference were calculated. Femoral and tibial TKA position (varus-valgus, flexion-extension, internal rotation- external rotation) were determined on 3D-CT. Two consultant radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians interpreted the SPECT/CTs twice with a 2-week interval. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was determined (ICCs). Kappa values were calculated for the area with the highest tracer uptake between the observers. The measurements of tracer uptake intensity showed excellent inter- and intra-observer reliabilities for all regions (tibia, femur and patella). Only the tibial shaft area showed ICCs <0.89. The kappa values were almost perfect (0.856, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.778, 0.922). For measurements of the TKA position, there was strong agreement within and between the readings of the two observers; the ICCs for the orientation of TKA components for inter- and intra-observer reliability were nearly perfect (ICCs >0.84). This combined 3D-volumetric standardised method of analysing the location, size and the intensity of SPECT/CT tracer uptake regions (''hotspots'') and the determination of the TKA position was highly reliable and represents a novel promising approach to biomechanics. (orig.)

  15. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter reading systems based on ... damage and also provides the ability to control and manage consumption. ... existing infrastructure of the telecommunications is used in data transmission.

  16. Aspects of control measures in occupational hygiene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumens, M.E.G.L.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on two aspects which are of major importance in the broad field of control measures in occupational hygiene: the selection of control measures in a structured way and the impact of factors modifying the effectiveness of these control measures.The main objectives of the thesis are

  17. Radiofrequency ablation of malignant liver tumors: use of a volumetric necrosis-tumor ratio for local control; Radiofrequenzablation von malignen Lebertumoren: Erlaubt ein volumetrischer Nekrose-/Tumor-Quotient eine Vorhersage zur lokalen Tumorkontrolle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, H. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany); Stattaus, J.; Antoch, G.; Forsting, M. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany); Kuehl, B. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany); Boes, T. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany); Frilling, A. [Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Universitaetsklinik Essen (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Purpose: Sufficient safety margins are essential for preventing local tumor recurrence after radiofrequency ablation RFA of malignant liver tumors. The aim was to determine the initial tumor volume, ablation necrosis volume, and the necrosis-tumor quotient in order to compare these parameters with the rate of local control during follow-up. Materials and Methods: 35 patients with 53 tumor nodules (29 colorectal metastases and 24 HCC nodules) were enrolled. RFA procedures were performed under CT guidance with intravenous conscious sedation. Tumor volumes were measured based on CT data sets and the necrosis volume was assessed using the sum-of-area method. A volumetric necrosis/tumor quotient (NTQ) was calculated for all lesions. Follow-up examinations were performed after 3, 6, and 12 months and then on a yearly basis to identify local recurrent tumors. Results: The CRC metastases and HCC nodules had a median tumor volume of 8.3 ml and 7.4 ml, respectively. The mean ablation volumes were 37.6 ml and 29.5 ml, respectively. This resulted in a median NTQ of 3.9 for metastases and 3.4 for HCC. The follow-up (mean time 18 months) revealed local tumor recurrence in 16 of 29 (55%) metastases and 10 of 24 (42%) HCC nodules. In lesions with local recurrence, the initial tumor volume was significantly greater and the NTQ was significantly smaller. A threshold value of 3.4 for NTQ has the highest predictive value for local tumor recurrence. (orig.)

  18. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... measurement quality and to estimate measurement uncertainty values, the licensee shall: (1) Assign... determine significant contributors to the measurement uncertainties associated with inventory differences... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section...

  19. Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, James L. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a specific type of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in which the gantry speed, multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, and dose rate vary continuously during delivery. A treatment planning system for VMAT is presented. Methods: Arc control points are created uniformly throughout one or more arcs. An iterative least-squares algorithm is used to generate a fluence profile at every control point. The control points are then grouped and all of the control points in a given group are used to approximate the fluence profiles. A direct-aperture optimization is then used to improve the solution, taking into account the allowed range of leaf motion of the MLC. Dose is calculated using a fast convolution algorithm and the motion between control points is approximated by 100 interpolated dose calculation points. The method has been applied to five cases, consisting of lung, rectum, prostate and seminal vesicles, prostate and pelvic lymph nodes, and head and neck. The resulting plans have been compared with segmental (step-and-shoot) IMRT and delivered and verified on an Elekta Synergy to ensure practicality. Results: For the lung, prostate and seminal vesicles, and rectum cases, VMAT provides a plan of similar quality to segmental IMRT but with faster delivery by up to a factor of 4. For the prostate and pelvic nodes and head-and-neck cases, the critical structure doses are reduced with VMAT, both of these cases having a longer delivery time than IMRT. The plans in general verify successfully, although the agreement between planned and measured doses is not very close for the more complex cases, particularly the head-and-neck case. Conclusions: Depending upon the emphasis in the treatment planning, VMAT provides treatment plans which are higher in quality and/or faster to deliver than IMRT. The scheme described has been successfully introduced into clinical use.

  20. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States) and Insolves LLC

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  1. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  2. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  3. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Improved control of delayed measured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Jens Christian; Schuster, Heinz Georg

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we address the question of how the control of delayed measured chaotic systems can be improved. Both unmodified Ott-Grebogi-Yorke control and difference control can be successfully applied only for a certain range of Lyapunov numbers depending on the delay time. We show that this limitation can be overcome by at least two classes of methods, namely, by rhythmic control and by the memory methods of linear predictive logging control and memory difference control.

  5. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  6. Tunnel widening after ACL reconstruction with aperture screw fixation or all-inside reconstruction with suspensory cortical button fixation: Volumetric measurements on CT and MRI scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Raul; Smekal, Vinzenz; Koidl, Christian; Coppola, Christian; Fritz, Josef; Rudisch, Ansgar; Kranewitter, Christof; Attal, René

    2017-10-01

    Tunnel widening after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is influenced by the surgical and fixation techniques used. Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate image modality for assessing tunnel widening, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might also be reliable for tunnel volume measurements. In the present study tunnel widening after ACLR using biodegradable interference screw fixation was compared with all-inside ACLR using button fixation, with tunnel volume changes being measured on CT and MRI scans. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Thirty-three patients were randomly assigned to hamstring ACLR using a biodegradable interference screw or all-inside cortical button fixation. CT and MRI scanning were done at the time of surgery and six months after. Tunnel volume changes were calculated and compared. On CT, femoral tunnel volumes changed from the postoperative state (100%) to 119.8% with screw fixation and 143.2% with button fixation (P=0.023). The changes in tibial tunnel volumes were not significant (113.9% vs. 117.7%). The changes in bone tunnel volume measured on MRI were comparable with those on CT only for tunnels with interference screws. Tibial tunnels with button fixation were significantly underestimated on MRI scanning (P=0.018). All-inside ACLR using cortical button fixation results in increased femoral tunnel widening in comparison with ACLR with biodegradable interference screw fixation. MRI represents a reliable imaging modality for future studies investigating tunnel widening with interference screw fixation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E. [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); Keeser, D. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innenstadtkliniken Medical Centre, Munich (Germany)

    2014-10-16

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  8. Myocardial kinematics based on tagged MRI from volumetric NURBS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.

    2004-04-01

    We present current research in which left ventricular deformation is estimated from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using volumetric deformable models constructed from nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS). From a set of short and long axis images at end-diastole, the initial NURBS model is constructed by fitting two surfaces with the same parameterization to the set of epicardial and endocardial contours from which a volumetric model is created. Using normal displacements of the three sets of orthogonal tag planes as well as displacements of both tag line and contour/tag line intersection points, one can solve for the optimal homogeneous coordinates, in a least squares sense, of the control points of the NURBS model at a later time point using quadratic programming. After fitting to all time points of data, lofting the NURBS model at each time point creates a comprehensive 4-D NURBS model. From this model, we can extract 3-D myocardial displacement fields and corresponding strain maps, which are local measures of non-rigid deformation.

  9. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this work,a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system.As two special cases,two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail.An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity.Therefore,the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  10. Controlled quantum state transfer via parity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Quan; LI JiuHui

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a scheme for controlled quantum state transfer is proposed using parity measurement in a cavity-waveguide system. As two special cases, two schemes of controlled quantum state transfer for one qubit and two qubits are investigated in detail. An important advantage is that controlled quantum state transfer can be completed by single-qubit rotations and the measurement of parity. Therefore, the present scheme might be realized in the scope of current experimental technology.

  11. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local cont

  12. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local

  13. Small peripheral lung carcinomas with five-year post-surgical follow-up: assessment by semi-automated volumetric measurement of tumour size, CT value and growth rate on TSCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Shusuke [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Nagano Health Promotion Corporation, Inasato, Nagano (Japan); Hanaoka, Takaomi [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Department of Chest Surgery, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Ogata, Hiroyuki [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Division of Clinical Laboratory and Pathology, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Takayama, Fumiyoshi [JA Nagano Azumi General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ikeda, Nagano (Japan); Ichinose Neurosurgery Hospital, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Watanabe, Tomofumi [Iida Municipal Hospital, Iida, Nagano (Japan); Haniuda, Masayuki [Aichi Medical University, Division of Chest Surgery, Aichi (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuhiko [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Matsumoto (Japan); Okaya-Enrei Hospital, Okaya, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, Ryoichi [National Chushin Matsumoto Hospital, Matsumoto (Japan); Yoshida, Kazuo [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Matsumoto (Japan); Honda, Takayuki [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    To retrospectively assess the utility of semi-automated measurements by stratification of CT values of tumour size, CT value and doubling time (DT) using thin-section computed tomography (CT) images. The post-surgical outcomes of favourable and problematic tumours (more advanced p stage than IA, post-surgical recurrence or mortality from lung cancer) were compared using the measured values. The computed DTs were compared with manually measured values. The study subjects comprised 85 patients (aged 33-80 years, 48 women, 37 men), followed-up for more than 5 years postoperatively, with 89 lung lesions, including 17 atypical adenomatous hyperplasias and 72 lung cancers. DTs were determined in 45 lesions. For problematic lesions, whole tumour diameter and density were >18 mm and >-400 HU, respectively. The respective values for the tumour core (with CT values of -350 to 150 HU) were >15 mm and >-70 HU. Analysis of tumour core DTs showed interval tumour progression even if little progress was seen by standard tumour volume DT (TVDT). Software-based volumetric measurements by stratification of CT values provide valuable information on tumour core and help estimate tumour aggressiveness and interval tumour progression better than standard manually measured 2D-VDTs. (orig.)

  14. Comparison between 3D volumetric rendering and multiplanar slices on the reliability of linear measurements on CBCT images: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Maria Freire FERNANDES

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of two methods of measurements of linear distances (multiplanar 2D and tridimensional reconstruction 3D obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT with different voxel sizes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten dry human mandibles were scanned at voxel sizes of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. Craniometric anatomical landmarks were identified twice by two independent operators on the multiplanar reconstructed and on volume rendering images that were generated by the software Dolphin®. Subsequently, physical measurements were performed using a digital caliper. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman were used for evaluating accuracy and reliability (p<0.05. RESULTS: Excellent intraobserver reliability and good to high precision interobserver reliability values were found for linear measurements from CBCT 3D and multiplanar images. Measurements performed on multiplanar reconstructed images were more accurate than measurements in volume rendering compared with the gold standard. No statistically significant difference was found between voxel protocols, independently of the measurement method. CONCLUSIONS: Linear measurements on multiplanar images of 0.2 and 0.4 voxel are reliable and accurate when compared with direct caliper measurements. Caution should be taken in the volume rendering measurements, because the measurements were reliable, but not accurate for all variables. An increased voxel resolution did not result in greater accuracy of mandible measurements and would potentially provide increased patient radiation exposure.

  15. A SUBDIVISION SCHEME FOR VOLUMETRIC MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GhulamMustafa; LiuXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed. The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models. The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joy's. This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes of nonmanifold topology.

  16. Study of volumetric properties (PVT) of mixtures made of light hydrocarbons (C1-C4), carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide - Experimental measurements through a vibrating tube densimeter and modelling; Etude des proprietes volumetriques (PVT) d'hydrocarbures legers (C1-C4), du dioxyde de carbone et de l'hydrogene sulfure. Mesures par densimetrie a tube vibrant et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivollet, F.

    2005-12-15

    Various pollutant contents (i.e. carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide or other sulphur products) are found in produced oils. These latter must undergo a number of transformations and purifications. The design and dimensioning of the corresponding units can well be optimized only if one has reliable and accurate data about phase equilibria and volumetric properties and of course reliable and accurate modeling. This work was devoted partly to measurements of volumetric properties on three binary mixtures (ethane - hydrogen sulphide, ethane - propane and carbon dioxide - hydrogen sulphide). These measurements were carried out using equipment, comprising a vibrating tube densimeter (Paar, model DMA 512 P), which was especially designed and built for this work. The binary mixtures were studied in the 253 to 363 K temperature range from at pressures up to either 20 or 40 MPa. Two calibration methods of the vibrating tube were used: the FPMC method (Forced Path Mechanical Calibration) described in the literature and an original method containing neural network, developed herein. The study undertaken about the modeling of volumetric properties made it possible to highlight the inadequacy of the traditional use of cubic equations of state to represent simultaneously volumetric properties and phase equilibria. Among the equations of state investigated, a close attention however was paid to cubic equations of state because of their very great use in the oil field. A new tool was found to adapt cubic equations of state to the simultaneous and satisfactory representation of volumetric properties and phase equilibria. It concerns the coupling of the cubic Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state with volume correction through a neural network. This new model was tested successfully, it makes it possible to benefit from the existing work of representation of phase equilibria (mixing rules and interaction coefficients) while improving calculation of the volumetric data.

  17. Volumetric Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    example involved a measurement campaign in collaboration with researchers at the Air Force Research Laboratory (Drs. Timothy Ombrello and Campbell ...its impact and promote AFOSR’s vision and mission. In this project, the PI has collaborated with Drs. Campbell Carter and Tim Ombrello to perform...Thermal-Fluid Systems, Heat Transfer Engineering, 37(3-4), 359-368, (2016) [9] Y.W. Lin Ma, Qingchun Lei, Wenjiang Xu, Campbell D. Carter, 3D Flame

  18. Feasibility study of entrance and exit dose measurements at the contra lateral breast with alanine/electron spin resonance dosimetry in volumetric modulated radiotherapy of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniela M.; Hüttenrauch, Petra; Anton, Mathias; von Voigts-Rhetz, Philip; Zink, Klemens; Wolff, Hendrik A.

    2017-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt has established a secondary standard measurement system for the dose to water, D W, based on alanine/ESR (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The aim of this study was to test the established measurement system for the out-of-field measurements of inpatients with breast cancer. A set of five alanine pellets were affixed to the skin of each patient at the contra lateral breast beginning at the sternum and extending over the mammilla to the distal surface. During 28 fractions with 2.2 Gy per fraction, the accumulated dose was measured in four patients. A cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) scan was generated for setup purposes before every treatment. The reference CT dataset was registered rigidly and deformably to the CBCT dataset for 28 fractions. To take the actual alanine pellet position into account, the dose distribution was calculated for every fraction using the Acuros XB algorithm. The results of the ESR measurements were compared to the calculated doses. The maximum dose measured at the sternum was 19.9 Gy  ±  0.4 Gy, decreasing to 6.8 Gy  ±  0.2 Gy at the mammilla and 4.5 Gy  ±  0.1 Gy at the distal surface of the contra lateral breast. The absolute differences between the calculated and measured doses ranged from  -1.9 Gy to 0.9 Gy. No systematic error could be seen. It was possible to achieve a combined standard uncertainty of 1.63% for D W  =  5 Gy for the measured dose. The alanine/ESR method is feasible for in vivo measurements.

  19. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  20. Volumetric CT-images improve testing of radiological image interpretation skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J., E-mail: C.J.Ravesloot@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Schaaf, Marieke F. van der, E-mail: M.F.vanderSchaaf@uu.nl [Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, Jan P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Cate, Olle Th.J. ten, E-mail: T.J.tenCate@umcutrecht.nl [Center for Research and Development of Education at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Gijp, Anouk van der, E-mail: A.vanderGijp-2@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P., E-mail: C.Mol@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Vincken, Koen L., E-mail: K.Vincken@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Rationale and objectives: Current radiology practice increasingly involves interpretation of volumetric data sets. In contrast, most radiology tests still contain only 2D images. We introduced a new testing tool that allows for stack viewing of volumetric images in our undergraduate radiology program. We hypothesized that tests with volumetric CT-images enhance test quality, in comparison with traditional completely 2D image-based tests, because they might better reflect required skills for clinical practice. Materials and methods: Two groups of medical students (n = 139; n = 143), trained with 2D and volumetric CT-images, took a digital radiology test in two versions (A and B), each containing both 2D and volumetric CT-image questions. In a questionnaire, they were asked to comment on the representativeness for clinical practice, difficulty and user-friendliness of the test questions and testing program. Students’ test scores and reliabilities, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 2D and volumetric CT-image tests were compared. Results: Estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) were higher for volumetric CT-image scores (version A: .51 and version B: .54), than for 2D CT-image scores (version A: .24 and version B: .37). Participants found volumetric CT-image tests more representative of clinical practice, and considered them to be less difficult than volumetric CT-image questions. However, in one version (A), volumetric CT-image scores (M 80.9, SD 14.8) were significantly lower than 2D CT-image scores (M 88.4, SD 10.4) (p < .001). The volumetric CT-image testing program was considered user-friendly. Conclusion: This study shows that volumetric image questions can be successfully integrated in students’ radiology testing. Results suggests that the inclusion of volumetric CT-images might improve the quality of radiology tests by positively impacting perceived representativeness for clinical practice and increasing reliability of the test.

  1. Accurate assessment of breast volume: a study comparing the volumetric gold standard (direct water displacement measurement of mastectomy specimen) with a 3D laser scanning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Jia Miin; Mouratova, Naila; Jeffery, Rebecca M; Veitch, Daisy E; Woodman, Richard J; Dean, Nicola R

    2012-02-01

    Preoperative assessment of breast volume could contribute significantly to the planning of breast-related procedures. The availability of 3D scanning technology provides us with an innovative method for doing this. We performed this study to compare measurements by this technology with breast volume measurement by water displacement. A total of 30 patients undergoing 39 mastectomies were recruited from our center. The volume of each patient's breast(s) was determined with a preoperative 3D laser scan. The volume of the mastectomy specimen was then measured in the operating theater by water displacement. There was a strong linear association between breast volumes measured using the 2 different methods when using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.95, P Scanner as a tool for assessment of breast volume.

  2. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  3. New methodology for simultaneous volumetric and calorimetric measurements: Direct determination of {alpha}{sub p} and C{sub p} for liquids under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, L. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Plantier, F.; Bessieres, D. [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Energetique des Fluides Complexes-UMR 5150, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, BP 1155, 64013 Pau (France)

    2009-12-15

    A new batch cell has been developed to measure simultaneously both isobaric thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity from calorimetric measurements. The isobaric thermal expansion is directly proportional to the linear displacement of an inner flexible below and the heat capacity is calculated from the calorimetric signal. The apparatus used was a commercial Setaram C-80 calorimeter and together with this type of vessels can be operated up to 20 MPa and in the temperature range of 303.15-523.15 K, In this work, calibration was carried out using 1-hexanol and subsequently both thermophysical properties were determined for 3-pentanol, 3-ethyl-3-pentanol, and 1-octanol at atmospheric pressure, 5 and 10 MPa, and from 303.15 to 423.15 K in temperature. Finally experimental values were compared with the literature in order to validate this new methodology, which allows a very accurate determination of isobaric thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity.

  4. New methodology for simultaneous volumetric and calorimetric measurements: direct determination of alpha(p) and C(p) for liquids under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casás, L M; Plantier, F; Bessières, D

    2009-12-01

    A new batch cell has been developed to measure simultaneously both isobaric thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity from calorimetric measurements. The isobaric thermal expansion is directly proportional to the linear displacement of an inner flexible below and the heat capacity is calculated from the calorimetric signal. The apparatus used was a commercial Setaram C-80 calorimeter and together with this type of vessels can be operated up to 20 MPa and in the temperature range of 303.15-523.15 K, In this work, calibration was carried out using 1-hexanol and subsequently both thermophysical properties were determined for 3-pentanol, 3-ethyl-3-pentanol, and 1-octanol at atmospheric pressure, 5 and 10 MPa, and from 303.15 to 423.15 K in temperature. Finally experimental values were compared with the literature in order to validate this new methodology, which allows a very accurate determination of isobaric thermal expansion and isobaric heat capacity.

  5. Thermodynamics of the ternary systems: (water + glycine, L-alanine and L-serine + di-ammonium hydrogen citrate) from volumetric, compressibility, and (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamireza, Afsaneh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg{sup -1} di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {l_brace}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} and those of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {l_brace}glycine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, {l_brace}alanine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, and {l_brace}serine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.

  6. SU-E-T-426: Feasibility of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Jackson, J; Davies, G; Herman, J; Forbang, R Teboh [John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: SBRT shows excellent tumor control and toxicity rates for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (PCA). Herein, we evaluate the feasibility of using VMAT with ABC for PCA SBRT. Methods: Nine PCA patients previously treated via SBRT utilizing 11-beam step-and-shoot IMRT technique in our center were retrospectively identified, among whom eight patients received 3300cGy in 5 fractions while one received 3000cGy in 5 fractions. A VMAT plan was generated on each patient’s planning CT in Pinnacle v9.8 on Elekta Synergy following the same PCA SBRT clinical protocol. Three partial arcs (182°–300°, 300°-60°, and 60°-180°) with 2°/4° control-point spacing were used. The dosimetric difference between the VMAT and the original IMRT plans was analyzed. IMRT QA was performed for the VMAT plans using MapCheck2 in MapPHAN and the total delivery time was recorded. To mimic the treatment situation with ABC, where patients hold their breath for 20–30 seconds, the delivery was intentionally interrupted every 20–30 seconds. For each plan, the QA was performed with and without beam interruption. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) was used to compare the planned and measured doses. Results: All VMAT plans with 2mm dose grid passed the clinic protocol with similar PTV coverage and OARs sparing, where PTV V-RxDose was 92.7±2.1% (VMAT) vs. 92.1±2.6% (IMRT), and proximal stomach V15Gy was 3.60±2.69 cc (VMAT) vs. 4.80±3.13 cc (IMRT). The mean total MU and delivery time of the VMAT plans were 2453.8±531.1 MU and 282.1±56.0 seconds. The gamma passing rates of absolute dose were 94.9±3.4% and 94.5±4.0% for delivery without and with interruption respectively, suggesting the dosimetry of VMAT delivery with ABC for SBRT won’t be compromised. Conclusion: This study suggests that PCA SBRT using VMAT with ABC is a feasible technique without compromising plan dosimetry. The combination of VMAT with ABC will potentially reduce the SBRT treatment time.

  7. Project Monitoring and Control Measures In CMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khraiwesh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Project monitoring and control process is an important process in developing any computer informationsystem. Monitoring and Control provides an understanding of the project’s progress so that when theproject deviates significantly from the plan appropriate corrective actions can be taken. This research willidentify general measures for the specific goals and its specific practices of Project Monitoring andControl Process Area in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI. CMMI is developed in USA bySoftware Engineering Institute (SEI in Carnegie Mellon University. CMMI is a framework for assessmentand improvement of computer information systems. The procedure we used to determine the measures is toapply the Goal Questions Metrics (GQM approach to the two specific goals and its ten specific practicesof Project Monitoring and Control Process Area in CMMI.

  8. Measuring strategic control in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Elisabeth; Price, Mark C; Jones, Emma

    2011-12-01

    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL), we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars (pure-block condition), or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial (novel mixed-block condition) which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. Random variation in the colour and font of letters was introduced to disguise the nature of the rule and reduce explicit learning. Strategic control was observed both in the pure-block and mixed-block conditions, and even among participants who did not realise the rule was based on letter identity. This indicated detailed strategic control in the absence of explicit learning.

  9. Quality control based on electrical resistivity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Jalali, Said

    2006-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of concrete is one of the main parameters controlling the initiation and propagation of reinforcement corrosion. It is common knowledge that concrete electrical resistivity is mainly dependent on the w/c ratio (pore connectivity), volume and type of cement, temperature and the moisture. This research work studies the effect of specimen shape and temperature of measurement on electrical resistivity measurements of concrete using the four-point Werner electrode. In ad...

  10. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  11. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality.

  12. Accuracy of both virtual and printed 3-dimensional models for volumetric measurement of alveolar clefts before grafting with alveolar bone compared with a validated algorithm: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaven, C P; McIntyre, G T; Mossey, P A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the accuracy of virtual and printed 3-dimensional models derived from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans to measure the volume of alveolar clefts before bone grafting. Fifteen subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had i-CAT cone-beam CT scans recorded at 0.2mm voxel and sectioned transversely into slices 0.2mm thick using i-CAT Vision. Volumes of alveolar clefts were calculated using first a validated algorithm; secondly, commercially-available virtual 3-dimensional model software; and finally 3-dimensional printed models, which were scanned with microCT and analysed using 3-dimensional software. For inter-observer reliability, a two-way mixed model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reproducibility of identification of the cranial and caudal limits of the clefts among three observers. We used a Friedman test to assess the significance of differences among the methods, and probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. Inter-observer reliability was almost perfect (ICC=0.987). There were no significant differences among the three methods. Virtual and printed 3-dimensional models were as precise as the validated computer algorithm in the calculation of volumes of the alveolar cleft before bone grafting, but virtual 3-dimensional models were the most accurate with the smallest 95% CI and, subject to further investigation, could be a useful adjunct in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective control of engineering cost measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑虹; 戚悦

    2013-01-01

    the civil engineering cost function mainly lies in the calculation of the required for the construction cost to the sum of al. Civil engineering cost throughout the project, the efective use of human, financial weakness, can beter benefit our investment, so the control of civil engineering cost measures is very necessary.

  14. On the Optimal Controller for LTV Measurement Feedback Control Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting GONG; Yu Feng LU

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the measurement feedback control problem for discrete linear time-varying systems within the framework of nest algebra consisting of causal and bounded linear operators. Based on the inner-outer factorization of operators, we reduce the control problem to a distance from a certain operator to a special subspace of a nest algebra and show the existence of the optimal LTV controller in two different ways: one via the characteristic of the subspace in question directly, the other via the duality theory. The latter also gives a new formula for computing the optimal cost.

  15. Prognostic value of volumetric parameters measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgral, Ronan; Keromnes, Nathalie; Robin, Philippe; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Bourhis, David; Palard, Xavier; Salauen, Pierre-Yves [University Hospital of Brest, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest (France); Rousset, Jean [Military Hospital of Brest, Department of Radiology, Brest (France); Valette, Gerald; Marianowski, Remi [University Hospital of Brest, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Brest (France)

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of metabolic tumour volume (MTV) assessed with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in predicting event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and particularly to compare it with more conventional parameters such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Patients referred to our department for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for staging of HNSCC were prospectively included between February 2009 and March 2011. Each patient was scanned using a Philips Gemini PET/CT system at 1 h after injection. The MTV was calculated semiautomatically for the primary site using methods based on SUV with various thresholds: 3-D contour around voxels equal to or greater than 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0 times SUV, or more than 30 %, 40 % and 50 % of SUVmax. ROC analysis was used to test the statistical significance of the differences among the calculated MTVs. EFS and OS were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with MTV in univariate and multivariate analyses, including the usual prognostic factors: age, sex, primary site, treatment, SCC histologic grade, AJCC stage, TNM classification, tumour SUVmax and SUVpeak. The study included 80 consecutive patients (70 men, 10 women; mean age 62.4 ± 9.0 years). ROC analysis revealed that pretreatment MTV using a threshold of 5.0 times SUV (MTV5.0) was the best parameter to predict recurrence and death after treatment. In univariate analysis, MTV5.0 >4.9 ml was predictive of poor EFS (p < 0.0001) and poor OS (p < 0.0001). In multivariate, MTV5.0 persisted as an independent predictive factor for EFS (p = 0.011) and OS (p = 0.010), while SUVmax became nonsignificant (p = 0.277 for EFS, p = 0.975 for OS). Our results suggest that MTV measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has independent prognostic value of in patients with HNSCC, stronger than SUVmax. (orig.)

  16. Controlling acquiescence bias in measurement invariance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aichholzer Julian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing measurement invariance (MI is an important cornerstone in establishing equivalence of instruments and comparability of constructs. However, a common concern is that respondent differences in acquiescence response style (ARS behavior could entail a lack of MI for the measured constructs. This study investigates if and how ARS impacts MI and the level of MI achieved. Data from two representative samples and two popular short Big Five personality scales were analyzed to study hypothesized ARS differences among educational groups. Multiple-group factor analysis and the random intercept method for controlling ARS are used to investigate MI with and without controlling for ARS. Results suggest that, contrary to expectations, controlling for ARS had little impact on conclusions regarding the level of MI of the instruments. Thus, the results suggest that testing MI is not an appropriate means for detecting ARS differences per se. Implications and further research areas are discussed.

  17. All Photons Imaging Through Volumetric Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satat, Guy; Heshmat, Barmak; Raviv, Dan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Imaging through thick highly scattering media (sample thickness ≫ mean free path) can realize broad applications in biomedical and industrial imaging as well as remote sensing. Here we propose a computational “All Photons Imaging” (API) framework that utilizes time-resolved measurement for imaging through thick volumetric scattering by using both early arrived (non-scattered) and diffused photons. As opposed to other methods which aim to lock on specific photons (coherent, ballistic, acoustically modulated, etc.), this framework aims to use all of the optical signal. Compared to conventional early photon measurements for imaging through a 15 mm tissue phantom, our method shows a two fold improvement in spatial resolution (4db increase in Peak SNR). This all optical, calibration-free framework enables widefield imaging through thick turbid media, and opens new avenues in non-invasive testing, analysis, and diagnosis. PMID:27683065

  18. 容积二氧化碳图在气道反应性测定中的应用%Application of volumetric capnography in the measurement of bronchial hyperresponsiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓丽; 刘锦铭; 杨文兰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of volumetric capnography (VCap) parameters in the measurement of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and bronchodilator responsiveness,and compared with the routine spirometry method. Methods Sixty chronic cough suspect cough variation asthmatic outpatients were selected randomly to perform bronchial challenge test with VCap and spirometry respectively, VCap were measured firstly every step. Results Positive rate of BHR was 50%. In the posifive group, FEV1 ,PEF and VDT, VDF, VDW,dC3/DV were significantly changed between the postchallenge value and the baseline value(P0.05),VDT、VDF、VDW激发后和舒张后值之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).所有患者的基础值、激发后、舒张后数据,FEV1均与PEF、Vcap各参数(除dC2/DV、dC3/DV、SR23外)呈显著直线相关(P<0.05).激发试验过程中各死腔参数的下降提前于FEV1和PEF的下降.激发试验终止时,ROC曲线提示VDT、VDF为最敏感指标,VDT较基础值增加28%、VDF较基础值增加20%,可作为Vcap气道高反应性阳性判断标准.结论 Vcap是一种定量评估支气管阻塞严重性的有效方法,可应用于气道反应性测定.

  19. Multi-modal MRI investigation of volumetric and microstructural changes in the hippocampus and its subfields in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Elijah; Gabel, Silvy; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Arnold, Robert; Passamonti, Luca; Vazquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Surendranathan, Ajenthan; Bevan-Jones, W Richard; Rowe, James B; O'Brien, John T

    2017-04-01

    Volumetric atrophy and microstructural alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of the hippocampus have been reported in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, no study to date has jointly investigated concomitant microstructural and volumetric changes of the hippocampus in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). A total of 84 subjects (23 MCI, 17 DLB, 14 AD, and 30 healthy controls) were recruited for a multi-modal imaging (3T MRI and DTI) study that included neuropsychological evaluation. Freesurfer was used to segment the total hippocampus and delineate its subfields. The hippocampal segmentations were co-registered to the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from the DTI images. Both AD and MCI groups showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes compared to DLB and controls, predominantly in the CA1 and subiculum subfields. Compared to controls, hippocampal MD was elevated in AD, but not in MCI. DLB was characterized by both volumetric and microstructural preservation of the hippocampus. In MCI, higher hippocampal MD was associated with greater atrophy of the hippocampus and CA1 region. Hippocampal volume was a stronger predictor of memory scores compared to MD within the MCI group. Through a multi-modal integration, we report novel evidence that the hippocampus in DLB is characterized by both macrostructural and microstructural preservation. Contrary to recent suggestions, our findings do not support the view that DTI measurements of the hippocampus are superior to volumetric changes in characterizing group differences, particularly between MCI and controls.

  20. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  1. RF Control and Measurement of Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-14

    208047 New Haven, CT 06520 -8047 14-Sep-2014 ABSTRACT Final Report: RF Control and Measurement of Superconducting Qubits Report Title This is the final...project duration, to the generation a new architecture which, while taking into account the limitations discovered in the other research line of the...materials properties. Third, spurious electromagnetic modes, not accounted for in the Hamiltonian (1), can spuriously couple to the atoms or the

  2. An Analysis Methodology for Stochastic Characteristic of Volumetric Error in Multiaxis CNC Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches about error modeling and analysis of machine tool few consider the probability characteristics of the geometric error and volumetric error systematically. However, the individual geometric error measured at different points is variational and stochastic, and therefore the resultant volumetric error is aslo stochastic and uncertain. In order to address the stochastic characteristic of the volumetric error for multiaxis machine tool, a new probability analysis mathematical model of volumetric error is proposed in this paper. According to multibody system theory, a mean value analysis model for volumetric error is established with consideration of geometric errors. The probability characteristics of geometric errors are obtained by statistical analysis to the measured sample data. Based on probability statistics and stochastic process theory, the variance analysis model of volumetric error is established in matrix, which can avoid the complex mathematics operations during the direct differential. A four-axis horizontal machining center is selected as an illustration example. The analysis results can reveal the stochastic characteristic of volumetric error and are also helpful to make full use of the best workspace to reduce the random uncertainty of the volumetric error and improve the machining accuracy.

  3. Three-dimensional volumetric quantification of fat loss following cryolipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibyan, Lilit; Sipprell, William H; Jalian, H Ray; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew; Anderson, R Rox

    2014-02-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive and well-tolerated treatment for reduction of localized subcutaneous fat. Although several studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this procedure, volumetric fat reduction from this treatment has not been quantified. This prospective study investigated the change in volume of fat after cryolipolysis treatment using three-dimensional (3D) photography. A prospective study of subjects treated with cryolipolysis on the flank (love handle) was performed at Massachusetts General Hospital. Volume measurements were performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra three-dimensional camera and software to evaluate the amount of post procedure volume change. Clinical outcomes were assessed with caliper measurements, subject surveys, and blinded physician assessment of photographs. Eleven subjects were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to one flank. The untreated flank served as an internal control. The follow-up time after treatment was 2 months. The mean amount of calculated absolute fat volume loss using 3D photography from baseline to 2 months follow-up visit was 56.2 ± 25.6 from the treatment site and 16.6 ± 17.6 cc from the control (P fat removal methodology that on average leads to 39.6 cc of fat loss of the treated flank at 2 months after a single treatment cycle. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High Volumetric Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Scrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Thangavel, Ranjith; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Chandra Das, Nayan; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-07-12

    The low volumetric energy density of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrodes limits its application in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices that require high-performance energy storage capacities in small volumes. The volumetric energy density of rGO-based electrode materials is very low due to their low packing density. A supercapacitor with enhanced packing density and high volumetric energy density is fabricated using doped rGO scrolls (GFNSs) as the electrode material. The restacking of rGO sheets is successfully controlled through synthesizing the doped scroll structures while increasing the packing density. The fabricated cell exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 49.66 Wh/L with excellent cycling stability (>10 000 cycles). This unique design strategy for the electrode material has significant potential for the future supercapacitors with high volumetric energy densities.

  5. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  6. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites.......07), or in medication usage (standardised mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens cannot be recommended. It is doubtful whether further studies, similar to the ones in our review, are worthwhile. If other...

  7. Disorder-specific volumetric brain difference in adolescent major depressive disorder and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Carrey, Normand; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Jaworska, Natalia; Crawford, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Structural abnormalities in frontal, limbic and subcortical regions have been noted in adults with both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the current study, we examined regional brain morphology in youth with MDD and BD as compared to controls. Regional brain volumes were measured in 32 MDD subjects (15.7 ± 2.1 years), 14 BD subjects (16.0 ± 2.4 years) and 22 healthy controls (16.0 ± 2.8 years) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Regions of interest included the hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen and thalamus. Volumetric differences between groups were significant (F26,80 = 1.80, p = 0.02). Post-hoc analyses indicated that individuals with MDD showed reduced left hippocampus volumes (p = 0.048) as well as right ACC white and gray matter volumes (p = 0.003; p = 0.01) compared to controls. BD participants also displayed reduced left hippocampal and right/left putamen volumes compared to controls (p < 0.001; p = 0.015; p = 0.046 respectively). Interestingly, right and left ACC white matter volumes were smaller in MDD than in BD participants (p = 0.019; p = 0.045 respectively). No volumetric group differences were observed for the DLPFC and thalamus. Discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify 81.0 % of subjects as having BD or as MDD based on imaging data. Confirmation and extension of our findings requires larger sample sizes. Our findings provide new evidence of distinct, specific regional brain volumetric differences between MDD and BD that may be used to distinguish the two disorders.

  8. Volumetric capnography for the evaluation of chronic airways diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronez L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Liliani de Fátima Veronez,1 Monica Corso Pereira,2 Silvia Maria Doria da Silva,2 Luisa Affi Barcaui,2 Eduardo Mello De Capitani,2 Marcos Mello Moreira,2 Ilma Aparecida Paschoalz2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Votuporanga (Educational Foundation of Votuporanga, Votuporanga, 2Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, BrazilBackground: Obstructive lung diseases of different etiologies present with progressive peripheral airway involvement. The peripheral airways, known as the silent lung zone, are not adequately evaluated with conventional function tests. The principle of gas washout has been used to detect pulmonary ventilation inhomogeneity and to estimate the location of the underlying disease process. Volumetric capnography (VC analyzes the pattern of CO2 elimination as a function of expired volume.Objective: To measure normalized phase 3 slopes with VC in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCB and in bronchitic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in order to compare the slopes obtained for the groups.Methods: NCB and severe COPD were enrolled sequentially from an outpatient clinic (Hospital of the State University of Campinas. A control group was established for the NCB group, paired by sex and age. All subjects performed spirometry, VC, and the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT. Two comparisons were made: NCB group versus its control group, and NCB group versus COPD group. The project was approved by the ethical committee of the institution. Statistical tests used were Wilcoxon or Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered to be a statistically significant difference.Results: Concerning the NCB group (N=20 versus the control group (N=20, significant differences were found in body mass index and in several functional variables (spirometric, VC, 6MWT with worse results observed in the NCB group. In the comparison between

  9. Analysis of Changing Swarm Rate using Volumetric Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, T.; Ogata, Y.; Kimura, K.; Maeda, K.; Kobayashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Near the eastern coast of Izu peninsula is an active submarine volcanic region in Japan, where magma intrusions have been observed many times. The forecast of earthquake swarm activities and eruptions are serious concern particularly in nearby hot spring resort areas. It is well known that temporal durations of the swarm activities have been correlated with early volumetric strain changes at a certain observation station of about 20 km distance apart. Therefore the Earthquake Research Committee (2010) investigated some empirical statistical relations to predict sizes of the swarm activity. Here we looked at the background seismicity rate changes during these swarm periods using the non-stationary ETAS model (Kumazawa and Ogata, 2013, 2014), and have found the followings. The modified volumetric strain data, by removing the effect of earth tides, precipitation and coseismic jumps, have significantly higher cross-correlations to the estimated background rates of the ETAS model than to the swarm rate-changes. Specifically, the background seismicity rate synchronizes clearer to the strain change by the lags around a half day. These relations suggest an enhanced prediction of earthquakes in this region using volumetric strain measurements. Hence we propose an extended ETAS model where the background rate is modulated by the volumetric strain data. We have also found that the response function to the strain data can be well approximated by an exponential functions with the same decay rate, but that their intersects are inversely proportional to the distances between the volumetric strain-meter and the onset location of the swarm. Our numerical results by the same proposed model show consistent outcomes for the various major swarms in this region.

  10. Tuning quantum measurements to control chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jessica K.; Hope, Joseph J.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos. Our work shows that this is a result from the interplay between quantum interference effects induced by the nonlinear dynamics and the effectiveness of the decoherence for different measurement schemes. PMID:28317933

  11. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLUMETRIC STRAINS IN POROUS MATERIALS IN TERMS OF WATER FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differential analysis of volumetric strain (DAVS. The method allows measurements of volumetric deformations of capillary-porous materials caused by water-ice phase change. The VSE indicator (volumetric strain effect, which under certain conditions can be interpreted as the minimum degree of phase change of water contained in the material pores, is proposed. The test results (DAVS for three materials with diversified microstructure: clinker brick, calcium-silicate brick and Portland cement mortar were compared with the test results for pore characteristics obtained with the mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  12. Fine coal measurement needs for improved control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firth, B.; O' Brien, M. [CSIRO, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2010-07-01

    The monitoring and management of fine coal circuits in coal preparation plants is limited in current practice. As part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) Intelligent Plant Project (C11069), the relationships between the main operational and control factors for the unit operations and the circuit and the performance indicators have been identified. The unit operations examined included desliming (hydrocyclones and sieve bends), small coal cleaning (spirals and hydraulic separators), flotation, and dewatering (vacuum filters, centrifuges, and thickeners). These relationships were then used to assist in the identification of the important parameters to be measured and the preferred level of accuracy required to be useful. An important issue was the interconnection between the various unit operations and the potential impact of an upstream problem on the subsequent performance of downstream units. Analysis with the relationships showed that the flow rate of respective feed slurries and the solids content were found to be significant variables. This article will discuss this analysis and provide some case studies.

  13. Pulse sequence for dynamic volumetric imaging of hyperpolarized metabolic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles H.; Chen, Albert P.; Lustig, Michael; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Lupo, Janine; Xu, Duan; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Pauly, John M.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization and dissolution of a 13C-labeled substrate enables the dynamic imaging of cellular metabolism. Spectroscopic information is typically acquired, making the acquisition of dynamic volumetric data a challenge. To enable rapid volumetric imaging, a spectral-spatial excitation pulse was designed to excite a single line of the carbon spectrum. With only a single resonance present in the signal, an echo-planar readout trajectory could be used to resolve spatial information, giving full volume coverage of 32 × 32 × 16 voxels every 3.5 s. This high frame rate was used to measure the different lactate dynamics in different tissues in a normal rat model and a mouse model of prostate cancer.

  14. Nonrigid registration of volumetric images using ranked order statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Cao, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Non-rigid image registration techniques using intensity based similarity measures are widely used in medical imaging applications. Due to high computational complexities of these techniques, particularly for volumetric images, finding appropriate registration methods to both reduce the computation...... burden and increase the registration accuracy has become an intensive area of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find...... the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme to target those areas and reduce the registration computation time. A unique advantage of the proposed method is its ability to identify the point of diminishing returns and stop the registration process. Our experiments...

  15. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2015-01-01

    . This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° x 90° field-of-view was achieved. Data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 x 32 elements 2-D phased array......Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...... transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak- temporal...

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Determination of iodide by volumetric titration in support of the oil eletrolabeling with {sup 123}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenup-Cantuaria, Hericka O.H.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: hkenup@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy in measuring flow rate in pipelines is essential task to control various technical parameters in an industrial plant in oil industry and its derivatives. For this reason, it becomes increasingly widespread the uses of organic molecules labeled with radioactive isotopes mainly because of the wide possibility in use of different radioisotopes also due to the new labeling techniques. This paper presents a study to develop an electrochemical technique for oil labeling with iodine -123 and to determine the yield of production by measuring the concentration of iodide (I{sup -}) during this process. The volumetric titration technique was applied as a basis for quantitative and qualitative measures to monitor the labeling process. The results indicate the technical proposal as a viable alternative for monitoring electro labeling process of lubricating oils with iodine -123. (author)

  18. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieneke, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data.

  19. On-line measurement of heat of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S. K.; Chegini, H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

  20. Truth Control of Dublicate Measurings under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to truth control of dublicate measurings of technological variables under conditions of data deficit on characteristics of measuring facilities and controlled variables.The proposed control method improves a probability to detect and identify untrue dublicate measurings.

  1. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    1974-01-01

    Pupil control is regarded as an integrative theme to explain the collection of extensive observations made in schools. This report attempts to define and measure pupil control behavior, a companion concept to pupil control ideology. (Author/WM)

  2. Volumetric methods for tumor measurements in evaluating tumor response in glioblastoma%肿瘤容积测量在胶质母细胞瘤疗效评价中价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅云; 韩艳红; 程敬亮; 史大鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of tumor volume measurements on post-contrast 2D T1-weighted images to tumor response evaluation in brain glioblastoma by comparing with volumetric measurements on high resolution 3D T1-weighted images.Methods Seventy-two MRI scans from 36 adult glioblastoma patients were acquired by using a 3 Tesla MRI system.Each scanning session consisted of pre- and post-contrast thick 2D T1-weighted imaging with 5 mm slice thickness and a postcontrast high-resolution 3D acquisition with 1 mm isotropic voxels.Tumor volume measurements were performed on both 2D and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images and compared by using Wilcoxon rank test.The scans from same patient were paired, and four response categories including partial remission, progressive disease, stable disease and complete remission were used to evaluate tumor response status in all methods.Agreement of the treatment response classifications of the two methods was assessed by a weighted Kappa statistic.Results There was no significant difference between volumes measured on 2D and 3D in 72 scans (Z=1.20, P=0.23), and a high correlation was revealed between them (r=0.95, P<0.01).When the percentage changes were categorized into traditional tumor response criteria (complete remission, partial remission, stable disease, progressive disease), the Kappa coefficient between the volume on 2D and volume on 3D was 0.80 with an overall agreement of 86 %.Conclusion Volume on post-contrast 2D Ti-weighted images appears comparable to volume on 3D T1-weighted images and should be a practical alternative to volume on 3D in evaluating treatment response of brain gliobalstoma.%目的:通过与高分辨率三维(3D)增强T1 WI上肿瘤容积的比较,评价二维(2D)增强T1 WI上肿瘤容积测量在脑胶质母细胞瘤疗效评估中的价值.方法:36例成人脑胶质母细胞瘤患者的72次MRI扫描,采用3.0T MRI进行头颅常规MRI平扫和2D(层厚5 mm)及高分辨率3D(1 mm

  3. Mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of short fiber-reinforced resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of a short fiber-reinforced resin composite (SFRC) were investigated in this study and compared to both a bulk fill resin composite (BFRC) and conventional glass/ceramic-filled resin composite (CGRC). Fracture toughness, flexural properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of the SFRC, BFRC and CGRC were measured. SFRC had significantly higher fracture toughness than BFRCs and CGRCs. The flexural properties of SFRC were comparable with BFRCs and CGRCs. SFRC showed significantly lower volumetric shrinkage than the other tested resin composites. The depth of cure of the SFRC was similar to BFRCs and higher than CGRCs. The data from this laboratory investigation suggests that SFRC exhibits improvements in fracture toughness, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure when compared with CGRC, but depth of cure of SFRC was similar to BFRC.

  4. Using surface heave to estimate reservoir volumetric strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanayakkara, A.S.; Wong, R.C.K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed numerical tool for estimating reservoir volumetric strain distribution using surface vertical displacements and solving an inverse problem. Waterflooding, steam injection, carbon dioxide sequestration and aquifer storage recovery are among the subsurface injection operations that are responsible for reservoir dilations which propagate to the surrounding formations and extend to the surface resulting in surface heaves. Global positioning systems and surface tiltmeters are often used to measure the characteristics of these surface heaves and to derive valuable information regarding reservoir deformation and flow characteristics. In this study, Tikhonov regularization techniques were adopted to solve the ill-posed inversion problem commonly found in standard inversion techniques such as Gaussian elimination and least squares methods. Reservoir permeability was then estimated by inverting the volumetric strain distribution. Results of the newly developed numerical tool were compared with results from fully-coupled finite element simulation of fluid injection problems. The reservoir volumetric strain distribution was successfully estimated along with an approximate value for reservoir permeability.

  5. Thermoelectric property measurements with computer controlled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Wood, C.

    1984-01-01

    A joint JPL-NASA program to develop an automated system to measure the thermoelectric properties of newly developed materials is described. Consideration is given to the difficulties created by signal drift in measurements of Hall voltage and the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient. The benefits of a computerized system were examined with respect to error reduction and time savings for human operators. It is shown that the time required to measure Hall voltage can be reduced by a factor of 10 when a computer is used to fit a curve to the ratio of the measured signal and its standard deviation. The accuracy of measurements of the Large Delta T Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity was also enhanced by the use of computers.

  6. Understanding Volumetric and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption Trade-off in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Wang, Timothy C; García-Holley, Paula; Sawelewa, Ruth M; Argueta, Edwin; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K

    2017-04-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials that are promising for adsorption-based, on-board storage of hydrogen in fuel-cell vehicles. Volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen capacities are the key factors that determine the size and weight of the MOF-filled tank required to store a certain amount of hydrogen for reasonable driving range. Therefore, they must be optimized so the tank is neither too large nor too heavy. Because the goals of maximizing MOF volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen adsorption loadings individually are incompatible, an in-depth understanding of the trade-off between MOF volumetric and gravimetric loadings is necessary to achieve the best compromise between these properties. Here we study, both experimentally and computationally, the trade-off between volumetric and gravimetric cryo-adsorbed hydrogen deliverable capacity by taking an isoreticular series of highly stable zirconium MOFs, NU-1101, NU-1102, and NU-1103 as a case study. These MOFs were studied under recently proposed operating conditions: 77 K/100 bar →160 K/5 bar. We found the difference between highest and lowest measured deliverable capacity in the MOF series to be ca. 40% gravimetrically, but only ca. 10% volumetrically. From our molecular simulation results, we found hydrogen "monolayer" adsorption to be proportional to the surface area, whereas hydrogen "pore filling" adsorption is proportional to the pore volume. Thus, we found that the higher variability in gravimetric deliverable capacity in contrast to the volumetric capacity, occurs due to the proportional relation between gravimetric surface area and pore volume in the NU-110x series in contrast to the inverse relation between volumetric surface area and void fraction. Additionally, we find better correlations with geometric surface areas than with BET areas. NU-1101 presents the highest measured volumetric performance with 46.6 g/L (9.1 wt %), whereas NU-1103 presents the highest gravimetric one

  7. Temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships in municipal solid waste for the interpretation of bulk electrical resistivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilawski, Tamara; Dumont, Gaël; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Landfills pose major environmental issues including long-term methane emissions, and local pollution of soil and aquifers but can also be seen as potential energy resources and mining opportunities. Water content in landfills determine whether solid fractions can be separated and recycled, and controls the existence and efficiency of natural or enhanced biodegradation. Geophysical techniques, such as electrical and electromagnetic methods have proven successful in the detection and qualitative investigation of sanitary landfills. However, their interpretation in terms of quantitative water content estimates makes it more challenging due to the influence of parameters such as temperature, compaction, waste composition or pore fluid. To improve the confidence given to bulk electrical resistivity data and to their interpretation, we established temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships that we tested on field and laboratory electrical resistivity measurements. We carried out two laboratory experiments on leachates and waste samples from a landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium. We determined a first relationship between temperature and electrical resistivity with pure and diluted leachates by progressively increasing the temperature from 5°C to 65°C, and then cooling down to 5°C. The second relationship was obtained by measuring electrical resistivity on waste samples of different volumetric water contents. First, we used the correlations obtained from the experiments to compare electrical resistivity measurements performed in a landfill borehole and on reworked waste samples excavated at different depths. Electrical resistivities were measured every 20cm with an electromagnetic logging device (EM39) while a temperature profile was acquired with optic fibres. Waste samples were excavated every 2m in the same borehole. We filled experimental columns with these samples and measured electrical resistivities at laboratory temperature

  8. Volumetric response classification in metastatic solid tumors on MSCT: Initial results in a whole-body setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, A.M., E-mail: a.wulff@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Fabel, M. [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Freitag-Wolf, S., E-mail: freitag@medinfo.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Medizinische Informatik und Statistik, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Tepper, M., E-mail: m.tepper@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Knabe, H.M., E-mail: h.knabe@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Schäfer, J.P., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Jansen, O., E-mail: o.jansen@neurorad.uni-kiel.de [Klinik für Diagnostische Radiologie, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, Haus 23, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Bolte, H., E-mail: hendrik.bolte@ukmuenster.de [Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, 48149 Münster (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To examine technical parameters of measurement accuracy and differences in tumor response classification using RECIST 1.1 and volumetric assessment in three common metastasis types (lung nodules, liver lesions, lymph node metastasis) simultaneously. Materials and methods: 56 consecutive patients (32 female) aged 41–82 years with a wide range of metastatic solid tumors were examined with MSCT for baseline and follow up. Images were evaluated by three experienced radiologists using manual measurements and semi-automatic lesion segmentation. Institutional ethics review was obtained and all patients gave written informed consent. Data analysis comprised interobserver variability operationalized as coefficient of variation and categorical response classification according to RECIST 1.1 for both manual and volumetric measures. Continuous data were assessed for statistical significance with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and categorical data with Fleiss kappa. Results: Interobserver variability was 6.3% (IQR 4.6%) for manual and 4.1% (IQR 4.4%) for volumetrically obtained sum of relevant diameters (p < 0.05, corrected). 4–8 patients’ response to therapy was classified differently across observers by using volumetry compared to standard manual measurements. Fleiss kappa revealed no significant difference in categorical agreement of response classification between manual (0.7558) and volumetric (0.7623) measurements. Conclusion: Under standard RECIST thresholds there was no advantage of volumetric compared to manual response evaluation. However volumetric assessment yielded significantly lower interobserver variability. This may allow narrower thresholds for volumetric response classification in the future.

  9. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    An attempt is made to define and measure pupil control "behavior." In order to measure pupil control behavior, an instrument called the Pupil Control Behavior (PCB) Form was developed and tested. The 31 custodial and 34 humanistic items were randomized, and the initial version of the PCB Form was administered in 20 schools in Illinois…

  10. Formation control using range-only measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Ming; Yu, Changbin; Anderson, Brian D. O.; Ishii, Hideaki; Petersen, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms to coordinate a formation of mobile agents when the agents are not able to measure the relative positions of their neighbors, but only the distances to their respective neighbors. In this sense, less information is available to agents than is normally assumed in format

  11. Volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of endovenous laser treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas F.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Schaur, Peter; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is one of the most common medical conditions with reported prevalence estimates as high as 30% in the adult population. Although conservative management with compression therapy may improve the symptoms associated with CVI, healing often demands invasive procedures. Besides established surgical methods like vein stripping or bypassing, endovenous laser therapy (ELT) emerged as a promising novel treatment option during the last 15 years offering multiple advantages such as less pain and faster recovery. Much of the treatment success hereby depends on monitoring of the treatment progression using clinical imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound. The latter however do not provide sufficient contrast, spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging capacity which is necessary for accurate online lesion assessment during treatment. As a consequence, incidence of recanalization, lack of vessel occlusion and collateral damage remains highly variable among patients. In this study, we examined the capacity of volumetric optoacoustic tomography (VOT) for real-time monitoring of ELT using an ex-vivo ox foot model. ELT was performed on subcutaneous veins while optoacoustic signals were acquired and reconstructed in real-time and at a spatial resolution in the order of 200μm. VOT images showed spatio-temporal maps of the lesion progression, characteristics of the vessel wall, and position of the ablation fiber's tip during the pull back. It was also possible to correlate the images with the temperature elevation measured in the area adjacent to the ablation spot. We conclude that VOT is a promising tool for providing online feedback during endovenous laser therapy.

  12. White Matter Lesion Assessment in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls: Reliability Comparisons between Visual Rating, a Manual, and an Automatic Volumetrical MRI Method—The Gothenburg MCI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related white matter lesions (WML are a risk factor for stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. Different requirements are imposed on methods for the assessment of WML in clinical settings and for research purposes, but reliability analysis is of major importance. In this study, WML assessment with three different methods was evaluated. In the Gothenburg mild cognitive impairment study, MRI scans from 152 participants were used to assess WML with the Fazekas visual rating scale on T2 images, a manual volumetric method on FLAIR images, and FreeSurfer volumetry on T1 images. Reliability was acceptable for all three methods. For low WML volumes (2/3 of the patients, reliability was overall lower and nonsignificant for the manual volumetric method. Unreliability in the assessment of patients with low WML with manual volumetry may mainly be due to intensity variation in the FLAIR sequence used; hence, intensity standardization and normalization methods must be used for more accurate assessments. The FreeSurfer segmentations resulted in smaller WML volumes than the volumes acquired with the manual method and showed deviations from visible hypointensities in the T1 images, which quite likely reduces validity.

  13. Permeability measurement and control for epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsun-Hsu; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Wong, Wei-Syuan; Chen, Yen-Ren; Chao, Hsien-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The coupling of the electric and magnetic fields leads to a strong interplay in materials' permittivity and permeability. Here, we proposed a specially designed cavity, called the mu cavity. The mu cavity, consisting of a mushroom structure inside a cylindrical resonator, is exclusively sensitive to permeability, but not to permittivity. It decouples materials' electromagnetic properties and allows an accurate measurement of the permeability. With the help of an epsilon cavity, these two cavities jointly determine the complex permeability and permittivity of the materials at microwave frequencies. Homemade epoxy-based composite materials were prepared and tested. Measurement and manipulation of the permeability and permittivity of the epoxy composites will be shown. The results will be compared with the effective medium theories.

  14. Liquidity Risk – Measurement and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Blahová, Naďa

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the liquidity risk in the banks in the context of the financial crisis. At first, the balance sheet and market liquidity are defined and the main principles of the methods for measuring liquidity risk, which banks use, are identified. Then follow review of main challenges of managing the liquidity of banks. Finally, it discusses qualitative regulatory requirements and eligibility of newly formulated standards with regard to minimum liquidity in general and in relation t...

  15. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated as a fun...... is increased. Altogether, the model is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for a quantitative analysis of the effect of process conditions. Based on the presented findings and considerations, examples of future work are mentioned for the further improvement of the model.......The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...

  16. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.

  17. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  18. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Johanna O P; Holland, Katharina; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Mann, Ritse M; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-02-01

    To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density categories. Of all the examinations, 21.6% were categorized as density category 1 ('almost entirely fatty') and 41.5, 28.9, and 8.0% as category 2-4 ('extremely dense'), respectively. We identified 667 screen-detected and 234 interval cancers. Interval cancer rates were 0.7, 1.9, 2.9, and 4.4‰ and false positive rates were 11.2, 15.1, 18.2, and 23.8‰ for categories 1-4, respectively (both p-trend density categories: 85.7, 77.6, 69.5, and 61.0% for categories 1-4, respectively (p-trend density, automatically measured on digital mammograms, impacts screening performance measures along the same patterns as established with ACR breast density categories. Since measuring breast density fully automatically has much higher reproducibility than visual assessment, this automatic method could help with implementing density-based supplemental screening.

  19. Quality control in the geometry of the beam of a unit of volumetric modulated arcotheraphy; Control de calidad en la geometria del haz de una unidad de arcoterapia volumetrica modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la

    2011-07-01

    We report here the evidence offered for the regular quality control (monthly) beam geometry (flatness and symmetry) for a unit of 6 MV Elekta Synergy with VMAT, belonging to the Radiation Oncology Service of the Defense Central Hospital Gomez Ulla.

  20. TOWARDS MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE BASED ON SEMIOTIC CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. JOSLYN

    2000-08-01

    We address the question of how to identify and measure the degree of intelligence in systems. We define the presence of intelligence as equivalent to the presence of a control relation. We contrast the distinct atomic semioic definitions of models and controls, and discuss hierarchical and anticipatory control. We conclude with a suggestion about moving towards quantitative measures of the degree of such control in systems.

  1. The application of control theory to magnetic measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Ying; Sun De Min; Xue Mei Sheng; Yao Cheng Gui

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of measurement, the authors introduced the control theory to the magnetic measurement system in NSRL. The authors succeeded in building a closed loop system, and performed measurement on the fly. While keeping the same accuracy as before, the efficiency has been greatly improved. It can be concluded that feedback is an effective method to advance measure system

  2. Variation Analysis and Stability Control for Measurement Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feng-yu; MA Yi-zhong; Bo Bergman; XU Ji-chao

    2002-01-01

    Based on a two-section measuring method, a data collection sheet is formed. According to the data collected, the variation sources of a measurement process are analyzed and general guidelines for variation diagnosis are suggested. In our previous study, a method is presented to control the deviation of measurement system, but it is not sensitive to mean value variation and mean value drift. In this paper, a simplified data collection scheme via two-section measuring method is introduced to control both variation and center drift of measurement process. Based on this scheme, traditional SPC charts for variation control and EWMA chart for mean value drift are given.

  3. Volumetric hemispheric ratio as a useful tool in personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Wagner, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Weber, Bernd; Quesada, Carlos M

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the link between volumetric hemispheric ratios (VHRs) and personality measures in N=267 healthy participants using Eysenck's Personality Inventory-Revised (EPQ-R) and the BIS/BAS scales. A robust association between extraversion and VHRs was observed for gray matter in males but not females. Higher gray matter volume in the left than in the right hemisphere was associated with higher extraversion in males. The results are discussed in the context of positive emotionality and laterality of the human brain.

  4. Volumetric verification of multiaxis machine tool using laser tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Sergio; Samper, David; Santolaria, Jorge; Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space.

  5. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  6. 绝经后妇女腰椎骨密度容积性定量 CT测量研究%Evaluation of bone mineral density measurement of lumbar vertebrae by volumetric quantitative CT in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡跃增; 王立英; 吴胜勇; 兰静; 李景学

    2009-01-01

    %、(75.1±17.9)%、(62.8±20.9)%、(49.2±21.9)%]、正常组[分别为(120.6±19.4) mg/cm3、(154.0±16.3) mg/cm3、(131.1±21.1) mg/cm3、(95.6±5.3)%、(91.4±8.7)%、(84.7±12.4)%、(75.2±15.5)%],P值均<0.01。 DXA测量中AP-SPINE值在骨质疏松伴骨折组[(0.84±0.16)g/cm2]与骨质疏松组[(0.85±0.06)g/cm2]之间的差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。在骨质疏松组和骨质疏松伴骨折组 AP-SPINE 仅与3 D-CORT 间有相关性( R2=0.189,P<0.01);App60 BV/TV%、 App80 BV/TV%、App100 BV/TV%、App120 BV/TV%与3D-TRAB 或2D-TRAB之有相关性(3D 法:R2值分别为0.955、0.951、0.941、0.912;2D 法:R2值分别为0.912、0.910、0.878、0.821;P值均<0.01)。容积性BMD的测量精确度为0.70%~2.25%。结论 vQCT技术可区分骨质疏松及伴骨质疏松性骨折绝经后妇女骨量,能力高于DXA,其中整体骨BMD诊断严重骨质疏松的效果最好;App BV/TV%可反映骨质疏松者骨小梁丢失程度,预测骨折风险。%Objective To demonstrate the validity of volumetric QCT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry( DXA ) in bone mineral density ( BMD ) measurement and compare the difference in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fracture. Methods One hundred and eighteen postmenopausal women [mean age (62.1 ±7.0) years] who received thoracolumbar radiographic examination were enrolled and divided into four groups ( normal, osteopenia, osteoporotic and osteoporotic fractured group) also based on their BMD value of lumbar vertebra( AP-SPINE) measured by DXA: >x¯-1s,x¯-1s—x¯-2s,0.05].In osteoporotic groups, AP-SPINE was not correlated significantly with other variables except 3D-CORT ( R2 =0.189, P <0.01 );parameters of App60, 80, 100, 120 BV/TV% were correlated

  7. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, M; Biederer, J; Jochens, A; Bornemann, L; Soza, G; Heller, M; Bolte, H

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible image evaluation. The current standard is one-dimensional measurement (e.g. RECIST) with inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is discussed as an alternative for therapy monitoring of lung and liver metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph node metastases in a phantom study. Fifty artificial lymph nodes were produced in a size range from 10 to 55mm; some of them enhanced using iodine contrast media. All nodules were placed in an artificial chest phantom (artiCHEST®) within different surrounding tissues. MDCT was performed using different collimations (1-5 mm) at varying reconstruction kernels (B20f, B40f, B60f). Volume and RECIST measurements were performed using Oncology Software (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) and were compared to reference volume and diameter by calculating absolute percentage errors. The software performance allowed a robust volumetric analysis in a phantom setting. Unsatisfying segmentation results were frequently found for native nodules within surrounding muscle. The absolute percentage error (APE) for volumetric analysis varied between 0.01 and 225%. No significant differences were seen between different reconstruction kernels. The most unsatisfactory segmentation results occurred in higher slice thickness (4 and 5 mm). Contrast enhanced lymph nodes showed better segmentation results by trend. The semi-automated 3D-volumetric analysis software tool allows a reliable and convenient segmentation of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom setting. Lymph nodes adjacent to tissue of similar density cause segmentation problems. For volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases in clinical routine a slice thickness of ≤3mm and a medium soft reconstruction kernel (e.g. B40f for Siemens scan systems) may be a suitable compromise for semi-automated volumetric analysis. Copyright

  8. Influence of Cobb Angle and ISIS2 Surface Topography Volumetric Asymmetry on Scoliosis Research Society-22 Outcome Scores in Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul; Berryman, Fiona; Baker, De; Pynsent, Paul; Gardner, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Retrospective sequential patient series. To establish the relationship between the magnitude of the deformity in scoliosis and patients' perception of their condition, as measured with Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores. A total of 93 untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included retrospectively. The Cobb angle was measured from a plain radiograph, and volumetric asymmetry was measured by ISIS2 surface topography. The association between Scoliosis Research Society scores for function, pain, self-image, and mental health against Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry was investigated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Correlation of both Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry with function and pain was weak (all self-image, was higher, although still moderate (-.37 for Cobb angle and -.44 for volumetric asymmetry). Both were statistically significant (Cobb angle, p = .0002; volumetric asymmetry; p = .00001). Cobb angle contributed 13.8% to the linear relationship with self-image, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 19.3%. For mental health, correlation was statistically significant with Cobb angle (p = .011) and volumetric asymmetry (p = .0005), but the correlation was low to moderate (-.26 and -.35, respectively). Cobb angle contributed 6.9% to the linear relationship with mental health, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 12.4%. Volumetric asymmetry correlates better with both mental health and self-image compared with Cobb angle, but the correlation was only moderate. This study suggests that a patient's own perception of self-image and mental health is multifactorial and not completely explained through present objective measurements of the size of the deformity. This helps to explain the difficulties in any objective analysis of a problem with multifactorial perception issues. Further study is required to investigate other physical aspects of the deformity that may have a role in how patients view themselves. Copyright

  9. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  10. The Volumetric Rate of Superluminous Supernovae at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Prajs, S; Smith, M; Levan, A; Karpenka, N V; Edwards, T D P; Walker, C R; Wolf, W M; Balland, C; Carlberg, R; Howell, A; Lidman, C; Pain, R; Pritchet, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z~1, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically-identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et.al. (2010) and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91 (+76/-36) SNe/Yr/Gpc^3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z=1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2 (+1.8/-0.9) x10^-4 of the volumetric core collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formati...

  11. Commissioning of a 3D pretreatment quality-assurance system in volumetric techniques based in 2D detector arrays; Validacin de un sistema de control de calidad pre-tratamiento 3D en tecnicas volumetricas basado en matrices bidimensionales de detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Perez Vara, C.

    2015-05-01

    The present experience about intensity-modulated radiation therapy pre-treatment QA points to a paradigm shift oriented to metrics based in clinically relevant parameters. This work shows the commissioning of a QA system used in the verification of volumetric treatments based in 2D ion chamber arrays. This system accomplishes with the initial hypothesis making the dose calculation and reconstruction in actual patient anatomy possible from measurements taken during the verification process. Beam reference parameters are compared with those obtained with the system: absolute dose, output factors and relative dose distributions. Simple test cases are evaluated comparing dose-volume parameters and ion chamber-based measurements. Finally the system is applied to the verification of 12 actual clinical test cases, comparing ion chamber measurements, usual planar dose distributions analysis, dose-volume parameters from each anatomic site and 3D gamma tests. Results make the potential advantage of these systems clear compared with those based in traditional metrics. (Author)

  12. Self-Control and Impulsivity in Children: Multiple Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, L. B.; Michels, Jennifer L.; Carapella, R. K.; Conway, Patrick; Chelonis, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the relationship between laboratory measures of self-control and delay of gratification in children and explored several other factors that may influence self-control. In the self-control paradigm, 30 four-year-old children repeatedly chose between three reinforcers received after a delay and one reinforcer…

  13. Self-Control and Impulsivity in Children: Multiple Behavioral Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, L. B.; Michels, Jennifer L.; Carapella, R. K.; Conway, Patrick; Chelonis, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the relationship between laboratory measures of self-control and delay of gratification in children and explored several other factors that may influence self-control. In the self-control paradigm, 30 four-year-old children repeatedly chose between three reinforcers received after a delay and one reinforcer…

  14. Robust Control of the Air to Fuel Ratio in Spark Ignition Engines with Delayed Measurements from a UEGO Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Espinoza-Jurado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise control of the normalized air to fuel ratio in spark ignition engines is an essential task. To achieve this goal, in this work we take into consideration the time delay measurement presented by the universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor along with uncertainties in the volumetric efficiency. For that purpose, observers are designed by means of a super-twisting sliding mode estimation scheme. Also two control schemes based on a general nonlinear model and a similar nonlinear affine representation for the dynamics of the normalized air to fuel ratio were designed in this work by using the super-twisting sliding mode methodology. Such dynamics depends on the control input, that is, the injected fuel mass flow, its time derivative, and its reciprocal. The two latter terms are estimated by means of a robust sliding mode differentiator. The observers and controllers are designed based on an isothermal mean value engine model. Numeric and hardware in the loop simulations were carried out with such model, where parameters were taken from a real engine. The obtained results show a good output tracking and rejection of disturbances when the engine is closed loop with proposed control methods.

  15. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Optical Addressing of Multi-Colour Photochromic Material Mixture for Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that colour transformations in the volume of a photochromic material (PM) are induced at the intersections of two control light channels, one controlling PM colouration and the other controlling decolouration. Thus, PM colouration is induced by position selectivity, and therefore, a dynamic volumetric display may be realised using these two control lights. Moreover, a mixture of multiple PM types with different absorption properties exhibits different colours depending on the control light spectrum. Particularly, the spectrum management of the control light allows colour-selective colouration besides position selectivity. Therefore, a PM-based, full-colour volumetric display is realised. We experimentally construct a mixture of two PM types and validate the operating principles of such a volumetric display system. Our system is constructed simply by mixing multiple PM types; therefore, the display hardware structure is extremely simple, and the minimum size of a volume element can be as small as the size of a molecule. Volumetric displays can provide natural three-dimensional (3D) perception; therefore, the potential uses of our system include high-definition 3D visualisation for medical applications, architectural design, human–computer interactions, advertising, and entertainment.

  17. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  18. Absolute absorbed dose measurements with an array of ionization chambers as part of a routine procedure of quality control for the VMAT technique; Medidas de dosis absorbida absoluta con un array de camaras de ionizacion como parte de un procedimiento rutinario de control de calidad para la tecnica VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la

    2011-07-01

    Arcotheraphy techniques volumetric modulated (VMAT) treatments involve continuous variation of the gantry rotation speed, positions of the sheets and dose rate. Since all treatments are administered by continuous arcs, these techniques require quality control procedures to ensure quick and easy constancy of the calibration factor (total absorbed dose) for any gantry angle. We report here a simple method of quality control for the measurement of the calibration factor using an array of ionization chambers. The measurements were performed on a unit of 6 MV Elekta Synergy with VMAT, belonging to the Radiation Oncology service of the Defense Central Hospital Gomez Ulla.

  19. RESEARCH ON MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT-ORIENTED INTELLIGENT VIRTUAL CONTROLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Baoping; Qin Shuren

    2004-01-01

    Intelligent virtual control (IVC) is an intelligent measurement instrument unit with the function of actual measurement instruments, and the unit can be used as basic building block for a variety of more complex virtual measurement instruments on a PC. IVC is a further advancement from virtual instrument (VI), and it fuses the function modules and the controls modules so that the relationship between the functions and controls of an instrument is imbedded in one or more units. The design, implementation and optimization methods of IVCs are introduced. The computer software representation of IVCs is discussed. An example of an actual VI constructed with the building blocks of IVCs is given.

  20. Measuring strategic control in implicit learning: How and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eNorman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been developed for measuring the extent to which implicitly learned knowledge can be applied in a strategic, flexible manner. Examples include generation exclusion tasks in SRT learning (Destrebecqz & Cleeremans, 2001; Goschke, 1998 and 2-grammar classification tasks in AGL (Dienes, Altmann, Kwan, & Goode, 1995; Norman, Price, & Jones, 2011. Strategic control has traditionally been used as a criterion for determining whether acquired knowledge is conscious or unconscious, or which properties of knowledge is consciously available. In this paper I first summarize existing methods that have been developed for measuring strategic control in the SRT and AGL tasks. I then address some methodologial and theoretical questions. Methodological questions concern choice of task, whether the measurement reflects inhibitory control or task switching, and whether or not strategic control should be measured on a trial-by-trial basis. Theoretical questions concern the rationale for including measurement of strategic control, what form of knowledge is strategically controlled, and how strategic control can be combined with subjective awareness measures.

  1. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases during follow-up--initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Michael; Bolte, H; von Tengg-Kobligk, H; Bornemann, L; Dicken, V; Delorme, S; Kauczor, H-U; Heller, M; Biederer, J

    2011-04-01

    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible evaluation. The current standard is RECIST measurement with its inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is an alternative for therapy monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases using a software prototype in a follow-up setting. MSCT was performed in 50 patients covering the chest, abdomen and pelvis. A total of 174 suspicious lymph nodes were evaluated by two radiologists regarding short axis diameters and volumetric analysis using semi-automated software. Quality of segmentation, time, maximum diameter and volume were documented. Variability of the derived change rates was computed as the standard deviation of the difference of the obtained respective change rates. The software performance provides robust volumetric analysis. Quality of segmentation was rated acceptable to excellent in 76-79% by each reader. Mean time spent per lesion was 38 s. The variability of change in effective diameters was 10.6%; for change rates of RECIST maximum diameter variability was 27.5%. Semi-automated volumetric analysis allows fast and convenient segmentation of most lymph node metastases. Compared with RECIST the inter-observer-variability in baseline and follow-up is reduced. This should principally allow subtle changes to be subclassified within the RECIST stable range as minor response [-15% to +10%].

  2. Improving plan quality for prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katrina; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet; Barry, Tamara; Bernard, Anne; Brown, Elizabeth; Lehman, Margot; Pryor, David

    2017-08-04

    We critically evaluated the quality and consistency of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate planning at a single institution to quantify objective measures for plan quality and establish clear guidelines for plan evaluation and quality assurance. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 34 plans generated on the Pinnacle(3) version 9.4 and 9.8 treatment planning system to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions to the prostate only using VMAT. Data were collected on contoured structure volumes, overlaps and expansions, planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk volumes and relationship, dose volume histogram, plan conformity, plan homogeneity, low-dose wash, and beam parameters. Standard descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Despite a standardized planning protocol, we found variability was present in all steps of the planning process. Deviations from protocol contours by radiation oncologists and radiation therapists occurred in 12% and 50% of cases, respectively, and the number of optimization parameters ranged from 12 to 27 (median 17). This contributed to conflicts within the optimization process reflected by the mean composite objective value of 0.07 (range 0.01 to 0.44). Methods used to control low-intermediate dose wash were inconsistent. At the PTV rectum interface, the dose-gradient distance from the 74.1 Gy to 40 Gy isodose ranged from 0.6 cm to 2.0 cm (median 1.0 cm). Increasing collimator angle was associated with a decrease in monitor units and a single full 6 MV arc was sufficient for the majority of plans. A significant relationship was found between clinical target volume-rectum distance and rectal tolerances achieved. A linear relationship was determined between the PTV volume and volume of 40 Gy isodose. Objective values and composite objective values were useful in determining plan quality. Anatomic geometry and overlap of structures has a measurable impact on the plan quality achieved for prostate patients

  3. Performance measurement and management control : A compendium of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Reviews the book "Performance Measurement and Management Control: A Compendium of Research Studies in Managerial and Financial Accounting Series," vol. 12, edited by Marc J. Epstein and Jean-Francois Manzoni.

  4. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  5. Seeding optimization for instantaneous volumetric velocimetry. Application to a jet in crossflow

    CERN Document Server

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Every volumetric velocimetry measurements based on tracer (particles, bubbles, etc.) detection can be strongly influenced by the optical screening phenomenon. It has to be taken into account when the the statistical properties associated to the performances of the particle detection and tracking algorithms are significantly affected. It leads to a maximum concentration of particles in the images thus limiting the final spatial resolution of the instantaneous three-dimensional three-components (3D3C) velocity fields. A volumetric velocimetry system based on Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to show that above a critical visual concentration of particles in the images, the concentration and accuracy of the final instantaneous raw velocity vector field drop. The critical concentration depends on physical parameters as well as on the processing algorithms. Three distinct regimes are identified. In the first regime, the concentration is well adapted to volumetric velocimetry, the largest concent...

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Diethyl ether (VMSD1211, LB3412_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Diethyl ether (VMSD1211, LB3412_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C8H16 Cyclooctane (VMSD1211, LB3565_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C8H16 Cyclooctane (VMSD1211, LB3565_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Oxane (VMSD1212, LB3577_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Oxane (VMSD1212, LB3577_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O Oxolane (VMSD1212, LB3576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O Oxolane (VMSD1212, LB3576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14 Hexane (VMSD1211, LB4339_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14 Hexane (VMSD1211, LB4339_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H7N Aniline (VMSD1211, LB4340_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H7N Aniline (VMSD1211, LB4340_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10 Cyclopentane (VMSD1211, LB3567_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10 Cyclopentane (VMSD1211, LB3567_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6S 2-Thiapropane (VMSD1211, LB3233_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6S 2-Thiapropane (VMSD1211, LB3233_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H6OS Dimethyl sulfoxide (VMSD1211, LB3256_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4574_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + CH2Cl2 Dichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4574_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1212, LB3207_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1212, LB3207_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4352_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1212, LB4352_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10S 3-Thiapentane (VMSD1211, LB3237_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10S 3-Thiapentane (VMSD1211, LB3237_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Analysis of noise control measures on outdoor machinery using EQUIP+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Noise control of different types of outdoor machinery covered by EU Directive 2000/14/EC such as construction machines, generators and other equipment powered by internal combustion engines requires knowledge of the noise path model and the potential noise control measures. As there is often a

  1. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fo Wong, Lo D.M.A.; Hald, T.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Swanenburg, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production

  2. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der;

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the problem of human salmonellosis attributable to pork and pork products, control measures should be taken simultaneously at all levels of production. These measures require an understanding of the epidemiology of Salmonella within and between links of the production...

  3. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement meth

  4. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  5. Statistical process control (SPC) for coordinate measurement machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, R.N.

    2000-01-04

    The application of process capability analysis, using designed experiments, and gage capability studies as they apply to coordinate measurement machine (CMM) uncertainty analysis and control will be demonstrated. The use of control standards in designed experiments, and the use of range charts and moving range charts to separate measurement error into it's discrete components will be discussed. The method used to monitor and analyze the components of repeatability and reproducibility will be presented with specific emphasis on how to use control charts to determine and monitor CMM performance and capability, and stay within your uncertainty assumptions.

  6. Measurements of control rod worth by modified inverse kinetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Lebedev, G. V., E-mail: lgv2004@mail.ru; Nechaev, Yu. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    Results of control rod worth measurements on the Astra critical assembly at the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute are presented. The measurements were carried out by the modified inverse kinetics method, which is based on the use of experimental information about the variation of neutron detector readings only after introducing a reactivity perturbation. Calculated corrections are not required. The results of measurements do not depend on the neutron detector position.

  7. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....

  8. Magnetic volumetric hologram memory with magnetic garnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2014-06-30

    Holographic memory is a promising next-generation optical memory that has a higher recording density and a higher transfer rate than other types of memory. In holographic memory, magnetic garnet films can serve as rewritable holographic memory media by use of magneto-optical effect. We have now demonstrated that a magnetic hologram can be recorded volumetrically in a ferromagnetic garnet film and that the signal image can be reconstructed from it for the first time. In addition, multiplicity of the magnetic hologram was also confirmed; the image could be reconstructed from a spot overlapped by other spots.

  9. Transplantation and Perfusion of Microvascular Fragments in a Rodent Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    options are available for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML). An important consideration that needs to be addressed for the development ...fibroblasts that underwent vascular and myogenic development in vitro resulted in substantial tissue perfusion when implanted in an abdominal defect...Greene AS (2000) Development of an implantable muscle stimulator: measurement of stimulated angiogenesis and poststimulus vessel regression

  10. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Naoki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. Methods The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. Results We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. Conclusion The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  11. Serum fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin measurements in diabetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, E J; Rostron, G M; Clark, S A; Gatt, J A

    1986-01-01

    Serum fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1) were measured in capillary samples from diabetic children and compared with samples from non-diabetic children. Glycaemic control was assessed clinically and by average daily glucose values recorded by home monitoring. Fructosamine correlated with HbA1 and with average glucose values measured over 30 days. HbA1 also correlated with average glucose values measured over 60 days. Changes in fructosamine with time tended to parallel those of HbA1, and advance indication of deteriorating or improving glycaemic control was possible by observing changes in these. Fructosamine has many advantages over HbA1 measurement such as speed, technical ease, and low cost, and is a reliable alternative to HbA1 estimation as an indication of glycaemic control. PMID:3954436

  12. Transient refractory material dissolution by a volumetrically-heated melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jean Marie, E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ratel, Gilles [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Combeau, Hervé [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Lorraine University, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gaus-Liu, Xiaoyang; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe a test investigating ceramic dissolution by a molten non-eutectic melt. • The evolution of the interface temperature between melt and refractory is measured. • A theoretical model describing dissolution kinetics is proposed. • When dissolution stops, interface temperature is the liquidus temperature of the melt. - Abstract: The present work addresses the question of corium–ceramic interaction in a core catcher during a core-melt accident in a nuclear power plant. It provides an original insight into transient aspects concerning dissolution of refractory material by a volumetrically heated pool. An experiment with simulant material (LIVECERAM) is presented. Test results clearly show that dissolution of solid refractory material can occur in a non-eutectic melt at a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the refractory material. During the dissolution transient, the interface temperature rises above the liquidus temperature, corresponding to the instantaneous average composition of the melt pool. With constant power dissipation in the melt and external cooling of the core-catcher, a final steady-state situation is reached. Dissolution stops when the heat flux (delivered by the melt to the refractory) can be removed by conduction through the residual thickness of the ceramic, with T{sub interface} = T{sub liquidus} (calculated for the average composition of the final liquid pool). The final steady state corresponds to a uniform pool composition and uniform interface temperature distribution. Convection in the pool is governed by natural thermal convection and the heat flux distribution is therefore similar to what would be obtained for a single component pool. An interpretation of the experiment with two model-based approaches (0D and 1D) is presented. The mass transfer kinetics between the interface and the bulk is controlled by a diffusion sublayer within the boundary layer. During the dissolution transient

  13. Volumetric Concentration Maximum of Cohesive Sediment in Waters: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisun Byun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cohesive sediment has different characteristics compared to non-cohesive sediment. The density and size of a cohesive sediment aggregate (a so-called, floc continuously changes through the flocculation process. The variation of floc size and density can cause a change of volumetric concentration under the condition of constant mass concentration. This study investigates how the volumetric concentration is affected by different conditions such as flow velocity, water depth, and sediment suspension. A previously verified, one-dimensional vertical numerical model is utilized here. The flocculation process is also considered by floc in the growth type flocculation model. Idealized conditions are assumed in this study for the numerical experiments. The simulation results show that the volumetric concentration profile of cohesive sediment is different from the Rouse profile. The volumetric concentration decreases near the bed showing the elevated maximum in the cases of both current and oscillatory flow. The density and size of floc show the minimum and the maximum values near the elevation of volumetric concentration maximum, respectively. This study also shows that the flow velocity and the critical shear stress have significant effects on the elevated maximum of volumetric concentration. As mechanisms of the elevated maximum, the strong turbulence intensity and increased mass concentration are considered because they cause the enhanced flocculation process. This study uses numerical experiments. To the best of our knowledge, no laboratory or field experiments on the elevated maximum have been carried out until now. It is of great necessity to conduct well-controlled laboratory experiments in the near future.

  14. Distribuição volumétrica e diâmetro de gotas de pontas de pulverização de energia hidráulica para controle de corda-de-viola Volumetric distribution and droplet size of hydraulic spraying nozzles for the control of scarlet morningglory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As pontas de pulverização são responsáveis pela formação das gotas, e cada ponta apresenta características próprias relacionadas ao espectro de gotas e perfil de deposição, específicas para determinados alvos. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar o diâmetro e a uniformidade das gotas e o perfil de distribuição volumétrica das pontas de pulverização AI 110015 e TTI 110015, bem como seu efeito sobre a mortalidade de corda-de-viola, com herbicida pré-emergente, associado ou não a adjuvantes. Avaliou-se o número de plantas emergidas e os pesos secos da parte aérea e radicular das plantas. Os perfis de distribuição volumétrica para a altura de 40 cm foram avaliados em mesa de deposição. A partir dos perfis de distribuição, simulou-se o padrão de deposição ao longo da barra de pulverização. O espectro do diâmetro de gotas foi determinado em analisador de tamanho de partículas por difração de luz laser . O herbicida diuron + hexazinona foi eficiente no controle em préemergência de corda-de-viola, podendo ser utilizado polimetil siloxano organomodificado ou óleo mineral como adjuvantes, associados às pontas de pulverização AI 110015 ou TTI 110015. O uso de adjuvantes proporcionou aumento no diâmetro mediano volumétrico e redução na porcentagem de gotas com diâmetro inferior a 100 µm. O espaçamento sugerido entre os bicos na barra de pulverização foi de 70 cm para o modelo AI 110015 e 80 cm para o modelo TTI 110015.Nozzles are responsible for the formation of drops, with each side presenting its own characteristics related to droplet deposition spectrum and profile specific to certain targets. This study aimed to characterize the diameter and uniformity of the droplets and volumetric distribution profile of nozzles AI 110015 and 110015 TTI, as well as their effect on the mortality of scarlet morningglory, using pre-emergent herbicide, alone or combined with adjuvants. The number of emerging

  15. The volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae at z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Levan, A.; Karpenka, N. V.; Edwards, T. D. P.; Walker, C. R.; Wolf, W. M.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R.; Howell, D. A.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z ˜ 1.0, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et al. and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91^{+76}_{-36} SNe yr-1 Gpc-3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z = 1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2^{+1.8}_{-0.9}× 10^{-4} of the volumetric core-collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formation history. We also estimate the rate of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts based on the events discovered by the Swift satellite, and show that it is comparable to the rate of SLSNe, providing further evidence of a possible connection between these two classes of events. We also examine the host galaxies of the SLSNe discovered in SNLS, and find them to be consistent with the stellar-mass distribution of other published samples of SLSNe.

  16. Integrated measure and control system for textile machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuantao; Zhao, Jinzhi; Zhao, Zexiang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, textile mechanical drive control is researched. Textile machinery integrated measure and control system is established. The system is composed of micro-computer, PLC, transducer, implement device, all kinds of detective components and industrial Ethernet etc. Technology of industrial field bus control and Internet technique are applied. The system is on a background of textile production technique, such as spring, woven, chemical fiber, non-woven, dyeing and finishing. A network based open integrated control system is developed. Various characteristics of production technique flow and textile machinery movement discipline are presented. Configuration software is introduced according to user's control tasks. Final remote automatic controls are finished. This may make development cost reduced, and development periods shortened. Some problems in textile machinery development process are solved, which may make transparency factory and remote development realized.

  17. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. INTELLIGENT VIRTUAL CONTROL:MEASURING INSTRUMENT FROM WHOLE TO PART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new concept called intelligent virtual control (IVC), which can be driven by measuring functions, is put forward. This small "intelligent measurement instrument unit (IMIU)", carrying with functions of instrument, consists of different types of intelligent virtual instrument (IVI) through individual components together as building blocks and can be displayed directly on the computer screen. This is a new concept of measuring instrument, and also an important breakthrough after virtual instrument (VI). Virtual control makes instrument resources obtain further exploitation. It brings about a fundamental change to the design and manufacturing mode. The instrument therefore, can not only be produced directly inside a PC, but the product is involved in the "green product" system. So far, all the present digital instruments will grow to be replaced by intelligent control with green characteristics.

  19. A measurement system of magnetism parameters for motion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ming; HUANG Xu-yan; LEI Tao

    2007-01-01

    Magnetism parameters vary with the position and the speed of electromagnetic actuator's motion parts. The measurement unit presented in the paper can be applied to get the position and the speed feedback information from the measurement of electromagnetism parameters, and can constitute the untouched feedback sensing unit in the closed-loop motion control, and it adapts to the diversified feedback control of electromagnetic actuator. The digital miniaturization meter, based on MSP430 single chip processor, which can do the multiformance evaluation and improvement, and also the online quality control in production process. Both real-time data graph and data table can be displayed in the meter. The paper presents the system's structure, describes the principle, discusses the working modes, and shows the software flowchart and the measuring results.

  20. Volumetric Survey Speed: A Figure of Merit for Transient Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Time-domain surveys can exchange sky coverage for revisit frequency, complicating the comparison of their relative capabilities. By using different revisit intervals, a specific camera may execute surveys optimized for discovery of different classes of transient objects. We propose a new figure of merit, the instantaneous volumetric survey speed, for evaluating transient surveys. This metric defines the trade between cadence interval and snapshot survey volume and so provides a natural means of comparing survey capability. The related metric of areal survey speed imposes a constraint on the range of possible revisit times: we show that many modern time-domain surveys are limited by the amount of fresh sky available each night. We introduce the concept of "spectroscopic accessibility" and discuss its importance for transient science goals requiring followup observing. We present an extension of the control time algorithm for cases where multiple consecutive detections are required. Finally, we explore how surv...

  1. Global Observer-Based Attitude Controller Using Direct Inertial Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâdi Bouhired

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we address the problem of global attitude control using direct inertial measurements. When using direct inertial measurement to observe the rigid body attitude, it is shown that due to a geometrical obstruction, it is impossible to achieve global asymptotic stability. In fact, for a particular initial condition the tracking error quaternion converges to a pure imaginary quaternion formed by an eigenvector of a characteristic matrix related to the inertial constant and known vectors. Our proposition consists of adding a dynamic signal to force the rigid body to escape from such a situation. The proposed observer-based controller is synthesized based on a single Lyapunov function and a stability analysis shows that the controller stabilizes globally and asymptotically the rigid body attitude at the desired one. The effectiveness of the proposed observer-based controller is confirmed by simulation results.

  2. Invariant measures and controllability of finite systems on compact manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Jouan, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    A control system is said to be finite if the Lie algebra generated by its vector fields is finite dimensional. Sufficient conditions for such a system on a compact manifold to be controllable are stated in terms of its Lie algebra. The proofs make use of the Equivalence Theorem of \\cite{Jouan09} and of the existence of an invariant measure on certain compact homogeneous spaces.

  3. The History of Rabies in Trinidad: Epidemiology and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine F. R. Seetahal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bat-transmitted rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak reported in 1925. Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. We conducted a literature review to describe the changing epidemiology of rabies in Trinidad and give a historical perspective to rabies prevention and control measures on the island. The last human case of rabies occurred in 1937 and although no case of canine-transmitted rabies was reported since 1914, sporadic outbreaks of bat-transmitted rabies still occur in livestock to date. Over the last century, seven notable epidemics were recorded in Trinidad with the loss of over 3000 animals. During the 1950s, several measures were effectively adopted for the prevention and control of the disease which led to a significant reduction in the number of cases. These measures include: vampire bat population control, livestock vaccination, and animal surveillance. However, due to lapses in these measures over the years (e.g., periods of limited vampire control and incomplete herd vaccination, epidemics have occurred. In light of the significant negative impact of rabies on animal production and human health, rabies surveillance in Trinidad should be enhanced and cases evaluated towards the design and implementation of more evidence-based prevention and control programs.

  4. System for controllable magnetic measurement with direct field determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, O.

    2012-02-01

    This work describes a specially designed setup for magnetic hysteresis and Barkhausen noise measurements. The setup combines two main elements: an improved fast algorithm to control the waveform of magnetic induction and simultaneous direct determination of the magnetic field. The digital feedback algorithm uses only the previous measurement cycle to correct the magnetization voltage without any additional correlation parameter; it usually converges after several tens of cycles. The magnetic field is measured at the sample surface using a vertically mounted array of sensitive Hall sensors. Linear extrapolation of the tangential field profile to the sample surface determines the true waveform of the magnetic field. This unique combination of physically based control for both parameters of the magnetization process provides stable and reliable results, which are independent of a specified experimental configuration. This is illustrated for the industrially attractive measurements of non-oriented electrical steels with a 50 Hz sinusoidal induction waveform.

  5. Volumetric properties of water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changfei; He, Wei; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-12-23

    The densities of AOT/isooctane micelles and water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions with the molar ratios R of water to AOT being 2, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, and 40 were measured at 303.15 K. The apparent specific volumes of AOT and the quasi-component water/AOT at various concentrations were calculated and used to estimate the volumetric properties of AOT and water in the droplets and in the continuous oil phase, to discuss the interaction between the droplets, and to determine the critical micelle concentration and the critical microemulsion concentrations. A thermodynamic model was proposed to analysis the stability boundary of the microemulsion droplets, which confirms the maximum value of R being about 65 for the stable AOT/water/isooctane microemulsion droplets.

  6. In-line hologram segmentation for volumetric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzó, László; Göröcs, Zoltán; Fehér, András; Tőkés, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    We propose a fast, noniterative method to segment an in-line hologram of a volumetric sample into in-line subholograms according to its constituent objects. In contrast to the phase retrieval or twin image elimination algorithms, we do not aim or require to reconstruct the complex wave field of all the objects, which would be a more complex task, but only provide a good estimate about the contribution of the particular objects to the original hologram quickly. The introduced hologram segmentation algorithm exploits the special inner structure of the in-line holograms and applies only the estimated supports and reconstruction distances of the corresponding objects as parameters. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated and analyzed experimentally both on synthetic and measured holograms. We discussed how the proposed algorithm can be efficiently applied for object reconstruction and phase retrieval tasks.

  7. Thermal effusivity measurement based on analysis of 3D heat flow by modulated spot heating using a phase lag matrix with a combination of thermal effusivity and volumetric heat capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiromichi; Hatori, Kimihito; Matsui, Genzou; Yagi, Takashi; Miyake, Shugo; Okamura, Takeo; Endoh, Ryo; Okada, Ryo; Morishita, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Shinichiro; Taguchi, Kohei; Kato, Hideyuki

    2016-11-01

    The study goal was to establish a standard industrial procedure for the measurement of thermal effusivity by a thermal microscope (TM), using a periodic heating method with a thermoreflectance (TR) technique. To accomplish this goal, a working group was organized that included four research institutes. Each institute followed the same procedure: a molybdenum (Mo) film was sputtered on the surface of Pyrex, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), alumina (Al2O3), Germanium (Ge), and silicon (Si) samples, and then the phase lag of the laser intensity modulation was measured by the resultant surface temperature. A procedure was proposed to calibrate the effect of 3D heat flow, based on the analytical solution of the heat conduction equation, and thermal effusivity was measured. The derived values show good agreement with literature values. As a result, the TM calibration procedure can be recommended for practical use in measuring the thermal effusivity in a small region of the materials.

  8. Quantum Control nd Measurement of Spins in Cold Atomic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Spins are natural carriers of quantum information given their long coherence time and our ability to precisely control and measure them with magneto-optical fields. Spins in cold atomic gases provide a pristine environment for such quantum control and measurement, and thus this system can act as a test-bed for the development of quantum simulators. I will discuss the progress my group has made in collaboration with Prof. Jessen, University of Arizona, to develop the toolbox for this test-bed. Through its interactions with rf and microwave magnetic fields, whose waveforms are designed through optimal control techniques, we can implement arbitrary unitary control on the internal hyperfine spins of cesium atoms, a 16 dimensional Hilbert space (isomorphic to 4 qubits). Control of the collective spin of the ensemble of many atoms is performed via the mutual coupling of the atomic ensemble to a mode of the electromagnetic field that acts as a quantum data bus for entangling atoms with one another. Internal spin control can be used to enhance the entangling power of the atom-photon interface. Finally, both projective and weak-continuous measurements can be performed to tomograhically reconstruct quantum states and processes.

  9. IMPORTANCE OF KINETIC MEASURES IN TRAJECTORY PREDICTION WITH OPTIMAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer GÜNDOĞDU

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional sagittally symmetric human-body model was established to simulate an optimal trajectory for manual material handling tasks. Nonlinear control techniques and genetic algorithms were utilized in the optimizations to explore optimal lifting patterns. The simulation results were then compared with the experimental data. Since the kinetic measures such as joint reactions and moments are vital parameters in injury determination, the importance of comparing kinetic measures rather than kinematical ones was emphasized.

  10. Microstrip filters for measurement and control of superconducting qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Luigi; Bennett, Douglas A; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Wei; Lukens, James E

    2013-01-01

    Careful filtering is necessary for observations of quantum phenomena in superconducting circuits at low temperatures. Measurements of coherence between quantum states require extensive filtering to protect against noise coupled from room temperature electronics. We demonstrate distributed transmission line filters which cut off exponentially at GHz frequencies and can be anchored at the base temperature of a dilution refrigerator. The compact design makes them suitable to filter many different bias lines in the same setup, necessary for the control and measurement of superconducting qubits.

  11. Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

  12. 1-D diffusion based solidification model with volumetric expansion and shrinkage effect: A semi-analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Aniket D.; Chakraborty, Prodyut R.

    2017-10-01

    Volumetric expansion and shrinkage due to different densities of solid and liquid phases are common phenomena during solidification process. Simple analytical models addressing effect of volumetric expansion/shrinkage during solidification are rarely found. The few existing 1-D solidification models are valid only for semi-infinite domain with limitations of their application for finite domain size. The focus of the present work is to develop a 1-D semi-analytical solidification model addressing effects of volumetric expansion/shrinkage in a finite domain. The proposed semi-analytical scheme involves finding simultaneous solution of transient 1-D heat diffusion equations at solid and liquid domain coupled at the interface by Stefan condition. The change of the total domain length during solidification due to volumetric expansion/shrinkage is addressed by using mass conservation. For validation of the proposed model, solidification of water in a finite domain is studied without considering volumetric expansion/shrinkage effect and results are compared with those obtained from existing enthalpy updating based numerical model. After validation, case studies pertaining to volumetric expansion and shrinkage are performed considering solidification of water and paraffin respectively and physically consistent results are obtained. The study is relevant for understanding unidirectional crystal growth under the effect of controlled boundary condition.

  13. Asthma control measurement using five different questionnaires: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Francois; de Meulder, Isabelle; Paesmans, Marianne; Muylle, Inge; Bruyneel, Marie; Ninane, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    Questionnaires play a key place in the assessment of asthma control. Different questionnaires have been developed. However, it remains largely unknown whether they can be used interchangeably. We wondered whether the panel of frequently used scores would give similar measurement of asthma control. The present study aimed to assess the agreement between five specific questionnaires. In this prospective study, ninety-nine patients completed five commonly used asthma control scores: the GINA, the Asthma Control Test™, the Royal College of Physician score, the Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire (ATAQ), and the Asthma Control Questionnaire(©) (ACQ). The kappa coefficient was used to assess the agreement between questionnaires. The agreement between the GINA and other scores was only moderate (kappa coefficients amounted from 0.41 to 0.60). With respect to the "controlled" level, all the other scores gave higher results than GINA. All other scores also tended to underestimate GINA "uncontrolled level". For the "partly controlled level" defined by 3 of the 5 questionnaires, ACQ identified the same percentage of patients than GINA while ATAQ overestimated this percentage. This study shows only moderate agreement between five commonly used asthma control scores. The GINA score showed the lowest percentage of controlled and the highest percentage of uncontrolled asthma. As a consequence, all these scores do not seem to evaluate the same symptoms. NCT01350661. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radio-controlled boat for measuring water velocities and bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej

    2016-04-01

    Radio-controlled boat named "Hi3" was designed and developed in order to facilitate water velocity and bathymetry measurements. The boat is equipped with the SonTek RiverSurveyor M9 instrument that is designed for measuring open channel hydraulics (discharge and bathymetry). Usually channel cross sections measurements are performed either from a bridge or from a vessel. However, these approaches have some limitations such as performing bathymetry measurements close to the hydropower plant turbine or downstream from a hydropower plant gate where bathymetry changes are often the most extreme. Therefore, the radio-controlled boat was designed, built and tested in order overcome these limitations. The boat is made from a surf board and two additional small balance support floats. Additional floats are used to improve stability in fast flowing and turbulent parts of rivers. The boat is powered by two electric motors, steering is achieved with changing the power applied to left and right motor. Furthermore, remotely controlled boat "Hi3" can be powered in two ways, either by a gasoline electric generator or by lithium batteries. Lithium batteries are lighter, quieter, but they operation time is shorter compared to an electrical generator. With the radio-controlled boat "Hi3" we can perform measurements in potentially dangerous areas such as under the lock gates at hydroelectric power plant or near the turbine outflow. Until today, the boat "Hi3" has driven more than 200 km in lakes and rivers, performing various water speed and bathymetry measurements. Moreover, in future development the boat "Hi3" will be upgraded in order to be able to perform measurements automatically. The future plans are to develop and implement the autopilot. With this approach the user will define the route that has to be driven by the boat and the boat will drive the pre-defined route automatically. This will be possible because of the very accurate differential GPS from the Sontek River

  15. Stochastic methods for measurement-based network control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.

    2015-01-01

    The main task of network administrators is to ensure that their network functions properly. Whether they manage a telecommunication or a road network, they generally base their decisions on the analysis of measurement data. Inspired by such network control applications, this dissertation investigate

  16. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  17. Quality Changes of Frozen Meat During Storage and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jiangping

    2010-01-01

    The frozen is a common method of meat storage, generally applications in meat industrial. However, the quality of meat still have taken place changes even in the low temperature, This article discussion on the changes of frozen meat quality during freezing storage, and give the corresponding control measures.

  18. Chemical measurements with optical fibers for process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisde, G; Blanc, F; Perez, J J

    1988-02-01

    Several aspects of remote in situ spectrophotometric measurement by means of optical fibers are considered in the context of chemical process control. The technique makes it possible to measure a species in a particular oxidation state, such as plutonium(VI), sequentially, under the stringent conditions of automated analysis. For the control of several species in solution, measurements at discrete wavelengths on the sides of the absorption peaks serve to increase the dynamic range. Examples are given concerning the isotopic separation of uranium in the Chemex process. The chemical control of complex solutions containing numerous mutually interfering species requires a more elaborate spectral scan and real-time processing to determine the chemical kinetics. Photodiode array spectrophotometers are therefore ideal for analysing the uranium and plutonium solutions of the Purex process. Remote on-line control by ultraviolet monitoring exhibits limitations chiefly due to Rayleigh scattering in the optical fibers. The measurement of pH in acidic (0.8-3.2) and basic media (10-13) has also been attempted. Prior calibration, signal processing and optical spectra modeling are also discussed.

  19. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  20. An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in Nigeria. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... as the factor that leads to design variation with relative importance index value of 3.97; cost of construction ...

  1. Disentangling volumetric and hydrational properties of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshin, Vladimir P; Medvedev, Nikolai N; Smolin, Nikolai; Geiger, Alfons; Winter, Roland

    2015-02-05

    We used molecular dynamics simulations of a typical monomeric protein, SNase, in combination with Voronoi-Delaunay tessellation to study and analyze the temperature dependence of the apparent volume, Vapp, of the solute. We show that the void volume, VB, created in the boundary region between solute and solvent, determines the temperature dependence of Vapp to a major extent. The less pronounced but still significant temperature dependence of the molecular volume of the solute, VM, is essentially the result of the expansivity of its internal voids, as the van der Waals contribution to VM is practically independent of temperature. Results for polypeptides of different chemical nature feature a similar temperature behavior, suggesting that the boundary/hydration contribution seems to be a universal part of the temperature dependence of Vapp. The results presented here shine new light on the discussion surrounding the physical basis for understanding and decomposing the volumetric properties of proteins and biomolecules in general.

  2. A Technique for Volumetric CSG Based on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique for volumetric CSG is presented. The technique requires the input volumes to correspond to solids which fulfill a voxelization suitability criterion. Assume the CSG operation is union. The volumetric union of two such volumes is defined in terms of the voxelization...

  3. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... by the effective wind speed on the rotor disc. We take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore, the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. By taking the advantage of having future values of the scheduling variable...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  4. Species-specific contribution of volumetric growth and tissue convergence to posterior body elongation in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Ben; Duarte, Fernando; Lagadec, Ronan; Mazan, Sylvie; Nicolas, Jean-François; Hirsinger, Estelle

    2016-05-15

    Posterior body elongation is a widespread mechanism propelling the generation of the metazoan body plan. The posterior growth model predicts that a posterior growth zone generates sufficient tissue volume to elongate the posterior body. However, there are energy supply-related differences between vertebrates in the degree to which growth occurs concomitantly with embryogenesis. By applying a multi-scalar morphometric analysis in zebrafish embryos, we show that posterior body elongation is generated by an influx of cells from lateral regions, by convergence-extension of cells as they exit the tailbud, and finally by a late volumetric growth in the spinal cord and notochord. Importantly, the unsegmented region does not generate additional tissue volume. Fibroblast growth factor inhibition blocks tissue convergence rather than volumetric growth, showing that a conserved molecular mechanism can control convergent morphogenesis through different cell behaviours. Finally, via a comparative morphometric analysis in lamprey, dogfish, zebrafish and mouse, we propose that elongation via posterior volumetric growth is linked to increased energy supply and is associated with an overall increase in volumetric growth and elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Controllability of the Heat Equation with a Control Acting on a Measurable Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang YU

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the controllability of a heat equation.It is well-known that the heat equation yt - △y =uxE in (0,T) × Ω with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions is null controllable for any T > 0 and any open nonempty subset E of Ω.In this note,the author studies the case that E is an arbitrary measurable set with positive measure.

  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tawfiq JA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq,1,2 Ziad A Memish3,4 1Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; 2Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Ministry of Health, 4Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV infection in 2012 resulted in an increased concern of the spread of the infection globally. MERS-CoV infection had previously caused multiple health-care-associated outbreaks and resulted in transmission of the virus within families. Community onset MERS-CoV cases continue to occur. Dromedary camels are currently the most likely animal to be linked to human MERS-CoV cases. Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels. The control of MERS-CoV infection relies on prompt identification of cases within health care facilities, with institutions applying appropriate infection control measures. In addition, determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection. Keywords: MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, epidemiology, control measures, transmission, Saudi Arabia

  7. A Clinical Tool to Measure Trunk Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Trunk Control Measurement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, Lieve; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat; Verheyden, Geert; De Cat, Jos; Monbaliu, Elegast; Feys, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study the psychometric properties of the Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined. Twenty-six children with spastic CP (mean age 11 years 3 months, range 8-15 years; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I n = 11, level II n = 5, level III n = 10) were included in this study. To…

  8. Comparative analysis of volumetric flow meters used for mass flow estimation in multiphase and multidensity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Richard; Korman, Valentin; Wiley, John T.

    2006-05-01

    Accurate and reliable multiphase flow measurements are needed for liquid propulsion systems. Existing volumetric flow meters are adequate for flow measurements with well-characterized, clean liquids and gases. However, these technologies are inadequate for multiphase environments, such as cryogenic fluids. Although, properly calibrated turbine flow meters can provide highly accurate and repeatable data, problems are still prevalent with multiphase flows. Limitations are thus placed on the applicability of intrusive turbine flow meters.

  9. Two-dimensional and volumetric airway changes after bimaxillary surgery for class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Toraj; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Eshghpour, Majid; Kermani, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    Any change in maxilla and mandible position can alter the upper airway, and any decrease in the upper airway can cause sleep disorders. Thus, it is necessary to assess airway changes after repositioning of the maxilla and mandible during orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear and volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery to correct class III malocclusion via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to identify correlations between linear and volumetric changes. This was a prospective cohort study. CBCTs from 10 class III patients were evaluated before surgery and three months after. The Wilcoxon one-sample test was used to evaluate the differences in measurements before and after surgery. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between linear and volumetric changes. The results show that the nasopharyngeal space increased significantly, and that this increase correlated with degree of maxillary advancement. No significant changes were found in volumes before and after surgery. A correlation was found between linear and volumetric oropharyngeal changes. Bimaxillary surgical correction of class III malocclusion did not cause statistically significant changes in the posterior airway space.

  10. Effect of compression paddle tilt correction on volumetric breast density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, Michiel G J; van Gils, Carla H; Lokate, Mariëtte; den Heeten, Gerard J; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2012-08-21

    For the acquisition of a mammogram, a breast is compressed between a compression paddle and a support table. When compression is applied with a flexible compression paddle, the upper plate may be tilted, which results in variation in breast thickness from the chest wall to the breast margin. Paddle tilt has been recognized as a major problem in volumetric breast density estimation methods. In previous work, we developed a fully automatic method to correct the image for the effect of compression paddle tilt. In this study, we investigated in three experiments the effect of paddle tilt and its correction on volumetric breast density estimation. Results showed that paddle tilt considerably affected accuracy of volumetric breast density estimation, but that effect could be reduced by tilt correction. By applying tilt correction, a significant increase in correspondence between mammographic density estimates and measurements on MRI was established. We argue that in volumetric breast density estimation, tilt correction is both feasible and essential when mammographic images are acquired with a flexible compression paddle.

  11. A measurement of a control rod drop using an LVDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Ho; Huh, Hyung; Yu, Je-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2010-03-01

    A control element drive mechanism is a reactor regulating system, which is to insert, withdraw, or maintain a control rod containing neutron-absorbing material within a reactor core to control the reactivity of the reactor. The ball-screw type CEDM for the small and medium research reactor has a spring-hydraulic damper to reduce the impact force due to the free drop of the CEDM. This paper describes the experimental results to obtain the drop characteristics of the CEDM. The tests are performed by using a full-scale structure except the control element assembly, and a drop time and displacement after an impact are measured by using an LVDT. The influences of the rod weight and the drop height on the drop behavior are also estimated on the basis of test results. In case of the longest stroke, the drop time of the control rod is within 4.5 seconds to meet the design requirement. The behavior after the impact shows a general damping motion of the spring-damper system, and the maximum displacement is measured as 15.6 mm.

  12. 两种CAD软件对体模肺结节CT体积测量的比较研究%Comparative study of two kinds of CAD softwares for volumetric measurement of lung nodules--a phantom study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 龚建平; 张伟; 钱铭辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the accuracy and the consistency of CT phantom nodule volumetry measurement with pulmonary CT intellective CAD software and Lung VCAR sotware. Methods:Spherical nodules 2. 5mm, 5. 0mm, 10. 0mm and 20. 0mm in diameter were placed within a commercially available lung phantom and scanned by a 64 slice CT scanner. Nodule volume (V) was measured by the formula V= (4/3) 7trs. Automated nodule volume measurements were performed by using the two above mentioned CAD softwares independently. Results:The volume of all 16 nodules within the phantom could be measured and analyzed by the two softwares. The average relative errors of nodules 2. 5mm,5. 0mm, 10. 0mm and 20mm in diameter were 21. 1% ,-4. 7% , -1. 6% and -2. 3% respectively with pulmonary CT intellective CAD soltware. 1 ne average relative errors ol nodules 2.5mm,5.0mm, 10.0mm and 20.0mm in diameter were 15.5% 3. 1 % ,2. 7% and 1.4% respectively with Lung VCAR soltware. There was no substantial difference in the volume estima tions between the two CAD softwares by Bland Altman analysis. Conclusion: Although the accuracy of volumetry measure ment with pulmonary CT intellective CAD software was lower than that of lung VCAR,but still there was high consistency between the two CAD softwares.%目的:评估肺部CT智能诊断报告系统软件和Lung VCAR软件在测量体模结节体积方面的准确性和一致性.方法:使用植入直径为2.5、5.0、10.0和20.0mm的孤立结节的商用体模,采用64层螺旋CT机进行体模扫描.结节标准体积采用公式V=4/3πr3计算.分别使用肺部CT智能诊断报告系统软件和Lung VCAR软件对体模扫描数据进行分析,测量体模结节的体积.结果:两种软件对肺结节体模中16个结节均能进行相应的分析和体积测量.肺部CT智能诊断报告系统软件测量直径2.5、5.0、10.0和20.0mm结节体积的平均相对误差分别为21.1%、-4.7%、-1.6%和-2.3%;Lung VCAR软件的平均相对误差分别为15.5%

  13. Automatic quadrature control and measuring system. [using optical coupling circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A quadrature component cancellation and measuring system comprising a detection system for detecting the quadrature component from a primary signal, including reference circuitry to define the phase of the quadrature component for detection is described. A Raysistor optical coupling control device connects an output from the detection system to a circuit driven by a signal based upon the primary signal. Combining circuitry connects the primary signal and the circuit controlled by the Raysistor device to subtract quadrature components. A known current through the optically sensitive element produces a signal defining the magnitude of the quadrature component.

  14. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  15. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom;

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control of the c......This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  16. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  17. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  18. Characterization of three dimensional volumetric strain distribution during passive tension of the human tibialis anterior using Cine Phase Contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elisabeth R; Morrow, Duane A; Felmlee, Joel P; Murthy, Naveen S; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2016-10-03

    Intramuscular pressure correlates strongly with muscle tension and is a promising tool for quantifying individual muscle force. However, clinical application is impeded by measurement variability that is not fully understood. Previous studies point to regional differences in IMP, specifically increasing pressure with muscle depth. Based on conservation of mass, intramuscular pressure and volumetric strain distributions may be inversely related. Therefore, we hypothesized volumetric strain would decrease with muscle depth. To test this we quantified 3D volumetric strain in the tibialis anterior of 12 healthy subjects using Cine Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Cine Phase Contrast data were collected while a custom apparatus rotated the subjects' ankle continuously between neutral and plantarflexion. A T2-weighted image stack was used to define the resting tibials anterior position. Custom and commercial post-processing software were used to quantify the volumetric strain distribution. To characterize regional strain changes, the muscle was divided into superior-inferior sections and either medial-lateral or anterior-posterior slices. Mean volumetric strain was compared across the sections and slices. As hypothesized, volumetric strain demonstrated regional differences with a decreasing trend from the anterior (superficial) to the posterior (deep) muscle regions. Statistical tests showed significant main effects and interactions of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior position as well as superior-inferior and medial-lateral position on regional strain. These data support our hypothesis and imply a potential relationship between regional volumetric strain and intramuscular pressure. This finding may advance our understanding of intramuscular pressure variability sources and lead to more reliable measurement solutions in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time control of sewer systems using turbidity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Schütze, M

    2011-01-01

    Real-time control (RTC) of urban drainage systems has been proven useful as a means to reduce pollution by combined sewer overflow discharges. So far, RTC has been investigated mainly with a sole focus on water quantity aspects. However, as measurement techniques for pollution of wastewater are advancing, pollution-based RTC might be of increasing interest. For example, turbidity data sets from an extensive measurement programme in two Paris catchments allow a detailed investigation of the benefits of using pollution-based data for RTC. This paper exemplifies this, comparing pollution-based RTC with flow-based RTC. Results suggest that pollution-based RTC indeed has some potential, particularly when measurements of water-quality characteristics are readily available.

  20. Widespread Volumetric Brain Changes following Tooth Loss in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Friedel, Miriam; Lerch, Jason P.; Moayedi, Massieh; Davis, Karen D.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Tooth loss is associated with altered sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions. These changes vary highly in the population and are accompanied by structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating these functions. It is unclear to what extent this variability in behavior and function is caused by genetic and/or environmental determinants and which brain regions undergo structural plasticity that mediates these changes. Thus, the overall goal of our research program is to identify genetic variants that control structural and functional plasticity following tooth loss. As a step toward this goal, here our aim was to determine whether structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is sensitive to detect quantifiable volumetric differences in the brains of mice of different genetic background receiving tooth extraction or sham operation. We used 67 adult female mice of 7 strains, comprising the A/J (A) and C57BL/6J (B) strains and a randomly selected sample of 5 of the 23 AXB-BXA strains (AXB1, AXB4, AXB24, BXA14, BXA24) that were produced from the A and B parental mice by recombinations and inbreeding. This panel of 25 inbred strains of genetically diverse inbred strains of mice is used for mapping chromosomal intervals throughout the genome that harbor candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variance of any trait under study. Under general anesthesia, 39 mice received extraction of 3 right maxillary molar teeth and 28 mice received sham operation. On post-extraction day 21, post-mortem whole-brain high-resolution sMRI was used to quantify the volume of 160 brain regions. Compared to sham operation, tooth extraction was associated with a significantly reduced regional and voxel-wise volumes of cortical brain regions involved in processing somatosensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions, and increased volumes in subcortical sensorimotor and temporal limbic forebrain regions including the amygdala. Additionally, comparison of the 10 BXA14

  1. Measured Test-Driven Development: Using Measures to Monitor and Control the Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dubinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Test Driven Development (TDD from cognitive and social perspectives. Based on our analysis, we suggest a technique for controlling and monitoring the TDD process by examining measures that relate to the size and complexity of both code and tests. We call this approach Measured TDD. The motivation for TDD arose from practitioners' tendency to rush into code production, skipping the required testing needed to manufacture quality products. The motivation for Measured TDD is based on difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying TDD. Specifically, with the need to frequently refactor the unit, after every few test and code steps have been performed. We found that the suggested technique enables developers to gain better control over the development process.

  2. Optical artefact characterization and correction in volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Hui, Cheukkai; Archambault, Louis; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to characterize the optical artefacts affecting measurement accuracy in a volumetric liquid scintillator detector, and (2) to develop methods to correct for these artefacts. The optical artefacts addressed were photon scattering, refraction, camera perspective, vignetting, lens distortion, the lens point spread function, stray radiation, and noise in the camera. These artefacts were evaluated by theoretical and experimental means, and specific correction strategies were developed for each artefact. The effectiveness of the correction methods was evaluated by comparing raw and corrected images of the scintillation light from proton pencil beams against validated Monte Carlo calculations. Blurring due to the lens and refraction at the scintillator tank-air interface were found to have the largest effect on the measured light distribution, and lens aberrations and vignetting were important primarily at the image edges. Photon scatter in the scintillator was not found to be a significant source of artefacts. The correction methods effectively mitigated the artefacts, increasing the average gamma analysis pass rate from 66% to 98% for gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement. We conclude that optical artefacts cause clinically meaningful errors in the measured light distribution, and we have demonstrated effective strategies for correcting these optical artefacts.

  3. The Derivation of Fault Volumetric Properties from 3D Trace Maps Using Outcrop Constrained Discrete Fracture Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, David; Seers, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    -deterministic, outcrop constrained discrete fracture network modeling code to derive volumetric fault intensity measures (fault area per unit volume / fault volume per unit volume). Producing per-vertex measures of volumetric intensity; our method captures the spatial variability in 3D fault density across a surveyed outcrop, enabling first order controls to be probed. We demonstrate our approach on pervasively faulted exposures of a Permian aged reservoir analogue from the Vale of Eden Basin, UK.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  5. Angiographic and volumetric effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors on angiomyolipomas in tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahul A Sheth; Adam S Feldman; Elahna Paul; Elizabeth A Thiele; T Gregory Walker

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the angiographic and volumetric effects of mammalian target of rapamycin(m TOR) inhibitors on angiomyolipomas(AMLs) in a case series of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.METHODS: All patients who underwent catheter angiography prior to and following m TOR inhibitor therapy(n = 3) were evaluated. All cross-sectional imaging studies were analyzed with three-dimensional volumetrics, and tumor volume curves for all three tissue compartments(soft tissue, vascular, and fat) were generated. Segmentation analysis tools were used to automatically create a region of interest(ROI) circumscribing the AML. On magnetic resonance images, the "fat only" map calculated from the in- and opposed-phase gradient recalled echo sequences was used to quantify fat volume within tumors. Tumor vascularity was measured by applying a thresholding toolwithin the ROI on post-contrast subtraction images. On computed tomography images, volume histogram analysis of Hounsfield unit was performed to quantify tumor tissue composition. The angiography procedures were also reviewed, and tumor vascularity based on pre-embolization angiography was characterized in a semi-quantitative manner. RESULTS: Patient 1 presented at the age of 15 with a 6.8 cm right lower pole AML and a 4.0 cm right upper pole AML. Embolization was performed of both tumors, and after a few years of size control, the tumors began to grow, and the patient was initiated on m TOR inhibitor therapy. There was an immediate reduction in the size of both lesions. The patient then underwent repeat embolization and discontinuation of m TOR inhibition, after which point there was a substantial regrowth in both tumors across all tissue compartments. Patient 2 presented at the age of 18 with a right renal AML. Following a brief period of tumor reduction after embolization, she was initiated on m TOR inhibitor therapy, with successful reduction in tumor size across all tissue compartments. As with patient 1, however

  6. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  7. Volumetric Analysis of Regional Cerebral Development in Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Ment, Laura R.; Vohr, Betty; Pajot, Sarah K.; Schneider, Karen C.; Katz, Karol H.; Ebbitt, Timothy B.; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is frequently associated with both neuropathologic and cognitive sequelae. This study examined cortical lobe, subcortical, and lateral ventricle development in association with perinatal variables and cognitive outcome. High-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and quantified using advanced image processing techniques. Seventy-three preterm and 33 term control children ages 7.3-11.4 years were included in the study. Results indicated disproportionately enlarged parietal and frontal gray matter, occipital horn, and ventricular body, as well as reduced temporal and subcortical gray volumes in preterm children compared with control subjects. Birth weight was negatively correlated with parietal and frontal gray, as well as occipital horn volumes. Intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with reduced subcortical gray matter. Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was negatively correlated with subcortical gray matter volumes but not with white matter volumes. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of cognitive function in the preterm group. Preterm birth appears to be associated with disorganized cortical development, possibly involving disrupted synaptic pruning and neural migration. Lower birth weight and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage may increase the risk for neuroanatomic abnormality. PMID:15519112

  8. FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Bahr, Detlef; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Oltmann, Klaas; Oltmann, Krischan; Guill, Christian; Rieper, Elisabeth; Ardey, Goetz

    2002-05-01

    The FELIX 3D display belongs to the class of volumetric displays using the swept volume technique. It is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications, which can be easily imported and interactively transformed in real-time by the FELIX control software. The images are drawn on a spinning screen by acousto-optic, galvanometric or polygon mirror deflection units with integrated lasers and a color mixer. The modular design of the display enables the user to operate with several equal or different projection units in parallel and to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose. The FELIX 3D display is a compact, light, extensible and easy to transport system. It mainly consists of inexpensive standard, off-the-shelf components for an easy implementation. This setup makes it a powerful and flexible tool to keep track with the rapid technological progress of today. Potential applications include imaging in the fields of entertainment, air traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design as well as scientific data visualization.

  9. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D

    2015-04-30

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A structural comparison of measurement-based admission control algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yi-ran; WANG Suo-ping; WU Hai-ya

    2006-01-01

    Measurement-based admission control (MBAC)algorithm is designed for the relaxed real-time service. In contrast to traditional connection admission control mechanisms,the most attractive feature of MBAC algorithm is that it does not require a prior traffic model and that is very difficult for the user to come up with a tight traffic model before establishing a flow.Other advantages of MBAC include that it can achieve higher network utilization and offer quality service to users. In this article, the study of the equations in the MBAC shows that they can all be expressed in the same form. Based on the same form,some MBAC algorithms can achieve same performance only if they satisfy some conditions.

  11. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized.

  12. A retrospective analysis for patient-specific quality assurance of volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guangjun [Radiation Physics Center, Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wu, Kui [Department of Radiotherapy, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Peng, Guang; Zhang, Yingjie [Radiation Physics Center, Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Bai, Sen, E-mail: baisen@scu.edu.cn [Radiation Physics Center, Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is now widely used clinically, as it is capable of delivering a highly conformal dose distribution in a short time interval. We retrospectively analyzed patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of VMAT and examined the relationships between the planning parameters and the QA results. A total of 118 clinical VMAT cases underwent pretreatment QA. All plans had 3-dimensional diode array measurements, and 69 also had ion chamber measurements. Dose distribution and isocenter point dose were evaluated by comparing the measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. In addition, the relationship between QA results and several planning parameters, such as dose level, control points (CPs), monitor units (MUs), average field width, and average leaf travel, were also analyzed. For delivered dose distribution, a gamma analysis passing rate greater than 90% was obtained for all plans and greater than 95% for 100 of 118 plans with the 3%/3-mm criteria. The difference (mean ± standard deviation) between the point doses measured by the ion chamber and those calculated by TPS was 0.9% ± 2.0% for all plans. For all cancer sites, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric cancer have the lowest and highest average passing rates, respectively. From multivariate linear regression analysis, the dose level (p = 0.001) and the average leaf travel (p < 0.001) showed negative correlations with the passing rate, and the average field width (p = 0.003) showed a positive correlation with the passing rate, all indicating a correlation between the passing rate and the plan complexity. No statistically significant correlation was found between MU or CP and the passing rate. Analysis of the results of dosimetric pretreatment measurements as a function of VMAT plan parameters can provide important information to guide the plan parameter setting and optimization in TPS.

  13. Water content influence on thermal and volumetric properties of wheat starch gelatinization under 10 MPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowska, Marta; Randzio, Stanislaw L

    2010-02-01

    A transitiometric in situ analysis of wheat starch aqueous suspensions heated over a temperature range from 285 K to 415 K under isobaric conditions of 10 MPa is presented. Measurements were performed at four selected water concentrations: 56.0%, 64.7%, 73.5%, and 82.4% weight/water. Thermal and volumetric properties and their water content dependencies have been determined for three successive starch phase transformations occurred during wheat starch gelatinization.

  14. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  15. Hyperspectral image classification based on volumetric texture and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Sheng, Yehua; Du, Peijun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Kui

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach using volumetric texture and reduced-spectral features is presented for hyperspectral image classification. Using this approach, the volumetric textural features were extracted by volumetric gray-level co-occurrence matrices (VGLCM). The spectral features were extracted by minimum estimated abundance covariance (MEAC) and linear prediction (LP)-based band selection, and a semi-supervised k-means (SKM) clustering method with deleting the worst cluster (SKMd) bandclustering algorithms. Moreover, four feature combination schemes were designed for hyperspectral image classification by using spectral and textural features. It has been proven that the proposed method using VGLCM outperforms the gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) method, and the experimental results indicate that the combination of spectral information with volumetric textural features leads to an improved classification performance in hyperspectral imagery.

  16. Social construction of stormwater control measures in Melbourne and Copenhagen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Herle Mo; Brown, Rebekah; Elle, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Urban stormwater systems in cities around the world are challenged by urbanization and climate change, and a range of Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are being implemented as solutions to these challenges. We developed a conceptual framework of technological stabilization based on Social...... Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Transition Science, and conducted 16 in-depth actor interviews as a basis for mapping the historical development of in the two cities. The SCMs applied in Melbourne and Copenhagen are similar, but using a new framework for technological stabilization we identify...

  17. Social construction of stormwater control measures in Melbourne and Copenhagen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Herle Mo; Brown, Rebekah; Elle, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Urban stormwater systems in cities around the world are challenged by urbanization and climate change, and a range of Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are being implemented as solutions to these challenges. We developed a conceptual framework of technological stabilization based on Social...... differences in their application due to different physical, organizational and cultural contexts in the two cities, drought being the main driver during the past decade in Melbourne (1997–2010) and pluvial flooding in Copenhagen (2007-). In Melbourne there is currently a strong integrated understanding...

  18. A Computer Controlled Precision High Pressure Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, S.; Yadav, S.; Jha, N.; Gupta, V. K.; Agarwal, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Saxena, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    A microcontroller (AT89C51) based electronics has been designed and developed for high precision calibrator based on Digiquartz pressure transducer (DQPT) for the measurement of high hydrostatic pressure up to 275 MPa. The input signal from DQPT is converted into a square wave form and multiplied through frequency multiplier circuit over 10 times to input frequency. This input frequency is multiplied by a factor of ten using phased lock loop. Octal buffer is used to store the calculated frequency, which in turn is fed to microcontroller AT89C51 interfaced with a liquid crystal display for the display of frequency as well as corresponding pressure in user friendly units. The electronics developed is interfaced with a computer using RS232 for automatic data acquisition, computation and storage. The data is acquired by programming in Visual Basic 6.0. This system is interfaced with the PC to make it a computer controlled system. The system is capable of measuring the frequency up to 4 MHz with a resolution of 0.01 Hz and the pressure up to 275 MPa with a resolution of 0.001 MPa within measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. The details on the hardware of the pressure measuring system, associated electronics, software and calibration are discussed in this paper.

  19. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  20. Volumetric microscale particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianqi; Aramideh, Soroush; Ardekani, Arezoo M.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2016-11-01

    The steady-state flow through refractive-index-matched glass bead microchannels is measured using microscopic particle tracking velocimetry (μPTV). A novel technique is developed to volumetrically reconstruct particles from oversampled two-dimensional microscopic images of fluorescent particles. Fast oversampling of the quasi-steady-state flow field in the lateral direction is realized by a nano-positioning piezo stage synchronized with a fast CMOS camera. Experiments at different Reynolds numbers are carried out for flows through a series of both monodispersed and bidispersed glass bead microchannels with various porosities. The obtained velocity fields at pore-scale (on the order of 10 μm) are compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS) conducted in the exact same geometries reconstructed from micro-CT scans of the glass bead microchannels. The developed experimental method would serve as a new approach for exploring the flow physics at pore-scale in porous media, and also provide benchmark measurements for validation of numerical simulations.

  1. Toward a Philosophy and Theory of Volumetric Nonthermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal processes for food preservation have been under intensive investigation for about the past quarter century, with varying degrees of success. We focus this discussion on two volumetrically acting nonthermal processes, high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF), with emphasis on scientific understanding of each, and the research questions that need to be addressed for each to be more successful in the future. We discuss the character or "philosophy" of food preservation, with a question about the nature of the kill step(s), and the sensing challenges that need to be addressed. For HPP, key questions and needs center around whether its nonthermal effectiveness can be increased by increased pressures or pulsing, the theoretical treatment of rates of reaction as influenced by pressure, the assumption of uniform pressure distribution, and the need for (and difficulties involved in) in-situ measurement. For PEF, the questions include the rationale for pulsing, difficulties involved in continuous flow treatment chambers, the difference between electroporation theory and experimental observations, and the difficulties involved in in-situ measurement and monitoring of electric field distribution.

  2. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Hans

    1933-01-01

    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  3. Serial volumetric registration of pulmonary CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Silvestre; Silva, Augusto; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2008-03-01

    Detailed morphological analysis of pulmonary structures and tissue, provided by modern CT scanners, is of utmost importance as in the case of oncological applications both for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In this case, a patient may go through several tomographic studies throughout a period of time originating volumetric sets of image data that must be appropriately registered in order to track suspicious radiological findings. The structures or regions of interest may change their position or shape in CT exams acquired at different moments, due to postural, physiologic or pathologic changes, so, the exams should be registered before any follow-up information can be extracted. Postural mismatching throughout time is practically impossible to avoid being particularly evident when imaging is performed at the limiting spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a method for intra-patient registration of pulmonary CT studies, to assist in the management of the oncological pathology. Our method takes advantage of prior segmentation work. In the first step, the pulmonary segmentation is performed where trachea and main bronchi are identified. Then, the registration method proceeds with a longitudinal alignment based on morphological features of the lungs, such as the position of the carina, the pulmonary areas, the centers of mass and the pulmonary trans-axial principal axis. The final step corresponds to the trans-axial registration of the corresponding pulmonary masked regions. This is accomplished by a pairwise sectional registration process driven by an iterative search of the affine transformation parameters leading to optimal similarity metrics. Results with several cases of intra-patient, intra-modality registration, up to 7 time points, show that this method provides accurate registration which is needed for quantitative tracking of lesions and the development of image fusion strategies that may effectively assist the follow-up process.

  4. The prognostic role of prenatal MRI volumetric assessment in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Güleryüz, Handan; Gezer, Cenk; Koçyiğit, Ali; Yeşilırmak, Didem; Ekin, Atalay; Bilgin, Muzaffer; Ertaş, İbrahim Egemen

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective study, we aimed to establish the value of volumetric assessment by prenatal brain MRI in determining the prognosis of fetuses with isolated VM. A total of 23 fetuses with isolated VM were included in the study. Supratentorial cerebral parenchyma volume (PV) and ventricular volume (VV) were measured, and supratentorial ventricular/parenchymal volume (VV/PV) ratios were calculated. Pregnancy and postnatal neurodevelopmental outcomes up to two years of age were obtained and correlated with the volumetric measurements. VV was found to be strongly and positively correlated with ventricular dimension. There was a statistically significant difference between the VV/ PV ratios of the good and poor prognosis groups into which the cases had been categorized. The fetuses with a poor prognosis had a significantly higher VV/PV ratio. Volumetric parenchymal and ventricular measurements obtained by fetal brain MRI may contribute to future clinical studies concerning the evaluation of fetuses with VM and provide an important indicator in cases where management dilemmas arise.

  5. Three-dimensional linear and volumetric analysis of maxillary sinus pneumatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham M. Hamdy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the anatomical variability related to the maxillary sinus, its intimate relation to the maxillary posterior teeth and because of all the implications that pneumatization may possess, three-dimensional assessment of maxillary sinus pneumatization is of most usefulness. The aim of this study is to analyze the maxillary sinus dimensions both linearly and volumetrically using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT to assess the maxillary sinus pneumatization. Retrospective analysis of 30 maxillary sinuses belonging to 15 patients’ CBCT scans was performed. Linear and volumetric measurements were conducted and statistically analyzed. The maximum craniocaudal extension of the maxillary sinus was located around the 2nd molar in 93% of the sinuses, while the maximum mediolateral and antroposterior extensions of the maxillary sinus were located at the level of root of zygomatic complex in 90% of sinuses. There was a high correlation between the linear measurements of the right and left sides, where the antroposterior extension of the sinus at level of the nasal floor had the largest correlation (0.89. There was also a high correlation between the Simplant and geometric derived maxillary sinus volumes for both right and left sides (0.98 and 0.96, respectively. The relations of the sinus floor can be accurately assessed on the different orthogonal images obtained through 3D CBCT scan. The geometric method offered a much cheaper, easier, and less sophisticated substitute; therefore, with the availability of software, 3D volumetric measurements are more facilitated.

  6. Single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS front-end system for real-time volumetric IVUS and ICE imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F Levent

    2014-02-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echography (ICE) catheters with real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging capability can provide unique benefits to many interventional procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary and structural heart diseases. Integration of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with front-end electronics in single-chip configuration allows for implementation of such catheter probes with reduced interconnect complexity, miniaturization, and high mechanical flexibility. We implemented a single-chip forward-looking (FL) ultrasound imaging system by fabricating a 1.4-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array using CMUT-on-CMOS technology on a front-end IC implemented in 0.35-μm CMOS process. The dual-ring array has 56 transmit elements and 48 receive elements on two separate concentric annular rings. The IC incorporates a 25-V pulser for each transmitter and a low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for each receiver, along with digital control and smart power management. The final shape of the silicon chip is a 1.5-mm-diameter donut with a 430-μm center hole for a guide wire. The overall front-end system requires only 13 external connections and provides 4 parallel RF outputs while consuming an average power of 20 mW. We measured RF A-scans from the integrated single- chip array which show full functionality at 20.1 MHz with 43% fractional bandwidth. We also tested and demonstrated the image quality of the system on a wire phantom and an ex vivo chicken heart sample. The measured axial and lateral point resolutions are 92 μm and 251 μm, respectively. We successfully acquired volumetric imaging data from the ex vivo chicken heart at 60 frames per second without any signal averaging. These demonstrative results indicate that single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS systems have the potential to produce realtime volumetric images with image quality and speed suitable for catheter-based clinical applications.

  7. Gas sorption and the consequent volumetric and permeability change of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenjuan

    Experimental and numerical investigations of gas sorption on coal, and the subsequent volumetric and permeability changes of the coal were conducted. The goals of the study were to investigate the magnitude of permeability change caused by gas sorption, and develop an algorithm to simulate numerically gas sorption and sorption-induced permeability change. The amount of gas sorption and the subsequent volumetric and permeability change of coal samples as a function of pore pressure and injection gas composition were measured in the laboratory. A constant effective confining pressure (difference between the confining pressure and pore pressure) was maintained in the process of the experiments; therefore, the role of effective stress on permeability was eliminated. Several gases, including pure CO2, pure N2, and binary mixtures of CO2 and N2 of various compositions were used as the injection gas. The coal sample was first allowed to adsorb an injection gas fully at a particular pressure. The total amount (moles) of adsorption was calculated based on a volumetric method. After adsorption equilibrium was reached, gas samples were taken from the equilibrium gaseous phase and analyzed afterwards. The composition of the gaseous phase prior to and after the adsorption was used to calculate the composition of the adsorbed phase based on material balance. Permeability of the sample was then measured by flowing the injection gas through the core at varying pressure gradient or varying flow rate, and an average permeability was obtained based on Darcy's law for compressible systems. The change of the total volume of the core was monitored and recorded in the whole process of the experiment. Volumetric strain was thereby calculated. Experimental results showed that the greater the pressure the greater the amount of adsorption for all tested gases. At the same pressure, the amount of adsorption was greater for CO2 than N2. For the binary mixtures, the greater the fraction of CO 2

  8. Visualization and volumetric structures from MR images of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Robertson, D.

    1994-03-01

    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  9. Soft bilateral filtering volumetric shadows using cube shadow maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatam H.; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal; Kolivand, Hoshang

    2017-01-01

    Volumetric shadows often increase the realism of rendered scenes in computer graphics. Typical volumetric shadows techniques do not provide a smooth transition effect in real-time with conservation on crispness of boundaries. This research presents a new technique for generating high quality volumetric shadows by sampling and interpolation. Contrary to conventional ray marching method, which requires extensive time, this proposed technique adopts downsampling in calculating ray marching. Furthermore, light scattering is computed in High Dynamic Range buffer to generate tone mapping. The bilateral interpolation is used along a view rays to smooth transition of volumetric shadows with respect to preserving-edges. In addition, this technique applied a cube shadow map to create multiple shadows. The contribution of this technique isreducing the number of sample points in evaluating light scattering and then introducing bilateral interpolation to improve volumetric shadows. This contribution is done by removing the inherent deficiencies significantly in shadow maps. This technique allows obtaining soft marvelous volumetric shadows, having a good performance and high quality, which show its potential for interactive applications. PMID:28632740

  10. Linear servo-controlled pressure generator for forced oscillation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, P L; Werneck, M M; Giannella-Neto, A

    1998-01-01

    In respiratory input impedance measurements, the low-frequency range contains important clinical and physiological information. However, the patient's spontaneous ventilation can contaminate the data in this range, leading to unreliable results. Unbiased estimators are a good alternative to overcome this problem, provided that the generator is considered linear. This condition is not fulfilled by most existing generators as they are based on loudspeakers, which have strong nonlinearities. The present work aims to contribute to the solution of this problem, and describes a pressure generator that minimises the nonlinearities by an optical sensor placed in a position feedback loop. The static evaluation shows a high linearity for the optical system. The well known frequency response of pressure transducers is used in the dynamic evaluation of the instrument. The analysis of the generator shows that the use of position feedback improved the frequency response. The total harmonic distortion (THD) measurement shows that closed loop resulted in an effective decrease in the nonlinearities. The reduction of THD achieved by the servo-controlled generator can contribute to the practical implementation of the unbiased estimators, increasing the reliability of the impedance data, especially in the low-frequency range. This system is compared with conventional generators and with another servo-controlled system.

  11. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  12. Volumetric quantification of the effect of aging and hormone replacement therapy on breast composition from digital mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammann-Kloss, J.S., E-mail: sophie.hammann-kloss@egzb.de [Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Ärztlicher Dienst, Evangelisches Geriatriezentrum Berlin gGmbH, Reinickendorfer Straße 61, 13347 Berlin (Germany); Bick, U., E-mail: ulrich.bick@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Fallenberg, E., E-mail: eva.fallenberg@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Engelken, F., E-mail: florian.engelken@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To assess the physiological changes in breast composition with aging using volumetric breast composition measurement from digital mammograms and to assess the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Methods: A total of 764 consecutive mammograms of 208 non-HRT using women and 508 mammograms of 134 HRT-using women were analyzed using a volumetric breast composition assessment software (Quantra™, Hologic Inc.). Fibroglandular tissue volume (FTV), breast volume (BV), and percent density (PD) were measured. For statistical analysis, women were divided into a premenopausal (<46 years), a perimenopausal (46–55 years), and a postmenopausal (>55 years) age group. More detailed graphical analysis was performed using smaller age brackets. Women using HRT were compared to age-matched controls not using HRT. Results: Women in the postmenopausal age group had a significantly lower FTV and PD and a significantly higher BV than women in the premenopausal age group (FTV: 77 vs. 120 cm{sup 3}, respectively; PD: 16% vs. 28%, respectively; BV 478 vs. 406 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p < 0.01 for all). Median FTV was nearly stable in consecutive mammograms in the premenopausal and postmenopausal age groups, but declined at a rate of 3.9% per year in the perimenopausal period. Median PD was constant in the premenopausal and postmenopausal age groups and declined at a rate of 0.57% per year in the perimenopausal age group. BV continuously increased with age. Women using HRT throughout the study had a 5% higher PD than women not using HRT (22% vs. 17%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Accurate knowledge of normal changes in breast composition are of particular interest nowadays due to the importance of breast density for breast cancer risk evaluation. FTV and PD change significantly during the perimenopausal period but remain relatively constant before and thereafter. Median total breast volume consistently increases with age and further contributes to changes in

  13. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  14. Speech intelligibility measure for vocal control of an automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Michel; Tsirigotis, Georgios

    1998-07-01

    The acceleration of investigations in Speech Recognition allows to augur, in the next future, a wide establishment of Vocal Control Systems in the production units. The communication between a human and a machine necessitates technical devices that emit, or are submitted to important noise perturbations. The vocal interface introduces a new control problem of a deterministic automaton using uncertain information. The purpose is to place exactly the automaton in a final state, ordered by voice, from an unknown initial state. The whole Speech Processing procedure, presented in this paper, has for input the temporal speech signal of a word and for output a recognised word labelled with an intelligibility index given by the recognition quality. In the first part, we present the essential psychoacoustic concepts for the automatic calculation of the loudness of a speech signal. The architecture of a Time Delay Neural Network is presented in second part where we also give the results of the recognition. The theory of the fuzzy subset, in third part, allows to extract at the same time a recognised word and its intelligibility index. In the fourth part, an Anticipatory System models the control of a Sequential Machine. A prediction phase and an updating one appear which involve data coming from the information system. A Bayesian decision strategy is used and the criterion is a weighted sum of criteria defined from information, minimum path functions and speech intelligibility measure.

  15. Control of fracture reduction robot using force/torque measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douke, T; Nakajima, Y; Mori, Y; Onogi, S; Sugita, N; Mitsuishi, M; Bessho, M; Ohhashi, S; Tobita, K; Ohnishi, I; Sakuma, I; Dohi, T; Maeda, Y; Koyama, T; Sugano, N; Yonenobu, K; Matsumoto, Y; Nakamura, K

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a surgical robotic system for femoral fracture reduction employing indirect traction. Indirect traction in fracture reduction is a generally used surgical method for preventing complications such as bone splits caused by high stress on bones. For traction, a patient's foot is gripped by a jig and pulled to the distal side. Indirect traction has the advantage of distributing bone stress by utilizing a strong traction force; however, this procedure does not accurately control the proper positioning of fractured fragments when a surgical robot is used. The human leg has knee and an ankle joints, and thus robotic motion presents problems in not being able to directly propagate reduction motion to a fractured femoral fragment, rendering control of bone position difficult. We propose a control method for fracture reduction robots using external force/torque measurements of the human leg to achieve precise fracture reduction. Results showed that the proposed method reduced repositioning error from 6.8 mm and 15.9 degrees to 0.7 mm and 5.3 degrees, respectively.

  16. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lebel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning performed under varying conditions (speed, environment. An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility.

  17. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozana, Stepan; Pies, Martin; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  18. Case studies on design, simulation and visualization of control and measurement applications using REX control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozana, Stepan, E-mail: stepan.ozana@vsb.cz; Pies, Martin, E-mail: martin.pies@vsb.cz; Docekal, Tomas, E-mail: docekalt@email.cz [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava-Poruba, 700 30 (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-08

    REX Control System is a professional advanced tool for design and implementation of complex control systems that belongs to softPLC category. It covers the entire process starting from simulation of functionality of the application before deployment, through implementation on real-time target, towards analysis, diagnostics and visualization. Basically it consists of two parts: the development tools and the runtime system. It is also compatible with Simulink environment, and the way of implementation of control algorithm is very similar. The control scheme is finally compiled (using RexDraw utility) and uploaded into a chosen real-time target (using RexView utility). There is a wide variety of hardware platforms and real-time operating systems supported by REX Control System such as for example Windows Embedded, Linux, Linux/Xenomai deployed on SBC, IPC, PAC, Raspberry Pi and others with many I/O interfaces. It is modern system designed both for measurement and control applications, offering a lot of additional functions concerning data archiving, visualization based on HTML5, and communication standards. The paper will sum up possibilities of its use in educational process, focused on control of case studies of physical models with classical and advanced control algorithms.

  19. Volumetric and MGMT parameters in glioblastoma patients: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliadis Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study several tumor-related volumes were assessed by means of a computer-based application and a survival analysis was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre- and postoperative volumetric data in patients harboring glioblastomas. In addition, MGMT (O6-methylguanine methyltransferase related parameters were compared with those of volumetry in order to observe possible relevance of this molecule in tumor development. Methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GBM who underwent radiotherapy with concomitant adjuvant temozolomide. For the purpose of volumetry T1 and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR sequences were used, acquired both pre- and postoperatively (pre-radiochemotherapy. The volumes measured on preoperative MR images were necrosis, enhancing tumor and edema (including the tumor and on postoperative ones, net-enhancing tumor. Age, sex, performance status (PS and type of operation were also included in the multivariate analysis. MGMT was assessed for promoter methylation with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, for RNA expression with real time PCR, and for protein expression with immunohistochemistry in a total of 44 cases with available histologic material. Results In the multivariate analysis a negative impact was shown for pre-radiochemotherapy net-enhancing tumor on the overall survival (OS (p = 0.023 and for preoperative necrosis on progression-free survival (PFS (p = 0.030. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis confirmed the importance of PS in PFS and OS of patients. MGMT promoter methylation was observed in 13/23 (43.5% evaluable tumors; complete methylation was observed in 3/13 methylated tumors only. High rate of MGMT protein positivity (> 20% positive neoplastic nuclei was inversely associated with pre-operative tumor necrosis (p = 0.021. Conclusions Our findings implicate that volumetric parameters may have a significant role in

  20. Light-Curing Volumetric Shrinkage in Dimethacrylate-Based Dental Composites by Nanoindentation and PAL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, Olha; Adamiak, Stanislaw; Bezvushko, Elvira; Cebulski, Jozef; Iskiv, Maryana; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Balitska, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Light-curing volumetric shrinkage in dimethacrylate-based dental resin composites Dipol® is examined through comprehensive kinetics research employing nanoindentation measurements and nanoscale atomic-deficient study with lifetime spectroscopy of annihilating positrons. Photopolymerization kinetics determined through nanoindentation testing is shown to be described via single-exponential relaxation function with character time constants reaching respectively 15.0 and 18.7 s for nanohardness and elastic modulus. Atomic-deficient characteristics of composites are extracted from positron lifetime spectra parameterized employing unconstrained x3-term fitting. The tested photopolymerization kinetics can be adequately reflected in time-dependent changes observed in average positron lifetime (with 17.9 s time constant) and fractional free volume of positronium traps (with 18.6 s time constant). This correlation proves that fragmentation of free-volume positronium-trapping sites accompanied by partial positronium-to-positron traps conversion determines the light-curing volumetric shrinkage in the studied composites.

  1. Volumetric properties of binary mixtures of benzene with cyano-based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfa, Girma; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Murugesan, Thanabalan

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the volumetric properties of the binary mixtures comprised benzene and two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([BMIM][SCN]) and 1-butyl-3-methyl- imidazolium dicyanamide ([ BMIM ][ N ( CN )2]( . Densities (ρ) and viscosities (μ) of the binary mixtures were measured over a temperature range of 293.15 to 323.15 K and at atmospheric pressure. Excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were calculated from the experimental densities and viscosities values. The volumetric properties of the mixtures were changed significantly with the change of compositions and temperatures. It was also found that the value of excess molar volume and viscosity deviations were negative (-ve) over the entire range of compositions. The results have been interpreted in terms of molecular interactions of ILs and benzene.

  2. Development of a Diver-Operated Single Camera Volumetric Velocimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Valerie; Dabiri, John

    2016-11-01

    The capabilities of a single camera, volumetric velocimetry system for in situ measurement in marine environments are demonstrated by imaging a well-characterized flow in a laboratory environment. This work represents the first stages in the design of a SCUBA-diver operated system to study organisms and biological processes under the natural light in the water column. This system is primarily composed of a volumetric particle tracking diagnostic to investigate fluid-animal interactions. A target domain size of a 20 cm sided cube is sought as a key design feature for the capability of capturing the flow around a variety of benthic and freely swimming organisms. The integration of the particle tracking system with additional diagnostics will be discussed.

  3. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  4. Effects of volumetric expansion in molecular crystals: A quantum mechanical investigation on aspirin and paracetamol most stable polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kapil; Flurchick, Kenneth M.; Valenzano, Loredana

    2015-02-01

    This work reports a study performed at hybrid semi-empirical density functional level (B3LYP-D2*) of the physico-chemical properties of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in their most stable crystalline forms. It is shown how effects arising from volumetric expansions influence the properties of the materials. Structural, energetic, and vibrational properties are in good agreement with experimental values reported at temperatures far from 0 K. Results show that the proposed approach is reliable enough to reproduce effects of volumetric expansion on lattice energies and other measurable physico-chemical observables related to inter-molecular forces.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4349_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H3N Ethanenitrile (VMSD1111, LB4349_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H9Cl 1-Chlorobutane (VMSD1212, LB4573_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H9Cl 1-Chlorobutane (VMSD1212, LB4573_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1111, LB3208_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H6 Benzene (VMSD1111, LB3208_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  9. Different patterns of white matter degeneration using multiple diffusion indices and volumetric data in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sousa Alves

    Full Text Available Alzheimeŕs disease (AD represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM. In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia.

  10. The entire dural sinus tree is compressed in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a longitudinal, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, Axel; Bindeballe, Jan; Riedel, Christian; Jansen, Olav [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuroradiology, Kiel (Germany); Baalen, Andreas van [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuropediatrics, Kiel (Germany); Bartsch, Thorsten [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurology, Kiel (Germany); Doerner, Lutz [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurosurgery, Kiel (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the volumetric alterations of dural sinuses in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Standardized cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in 17 patients prior to and following treatment of IIH and in seven controls. Magnetic resonance venographies (MRV) were employed for (a) judgement of circumscript dural sinus stenoses and (b) computation of sinus volumes. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the superior sagittal sinuses (SSS) were measured on T2-weighted images. Results of the initial MRIs were compared to those on follow-up MRIs and to results of controls. Stenoses of the transverse sinuses (TS) resulting in cranial venous outflow obstruction (CVOO) were present in 15/17 (88%) patients, normalizing in 7/15 cases (47%) after treatment of IIH. CVOO was not detected in the control group. Segmentation of MRV revealed decreased dural sinus volumes in patients with IIH as compared to controls (P = 0.018). Sinus volumes increased significantly with normalization of intracranial pressure independent from disappearing of TS stenoses (P = 0.007). The CSA of the SSS were normal on the initial MRIs of patients with IIH and increased on follow-up after treatment (P < 0.001). However, volumetries displayed overlap in patients and controls. Patients with IIH not only exhibit bilateral stenoses of the TS as has been reported, but volume changes of their entire dural sinus system also occur. The potential etiopathological and diagnostic roles of these changes are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Femoral head osteonecrosis: Volumetric MRI assessment and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassounas, Athanasios E. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, GR 711 10 (Greece); Fotiadis, Dimitrios I. [Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Ioannina and Biomedical Research Institute-FORTH, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Malizos, Konstantinos N. [Orthopaedic Department, Medical School, University of Thessalia, GR 412 22 Larissa (Greece)]. E-mail: kmalizos@otenet.gr

    2007-07-15

    Effective treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis (FHON) requires early diagnosis and accurate assessment of the disease severity. The ability to predict in the early stages the risk of collapse is important for selecting a joint salvage procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts in relation to preoperative MR imaging volumetry. We studied 58 patients (87 hips) with FHON. A semi-automated octant-based lesion measurement method, previously described, was performed on the T1-w MR images. The mean time of postoperative follow-up was 7.8 years. Sixty-three hips were successful and 24 failed and converted to total hip arthroplasty within a period of 2-4 years after the initial operation. The rate of failures for hips of male patients was higher than in female patients. The mean lesion size was 28% of the sphere equivalent of the femoral head, 24 {+-} 12% for the successful hips and 37 {+-} 9% for the failed (p < 0.001). The most affected octants were antero-supero-medial (58 {+-} 26%) and postero-supero-medial (54 {+-} 31%). All but postero-infero-medial and postero-infero-lateral octants, showed statistically significant differences in the lesion size between patients with successful and failed hips. In conclusion, the volumetric analysis of preoperative MRI provides useful information with regard to a successful outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts.

  12. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  13. Quality control laboratories for measuring radioactivity; Control de calidad en los laboratorios de medida de radiactividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Nunez, R.

    2010-07-01

    In those laboratories involved in the measurement of radioactivity it is considered that a good determination requires, among other issues, and adequate monitoring of equipment performance and reagents and tracers. In this paper some of the parameters, of equipment performance are described together with some of the problems associated with their control and outlining possible solutions. Later, routine determinations are considered. For it is taken into account that an adequate control of the goodness of the results requires checking the whole measurement system, from sample reception to results delivery. In addition, the pros and cons of carrying out the enlargement of the control system so as to include management and performance of the laboratory as a whole in order to obtain an accreditation as external acknowledgement of well doing are discussed. Finally, this kind of acknowledgement, accreditation, is compared with the other kind of external acknowledgement of well doing: certification, establishing the former as adequate way of controlling not only the measurement process but also the management system. (Author). 15 refs.

  14. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon

  15. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  16. Measurement and control system for ITER remote maintenance equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Takiguchi, Yuji; Akou, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets and divertors are categorized as scheduled maintenance components because they are subjected to severe plasma heat and particle loads. Blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle Heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a 2 mm precision tolerance. Divertor maintenance requires remote replacement of 60 cassettes with a dead weight of about 25 tons each. In the ITER R and D program, full-scale remote handling equipment for blanket and divertor maintenance has been designed and assembled for demonstration tests. This paper reviews the measurement and control system developed for full-scale remote handling equipment, the Japan Home Team contribution. (author)

  17. Temperature Measurement and Control System for Transtibial Prostheses: Functional Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Leung, Aaron K L; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Aminian, Gholamreza; Lee, Tat Hing; Safari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-03

    The accumulation of heat inside the prosthetic socket increases skin temperature and fosters perspiration, which consequently leads to high tissue stress, friction blister, discomfort, unpleasant odor, and decreased prosthesis suspension and use. In the present study, the prototype of a temperature measurement and control (TM&C) system was designed, fabricated, and functionally evaluated in a phantom model of the transtibial prosthetic socket. The TM&C system was comprised of 12 thermistors divided equally into two groups that arranged internal and external to a prosthetic silicone liner. Its control system was programmed to select the required heating or cooling function of a thermal pump to provide thermal equilibrium based on the amount of temperature difference from a defined set temperature, or the amount of difference between the mean temperature recorded by inside and outside thermistors. A thin layer of aluminum was used for thermal conduction between the thermal pump and different sites around the silicone liner. The results showed functionality of the TM&C system for thermoregulation inside the prosthetic socket. However, enhancing the structure of this TM&C system, increasing its thermal power, and decreasing its weight and cost are main priorities before further development.

  18. Fluidic Control of Nozzle Flow: Some Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspiel, John; Bangert, Linda; Wing, David; Hawkes, Tim

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental program that investigated the use of a secondary air stream to control the amount of flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle. These static tests utilized high pressure, ambient temperature air that was injected at the throat of the nozzle through an annular slot. Multiple injection slot sizes and injection angles were tested. The introduction of secondary flow was made in an opposing direction to the primary flow and the resulting flow field caused the primary stream to react as though the physical throat size had been reduced. The percentage reduction in primary flow rate was generally about twice the injected flow rate. The most effective throttling was achieved by injecting through the smallest slot in an orientation most nearly opposed to the approaching primary flow. Thrust edliciency, as measured by changes in nozzle thrust coefficient, was highest at high nozzle pressure ratios, NPR. The static test results agreed with predictions obtained prior from PABSD, a fully viscous computational fluid dynamics program. Since use of such an injection system on gas turbine engine exhaust nozzles would be primarily at high NPRs, it was concluded that fluidic control holds promise for reducing nozzle weight and complexity on future systems.

  19. Hydrologic response to stormwater control measures in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin D.; McMillan, Sara K.; Clinton, Sandra M.; Jefferson, Anne J.

    2016-10-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are designed to mitigate deleterious effects of urbanization on river networks, but our ability to predict the cumulative effect of multiple SCMs at watershed scales is limited. The most widely used metric to quantify impacts of urban development, total imperviousness (TI), does not contain information about the extent of stormwater control. We analyzed the discharge records of 16 urban watersheds in Charlotte, NC spanning a range of TI (4.1-54%) and area mitigated with SCMs (1.3-89%). We then tested multiple watershed metrics that quantify the degree of urban impact and SCM mitigation to determine which best predicted hydrologic response across sites. At the event time scale, linear models showed TI to be the best predictor of both peak unit discharge and rainfall-runoff ratios across a range of storm sizes. TI was also a strong driver of both a watershed's capacity to buffer small (e.g., 1-10 mm) rain events, and the relationship between peak discharge and precipitation once that buffering capacity is exceeded. Metrics containing information about SCMs did not appear as primary predictors of event hydrologic response, suggesting that the level of SCM mitigation in many urban watersheds is insufficient to influence hydrologic response. Over annual timescales, impervious surfaces unmitigated by SCMs and tree coverage were best correlated with streamflow flashiness and water yield, respectively. The shift in controls from the event scale to the annual scale has important implications for water resource management, suggesting that overall limitation of watershed imperviousness rather than partial mitigation by SCMs may be necessary to alleviate the hydrologic impacts of urbanization.

  20. Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, A. V.; Gladysz, S.; Almeida de Sá Barros, R.; Matt, S.; Nootz, G. A.; Josset, D. B.; Hou, W.

    2016-05-01

    Laser beam propagation underwater is becoming an important research topic because of high demand for its potential applications. Namely, ability to image underwater at long distances is highly desired for scientific and military purposes, including submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Optical communication in the ocean can provide covert data transmission with much higher rates than that available with acoustic techniques, and it is now desired for certain military and scientific applications that involve sending large quantities of data. Unfortunately underwater environment presents serious challenges for propagation of laser beams. Even in clean ocean water, the extinction due to absorption and scattering theoretically limit the useful range to few attenuation lengths. However, extending the laser light propagation range to the theoretical limit leads to significant beam distortions due to optical underwater turbulence. Experiments show that the magnitude of the distortions that are caused by water temperature and salinity fluctuations can significantly exceed the magnitude of the beam distortions due to atmospheric turbulence even for relatively short propagation distances. We are presenting direct measurements of optical underwater turbulence in controlled conditions of laboratory water tank using two separate techniques involving wavefront sensor and LED array. These independent approaches will enable development of underwater turbulence power spectrum model based directly on the spatial domain measurements and will lead to accurate predictions of underwater beam propagation.

  1. Optimization of volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Katharina; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mann, Ritse M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-05-07

    Fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density can be estimated in unprocessed mammograms using a physics-based method, which relies on an internal reference value representing the projection of fat only. However, pixels representing fat only may not be present in dense breasts, causing an underestimation of density measurements. In this work, we investigate alternative approaches for obtaining a tissue reference value to improve density estimations, particularly in dense breasts. Two of three investigated reference values (F1, F2) are percentiles of the pixel value distribution in the breast interior (the contact area of breast and compression paddle). F1 is determined in a small breast interior, which minimizes the risk that peripheral pixels are included in the measurement at the cost of increasing the chance that no proper reference can be found. F2 is obtained using a larger breast interior. The new approach which is developed for very dense breasts does not require the presence of a fatty tissue region. As reference region we select the densest region in the mammogram and assume that this represents a projection of entirely dense tissue embedded between the subcutaneous fatty tissue layers. By measuring the thickness of the fat layers a reference (F3) can be computed. To obtain accurate breast density estimates irrespective of breast composition we investigated a combination of the results of the three reference values. We collected 202 pairs of MRI's and digital mammograms from 119 women. We compared the percent dense volume estimates based on both modalities and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients. With the references F1-F3 we found respectively a correlation of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Best results were obtained with the combination of the density estimations ([Formula: see text]). Results show that better volumetric density estimates can be obtained with the hybrid method, in particular for dense

  2. Improved volumetric imaging in tomosynthesis using combined multiaxial sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Jacob A; Wiant, David B; Best, Ryan C M; Bennett, Marcus C; Munley, Michael T; King, June D; McKee, Mahta M; Baydush, Alan H

    2010-09-03

    This study explores the volumetric reconstruction fidelity attainable using tomosynthesis with a kV imaging system which has a unique ability to rotate isocentrically and with multiple degrees of mechanical freedom. More specifically, we seek to investigate volumetric reconstructions by combining multiple limited-angle rotational image acquisition sweeps. By comparing these reconstructed images with those of a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of the reconstructions. In surgical situations, the described tomosynthesis-based system could provide high-quality volumetric imaging without requiring patient motion, even with rotational limitations present. Projections were acquired using the Digital Integrated Brachytherapy Unit, or IBU-D. A phantom was used which contained several spherical objects of varying contrast. Using image projections acquired during isocentric sweeps around the phantom, reconstructions were performed by filtered backprojection. For each image acquisition sweep configuration, a contrasting sphere is analyzed using two metrics and compared to a gold standard CBCT reconstruction. Since the intersection of a reconstructed sphere and an imaging plane is ideally a circle with an eccentricity of zero, the first metric presented compares the effective eccentricity of intersections of reconstructed volumes and imaging planes. As another metric of volumetric reconstruction fidelity, the volume of one of the contrasting spheres was determined using manual contouring. By comparing these manually delineated volumes with a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of reconstructions. The configuration which yielded the highest overall volumetric reconstruction fidelity, as determined by effective eccentricities and volumetric contouring, consisted of two orthogonally-offset 60° L-arm sweeps and a single C-arm sweep which shared a pivot point with one the L-arm sweeps. When compared to a similar configuration that

  3. Fatigue life estimation for different notched specimens based on the volumetric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of notch radius for different notched specimens has been studied on the values of stress concentration factor, notch strength reduction factor, and fatigue life duration of the specimens. The material which has been selected for this investigation is Al 2024T3 . Volumetric approach has been applied to obtain the values of notch strength reduction factor and results have been compared with those obtained from the Neuber and Peterson methods. Load controlled fatigue tests of mentioned specimens have been conducted on the 250kN servo-hydraulic Zwick/Amsler fatigue testing machine with the frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue lives of the specimens have also been predicted based on the available smooth S-N curve of Al2024-T3 and also the amounts of notch strength reduction factor which have been obtained from volumetric, Neuber and Peterson methods. The values of stress and strain around the notch roots are required to predict the fatigue life of notched specimens, so Ansys finite element code has been used and non-linear analyses have been performed to obtain the stress and strain distributions around the notches. The plastic deformations of the material have been simulated using multi-linear kinematic hardening and cyclic stress-strain relation. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job for predicting the fatigue life of the notched specimens.

  4. Towards integrating control and information theories from information-theoretic measures to control performance limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Song; Ishii, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates the performance limitation issues in networked feedback systems. The fact that networked feedback systems consist of control and communication devices and systems calls for the integration of control theory and information theory. The primary contributions of this book lie in two aspects: the newly-proposed information-theoretic measures and the newly-discovered control performance limitations. We first propose a number of information notions to facilitate the analysis. Using those notions, classes of performance limitations of networked feedback systems, as well as state estimation systems, are then investigated. In general, the book presents a unique, cohesive treatment of performance limitation issues of networked feedback systems via an information-theoretic approach. This book is believed to be the first to treat the aforementioned subjects systematically and in a unified manner, offering a unique perspective differing from existing books.

  5. Getting ready to use control: Advances in the measurement of young children's use of proactive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebel, Sabine; Barker, Jane E; Chevalier, Nicolas; Michaelson, Laura E; Fisher, Anna V; Munakata, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    A key developmental transition in executive function is in the temporal dynamics of its engagement: children shift from reactively calling to mind task-relevant information as needed, to being able to proactively maintain information across time in anticipation of upcoming demands. This transition is important for understanding individual differences and developmental changes in executive function; however, methods targeting its assessment are limited. We tested the possibility that Track-It, a paradigm developed to measure selective sustained attention, also indexes proactive control. In this task children must track a target shape as it moves unpredictably among moving distractors, and identify where it disappears, which may require proactively maintaining information about the target or goal. In two experiments (5-6 year-olds, Ns = 33, 64), children's performance on Track-It predicted proactive control across two established paradigms. These findings suggest Track-It measures proactive control in children. Theoretical possibilities regarding how proactive control and selective sustained attention may be related are also discussed.

  6. [Change in condylar and mandibular morphology in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: cone beam volumetric imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagiola, Umberto; Mercatali, Lorenzo; Bellintani, Claudio; Fodor, Attila; Farronato, Giampietro; Lőrincz, Adám

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to show the importance of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography to volumetrically quantify TMJ damage in patients with JIA, measuring condylar and mandibular real volumes. 34 children with temporomandibular involvement by Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis were observed by Cone Beam Computerized Tomography. 4 were excluded because of several imaging noises. The mandible was isolated from others craniofacial structures; the whole mandibular volume and its components' volumes (condyle, ramus, hemibody, hemisymphysis on right side and on left side) has been calculated by a 3D volume rendering technique. The results show a highly significant statistical difference between affected side volumetric values versus normal side volumetric values above all on condyle region (P < 0.01), while they don't show any statistical differences between right side versus left side. The Cone Beam Computerized Tomography represents a huge improvement in understanding of the condyle and mandibular morphological changes, even in the early stages of the Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. The JIA can lead in children to temporomandibular joint damage with facial development and growth alterations.

  7. Brain stem and cerebellum volumetric analysis of Machado Joseph disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T Camargos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Machado-Joseph disease, or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(MJD/SCA3, is the most frequent late onset spinocerebellar ataxia and results from a CAG repeat expansion in the ataxin-3 gene. Previous studies have found correlation between atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem with age and CAG repeats, although no such correlation has been found with disease duration and clinical manifestations. In this study we test the hypothesis that atrophy of cerebellum and brainstem in MJD/SCA3 is related to clinical severity, disease duration and CAG repeat length as well as to other variables such as age and ICARS (International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Whole brain high resolution MRI and volumetric measurement with cranial volume normalization were obtained from 15 MJD/SCA3 patients and 15 normal, age and sex-matchedcontrols. We applied ICARS and compared the score with volumes and CAG number, disease duration and age. We found significant correlation of both brain stem and cerebellar atrophy with CAG repeat length, age, disease duration and degree of disability. The Spearman rank correlation was stronger with volumetric reduction of the cerebellum than with brain stem. Our data allow us to conclude that volumetric analysis might reveal progressive degeneration after disease onset, which in turn is linked to both age and number of CAG repeat expansions in SCA 3.

  8. Volumetric flow rate comparisons for water and product on pasteurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesser, J E; Stroup, W H; McKinstry, J A

    1994-04-01

    A flow calibration tube system was assembled to determine the volumetric flow rates for water and various dairy products through a holding tube, using three different flow promotion methods. With the homogenizer, the volumetric flow rates of water and reconstituted skim milk were within 1.5% of each other. With the positive displacement pump, the flow rate for reconstituted skim milk increased compared with that for water as the pressure increased or temperature decreased. The largest increase in flow rate was at 310-kPa gauge and 20 degrees C. On a magnetic flow meter system, the volumetric flow rates of water and reconstituted skim milk were within .5% of the flow rate measured from the volume collected in a calibrated tank. The flow rate of whole milk was similar to that of skim milk on the three flow promoters evaluated. Ice milk mix increased the flow rate of the positive displacement pump, but not the homogenizer and magnetic flow meter system.

  9. Improving reservoir volumetric estimations in petroleum resource assessment using discovery process models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhuoheng; Osadetz Kirk G.

    2009-01-01

    The reservoir volumetric approach represents a widely accepted, but flawed method of petroleum play resource calculation.In this paper, we propose a combination of techniques that can improve the applicability and quality of the resource estimation.These techniques include: 1) the use of the Multivariate Discovery Process model (MDP) to derive unbiased distribution parameters of reservoir volumetric variables and to reveal correlations among the variables; 2) the use of the Geo-anchored method to estimate simultaneously the number of oil and gas pools in the same play; and 3) the cross-validation of assessment results from different methods.These techniques are illustrated by using an example of crude oil and natural gas resource assessment of the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Archipelago.The example shows that when direct volumetric measurements of the untested prospects are not available, the MDP model can help derive unbiased estimates of the distribution parameters by using information from the discovered oil and gas accumulations.It also shows that an estimation of the number of oil and gas accumulations and associated size ranges from a discovery process model can provide an alternative and efficient approach when inadequate geological data hinder the estimation.Cross-examination of assessment results derived using different methods allows one to focus on and analyze the causes for the major differences, thus providing a more reliable assessment outcome.

  10. The importance of accurate anatomic assessment for the volumetric analysis of the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bonilha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of values reported in volumetric studies of the amygdala. The use of single plane thick magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may prevent the correct visualization of anatomic landmarks and yield imprecise results. To assess whether there is a difference between volumetric analysis of the amygdala performed with single plane MRI 3-mm slices and with multiplanar analysis of MRI 1-mm slices, we studied healthy subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. We performed manual delineation of the amygdala on T1-weighted inversion recovery, 3-mm coronal slices and manual delineation of the amygdala on three-dimensional volumetric T1-weighted images with 1-mm slice thickness. The data were compared using a dependent t-test. There was a significant difference between the volumes obtained by the coronal plane-based measurements and the volumes obtained by three-dimensional analysis (P < 0.001. An incorrect estimate of the amygdala volume may preclude a correct analysis of the biological effects of alterations in amygdala volume. Three-dimensional analysis is preferred because it is based on more extensive anatomical assessment and the results are similar to those obtained in post-mortem studies.

  11. Volumetric dimensional changes of dental light-cured dimethacrylate resins after sorption of water or ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridou, Irini D; Karabela, Maria M; Vouvoudi, Evagelia Ch

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of water and ethanol sorption on the volumetric dimensional changes of resins prepared by light curing of Bis-GMA, Bis-EMA, UDMA, TEGDMA or D(3)MA. The resin specimens (15mm diameterx1mm height) were immersed in water or ethanol 37+/-1 degrees C for 30 days. Volumetric changes of specimens were obtained via accurate mass measurements using Archimedes principle. The specimens were reconditioned by dry storage in an oven at 37+/-1 degrees C until constant mass was obtained and then immersed in water or ethanol for 30 days. The volumetric changes of specimens were determined and compared to those obtained from the first sorption. Resins showed similar volume increase during the first and second sorptions of water or ethanol. The volume increase due to water absorption is in the following order: poly-TEGDMA>poly-Bis-GMA>poly-UDMA>poly-Bis-EMA>poly-D(3)MA. On the contrary, the order in ethanol is poly-Bis-GMA>poly-UDMA>poly-TEGDMA>poly-Bis-EMA approximately poly-D(3)MA. The volume increase was found to depend linearly on the amount of water or ethanol absorbed. In the choice of monomers for preparation of composite resin matrix the volume increase in the resin after immersion in water or ethanol must be taken into account. Resins of Bis-EMA and D(3)MA showed the lowest values.

  12. Predicting Offshore Swarm Rate Changes by Volumetric Strain Changes in Izu Peninsula, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, T.; Ogata, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Maeda, K.; Kobayashi, A.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern offshore of Izu peninsula is one of the well known volcanic active regions in Japan, where magma intrusions have been observed several times since 1980s monitored by strain-meters located nearby. Major swarm activities have been synchronously associated with coseismic and preseismic significant sizes of a volumetric strain changes (Earthquake Research Committee, 2010). We investigated the background seismicity changes during these earthquake swarms using the nonstationary ETAS model (Kumazawa and Ogata, 2013), and have found the followings. The modified volumetric strain change data by removing the effect of earth tides and precipitation as well as removing coseismic jumps have much higher cross-correlations to the background rates of the ETAS model than to the whole seismicity rate change of the ETAS, and further the strain changes precede the background seismicity by lag of about a day. This relation suggests an enhanced prediction of earthquakes in this region using volumetric strain measurements. Thus we propose an extended ETAS model where the background seismicity rate is predicted by the time series of preceding volumetric strain changes. Our numerical results for Izu region show consistent outcomes throughout the major swarms in this region. References Earthquake Research Committee (2010). Report on "Prediction of seismic activity in the Izu Eastern Region" (in Japanese), http://www.jishin.go.jp/main/yosoku/izu/index.htm Kumazawa, T. and Ogata, Y. (2013). Quantitative description of induced seismic activity before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake by nonstationary ETAS model, J Geophys.Res. 118, 6165-6182.

  13. Lung, liver and lymph node metastases in follow-up MSCT. Comprehensive volumetric assessment of lesion size changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, A.M.; Fischer, S.; Biederer, J.; Heller, M.; Fabel, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Bolte, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Freitag-Wolf, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Statistik; Soza, G.; Tietjen, C. [Siemens AG (Germany). Imaging and IT Div. Computed Tomography

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate measurement accuracy in terms of precision and inter-rater variability in the simultaneous volumetric assessment of lung, liver and lymph node metastasis size change over time in comparison to RECIST 1.1. Materials and Methods: Three independent readers evaluated multislice CT data from clinical follow-up studies (chest/abdomen) in 50 patients with metastases. A total of 117 lung, 77 liver and 97 lymph node metastases were assessed manually (RECIST 1.1) and by volumetry with semi-automated software. The quality of segmentation and need for manual adjustments were recorded. Volumes were converted to effective diameters to allow comparison to RECIST. For statistical assessment of precision and interobserver agreement, the Wilcoxon-signed rank test and Bland-Altman plots were utilized. Results: The quality of segmentation after manual correction was acceptable to excellent in 95 % of lesions and manual corrections were applied in 21 - 36 % of all lesions, most predominantly in lymph nodes. Mean precision was 2.6 - 6.3 % (manual) with 0.2 - 1.5 % (effective) relative measurement deviation (p <.001). Inter-reader median variation coefficients ranged from 9.4 - 12.8 % (manual) and 2.9 - 8.2 % (volumetric) for different lesion types (p <.001). The limits of agreement were {+-} 9.8 to {+-} 11.2 % for volumetric assessment. Conclusion: Superior precision and inter-rater variability of volumetric over manual measurement of lesion change over time was demonstrated in a whole body setting. (orig.)

  14. Advances in quality control for dioxins monitoring and evaluation of measurement uncertainty from quality control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an application of multivariate and multilevel quality control charts with the aim of improving the internal quality control (IQC) procedures for the monitoring of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs analysis in food. Dioxin analysts have to use the toxic equivalent concept (TEQ) to assess the toxicity potential of a mixture of dioxin-like compounds. The TEQ approach requires quantifying individually 29 dioxin-like compounds. Monitoring the congeners separately on univariate QC charts is misleading owing to the increase of false alarm rate. We propose to subdivide the TEQ value into 3 sub-groups and to control simultaneously the 3 variables in a T(2) chart. When a T(2) exceeds the upper control limit, it acts as a warning to trigger additional investigations on individual congeners. We discuss the minimum number of runs required to reliably estimate the QC chart parameters and we suggest using data from multilevel QC charts to properly characterize the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients. Moreover, the univariate QC chart can be sensitised to detect systematic errors by using exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) technique. The EWMA chart provides an additional guidance on setting appropriate criteria to control the method bias and to support trend analysis. Finally, we present an estimate of measurement uncertainty by computing the accuracy profile in a retrospective way with the QC data generated and we discuss assessment of compliance with regulatory maximum levels.

  15. Multiple sparse volumetric priors for distributed EEG source reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobbe, Gregor; van Mierlo, Pieter; De Vos, Maarten; Mijović, Bogdan; Hallez, Hans; Van Huffel, Sabine; López, José David; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2014-10-15

    We revisit the multiple sparse priors (MSP) algorithm implemented in the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM) for distributed EEG source reconstruction (Friston et al., 2008). In the present implementation, multiple cortical patches are introduced as source priors based on a dipole source space restricted to a cortical surface mesh. In this note, we present a technique to construct volumetric cortical regions to introduce as source priors by restricting the dipole source space to a segmented gray matter layer and using a region growing approach. This extension allows to reconstruct brain structures besides the cortical surface and facilitates the use of more realistic volumetric head models including more layers, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), compared to the standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models. We illustrated the technique with ERP data and anatomical MR images in 12 subjects. Based on the segmented gray matter for each of the subjects, cortical regions were created and introduced as source priors for MSP-inversion assuming two types of head models. The standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models and extended 4-layered head models including CSF. We compared these models with the current implementation by assessing the free energy corresponding with each of the reconstructions using Bayesian model selection for group studies. Strong evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP approach compared to the MSP approach based on cortical patches for both types of head models. Overall, the strongest evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP reconstructions based on the extended head models including CSF. These results were verified by comparing the reconstructed activity. The use of volumetric cortical regions as source priors is a useful complement to the present implementation as it allows to introduce more complex head models and volumetric source priors in future studies.

  16. Control, protection and measuring switchboards; Tableros de control, proteccion y medicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marron Pena, Gustavo A. [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Basically a switchboard is a cabinet or panel that contains equipment for protection of measuring and control high tension electric power components of high tension, such as: transmission power lines, power station generators or power plants, power transformers, and distribution feeders. In this paper the importance of control, Protection and Measuring Switchboards is discussed and the power installations of the national electric system is analyzed and finally, a description is made of the quality system applied in the manufacture of switchboards at Luz y Fuerza del Centro in accordance with ISO-9000 and NMX-CC Standards [Espanol] Un tablero basicamente es un gabinete o panel que contiene equipos que sirven para proteger, medir y controlar componentes electricos de potencia en alta tension, como son: lineas de transmision, generadores de centrales o plantas electricas, transformadores de potencia y alimentadores de distribucion. En este documento se analiza la importancia de los tableros de control, la proteccion y medicion en las instalaciones de potencia del sistema electrico nacional y por ultimo se describe el sistema de calidad aplicado en la fabricacion de tableros de Luz y Fuerza del Centro de acuerdo con las normas ISO-9000 y NMX-CC

  17. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  18. Mammographic Breast Density Assessment Using Automated Volumetric Software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) Categorization by Expert Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N; Brennan, Patrick C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate agreement on mammographic breast density (MD) assessment between automated volumetric software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) categorization by expert radiologists. Forty cases of left craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms from 20 women were used. All images had their volumetric density classified using Volpara density grade (VDG) and average volumetric breast density percentage. The same images were then classified into BIRADS categories (I-IV) by 20 American Board of Radiology examiners. The results demonstrated a moderate agreement (κ = 0.537; 95% CI = 0.234-0.699) between VDG classification and radiologists' BIRADS density assessment. Interreader agreement using BIRADS also demonstrated moderate agreement (κ = 0.565; 95% CI = 0.519-0.610) ranging from 0.328 to 0.669. Radiologists' average BIRADS was lower than average VDG scores by 0.33, with their mean being 2.13, whereas the mean VDG was 2.48 (U = -3.742; P BIRADS showed a very strong positive correlation (ρ = 0.91; P BIRADS and average volumetric breast density percentage (ρ = 0.94; P BIRADS; interreader variations still exist within BIRADS. Because of the increasing importance of MD measurement in clinical management of patients, widely accepted, reproducible, and accurate measures of MD are required. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Semiautomatic segmentation of liver metastases on volumetric CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jiayong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, 101 Yingkou Road, Yang Pu District, Shanghai 200093 (China); Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: bz2166@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and quantification of liver metastases on CT images are critical to surgery/radiation treatment planning and therapy response assessment. To date, there are no reliable methods to perform such segmentation automatically. In this work, the authors present a method for semiautomatic delineation of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced volumetric CT images. Methods: The first step is to manually place a seed region-of-interest (ROI) in the lesion on an image. This ROI will (1) serve as an internal marker and (2) assist in automatically identifying an external marker. With these two markers, lesion contour on the image can be accurately delineated using traditional watershed transformation. Density information will then be extracted from the segmented 2D lesion and help determine the 3D connected object that is a candidate of the lesion volume. The authors have developed a robust strategy to automatically determine internal and external markers for marker-controlled watershed segmentation. By manually placing a seed region-of-interest in the lesion to be delineated on a reference image, the method can automatically determine dual threshold values to approximately separate the lesion from its surrounding structures and refine the thresholds from the segmented lesion for the accurate segmentation of the lesion volume. This method was applied to 69 liver metastases (1.1–10.3 cm in diameter) from a total of 15 patients. An independent radiologist manually delineated all lesions and the resultant lesion volumes served as the “gold standard” for validation of the method’s accuracy. Results: The algorithm received a median overlap, overestimation ratio, and underestimation ratio of 82.3%, 6.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, and a median average boundary distance of 1.2 mm. Conclusions: Preliminary results have shown that volumes of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced CT images can be accurately estimated by a semiautomatic segmentation

  20. 64排螺旋 CT 及三维容积测量系统对肺叶容积的定量研究%The quantitative measurement of pulmonary lobar volume using 3-dimensional volumetric diagnosis system and 64 row MDCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斋; 何丽; 贾立镯; 任庆云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of 3‐dimensional volumetric diagnosis system in quantitative measurement of pulmona‐ry lobar volumetry using a 64 row MDCT .Methods Seventy‐seven adult volunteers were scanned twice on a 64 row MDCT at the end of the maximum inspiratory and maximum expiratory end respectively .On a volumetric computer‐aided diagnosis system ,the en‐tire lung was semiautomatically separated into 5 anatomy lobes including the right upper lobe ,right middle lobe ,right lower lobe ,left upper lobe ,and left lower lobe .Each lobar volume was measured .Results The lung volume of left upper lobe ,right lower lobe ,left lower lobe ,right upper lobe ,right middle lobe in male volunteers were 1 303 .90 mL and 938 .31 mL ,1 276 .90 mL and 737 .69 mL , 1 204 .47 mL and 678 .67 mL ,1 048 .49 mL and 754 .83 mL ,519 .53 mL and 407 .86 mL at the end of the inspiratory and expiratory respectively .The lung volume of left upper lobe ,right lower lobe ,left lower lobe ,right upper lobe ,right middle lobe in female volun‐teers were 915 .78 mL and 666 .23 mL ,913 .87 mL and 576 .62 mL ,822 .17 mL and 509 .30 mL ,734 .20 mL and 530 .23 mL ,389 .13 mL and 316 .70 mL at the end of the inspiratory and expiratory respectively .The values of each lobe volume between the full inspiration phase and expiration phase group showed significant difference the same sex group (P<0 .05) .The values of each lobe volume in the man group were significantly larger than those of female group in both respiratory phase (P<0 .05) .Of the D‐value in the each lobe volume in 5 anatomy lobe at full inspiration phase and expiration phase in both sex group ,both of the lower lobes were the largest , followed by the left upper lobe ,right upper lobe and right middle lobe .The D‐value in the each lobe volume at full inspiration phase and expiration phase in the man group were significantly larger than those of female group .Conclusion Three‐dimensional volumet‐ric diagnosis system

  1. Blockwise conjugate gradient methods for image reconstruction in volumetric CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W; Titley-Peloquin, D; Soleimani, M

    2012-11-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables volumetric image reconstruction from 2D projection data and plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Filtered back projection is still the most frequently used algorithm in applications. The algorithm discretizes the scanning process (forward projection) into a system of linear equations, which must then be solved to recover images from measured projection data. The conjugate gradients (CG) algorithm and its variants can be used to solve (possibly regularized) linear systems of equations Ax=b and linear least squares problems minx∥b-Ax∥2, especially when the matrix A is very large and sparse. Their applications can be found in a general CT context, but in tomography problems (e.g. CBCT reconstruction) they have not widely been used. Hence, CBCT reconstruction using the CG-type algorithm LSQR was implemented and studied in this paper. In CBCT reconstruction, the main computational challenge is that the matrix A usually is very large, and storing it in full requires an amount of memory well beyond the reach of commodity computers. Because of these memory capacity constraints, only a small fraction of the weighting matrix A is typically used, leading to a poor reconstruction. In this paper, to overcome this difficulty, the matrix A is partitioned and stored blockwise, and blockwise matrix-vector multiplications are implemented within LSQR. This implementation allows us to use the full weighting matrix A for CBCT reconstruction without further enhancing computer standards. Tikhonov regularization can also be implemented in this fashion, and can produce significant improvement in the reconstructed images.

  2. MTF analysis of a prototype table-top inverse-geometry volumetric CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Taly G.; Bennett, N. Robert; Mazin, Samuel R.; Star-Lack, Josh; Solomon, Edward G.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2005-04-01

    This work investigates the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a prototype table-top inverse-geometry volumetric CT (IGCT) system. The IGCT system has been proposed to acquire sufficient volumetric data in one circular rotation using a large-area scanned source and a narrower array of fast detectors. The source and detector arrays have the same axial, or slice, extent, thus providing sufficient volumetric coverage. A prototype system has been built using a NexRay Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray system (NexRay, Inc., Los Gatos, CA) with the C-arm gantry in the horizontal position and a stage placed between the source and detector to rotate the scanned object. The resulting system has a 16-cm in-plane field of view (FOV) and 5-cm axial FOV. Two phantoms were constructed for measuring the MTF. A 76 micron tungsten wire placed axially in a plastic frame was used to measure the in-plane MTF, and the same wire slanted at 45 degrees was used to test the isotropy of the MTF. The data were calibrated for flat-field intensity and geometric misalignment and reconstructed using a modified 3D PET algorithm. For both phantoms, slices perpendicular to the wires were reconstructed. Simulations which model the IGCT system were used to verify the MTF measurement, along with analytical predictions. The measured MTF curve was similar in shape to the predicted curve with a 10% point at 20 lp/cm compared to a predicted 18 lp/cm. Future work will also study the uniformity of the MTF across the FOV and further characterize the IGCT system.

  3. Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Lynch, Kyle P.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2015-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional (3D), three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique based on volume illumination and light field imaging with a single plenoptic camera is described. A plenoptic camera uses a densely packed microlens array mounted near a high resolution image sensor to sample the spatial and angular distribution of light collected by the camera. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) computed tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct a volumetric intensity field from individual snapshots and a cross-correlation algorithm is used to estimate the velocity field from a pair of reconstructed particle volumes. This work provides an introduction to the basic concepts of light field imaging with a plenoptic camera and describes the unique implementation of MART in the context of plenoptic image data for 3D/3C PIV measurements. Simulations of a plenoptic camera using geometric optics are used to generate synthetic plenoptic particle images, which are subsequently used to estimate the quality of particle volume reconstructions at various particle number densities. 3D reconstructions using this method produce reconstructed particles that are elongated by a factor of approximately 4 along the optical axis of the camera. A simulated 3D Gaussian vortex is used to test the capability of single camera plenoptic PIV to produce a 3D/3C vector field, where it was found that lateral displacements could be measured to approximately 0.2 voxel accuracy in the lateral direction and 1 voxel in the depth direction over a 300× 200× 200 voxel volume. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated experimentally using a home-built plenoptic camera based on a 16-megapixel interline CCD camera and a 289× 193 array of microlenses and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. 3D/3C measurements were performed in the wake of a low Reynolds number circular cylinder and compared with measurements made using a conventional 2D/2C PIV system. Overall, single camera

  4. Space-Time Transfinite Interpolation of Volumetric Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mathieu; Fryazinov, Oleg; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a novel technique based on extension of a general mathematical method of transfinite interpolation to solve an actual problem in the context of a heterogeneous volume modelling area. It deals with time-dependent changes to the volumetric material properties (material density, colour, and others) as a transformation of the volumetric material distributions in space-time accompanying geometric shape transformations such as metamorphosis. The main idea is to represent the geometry of both objects by scalar fields with distance properties, to establish in a higher-dimensional space a time gap during which the geometric transformation takes place, and to use these scalar fields to apply the new space-time transfinite interpolation to volumetric material attributes within this time gap. The proposed solution is analytical in its nature, does not require heavy numerical computations and can be used in real-time applications. Applications of this technique also include texturing and displacement mapping of time-variant surfaces, and parametric design of volumetric microstructures.

  5. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm;

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...

  6. Automatic segmentation of pulmonary segments from volumetric chest CT scans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikxoort, E.M. van; Hoop, B. de; Vorst, S. van de; Prokop, M.; Ginneken, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Automated extraction of pulmonary anatomy provides a foundation for computerized analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. A completely automatic method is presented to segment the lungs, lobes and pulmonary segments from volumetric CT chest scans. The method starts with lung segmenta

  7. Volumetric T-spline Construction Using Boolean Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    15213, USA 2 Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA 3 Department of Civil and...and S. Yau. Volumetric harmonic map. Communications in Information and Systems, 3(3):191–202, 2003. 12. C.A.R. Guerra . Simultaneous untangling and

  8. Volumetric motion quantification by 3D tissue phase mapped CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Anja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was the quantification of myocardial motion from 3D tissue phase mapped (TPM CMR. Recent work on myocardial motion quantification by TPM has been focussed on multi-slice 2D acquisitions thus excluding motion information from large regions of the left ventricle. Volumetric motion assessment appears an important next step towards the understanding of the volumetric myocardial motion and hence may further improve diagnosis and treatments in patients with myocardial motion abnormalities. Methods Volumetric motion quantification of the complete left ventricle was performed in 12 healthy volunteers and two patients applying a black-blood 3D TPM sequence. The resulting motion field was analysed regarding motion pattern differences between apical and basal locations as well as for asynchronous motion pattern between different myocardial segments in one or more slices. Motion quantification included velocity, torsion, rotation angle and strain derived parameters. Results All investigated motion quantification parameters could be calculated from the 3D-TPM data. Parameters quantifying hypokinetic or asynchronous motion demonstrated differences between motion impaired and healthy myocardium. Conclusions 3D-TPM enables the gapless volumetric quantification of motion abnormalities of the left ventricle, which can be applied in future application as additional information to provide a more detailed analysis of the left ventricular function.

  9. Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography-based microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-04-01

    Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-rate volumetric OCT-based microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame rate of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video rate up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.

  10. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated are therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgia, Nicolini; Antonella, Fogliata; Alessandro, Clivio; Eugenio, Vanetti; Luca, Cozzi

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated are therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (0) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, Dv = 98% [%]= 92.5 +/- 0.9 and 68.5 +/- 3

  11. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated arc therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (O) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, DV = 98% [%] = 92.5 ± 0

  12. Multiple Traffic Control Using Wireless Sensor and Density Measuring Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita RAI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present scenario vehicular travel is increasing all over the world, especially in large urban areas. Therefore for simulating and optimizing traffic control to better accommodate this increasing demand is arises. In this paper we studied the optimization of traffic light controller in a City using wireless sensor and CCTV (Camera. We have proposed a traffic light controller and simulator that allows us to study different situation of traffic density in City and controlling the traffic of entire City by visual monitoring using CCTV. Using wireless sensor we can easily senses the density of traffic because the general architecture of wireless sensor network is an infrastructure less communication network.

  13. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  14. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N W; Mackenzie, A; Honey, I D

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 µGy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 µGy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm(-1) ± 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 µGy ± 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 × 10(-5) mm(2) (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm(-1), with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm(-1), while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm(-1) for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found to be quick, reproducible and

  15. Chalco Calls for End of More Control Measures on Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> To control the investment rush in electrolyticaluminium in recent years and ensure thehealthy development of China’s aluminium in-dustry, the State Council recently released aseries of adjustment policies and control meas-ures,which effectively prevented theinvestment rush and limited the aluminium out-put growth.

  16. Volumetric Forest Change Detection Through Vhr Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Devrim; Stylianidis, Efstratios; Smagas, Konstantinos; Hofer, Martin; Poli, Daniela; Gruen, Armin; Sanchez Martin, Victor; Altan, Orhan; Walli, Andreas; Jimeno, Elisa; Garcia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Quick and economical ways of detecting of planimetric and volumetric changes of forest areas are in high demand. A research platform, called FORSAT (A satellite processing platform for high resolution forest assessment), was developed for the extraction of 3D geometric information from VHR (very-high resolution) imagery from satellite optical sensors and automatic change detection. This 3D forest information solution was developed during a Eurostars project. FORSAT includes two main units. The first one is dedicated to the geometric and radiometric processing of satellite optical imagery and 2D/3D information extraction. This includes: image radiometric pre-processing, image and ground point measurement, improvement of geometric sensor orientation, quasiepipolar image generation for stereo measurements, digital surface model (DSM) extraction by using a precise and robust image matching approach specially designed for VHR satellite imagery, generation of orthoimages, and 3D measurements in single images using mono-plotting and in stereo images as well as triplets. FORSAT supports most of the VHR optically imagery commonly used for civil applications: IKONOS, OrbView - 3, SPOT - 5 HRS, SPOT - 5 HRG, QuickBird, GeoEye-1, WorldView-1/2, Pléiades 1A/1B, SPOT 6/7, and sensors of similar type to be expected in the future. The second unit of FORSAT is dedicated to 3D surface comparison for change detection. It allows users to import digital elevation models (DEMs), align them using an advanced 3D surface matching approach and calculate the 3D differences and volume changes between epochs. To this end our 3D surface matching method LS3D is being used. FORSAT is a single source and flexible forest information solution with a very competitive price/quality ratio, allowing expert and non-expert remote sensing users to monitor forests in three and four dimensions from VHR optical imagery for many forest information needs. The capacity and benefits of FORSAT have been tested in

  17. Volumetric and Transport Properties of Aqueous NaB(OH)4 Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永全; 房春晖; 房艳; 朱发岩

    2013-01-01

    Density, pH, viscosity, conductivity and the Raman spectra of aqueous NaB(OH)4 solutions precisely measured as functions of concentration at different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K) are presented. Polyborate distributions in aqueous NaB(OH)4 solution were calculated, covering all the concentration range, 4B(OH)− is the most dominant species, other polyborate anions are less than 5.0%. The volumetric and the transport properties were discussed in detail, both of these properties indicate that 4B(OH)− behaves as a struc-ture-disordered anion.

  18. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Aurelien, E-mail: adavid@soraa.com; Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R. [Soraa Inc., 6500 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, California 94555 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  19. The frontal and temporal horn ratio to assess dimension of paediatric hydrocephalus: a comparative volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antes, Sebastian; Welsch, Melanie; Kiefer, Michael; Gläser, Mareike; Körner, Heiko; Eymann, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and cranial -ultrasound are the most frequently implemented imaging methods for investigating the infantile hydrocephalic brain. A general and reliable measurement index that can be equally applied in both imaging methods to assess dimension of ventricular dilatation is currently not available. For this purpose, a new parameter called the frontal and temporal horn ratio - determinable in coronal slices of the brain - was developed and evaluated in a comparative volumetric retrospective study: Statistical analyses of 118 MRIs of 46 different shunt-treated pediatric patients revealed a good linear correlation between the new index and the actual ventricular volume.

  20. Enhancing Volumetric Bouligand-Minkowski Fractal Descriptors by using Functional Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Florindo, João Batista; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; 10.1142/S0129183111016701

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes and study the concept of Functional Data Analysis transform, applying it to the performance improving of volumetric Bouligand-Minkowski fractal descriptors. The proposed transform consists essentially in changing the descriptors originally defined in the space of the calculus of fractal dimension into the space of coefficients used in the functional data representation of these descriptors. The transformed decriptors are used here in texture classification problems. The enhancement provided by the FDA transform is measured by comparing the transformed to the original descriptors in terms of the correctness rate in the classification of well known datasets.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: VI. The Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Barbary, K; Amanullah, R; Brodwin, M; Connolly, N; Dawson, K S; Doi, M; Eisenhardt, P; Faccioli, L; Fadeyev, V; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E; Huang, X; Ihara, Y; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Lubin, L; Meyers, J; Morokuma, T; Oda, T; Panagia, N; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanford, S A; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Yasuda, N

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate out to z ~ 1.6 from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. In observations spanning 189 orbits with the Advanced Camera for Surveys we discovered 29 SNe, of which approximately 20 are SNe Ia. Twelve of these SNe Ia are located in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. Using these new data, we derive the volumetric SN Ia rate in four broad redshift bins, finding results consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthening the case for a SN Ia rate that is equal to or greater than ~0.6 x 10^-4/yr/Mpc^3 at z ~ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. We provide SN candidates and efficiency calculations in a form that makes it easy to rebin and combine these results with other measurements for increased statistics. Finally, we compare the assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements, finding that different assumptions may induce sig...

  2. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  3. Operational facilities of remote control software of ranging measurement equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becceneri, Jose Carlos

    The basic purpose of this paper is to document, in this symposium, the work performed for the construction of Ranging Management Software (RAN), which is one of the functions of the Satellite Control System (SICS) software developed by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) to control the Brazilian satellites of MECB (Brazilian Complete Space Mission). This paper shows the RAN basic architecture as well as a set of functions which facilitates both the operation and the ranging system test.

  4. An Introduction to CUSUM Charts for COntrolling Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the CUSUM technique for quality assurance of measuring sytems. A seperate paper (Madsen 1998) gives a more detailed description of the mathematics behind the CUSUM technique. Also a brief description of some of the international standards which could be used...... for quality assurance of a measuring system is provided.The CUSUM technique is weel suited for detection of even rather small (systematical) errors of a measuring system, and the technique gives also an estimate of the time point were the error occurred....

  5. Measuring System for Growth Control of the Spirulina Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce S., Claudio; Ponce L., Ernesto; Bernardo S., Barraza

    2008-11-01

    It describes the workings of a data-logging instrument that measures growth levels of the Spirulina aquaculture. The Spirulina is a very delicate algae and its culture may be suddenly lost due to overgrowth. This kind of instrument is not at present available in the market. The transduction is a submergible laser device whose measuring margin of error is near to 0.28%. The advantage of this new instrument is the improvement in the measurement and the low cost. The future application of this work is related to the industrial production of food and fuel from micro algae culture, for the growing world population.

  6. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic, herbicides, pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC is one of the soil physical properties w hich have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measuring soil electrical conductivity is easier, less expensive and faster than other soil properties measurements, using a detector that can do on the go soil EC measurements is a good tool for obtaining useful information about soil pollution condition.

  7. 33 CFR 106.260 - Security measures for access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices, including any device intended to... disciplinary measures in place to prevent fraud and abuse. (6) The facility's TWIC program should be...

  8. Study on Automatic Control of Measurement System Heterogeneous Uranous Drums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Segmented gamma scanner (SGS) is a kind of important assay methodology of non-destructive assay (NDA). With the characteristic gamma ray, the mass or activity and nuclear species of measured material can be determined by the method.

  9. Measurement and Prediction of Volumetric and Transport Properties of Reservoir Fluids At High Pressure Mesure et prédiction des propriétés volumétriques et des propriétés de transport des fluides de gisement à haute pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sant'ana H. B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries of oil and gas fields under severe conditions of temperature (above 150°C or pressure (in excess of 50 MPa have been made in various regions of the world. In the North Sea, production is scheduled from deep reservoirs at 190°C and 110 MPa. This brings with it important challenges for predicting the properties of reservoir fluids, both from an experimental and a theoretical standpoint. In order to perform fluid studies for these reservoir conditions, IFP has developed a specific mercury-free high pressure apparatus with sapphire windows, a phase sampling device and viscosity determination by the capillary tube method. Its application is illustrated here using examples of real fluids and model mixtures. This equipment was first used to measure volumetric properties for gases. It has been shown that very high compressibility factors can be found with HP-HT gas condensates. This has a strong influence on recovery factors during primary depletion. In order to predict more accurately the volumetric properties of mixtures under these conditions, we propose to use a conventional equation of state, such as Peng-Robinson, with two improvements :- a modified temperature-dependent volume translation method, calibrated for high pressure density data; the method is simple, more accurate than other volume translation methods and fully consistent with lumping procedures;- a quadratic mixing rule on the covolume. Specific phase behavior can also be found. At low temperatures, wax crystallization can occur from a fluid which is a gas condensate at reservoir temperature. This feature is due to the simultaneous presence of abundant methane and heavy paraffins. A study of model fluids in a sapphire cell has allowed us to identify the possible types of phase diagrams. Although generally not considered to be an important parameter, gas viscosity may have some importance in the production of HP-HT accumulations, because of high flow rates. Viscosity

  10. A fully-automatic caudate nucleus segmentation of brain MRI: application in volumetric analysis of pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual, Laura; Soliva, Joan Carles; Hernández-Vela, Antonio; Escalera, Sergio; Jiménez, Xavier; Vilarroya, Oscar; Radeva, Petia

    2011-12-05

    Accurate automatic segmentation of the caudate nucleus in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain is of great interest in the analysis of developmental disorders. Segmentation methods based on a single atlas or on multiple atlases have been shown to suitably localize caudate structure. However, the atlas prior information may not represent the structure of interest correctly. It may therefore be useful to introduce a more flexible technique for accurate segmentations. We present CaudateCut: a new fully-automatic method of segmenting the caudate nucleus in MRI. CaudateCut combines an atlas-based segmentation strategy with the Graph Cut energy-minimization framework. We adapt the Graph Cut model to make it suitable for segmenting small, low-contrast structures, such as the caudate nucleus, by defining new energy function data and boundary potentials. In particular, we exploit information concerning the intensity and geometry, and we add supervised energies based on contextual brain structures. Furthermore, we reinforce boundary detection using a new multi-scale edgeness measure. We apply the novel CaudateCut method to the segmentation of the caudate nucleus to a new set of 39 pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and 40 control children, as well as to a public database of 18 subjects. We evaluate the quality of the segmentation using several volumetric and voxel by voxel measures. Our results show improved performance in terms of segmentation compared to state-of-the-art approaches, obtaining a mean overlap of 80.75%. Moreover, we present a quantitative volumetric analysis of caudate abnormalities in pediatric ADHD, the results of which show strong correlation with expert manual analysis. CaudateCut generates segmentation results that are comparable to gold-standard segmentations and which are reliable in the analysis of differentiating neuroanatomical abnormalities between healthy controls and pediatric ADHD.

  11. Advances in Inertial Measurement Technology for Marine Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Håndlykken

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the function of an inertial "strap down" attitude sensor based on solid state Coriolis force rate gyros, accelerometers and magnetic sensor. Performance is analyzed taking into account the typical excitations in attitude and linear motion seen in marine applications. The use is for control of fast crafts, ROV and AUV heading, roll, pitch and heave control. The influence on performance given by utilization of external information from velocity log and more accurate heading devices is also analyzed. Typical performance of this low cost type of technology is shown.

  12. Electromagnetic techniques for industrial plant process measurements and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramanti, M. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Ist. di Elaborazione della Informazione)

    1992-04-01

    In recent years, new real time non-destructive measuring techniques have been developed based on the use of miniaturized components capable of generating, amplifying and elaborating microwave signals (within the range of tenths of a volt and hundreds of milliamps). All these techniques for the measurement of typical process parameters or the non-destructive testing of materials are based on the interaction of radiation with the material or system under examination and make use of the most modern types of data acquisition technology. This article surveys the sensors and measuring instruments which make use of electromagnetic radiation to acquire information concerning the properties of an examined material or system based on their interactions with electromagnetic fields. A few applications are illustrated, e.g., the measurement of unburnt coal in power plant fly ash, the measurement of the quantity of solid particles present in fluidized beds and the verification of the properties of dielectric materials. In each case, the optimum degree of resolution of these devices is made evident.

  13. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  14. Level measurement and control strategies for subsea separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjertaker, Bjorn T.; Johansen, Geir A.; Jackson, Peter

    2001-07-01

    Level monitoring instrumentation is an essential part of hydrocarbon processing facilities, and has, together with separator technology, been widely addressed over the last decade. Key issues are production capacity, product enhancement, and well-flow control. The reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation, and its ability to monitor all the interface layers of the separator, including the thickness of the foam and the oil-water emulsion, are particularly important when considering the level instrumentation as the main sensing element in the automatic control of the separator vessel. Lately, industry focus has been placed on optimal automatic control to improve the quality of the production output, and to minimize the use of expensive and environmentally undesirable separation enhancing chemicals. Recent developments in hydrocarbon production include subsea separation stations, where the constraints placed on the reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation are especially demanding. This paper presents level interface monitoring developments based on electrical, ultrasonic, thermal, and nucleonic physical principles for three-phase hydrocarbon separators, and introduces the notion of tomometry, meaning multi-point cross-sectional metering aiming to acquire information on the cross-sectional flow-component distribution in the process vessel intended for control purposes.

  15. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik

    This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control af coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsværket Unit 3. The coal mills are not equipped with coal flow sensors; thus an observer-based approach is investigated. A nonlinear differential equation model of the boiler i...

  16. Are adult patients with Laron syndrome osteopenic? A comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and volumetric bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Carlos A; Eshed, Varda; Kamjin, Moshe; Laron, Zvi

    2003-10-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in IGF-I is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been noted in LS patients examined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), this technique does not take volume into account and may therefore underestimate the true bone density in patients with small bones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the BMD yielded by DEXA in our LS patients using estimated volumetric values. Volumetric density was calculated with the following formulas: bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) = bone mineral content (BMC)/(area)(3/2) for the lumbar spine and BMAD = BMC/area(2) for the femoral neck. The study sample included 12 patients (mean age, 43.9 yr; mean height, 123.7 cm). Findings were compared with 10 osteopenic subjects without developmental abnormalities (mean age, 56 yr; mean height, 164.8 cm) and 10 healthy control subjects matched for sex and age to the LS patients (mean height, 165.5 cm). BMAD in the LS group was 0.201 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3) at the lumbar spine and 0.201 +/- 0.04 g/cm(3) at the femoral neck; corresponding values for the osteopenic group were 0.130 +/- 0.01 and 0.140 +/- 0.01 g/cm(3), and for the controls, 0.178 +/- 0.03 and 0.192 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3). Although areal BMD was significantly lower in the LS and osteopenic subjects compared with controls (P < 0.02) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck, BMAD was low (P < 0.01) in the osteopenic group only. In conclusion, DEXA does not seem to be a reliable measure of osteoporosis in patients with LS.

  17. Measurement and control of pH in hydrothermal solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen-electrode concentration cells with liquid junction are routinely used to measure the pH of aqueous solutions from 0 to 300 C. Results include the dissociation constants of common acids and bases and the hydrolysis and complexation of metal ions in aqueous electrolytes over a wide range of salinities. Recently, we have utilized these cells to examine the sorption of H{sup +} on mineral surfaces, the solubility of minerals with continuous in situ pH measurement, and the thermal decompositon rates of organic acids.

  18. 33 CFR 104.265 - Security measures for access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... specified in the approved VSP, except for government-owned vehicles on official business when government..., upon the request of vessel personnel or a law enforcement officer, to establish his or her identity in...

  19. 33 CFR 105.255 - Security measures for access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... security measures to: (1) Deter the unauthorized introduction of dangerous substances and devices... specified in the approved FSP, excluding government-owned vehicles on official business when government... person is unable or unwilling, upon the request of facility personnel or a law enforcement officer, to...

  20. Analysis of Indoor Air Pollution of Decoration and Control Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the human health is closely related to quality of indoor air. This article analyzes the main types of pollution to indoor air and their harms to human health, and on this basis, it sets forth the prevention measures comprehensively and proposes advices to normalize industry standards.

  1. Correction of the volumetric effect in a 2D-array of ionisation chambers; Correccion del efecto volumetrico en una matriz 2D de camaras de ionizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Fuentes, R.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Ferrando Sanchez, A.; Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Casas de Julian, M. A. de la; Adaimi Hernandez, P.

    2011-07-01

    There are three main snags related to the measurement of spatial distributions of absorbed dose with two-dimensional array devices of ionisation chambers: spatial under-sampling, volumetric effect and inaccuracy in electric charge to absorbed dose conversion coefficient due to lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. In this work we have experimentally estimated the error in the raw measurement of dose by one of such chambers. We have found that the major error factor is the volumetric effect, which can be corrected through the well-known techniques of convolution/deconvolution. (Author) 14 refs.

  2. Variable Volumetric Stiffness Fluid Mount Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Vahdati

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive fluid mounts are commonly used in the automotive and aerospace applications to isolate the cabin from the engine noise and vibration. Due to manufacturing and material variabilities, no two identical fluid mount designs act the same. So, fluid mounts are tuned one by one before it is shipped out to customers. In some cases, for a batch of fluid mounts manufactured at the same time, one is tuned and the rest is set to the same settings. In some cases they are shipped as is with its notch frequency not being in its most optimum location. Since none of the passive fluid mount parameters are controllable, the only way to tune the mount is to redesign the mount by changing fluid, changing inertia track length or diameter, or changing rubber stiffness. This trial and error manufacturing process is very costly. To reduce the fluid mount notch frequency tuning cycle time, a new fluid mount design is proposed. In this new fluid mount design, the notch frequency can be easily modified without the need for any redesigns. In this paper, the new design concept, and its mathematical model and simulation results will be presented.

  3. Volumetric breast density from full-field digital mammograms and its association with breast cancer risk factors: a comparison with a threshold method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Kallenberg, M.G.J.; Karssemeijer, N.; Bosch, M.H.J. van den; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast density, a strong breast cancer risk factor, is usually measured on the projected breast area from film screen mammograms. This is far from ideal, as breast thickness and technical characteristics are not taken into account. We investigated whether volumetric density measurement

  4. Control x-ray deformable mirrors with few measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Xue, Junpeng; Idir, Mourad

    2016-09-01

    After years of development from a concept to early experimental stage, X-ray Deformable Mirrors (XDMs) are used in many synchrotron/free-electron laser facilities as a standard x-ray optics tool. XDM is becoming an integral part of the present and future large x-ray and EUV projects and will be essential in exploiting the full potential of the new sources currently under construction. The main objective of using XDMs is to correct wavefront errors or to enable variable focus beam sizes at the sample. Due to the coupling among the N actuators of a DM, it is usually necessary to perform a calibration or training process to drive the DM into the target shape. Commonly, in order to optimize the actuators settings to minimize slope/height errors, an initial measurement need to be collected, with all actuators set to 0, and then either N or 2N measurements are necessary learn each actuator behavior sequentially. In total, it means that N+1 or 2N+1 scans are required to perform this learning process. When the actuators number N is important and the actuator response or the necessary metrology is slow then this learning process can be time consuming. In this work, we present a fast and accurate method to drive an x-ray active bimorph mirror to a target shape with only 3 or 4 measurements. Instead of sequentially measuring and calculating the influence functions of all actuators and then predicting the voltages needed for any desired shape, the metrology data are directly used to "guide" the mirror from its current status towards the particular target slope/height via iterative compensations. The feedback for the iteration process is the discrepancy in curvature calculated by using B-spline fitting of the measured height/slope data. In this paper, the feasibility of this simple and effective approach is demonstrated with experiments.

  5. Volumetric characterization of delamination fields via angle longitudinal wave ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, John; Wallentine, Sarah; Welter, John; Dierken, Josiah; Aldrin, John

    2017-02-01

    The volumetric characterization of delaminations necessarily precedes rigorous composite damage progression modeling. Yet, inspection of composite structures for subsurface damage remains largely focused on detection, resulting in a capability gap. In response to this need, angle longitudinal wave ultrasound was employed to characterize a composite surrogate containing a simulated three-dimensional delamination field with distinct regions of occluded features (shadow regions). Simple analytical models of the specimen were developed to guide subsequent experimentation through identification of optimal scanning parameters. The ensuing experiments provided visual evidence of the complete delamination field, including indications of features within the shadow regions. The results of this study demonstrate proof-of-principle for the use of angle longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection for volumetric characterization of three-dimensional delamination fields. Furthermore, the techniques developed herein form the foundation of succeeding efforts to characterize impact delaminations within inhomogeneous laminar materials such as polymer matrix composites.

  6. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  7. COMPARISON OF VOLUMETRIC REGISTRATION ALGORITHMS FOR TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Julio; Joshi, Anand A.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear registration of brain MRI scans is often used to quantify morphological differences associated with disease or genetic factors. Recently, surface-guided fully 3D volumetric registrations have been developed that combine intensity-guided volume registrations with cortical surface constraints. In this paper, we compare one such algorithm to two popular high-dimensional volumetric registration methods: large-deformation viscous fluid registration, formulated in a Riemannian framework, and the diffeomorphic “Demons” algorithm. We performed an objective morphometric comparison, by using a large MRI dataset from 340 young adult twin subjects to examine 3D patterns of correlations in anatomical volumes. Surface-constrained volume registration gave greater effect sizes for detecting morphometric associations near the cortex, while the other two approaches gave greater effects sizes subcortically. These findings suggest novel ways to combine the advantages of multiple methods in the future. PMID:26925198

  8. Control response measurements of the Skyship-500 airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, H. R.; Hogue, J. R.; Gelhausen, P.

    1985-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the Skyship 500's dynamic response to control inputs from elevators, rudders, and throttles at zero, 25, and 40 kts indicated airspeed. Input frequency sweeps were made with pitch and turn controls at 25 and 40 kts, ranging in frequency from about 0.03 to 1.5 Hz. FFT data analysis was then applied to compute describing functions for each run. Frequency responses are noted to be very smooth, and comparisons between repeat runs indicate excellent agreement. Summary plots of the faired describing functions from each run form the core of the data presented. These data constitute a comprehensive and reliable data base on which to predicate future dynamic simulation mathematical models of small airship dynamic response.

  9. Beam Parameter Measurement and Control at the SNS Target

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, Michael; McManamy, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The spallation neutron production target at the SNS facility is designed for 1.4 MW beam power. Both beam position and profile must be carefully controlled within narrow margins to avoid damage to the target. The position must be within 2 mm of the target center, and 90% of the beam must be within the nominal 70 mm x 200 mm spot size, without exceeding 0.18 A/m2

  10. Heritability of volumetric brain changes and height in children entering puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Inge L C; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Baal, G Caroline M; Schnack, Hugo G; Peper, Jiska S; Chen, Lei; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2013-03-01

    The human brain undergoes structural changes in children entering puberty, while simultaneously children increase in height. It is not known if brain changes are under genetic control, and whether they are related to genetic factors influencing the amount of overall increase in height. Twins underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scans at age 9 (N = 190) and 12 (N = 125). High heritability estimates were found at both ages for height and brain volumes (49-96%), and high genetic correlation between ages were observed (r(g) > 0.89). With increasing age, whole brain (+1.1%), cerebellum (+4.2%), cerebral white matter (+5.1%), and lateral ventricle (+9.4%) volumes increased, and third ventricle (-4.0%) and cerebral gray matter (-1.6%) volumes decreased. Children increased on average 13.8 cm in height (9.9%). Genetic influences on individual difference in volumetric brain and height changes were estimated, both within and across traits. The same genetic factors influenced both cerebral (20% heritable) and cerebellar volumetric changes (45%). Thus, the extent to which changes in cerebral and cerebellar volumes are heritable in children entering puberty are due to the same genes that influence change in both structures. The increase in height was heritable (73%), and not associated with cerebral volumetric change, but positively associated with cerebellar volume change (r(p) = 0.24). This association was explained by a genetic correlation (r(g) = 0.48) between height and cerebellar change. Brain and body each expand at their own pace and through separate genetic pathways. There are distinct genetic processes acting on structural brain development, which cannot be explained by genetic increase in height.

  11. Experience with volumetric (320 rows) pediatric CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E., E-mail: erich.sorantin@medunigraz.at [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz (Austria); Riccabona, M. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz (Austria); Stücklschweiger, G.; Guss, H. [Competence Centre for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Univ.-Hospital Graz (Austria); Fotter, R. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The introduction of helical computer tomography (CT) and further progress to multi-slice CT enabled new applications. Most recent developments like the 320-row detector facilitate volume CT, which avoids the over-beaming effect of helical scanning. The 320-row multi-slice detector CT (MDCT) is based on a 16 cm detector; a special acquisition mode allows reconstructing 640 slices from these 16 cm. The shortest tube rotation time is in cardiac mode 0.35 s, otherwise 0.4 s and 0.5 s used. At 0.5 s the machine already reaches the maximum numbers of sub-second projections. Scan modes can be volume, helical and single slice mode. For image acquisition all dose savings technologies like variable tube position for scano-view, active collimation, automated exposure control, bolus and ECG tracking are available. Additionally special acquisition and post-processing techniques like head and body perfusion CT are ready for use on the console. For image reconstruction properties like filtered back projection as well as the latest development of iterative algorithms, an appropriate number of kernels and multi-planar reconstruction in all directions from the volume data at every increment are available. Volume CT allows sub second scanning of 16 cm z-coverage which, however, makes administration of intravenous contrast medium to “hit or miss” event. The aim of this paper is to present the application of volume CT to body scanning in children. Representative examples of neck, cardiac and skeletal investigations are given.

  12. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  13. Comparison of hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique and double arc VMAT technique in the treatment of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaloo Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has quickly become accepted as standard of care for the treatment of prostate cancer based on studies showing it is able to provide faster delivery with adequate target coverage and reduced monitor units while maintaining organ at risk (OAR sparing. This study aims to demonstrate the potential to increase dose conformality with increased planner control and OAR sparing using a hybrid treatment technique compared to VMAT.

  14. Radiotomography Based on Monostatic Interference Measurements with Controlled Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of three-dimensional tomography based on radioholography measurements with the reference signal transmitted by the transmitter in the near zone and the receiver near zone. We solve the problem of repairing the object signal phase due to the reference signal in the near field in a wide frequency band and the consideration of analytical signals. Here are presented results of experimental studies on application of a tunable YIG (yttrium iron garnet oscillator in the frequency range from 6.5 to 10.7 GHz for radio tomography of metal objects in air. Holographic principle is applied on the basis of measuring of the interference field amplitude by the detector diode. The interference occurs with the direct wave and waves scattered by the object. To restore the radio images the method of aperture synthesis and extraction of quadrature components at all frequencies sensing are applied. Experimental study on test object shows resolution about 15 mm.

  15. Estimation and Control with Relative Measurements: Algorithms and Scaling Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Press, 3rd edn., 1996. [76] A. Frommer and H. Schwandt. A unified representation and theory of alge- braic additive Schwarz and multisplitting methods...Journal , vol. 23: 298–305, 1973. [83] A. Frommer , H. Schwandt and D. B. Szyld. Asynchronous weighted additive Schwarz methods. Electronic Transactions...In 1st workshop on Wireless Network Measurements. 2005. [92] A. Frommer and D. Szyld. On asynchronous iterations. Journal of Comp. Appl. Math., 123

  16. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology

    1995-12-31

    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  17. Measures of Similarity for Command and Control Situation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Resnik proposed to use information content[17]. He reasoned that if we consider the taxon- omy to be a source of information, that we could effectively...determined by the specific probabilistic profile of that source2. From this, Resnik proposed that the degree of similarity between concepts within a...379–423,623–656, 1948. [17] Philip Resnik . Semantic similarity in a taxonomy: An information-based measure and its application to problems of

  18. A Multicenter Study of Volumetric Computed Tomography for Staging Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Valerie W; Gill, Ritu; Mitchell, Alan; Naidich, David; Rice, David C; Pass, Harvey I; Kindler, Hedy L; De Perrot, Marc; Friedberg, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    Standard imaging modalities are inaccurate in staging malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Single-institution studies suggest that volumetric computed tomography (CT) is more accurate but labor intensive. We established a multicenter network to test interobserver variability, accuracy (relative to pathologic stage), and the prognostic significance of semiautomated volumetric CT. Six institutions electronically submitted to an established multicenter database clinical and pathologic data for patients with MPM who had operations. Institutional radiologists reviewed preoperative CT scans for quality and then submitted by electronic network (AG Mednet, www.agmednet.com) to the biostatistical center. Two reference radiologists blinded to clinical data performed semiautomated tumor volume calculations using Vitrea Enterprise 6.0 software (Vital Images, Minnetonka, MN) and then submitted readings to the biostatistical center. Study end points included feasibility of the network, interobserver variability for volumetric CT, correlation of tumor volume to pTN stages, and overall survival (OS). Of 164 patients, the CT scans for 129 were analyzable and read by reference radiologists. Most tumors were less than 500 cm(3). A small bias was observed between readers because one provided consistently larger measurements than the other (mean difference, 47.9; p = .0027), but for 80%, the absolute difference was 200 cm(3) or less. Spearman correlation between readers was 0.822. Volume correlated with pTN stages and OS, best defined by three groups with average volumes of 91.2, 245.3, and 511.3 cm(3) associated with median OS of 37, 18, and 8 months, respectively. For the first time, a multicenter network was established and initial correlations of tumor volume with pTN stages and OS are shown. A larger multicenter international study is planned to confirm the results and refine correlations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Somatic mutations associated with MRI-derived volumetric features in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Neurology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Grossmann, Patrick; Alexander, Brian M. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cooper, Lee A.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Biomedical Informatics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Holder, Chad A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ligon, Keith L. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Pathology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Aerts, Hugo J.W.L. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Radiology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    MR imaging can noninvasively visualize tumor phenotype characteristics at the macroscopic level. Here, we investigated whether somatic mutations are associated with and can be predicted by MRI-derived tumor imaging features of glioblastoma (GBM). Seventy-six GBM patients were identified from The Cancer Imaging Archive for whom preoperative T1-contrast (T1C) and T2-FLAIR MR images were available. For each tumor, a set of volumetric imaging features and their ratios were measured, including necrosis, contrast enhancing, and edema volumes. Imaging genomics analysis assessed the association of these features with mutation status of nine genes frequently altered in adult GBM. Finally, area under the curve (AUC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the predictive performance of imaging features for mutational status. Our results demonstrate that MR imaging features are strongly associated with mutation status. For example, TP53-mutated tumors had significantly smaller contrast enhancing and necrosis volumes (p = 0.012 and 0.017, respectively) and RB1-mutated tumors had significantly smaller edema volumes (p = 0.015) compared to wild-type tumors. MRI volumetric features were also found to significantly predict mutational status. For example, AUC analysis results indicated that TP53, RB1, NF1, EGFR, and PDGFRA mutations could each be significantly predicted by at least one imaging feature. MRI-derived volumetric features are significantly associated with and predictive of several cancer-relevant, drug-targetable DNA mutations in glioblastoma. These results may shed insight into unique growth characteristics of individual tumors at the macroscopic level resulting from molecular events as well as increase the use of noninvasive imaging in personalized medicine. (orig.)

  20. The importance of volumetric canopy morphology when modelling drag around riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Richard; Hardy, Richard; Warburton, Jeff; Marjoribanks, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation has a significant impact on the hydraulic functioning of river systems. The bulk of past work concerned with modelling the influence of vegetation on flow has considered vegetation to be morphologically simple, and has generally neglected the complexity and porosity of natural plants, defined herein as the volumetric canopy morphology. However, the volumetric canopy morphology can influence the mean and turbulent properties of the flow, producing spatially heterogeneous downstream velocity fields. By explicitly accounting for this in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, and representing the plant as a porous blockage, complex flow structures and drag can be modelled. For a riparian species, Hebe odora, good agreement with flume measurements are found. Plant shear layer turbulence is shown to be dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz and Görtler-type vortices, generated through shear instability. Porous representations of the plants, that allow for flow to pass through the plant canopy interior, are compared against fully impermeable plant representations. Penetration of fluid through the canopy in the porous case resembles 'bleed-flow', and this results in a plant wake region that significantly differs from the impermeable case, which is characteristic of wake flow around a traditional bluff body. These results demonstrate the significant effect that the volumetric canopy morphology and porosity of natural plants has on the three-dimensional flow and in-stream drag, and enables a re-evaluation of vegetative flow resistance. The modelled results allow a species dependent Manning's n to be calculated, and this presents an opportunity to move away from the conventional methods of representing vegetation in hydraulic models, in favour of a more physically determined approach. Given the importance of vegetation in river corridor management, and the increasing application of UAV imagery to map riparian vegetation, the numerical scheme developed here

  1. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  2. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  3. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale. PMID:28059149

  4. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haoyu; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve spatially multiplexed discrete and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  5. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-06

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  6. Assessing Measurement Noise Effect in Run-to-Run Process Control: Extends EWMA Controller by Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wei Kuo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA controller has become a popular control method in Run-to-Run (RtR process control, but the issue of measurement noise from metrology tools has not been addressed in RtR EWMA controllers yet. This paper utilizes a Kalman Filter (KF controller to deal with measurement noise in RtR process control and investigates the output properties for steady-state mean and variance, and for closed-loop stability. Five disturbance models modeling semiconductor process disturbances are investigated. These disturbance models consist of Deterministic Trend (DT, Random Walk with Drift (RWD, Integrated Moving Average process (IMA(1,1, AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARMA(1,1, and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA(1,1,1.  Analytical results show that a KF controller can be considered as an extended version of a RtR EWMA controller. In particular, the EWMA controller is a special case of KF in a filtering form without the capability of measuring noise. Simulation results also show that the KF has a better ability to deal with measurement noise than the EWMA controller.

  7. Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution Control Measures for Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Theloke, J.; Denier-van-der-Gon, H.; Kugler, U.; Kampffmeyer, T.; Roos, J.; Torras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution in large cities is still a matter of concern. Especially the concentration of fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5) is largest in large cities leading to severe health impacts. Furthermore the PM10 thresholds of the EU Air Quality Directive are frequently exceeded. Thus the question arises, whether the initiated policies and measures for mitigating air pollution are sufficient to meet the air quality targets and - if not - which efficient further pollution mitigation measures exist. These questions have been addressed in the EU research project MEGAPOLI for the four European megacities respectively agglomerations London, Paris, Rhine-Ruhr area and Po valley. Firstly, a reference scenario of future activities and emissions has been compiled for the megacities for the years 2020, 2030 and 2050 for all relevant air pollutants (CO, NH3, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and SO2) and greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). The reference scenario takes into account as well population changes as technical progress and economic growth. As pollution flowing in from outside the city is about as important as pollution caused by emissions in the city, the analysis covers the whole of Europe and not only the city area. Emissions are then transformed into concentrations using atmospheric models. The higher concentrations in cities were estimated with a newly developed 'urban increment' model. Results show, that in the megacities the limits of the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) will be exceeded. Thus additional efforts are necessary to reduce emissions further. Thus, a number of further measures (not implemented in current legislation) were selected and assessed. These included mitigation options for road transport, other mobile sources, large combustion plants, small and medium combustion plants and industry. For each measure and in addition for various bundles of measures a cost-benefit analysis has been carried out. Benefits (avoided health risks and climate change risks) have

  8. Volumetric synthetic aperture imaging with a piezoelectric 2D row-column probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher; Lei, Anders; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row-column addressed transducer array. Utilizing single element transmit events, a volume rate of 90 Hz down to 14 cm deep is achieved. Data are obtained using the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS with a 70 MHz sampling frequency and beamformed using a delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. A signal-to-noise ratio of up to 32 dB is measured on the beamformed images of a tissue mimicking phantom with attenuation of 0.5 dB cm-1 MHz-1, from the surface of the probe to the penetration depth of 300λ. Measured lateral resolution as Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) is between 4λ and 10λ for 18% to 65% of the penetration depth from the surface of the probe. The averaged contrast is 13 dB for the same range. The imaging performance assessment results may represent a reference guide for possible applications of such an array in different medical fields.

  9. High-throughput volumetric reconstruction for 3D wheat plant architecture studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For many tiller crops, the plant architecture (PA, including the plant fresh weight, plant height, number of tillers, tiller angle and stem diameter, significantly affects the grain yield. In this study, we propose a method based on volumetric reconstruction for high-throughput three-dimensional (3D wheat PA studies. The proposed methodology involves plant volumetric reconstruction from multiple images, plant model processing and phenotypic parameter estimation and analysis. This study was performed on 80 Triticum aestivum plants, and the results were analyzed. Comparing the automated measurements with manual measurements, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in the plant height and the plant fresh weight was 2.71% (1.08cm with an average plant height of 40.07cm and 10.06% (1.41g with an average plant fresh weight of 14.06g, respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE was 1.37cm and 1.79g for the plant height and plant fresh weight, respectively. The correlation coefficients were 0.95 and 0.96 for the plant height and plant fresh weight, respectively. Additionally, the proposed methodology, including plant reconstruction, model processing and trait extraction, required only approximately 20s on average per plant using parallel computing on a graphics processing unit (GPU, demonstrating that the methodology would be valuable for a high-throughput phenotyping platform.

  10. Evolution in the Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Perrett, K; Conley, A; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S; Carlberg, R; Fouchez, D; Ripoche, P; Neill, J D; Astier, P; Balam, D; Balland, C; Basa, S; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Pain, R; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Pritchet, C; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Baumont, S; Lidman, C; Perlmutter, S; Walker, E S

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNR_Ia) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1volumetric SNR_Ia evolution is consistent with a rise to z~1.0 that follows a power-law of the form (1+z)^alpha, with alpha=2.11+/-0.28. This evolutionary trend in the SNLS rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star-formation history over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., proportional to t^-beta) yields values from beta=0.98+/-0.05 to beta=1.15+/-0.08 depending on the parameterization of t...

  11. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  12. Evaluation of control measures for black carpenter ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, J M; Suiter, D R; Bennett, G W; Klotz, J H; Reid, B L

    2000-10-01

    Current control methods for the black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer), include the use of remedial and preventative residual sprays as well as toxic baits. We evaluated the acceptance of three baits (Maxforce, Niban, and Baygon) to field colonies of the black carpenter ant in the spring and fall. Maxforce bait granules were more readily accepted than either Niban or Baygon bait granules in the spring. A change in food preference from protein to sugar by the black carpenter ant appeared to reduce the number of Maxforce bait granules removed in the fall, resulting in no differences in bait acceptability. The longevity of Dursban 50W and Tempo 20WP were evaluated in the summer and fall on painted wood panels. Panels aged outside for 15 d under prevailing weather conditions exhibited increased LT50 values. For each sampling period, panels aged on the south face (in the sun) exhibited less insecticidal activity (i.e., large LT50 values) than panels on the north face (shaded; small LT50 values). At each sampling period, Tempo 20WP provided smaller LT50 values than Dursban 50W. Because of changing dietary preferences, our data highlight the importance of using various bait types for carpenter ant control. Moreover, the application of residual spays should be made to locations protected from direct sunlight.

  13. Measurements of fluid transport by controllable vertical migrations of plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Isabel A.; Dabiri, John O.

    2016-11-01

    Diel vertical migration of zooplankton has been proposed to be a significant contributor to local and possibly large-scale fluid transport in the ocean. However, studies of this problem to date have been limited to order-of-magnitude estimates based on first principles and a small number of field observations. In this work, we leverage the phototactic behavior of zooplankton to stimulate controllable vertical migrations in the laboratory and to study the associated fluid transport and mixing. Building upon a previous prototype system, a laser guidance system induces vertical swimming of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in a 2.1 meter tall, density-stratified water tank. The animal swimming speed and spacing during the controlled vertical migration is characterized with video analysis. A schlieren imaging system is utilized to visualize density perturbations to a stable stratification for quantification of fluid displacement length scales and restratification timescales. These experiments can add to our understanding of the dynamics of active particles in stratified flows. NSF and US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  14. Study of Electromagnetic Disturbance Turntable Measurement System Based on a New Predictive Control Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao,Jianzhong; Luo,Fei; Xu,Yuge; Huang,Jinqiu

    2006-01-01

    A new predictive control algorithm for Electromagnetic disturbance turntable measurement system is presented In this paper.This control algorithm has the advantages of quick reaction, high precision and strong robust. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the algorithm

  15. Direct costs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy control measures in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, C; Gethmann, J M; Heuser, R; Niemann, H; Conraths, F J

    2013-12-01

    On 26 November 2000, the first autochthonous case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was detected in Germany. Since then, a total of 413 BSE cases have been confirmed, resulting in the culling and destruction of 17 313 heads of cattle. In view of the possible risks for human and animal health, Germany has adopted EU regulations along with some additional requirements concerning active surveillance and response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal. In this study, we used a stochastic model to estimate the costs incurred by the ensuing legislative amendments responding to BSE between November 2000 and December 2010. The total costs were estimated to range between 1847 and 2094 million Euros. They peaked in 2001 (about 394 million Euros) and declined since. About 54% of the costs (approximately 1000 million Euros) were incurred by the extension of the feed ban for animal protein to all farmed livestock. Active surveillance accounted for 21% (405 million Euros), the incineration of animal protein for 13% (249 million Euros) and the removal of specified risk material for 11% (225 million Euros). Only 1% of the costs was related to response measures after detecting a BSE-positive animal, including indemnity payments for culled cattle and confiscated carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

  16. Current Status and Control Measures of Ecological Restoration in Karst Rocky Desertification Area of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the current status and control measures of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou.[Method] The current status and existing problems of ecological restoration in Karst rocky desertification area of Guizhou were studied firstly,and main control measures were put forward according to existing problems.[Result] At present,Karst rocky desertification area in Guizhou has suitable ecological environment,obvious control results and rich control exper...

  17. Prevention from Dike Failure by Emergency Flood Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppe Baerbel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of failure of a flood protection system must always be taken into account. During flooding events, appropriate interim protection systems must be at hand and ready to be deployed to support weak and overloaded structures. Usually sandbags, eventually in combination with fascines and geotextiles, are in use to defend endangered dike stretches in case of emergency. Sandbags offer highly flexible employment, however the enormous personal, material and time consuming efforts required for installation and dismantling are problematic. Therefore, more effective constructions for emergency flood control are needed. Within the research projects HWS-Mobile, DeichSCHUTZ, and DeichKADE different constructions based on the use of flexible membranes have been developed or are in development to ensure easy and effective countermeasures to secure dike stretches, which are in risk of breakage. Successful applications of the developed systems have taken place during the catastrophic flood event at the river Elbe in Northern Germany in 2013.

  18. Combined cetuximab and volumetric modulated arc-radiotherapy in advanced recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old male patient presented with an ulcerated exophytic tumor (T2, N0, M0 with three macroscopically visible satellite metastases in the right temporo-occipital region. Mohs surgery could not control the disease due to lymphangiosis carcinomatosa and perineural infiltration, and recurrence of satellite skin metastases. Re-staging demonstrated a T2, N1, M0 profile (stage III, AJCC. Chemotherapy was limited by the patient’s co-morbidities. Therefore, we used targeted therapy with monoclonal anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab in combination with volumetric modulated arc- radiotherapy (VMAT. Cetuximab was well tolerated except for the loading dose when the patient developed fever chills. To verify the correct application of VMAT, it was applied to a 3-dimensional measuring phantom prior to the patient’s first treatment session. To minimize these tolerances, patient set-up was checked and corrected by orthogonal fluoroscopic images recorded daily by the on-board imager used in our Varian accelerator. The average daily beam time was 6 min (6 arcs, 767 monitor units; the total treatment time including patient set-up and set-up correction was less than 20 min. Combined therapy was well tolerated and complete remission was achieved.

  19. Assessment of volumetric bone mineral density of the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fractures using quantitative multi-slice CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-yong WU; Hui-hui JIA; Didier HANS; Jing LAN; Li-ying WANG; Jing-xue LI; Yue-zeng CAI

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the validity and reliability of volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT) with multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for hip bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, and to compare the differences between the two techniques in discriminating postmenopausal women with osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures from those without. Methods: Ninety subjects were enrolled and divided into three groups based on the BMD values of the lumbar spine and/or the femoral neck by DXA. Groups 1 and 2 consisted of postmenopausal women with BMD changes <-2SD, with and without radiographically confirmed vertebral fracture (n=11 and 33, respectively).Group 3 comprised normal controls with BMD changes ≥-1SD (n=46). Post-MSCT (GE, LightSpeed16) scan reconstructed images of the abdominal-pelvic region, 1.25 mm thick per slice, were processed by OsteoCAD software to calculate the following parameters: volumetric BMD values of trabecular bone (TRAB), cortical bone (CORT), and integral bone (INTGL) of the left femoral neck, femoral neck axis length (NAL), and minimum cross-section area (mCSA). DXA BMD measurements of the lumbar spine (AP-SPINE) and the left femoral neck (NECK) also were performed for each subject. Results: The values of all seven parameters were significantly lower in subjects of Groups 1 and 2 than in normal postmenopausal women (P<0.05, respectively).Comparing Groups 1 and 2, 3D-TRAB and 3D-INTGL were significantly lower in postmenopausal women with vertebral fracture(s) [(109.8±9.61) and (243.3±33.0) mg/cm3, respectively] than in those without [(148.9±7.47) and (285.4±17.8) mg/cm3,respectively] (P<0.05, respectively), but no significant differences were evident in AP-SPINE or NECK BMD. Conclusion: the femoral neck-derived volumetric BMD parameters using vQCT appeared better than the DXA-derived ones in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures from

  20. Colorimetric measurements as control elements in wood conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia Soto-Martín

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a methodological proposal for the study of altarpieces on wooden supports. The process was implemented to study the altarpiece of San Antonio de Padua in Garachico, Tenerife. For this, we conducted a review of key aspects appropriate to the discipline of wood identification carried out by macroscopic examination and for the characterization of the status of deterioration by colorimetric analysis. For the evaluation of the wood conservation status, the samples were subjected for the first time to colorimetric measurement. As a result we have created an online database to provide information for conservation professionals permitting them to design a proposal for preventive conservation and intervention individually for each object.

  1. Lithography beamline design and exposure uniformity controlling and measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shinan; Jiang, Dikui; Liu, Zewen; Chen, Qianhong; Kan, Ya; Liu, Wanpo

    1989-07-01

    The lithography beamline design of Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is presented. A scanning mirror is used to cut off short wavelength radiation and to expand the vertical exposure dimension to 50 mm. A thin beryllium window is installed before the scanning mirror to prevent the longer wavelength radiation from going through. An exposure chamber with a vacuum of 5×10E-7 Torr is located at 7 m downstream from the source point. Because there is no window at the entrance of the chamber, a differential pumping system is used. The scanning mirror is driven by a stepping motor which oscillates through a 1° angle. The required driving speed curve is determined by a computer in order to obtain a uniform exposure area. An in situ moiré fringe grating system is used to measure the uniformity of the motor speed.

  2. Gas flow measurement using laminar flow elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, J. [Meriam Instrument, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An instrument that measures gas volumetric flow rate using a capillary tube laminar-flow principle is described. Irs construction, operation, accuracy, and rangeability are presented. Discussion includes integrating the differential-pressure-producing flowmeter with appropriate temperature find pressure devices to produce a digital flowmeter system capable of measuring volumetric and mass flow rates. Typical applications are described.

  3. A Design Strategy for Volumetric Efficiency Improvement in a Multi-cylinder Stationary Diesel Engine and its Validity under Transient Engine Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Seenikannan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to improve engine performance of volumetric efficiency of a multi cylinder diesel engine. A computer simulation model is used to compare volumetric efficiency with instantaneous values. A baseline engine model is first correlated with measured volumetric efficiency data to establish confidence in the engine model’s predictions. A derivative of the baseline model with exhaust manifold, is then subjected to a transient expedition simulating typical, in-service, maximum rates of engine speed change. Instantaneous volumetric efficiency, calculated over discrete engine cycles forming the sequence, is then compared with its steady speed equivalent at the corresponding speed. It is shown that the engine volumetric efficiency responds almost quasi-steadily under transient operation thus justifying the assumption of correlation between steady speed and transient data. The computer model is used to demonstrate the basic gas dynamic phenomena graphically. The paper provides a good example of the application of computer simulation techniques in providing answers to real engineering questions. In particular, the value of a comprehensive analysis of fundamental physical phenomena characterizing engine mass flow is demonstrated.

  4. Europe: history, current situation and control measures for infectious bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Jones

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and nature of different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in Europe are described. Infectious bronchitis (IB is the most important endemic viral respiratory disease where highly pathogenic Newcastle disease and avian influenza are not present. IB was first described in the UK in 1948 and identified as Massachusetts type. In the 1970s and 80s new serotypes were reported in Holland and elsewhere and new vaccines were developed. The 1990s saw the emergence of the major variant commonly called 793B, again needing a new vaccine. Two novel types have been recognised since 2000, Italy 02 and QX. Italy 02 appears to be well controlled by the use of two different live vaccines (H120 and the 793B-related 4/91 while for QX, associated with nephritis in young birds and silent layers, new vaccines are in development. The use of two vaccines as above is a widely used protocol and is capable of protecting against a wide range of different types. Alternative approaches to IB vaccination are discussed. The importance of constant surveillance for prevalent and novel IBV types is emphasised and the value of experimental infections in chickens to determine the pathogenesis and pathology of new types in addition to testing efficacy of vaccines is outlined.

  5. Control and measurement of electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Elzerman, J.M.; Hanson, R.; Willems van Beveren, L.H.; Vandersypen, L.M.K. [ERATO Mesoscopic Correlation Project, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    We present an overview of experimental steps taken towards using the spin of a single electron trapped in a semiconductor quantum dot as a spin qubit [Loss and DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. A 57, 120 (1998)]. Fabrication and characterization of a double quantum dot containing two coupled spins has been achieved, as well as initialization and single-shot read-out of the spin state. The relaxation time T {sub 1} of single-spin and two-spin states was found to be on the order of a millisecond, dominated by spin-orbit interactions. The time-averaged dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *}, due to fluctuations in the ensemble of nuclear spins in the host semiconductor, was determined to be on the order of several tens of nanoseconds. Coherent manipulation of single-spin states can be performed using a microfabricated wire located close to the quantum dot, while two-spin interactions rely on controlling the tunnel barrier connecting the respective quantum dots [Petta et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005)]. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Well-being and control in older persons: the prediction of well-being from control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, C H; Deeg, D J; Bosscher, R J

    1995-01-01

    The interrelation of six facets of control and their ability to predict well-being in older persons were studied in an age and gender stratified community sample aged fifty-five to eighty-nine. An extended conceptual framework of control facets is introduced including "established" facets, such as mastery, self-efficacy and internal health locus of control and "new" control facets such as neuroticism, social inadequacy, and sense of coherence. An interview and a postal questionnaire included measures of the control facets and the Affect Balance Scale. Correlations between control measures were mostly modest. Negative affect was predicted by neuroticism and sense of coherence. Tendencies of independent association of mastery with global well-being and of social inadequacy with positive affect were established.

  7. Sperm volumetric dynamics during in vitro capacitation process in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herreros, M; Leal, C L V

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sperm head morphometry can be used as a potential diagnostic tool for detecting biophysical changes associated with sperm viability in bovine spermatozoa. In this study, sperm head morphometry was used to investigate its value as a biophysical marker for detecting volumetric changes in bovine spermatozoa under in vitro capacitating and non-capacitating incubation conditions. To further test this hypotesis, aliquots of pooled, washed bovine sperm were incubated in either Tyrode's complete medium with heparin (TCMH; a capacitating medium containing Ca2+, NaHCO3 and heparin), Tyrode's complete medium heparin-free (TCM; a medium containing just Ca2+ and NaHCO3) or Tyrode's basal medium (TBM; a non-capacitating medium free of Ca2+, NaHCO3 and heparin, used as control). Aliquots of sperm were processed for morphometric analysis at different incubation-time intervals (0, 3 and 6 h at 38°C), and the chlortetracycline assay was used simultaneously to confirm the ability of the sperm to undergo capacitation (B pattern) and the acrosome reaction (AR pattern) status in each medium. After 3 h of incubation under TCMH conditions, a significant increase was observed in the percentage of B and AR patterns and a significant decrease was found in all sperm morphometric parameters (Psperm size and AR pattern (r=-0.875, Psperm head morphometry can be used as a potential biophysical marker for detecting volumetric changes during capacitation process in bovine spermatozoa.

  8. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fructosamine or glycated haemoglobin as a measure of diabetic control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgrove, J; Cockrill, B L

    1988-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin A1 (HbA1c), fructosamine, and total serum proteins were measured in 30 normal and 61 diabetic children. The normal range for HbA1c was 4.7-8.8% and for fructosamine was 0.98-1.88 mmol/l. These were similar to adult normal ranges and there were no significant age differences during childhood. There was a highly significant correlation between HbA1c and fructosamine in the diabetic children but this was lost when only concentrations within the established normal ranges were considered. Adjustment of concentrations of fructosamine for total serum proteins made no difference to the results. Changes in HbA1c and fructosamine were followed in three newly diagnosed patients and in one whose diabetes was getting worse. HbA1c decayed with a half life of 28.7 days and fructosamine decayed with a half life of 16.5 days. Fructosamine concentrations were lower than expected in the patients who were improving and higher than expected in the patient who was deteriorating. It is suggested that while fructosamine is not a direct substitute for HbA1c it may be a useful adjunct in determining whether a patient is worsening or improving in the short term. A change from HbA1c to fructosamine for routine assessment of diabetes while retaining HbA1c on selected occasions would result in some cost savings while retaining the advantages of having both assays available. PMID:3365012

  10. Seven measures for population control announced in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    On 7 October 1988, the Municipal Government of Guangzhou, China, announced the following Decision: "First, great efforts should be made to strengthen education on the situation and tasks of the family planning programme. Second, family planning work is included in the target responsibility system of leaders at all levels during their terms of office and whether it is good or bad for the fulfillment of their family planning tasks will be considered as one of the criteria for the assessment of cadres in their work to link up with rewards and punishments. Third, the current family planning policies must be resolutely and unswervingly carried out. For those units where family planning policies have not been well carried out and where family planning work has long been stagnant, competent authorities should send capable cadres to help them improve their work within a definite period of time. Fourth, the principle of 'three priorities' (i.e., priority of publicity and education to economic restriction, priority of contraceptive measures to induced abortions, and priority of day-to-day work to shock work) must be adhered to while technical service and work of transforming the backward situation in some places should be done. Fifth, the family planning organizations at all levels must be perfected and ranks of family planning workers be strengthened with the stress on those at the township, town, and street neighbourhood levels. Moreover, the family planning offices should be set up or full-time family planning workers be staffed for enterprises and undertakings in the cities. Sixth, funds for the family planning work must be guaranteed. Seventh, the management of family planning for [the] floating population must be strengthened and a management group for [the] floating population, which consists of representatives from the Municipal Government and departments concerned, must be established."

  11. Measurement and control of ice adhesion to aluminum 6061 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Paul; Gupta, Vijay

    1998-10-01

    A new experimental strategy for measuring the tensile strength of ice coatings to structural surfaces is presented. In this experiment, a laser-induced compressive stress pulse travels through a 1 mm-thick substrate disc that has a layer of ice grown on its front surface. The compressive stress pulse reflects into a tensile wave from the free surface of the ice and pulls the iceinterface apart, given a sufficient amplitude. The interface strength was calculated by recording the free surface velocity of an Al substrate using a Doppler interferometer and calculating the stress at the interface using a finite-difference elastic wave mechanics simulation with the free surface velocity as an input. The test procedure was used to study ice adhesion on 6061 aluminum alloy sheets. It was found that the adhesion strength of ice to unpolished aluminum substrates was 274 MPa at -10°C. This value decreased with temperature, down to 179 MPa at -40°C. Interestingly, this decrement in the tensile strength could be directly related to the existence of a liquid-like layer that is known to exist on the surface of solid ice till -30°C. The interface strength was also shown to decrease by polishing the Al substrate surface or by adding thin polymer coatings on the unpolished Al substrate. The sensitivity of the technique to such microstructural changes in the interfacial region is indicative of the experiments ability to provide basic adhesion data, which in turn, can be used to solve the deicing problem from a fundamental standpoint. 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Theory of Volumetric Moving Dislocation in Poroelastic Halfspace and Characterization of Magma Intrusion Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Zhihua; Elsworth Derek; Sheng Jianlong

    2005-01-01

    The undrained change in pore fluid pressure that accompanies dike intrusion may be conveniently represented as a moving volumetric dislocation. The concept of a dilation center was developed to represent the field of undrained pressure change in a saturated linear elastic medium. Since instantaneous pore fluid pressures can be developed to a considerable distance from the dislocation, monitoring the rate of pressure generation and subsequent pressure dissipation in a fully coupled manner enables certain characteristics of the resulting dislocation to be defined. The principal focus of this study is the application of dislocation-based methods to analyze the behavior of the fluid pressure response induced by intrusive dislocations in a semi-infinite space, such as dike intrusion, hydraulic fracturing and piezometer insertion. Partially drained pore pressures result from the isothermal introduction of volumetric moving pencil-like dislocations described as analogs to moving point dislocation within a semi-infinite saturated elastic medium. To represent behavior within the halfspace, an image dislocation is positioned under the moving coordinate frame fixed to the front of the primary moving dislocation, to yield an approximate solution for pore pressure for constant fluid pressure conditions. Induced pore pressures are concisely described under a minimum set of dimensionless parameter groupings representing propagation velocity, and relative geometry. Charts defining induced pore fluid pressure at a static measuring point provide a meaningful tool for determining unknown parameters in data reduction. Two intrusive events at Krafla, Iceland are examined using the type curve matching techniques. Predicted parameters agree favorably with field data.

  13. Numerical analysis of radiation propagation in innovative volumetric receivers based on selective laser melting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Santiago, Sergio; Roccabruna, Mattia; Luque, Salvador; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Crema, Luigi; Romero, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Volumetric absorbers constitute one of the key elements in order to achieve high thermal conversion efficiencies in concentrating solar power plants. Regardless of the working fluid or thermodynamic cycle employed, design trends towards higher absorber output temperatures are widespread, which lead to the general need of components of high solar absorptance, high conduction within the receiver material, high internal convection, low radiative and convective heat losses and high mechanical durability. In this context, the use of advanced manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting, has allowed for the fabrication of intricate geometries that are capable of fulfilling the previous requirements. This paper presents a parametric design and analysis of the optical performance of volumetric absorbers of variable porosity conducted by means of detailed numerical ray tracing simulations. Sections of variable macroscopic porosity along the absorber depth were constructed by the fractal growth of single-cell structures. Measures of performance analyzed include optical reflection losses from the absorber front and rear faces, penetration of radiation inside the absorber volume, and radiation absorption as a function of absorber depth. The effects of engineering design parameters such as absorber length and wall thickness, material reflectance and porosity distribution on the optical performance of absorbers are discussed, and general design guidelines are given.

  14. On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Glassmoyer, G.

    1989-01-01

    Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 ?? 10-2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflect P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. -from Authors

  15. The Influence of Aerosol Concentration on Changes in the Volumetric Activities of Indoor Radon Short-Term Decay Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Politova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the influence of aerosol concentration on changes in the volumetric activities of indoor radon short-term decay products. The concentration of aerosol in the air, equilibrium factors and unattached fraction were measured under normal living conditions when the concentration of aerosol increases, i.e. burning a candle or frankincense in accommodations, smoke-filled accommodations, a steamy kitchen etc. It has been established that when the concentration of aerosol in the air rises, the number of free atoms of radon short-term decay products attached to aerosol particles also increases, and therefore higher volumetric activity of alpha particles is fixed. A tight positive connection of the correlation between equilibrium factor (F and aerosol particle concentration in the air of accommodations as well as a negative correlation between unattached fraction and an equilibrium factor have been determined.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1212, LB4605_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1212, LB4605_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1111, LB4603_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H10O Pentan-3-one (VMSD1111, LB4603_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5052_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5052_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5192_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5192_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5190_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5190_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5055_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5055_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5050_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5050_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 1,4-Dioxane (VMSD1211, LB3413_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 1,4-Dioxane (VMSD1211, LB3413_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H7NO N-Methylethanamide (VMSD1211, LB4401_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H7NO N-Methylethanamide (VMSD1211, LB4401_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5188_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5188_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H6O2 1,3-Dioxolane (VMSD1212, LB3578_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H6O2 1,3-Dioxolane (VMSD1212, LB3578_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H6O Propan-2-one (VMSD1211, LB3410_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H6O Propan-2-one (VMSD1211, LB3410_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4146_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 Ethyl ethanoate (VMSD1212, LB4146_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12O 4-Methylpentan-2-one (VMSD1212, LB4040_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12O 4-Methylpentan-2-one (VMSD1212, LB4040_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  10. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H4Cl2 1,2-Dichloroethane (VMSD1212, LB4575_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H4Cl2 1,2-Dichloroethane (VMSD1212, LB4575_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  11. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5053_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5053_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  12. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5056_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5056_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  13. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5054_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5054_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  14. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5191_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C3H8O Propan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB5191_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  15. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12O 4-Methylpentan-2-one (VMSD1111, LB4039_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12O 4-Methylpentan-2-one (VMSD1111, LB4039_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  16. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5051_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C5H12O Pentan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5051_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5049_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H14O Hexan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB5049_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  18. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 1,4-Dioxane (VMSD1212, LB3579_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H8O2 1,4-Dioxane (VMSD1212, LB3579_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5189_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C4H10O Butan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB5189_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H2Cl4 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (VMSD1212, LB4572_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C2H2Cl4 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (VMSD1212, LB4572_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.