WorldWideScience

Sample records for volumetric imaging tools

  1. FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Bahr, Detlef; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Oltmann, Klaas; Oltmann, Krischan; Guill, Christian; Rieper, Elisabeth; Ardey, Goetz

    2002-05-01

    The FELIX 3D display belongs to the class of volumetric displays using the swept volume technique. It is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications, which can be easily imported and interactively transformed in real-time by the FELIX control software. The images are drawn on a spinning screen by acousto-optic, galvanometric or polygon mirror deflection units with integrated lasers and a color mixer. The modular design of the display enables the user to operate with several equal or different projection units in parallel and to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose. The FELIX 3D display is a compact, light, extensible and easy to transport system. It mainly consists of inexpensive standard, off-the-shelf components for an easy implementation. This setup makes it a powerful and flexible tool to keep track with the rapid technological progress of today. Potential applications include imaging in the fields of entertainment, air traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design as well as scientific data visualization.

  2. Multitracer: a Java-based tool for anatomic delineation of grayscale volumetric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roger P

    2003-08-01

    A Java-based tool for delineating anatomic boundaries in 8- and 16- bit grayscale volumetric images is described. Modern features implemented by the tool include the ability to simultaneously view the current cursor position and the previously delineated boundaries on three orthogonal planes, the ability to magnify images during delineation using high-quality interpolation, the ability to encode and save boundaries with subvoxel resolution, and the ability to utilize coregistered images interchangeably during delineation. Additional features facilitate use of the tool in a multiuser, multiplatform environment and provide support for the documentation of anatomic delineation protocols. In addition to providing direct estimates of structure volumes, areas, and lengths, the tool allows contoured boundaries to be exported for more sophisticated analyses. The tool also provides support for manual editing of image volumes to remove confounding structures and for manual correction of image volumes that have been inaccurately edited. In addition to its research utility, the tool also has potential value in education, allowing students to interact with volumetric data and structural boundaries in three dimensions.

  3. Radiology resident MR and CT image analysis skill assessment using an interactive volumetric simulation tool - the RadioLOG project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Cendre, Romain; Hossu, Gabriela; Leplat, Christophe; Felblinger, Jacques; Blum, Alain; Braun, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Assess the use of a volumetric simulation tool for the evaluation of radiology resident MR and CT interpretation skills. Forty-three participants were evaluated with a software allowing the visualisation of multiple volumetric image series. There were 7 medical students, 28 residents and 8 senior radiologists among the participants. Residents were divided into two sub-groups (novice and advanced). The test was composed of 15 exercises on general radiology and lasted 45 min. Participants answered a questionnaire on their experience with the test using a 5-point Likert scale. This study was approved by the dean of the medical school and did not require ethics committee approval. The reliability of the test was good with a Cronbach alpha value of 0.9. Test scores were significantly different in all sub-groups studies (p radiological practice (3.9 ± 0.9 on a 5-point scale) and was better than the conventional evaluation methods (4.6 ± 0.5 on a 5-point scale). This software provides a high quality evaluation tool for the assessment of the interpretation skills in radiology residents. • This tool allows volumetric image analysis of MR and CT studies. • A high reliability test could be created with this tool. • Test scores were strongly associated with the examinee expertise level. • Examinees positively evaluated the authenticity and usability of this tool.

  4. Radiology resident MR and CT image analysis skill assessment using an interactive volumetric simulation tool - the RadioLOG project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Leplat, Christophe [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); Cendre, Romain [INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Hossu, Gabriela; Felblinger, Jacques [Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Blum, Alain [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Braun, Marc [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service de Neuroradiologie, Nancy (France)

    2017-02-15

    Assess the use of a volumetric simulation tool for the evaluation of radiology resident MR and CT interpretation skills. Forty-three participants were evaluated with a software allowing the visualisation of multiple volumetric image series. There were 7 medical students, 28 residents and 8 senior radiologists among the participants. Residents were divided into two sub-groups (novice and advanced). The test was composed of 15 exercises on general radiology and lasted 45 min. Participants answered a questionnaire on their experience with the test using a 5-point Likert scale. This study was approved by the dean of the medical school and did not require ethics committee approval. The reliability of the test was good with a Cronbach alpha value of 0.9. Test scores were significantly different in all sub-groups studies (p < 0.0225). The relation between test scores and the year of residency was logarithmic (R{sup 2} = 0.974). Participants agreed that the test reflected their radiological practice (3.9 ± 0.9 on a 5-point scale) and was better than the conventional evaluation methods (4.6 ± 0.5 on a 5-point scale). This software provides a high quality evaluation tool for the assessment of the interpretation skills in radiology residents. (orig.)

  5. Optimized T1- and T2-weighted volumetric brain imaging as a diagnostic tool in very preterm neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossin-Manor, Revital [Neurosciences and Mental Health, Research Institute, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Chung, Andrew D.; Morris, Drew; Thomas, Bejoy; Shroff, Manohar M. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Soares-Fernandes, Joao P. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Hospital de S. Marcos, Neuroradiology Department, Braga (Portugal); Cheng, Hai-Ling M. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Physiology Experimental Medicine, Research Institute, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Medical Biophysics Department, Toronto (Canada); Whyte, Hilary E.A. [Neurosciences and Mental Health, Research Institute, Neonatology Department, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Taylor, Margot J. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Neurosciences and Mental Health, Research Institute, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Sled, John G. [University of Toronto, Physiology Experimental Medicine, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Medical Biophysics, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    T1- and T2-W MR sequences used for obtaining diagnostic information and morphometric measurements in the neonatal brain are frequently acquired using different imaging protocols. Optimizing one protocol for obtaining both kinds of information is valuable. To determine whether high-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences optimized for preterm brain imaging could provide both diagnostic and morphometric value. Thirty preterm neonates born between 24 and 32 weeks' gestational age were scanned during the first 2 weeks after birth. T1- and T2-W high-resolution sequences were optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and scan time and compared to conventional spin-echo-based sequences. No differences were found between conventional and high-resolution T1-W sequences for diagnostic confidence, image quality and motion artifacts. A preference for conventional over high-resolution T2-W sequences for image quality was observed. High-resolution T1 images provided better delineation of thalamic myelination and the superior temporal sulcus. No differences were found for detection of myelination and sulcation using conventional and high-resolution T2-W images. High-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences can be used in clinical MRI in the very preterm brain to provide both diagnostic and morphometric information. (orig.)

  6. Volumetric CT-images improve testing of radiological image interpretation skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J., E-mail: C.J.Ravesloot@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Schaaf, Marieke F. van der, E-mail: M.F.vanderSchaaf@uu.nl [Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, Jan P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Cate, Olle Th.J. ten, E-mail: T.J.tenCate@umcutrecht.nl [Center for Research and Development of Education at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Gijp, Anouk van der, E-mail: A.vanderGijp-2@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P., E-mail: C.Mol@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Vincken, Koen L., E-mail: K.Vincken@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Rationale and objectives: Current radiology practice increasingly involves interpretation of volumetric data sets. In contrast, most radiology tests still contain only 2D images. We introduced a new testing tool that allows for stack viewing of volumetric images in our undergraduate radiology program. We hypothesized that tests with volumetric CT-images enhance test quality, in comparison with traditional completely 2D image-based tests, because they might better reflect required skills for clinical practice. Materials and methods: Two groups of medical students (n = 139; n = 143), trained with 2D and volumetric CT-images, took a digital radiology test in two versions (A and B), each containing both 2D and volumetric CT-image questions. In a questionnaire, they were asked to comment on the representativeness for clinical practice, difficulty and user-friendliness of the test questions and testing program. Students’ test scores and reliabilities, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 2D and volumetric CT-image tests were compared. Results: Estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) were higher for volumetric CT-image scores (version A: .51 and version B: .54), than for 2D CT-image scores (version A: .24 and version B: .37). Participants found volumetric CT-image tests more representative of clinical practice, and considered them to be less difficult than volumetric CT-image questions. However, in one version (A), volumetric CT-image scores (M 80.9, SD 14.8) were significantly lower than 2D CT-image scores (M 88.4, SD 10.4) (p < .001). The volumetric CT-image testing program was considered user-friendly. Conclusion: This study shows that volumetric image questions can be successfully integrated in students’ radiology testing. Results suggests that the inclusion of volumetric CT-images might improve the quality of radiology tests by positively impacting perceived representativeness for clinical practice and increasing reliability of the test.

  7. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  8. All Photons Imaging Through Volumetric Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satat, Guy; Heshmat, Barmak; Raviv, Dan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Imaging through thick highly scattering media (sample thickness ≫ mean free path) can realize broad applications in biomedical and industrial imaging as well as remote sensing. Here we propose a computational “All Photons Imaging” (API) framework that utilizes time-resolved measurement for imaging through thick volumetric scattering by using both early arrived (non-scattered) and diffused photons. As opposed to other methods which aim to lock on specific photons (coherent, ballistic, acoustically modulated, etc.), this framework aims to use all of the optical signal. Compared to conventional early photon measurements for imaging through a 15 mm tissue phantom, our method shows a two fold improvement in spatial resolution (4db increase in Peak SNR). This all optical, calibration-free framework enables widefield imaging through thick turbid media, and opens new avenues in non-invasive testing, analysis, and diagnosis. PMID:27683065

  9. Volumetric verification of multiaxis machine tool using laser tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Sergio; Samper, David; Santolaria, Jorge; Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space.

  10. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm;

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...

  11. Hyperspectral image classification based on volumetric texture and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Sheng, Yehua; Du, Peijun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Kui

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach using volumetric texture and reduced-spectral features is presented for hyperspectral image classification. Using this approach, the volumetric textural features were extracted by volumetric gray-level co-occurrence matrices (VGLCM). The spectral features were extracted by minimum estimated abundance covariance (MEAC) and linear prediction (LP)-based band selection, and a semi-supervised k-means (SKM) clustering method with deleting the worst cluster (SKMd) bandclustering algorithms. Moreover, four feature combination schemes were designed for hyperspectral image classification by using spectral and textural features. It has been proven that the proposed method using VGLCM outperforms the gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) method, and the experimental results indicate that the combination of spectral information with volumetric textural features leads to an improved classification performance in hyperspectral imagery.

  12. Improved volumetric imaging in tomosynthesis using combined multiaxial sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Jacob A; Wiant, David B; Best, Ryan C M; Bennett, Marcus C; Munley, Michael T; King, June D; McKee, Mahta M; Baydush, Alan H

    2010-09-03

    This study explores the volumetric reconstruction fidelity attainable using tomosynthesis with a kV imaging system which has a unique ability to rotate isocentrically and with multiple degrees of mechanical freedom. More specifically, we seek to investigate volumetric reconstructions by combining multiple limited-angle rotational image acquisition sweeps. By comparing these reconstructed images with those of a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of the reconstructions. In surgical situations, the described tomosynthesis-based system could provide high-quality volumetric imaging without requiring patient motion, even with rotational limitations present. Projections were acquired using the Digital Integrated Brachytherapy Unit, or IBU-D. A phantom was used which contained several spherical objects of varying contrast. Using image projections acquired during isocentric sweeps around the phantom, reconstructions were performed by filtered backprojection. For each image acquisition sweep configuration, a contrasting sphere is analyzed using two metrics and compared to a gold standard CBCT reconstruction. Since the intersection of a reconstructed sphere and an imaging plane is ideally a circle with an eccentricity of zero, the first metric presented compares the effective eccentricity of intersections of reconstructed volumes and imaging planes. As another metric of volumetric reconstruction fidelity, the volume of one of the contrasting spheres was determined using manual contouring. By comparing these manually delineated volumes with a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of reconstructions. The configuration which yielded the highest overall volumetric reconstruction fidelity, as determined by effective eccentricities and volumetric contouring, consisted of two orthogonally-offset 60° L-arm sweeps and a single C-arm sweep which shared a pivot point with one the L-arm sweeps. When compared to a similar configuration that

  13. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  14. Visualization and volumetric structures from MR images of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Robertson, D.

    1994-03-01

    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  15. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2015-01-01

    . This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° x 90° field-of-view was achieved. Data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 x 32 elements 2-D phased array......Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...... transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak- temporal...

  16. Nonrigid registration of volumetric images using ranked order statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Cao, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Non-rigid image registration techniques using intensity based similarity measures are widely used in medical imaging applications. Due to high computational complexities of these techniques, particularly for volumetric images, finding appropriate registration methods to both reduce the computation...... burden and increase the registration accuracy has become an intensive area of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find...... the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme to target those areas and reduce the registration computation time. A unique advantage of the proposed method is its ability to identify the point of diminishing returns and stop the registration process. Our experiments...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Image Segmentation and its Volumetric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul R. Ambalkar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Image processing techniques make it possible to extract meaningful information from medical images. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been widely applied in biological research and diagnostics because of its excellent soft tissue contrast, non-invasive character, high spatial resolution and easy slice selection at any orientation. The MRI-based brain volumetric is concerned with the analysis of volumes and shapes of the structural components of the human brain. It also provides a criterion, by which we recognize the presence of degenerative diseases and characterize their rates of progression to make the diagnosis and treatments as a easy task. In this paper we have proposed an automated method for volumetric measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and used Self Organized Map (SOM clustering method for their segmentations. We have used the MRI data set of 61 slices of 256×256 pixels in DICOM standard format

  18. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  19. Diverging Wave Volumetric Imaging Using Subaperture Beamforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Pedro; Haugen, Geir Ultveit; Lovstakken, Lasse; Samset, Eigil; D'hooge, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Several clinical settings could benefit from 3-D high frame rate (HFR) imaging and, in particular, HFR 3-D tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). To date, the proposed methodologies are based mostly on experimental ultrasound platforms, making their translation to clinical systems nontrivial as these have additional hardware constraints. In particular, clinically used 2-D matrix array transducers rely on subaperture (SAP) beamforming to limit cabling between the ultrasound probe and the back-end console. Therefore, this paper is aimed at assessing the feasibility of HFR 3-D TDI using diverging waves (DWs) on a clinical transducer with SAP beamforming limitations. Simulation studies showed that the combination of a single DW transmission with SAP beamforming results in severe imaging artifacts due to grating lobes and reduced penetration. Interestingly, a promising tradeoff between image quality and frame rate was achieved for scan sequences with a moderate number of transmit beams. In particular, a sparse sequence with nine transmissions showed good imaging performance for an imaging sector of 70 (°)×70 (°) at volume rates of approximately 600 Hz. Subsequently, this sequence was implemented in a clinical system and TDI was recorded in vivo on healthy subjects. Velocity curves were extracted and compared against conventional TDI (i.e., with focused transmit beams). The results showed similar velocities between both beamforming approaches, with a cross-correlation of 0.90 ± 0.11 between the traces of each mode. Overall, this paper indicates that HFR 3-D TDI is feasible in systems with clinical 2-D matrix arrays, despite the limitations of SAP beamforming.

  20. Pulse sequence for dynamic volumetric imaging of hyperpolarized metabolic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles H.; Chen, Albert P.; Lustig, Michael; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Lupo, Janine; Xu, Duan; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Pauly, John M.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization and dissolution of a 13C-labeled substrate enables the dynamic imaging of cellular metabolism. Spectroscopic information is typically acquired, making the acquisition of dynamic volumetric data a challenge. To enable rapid volumetric imaging, a spectral-spatial excitation pulse was designed to excite a single line of the carbon spectrum. With only a single resonance present in the signal, an echo-planar readout trajectory could be used to resolve spatial information, giving full volume coverage of 32 × 32 × 16 voxels every 3.5 s. This high frame rate was used to measure the different lactate dynamics in different tissues in a normal rat model and a mouse model of prostate cancer.

  1. Floating volumetric image formation using a dihedral corner reflector array device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Noboru; Maeda, Yuki; Yamamoto, Siori; Mukai, Takaaki; Maekawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A volumetric display system using an optical imaging device consisting of numerous dihedral corner reflectors placed perpendicular to the surface of a metal plate is proposed. Image formation by the dihedral corner reflector array (DCRA) is free from distortion and focal length. In the proposed volumetric display system, a two-dimensional real image is moved by a mirror scanner to scan a three-dimensional (3D) space. Cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed in accordance with the position of the image plane. A volumetric image is observed as a stack of the cross-sectional images. The use of the DCRA brings compact system configuration and volumetric real image generation with very low distortion. An experimental volumetric display system including a DCRA, a galvanometer mirror, and a digital micro-mirror device was constructed to verify the proposed method. A volumetric image consisting of 1024×768×400 voxels was formed by the experimental system.

  2. An Analysis Methodology for Stochastic Characteristic of Volumetric Error in Multiaxis CNC Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches about error modeling and analysis of machine tool few consider the probability characteristics of the geometric error and volumetric error systematically. However, the individual geometric error measured at different points is variational and stochastic, and therefore the resultant volumetric error is aslo stochastic and uncertain. In order to address the stochastic characteristic of the volumetric error for multiaxis machine tool, a new probability analysis mathematical model of volumetric error is proposed in this paper. According to multibody system theory, a mean value analysis model for volumetric error is established with consideration of geometric errors. The probability characteristics of geometric errors are obtained by statistical analysis to the measured sample data. Based on probability statistics and stochastic process theory, the variance analysis model of volumetric error is established in matrix, which can avoid the complex mathematics operations during the direct differential. A four-axis horizontal machining center is selected as an illustration example. The analysis results can reveal the stochastic characteristic of volumetric error and are also helpful to make full use of the best workspace to reduce the random uncertainty of the volumetric error and improve the machining accuracy.

  3. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Thunnissen, E. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartemink, K.J. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R{sup 2} = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)

  4. Volumetric hemispheric ratio as a useful tool in personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Wagner, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Weber, Bernd; Quesada, Carlos M

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the link between volumetric hemispheric ratios (VHRs) and personality measures in N=267 healthy participants using Eysenck's Personality Inventory-Revised (EPQ-R) and the BIS/BAS scales. A robust association between extraversion and VHRs was observed for gray matter in males but not females. Higher gray matter volume in the left than in the right hemisphere was associated with higher extraversion in males. The results are discussed in the context of positive emotionality and laterality of the human brain.

  5. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  6. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  7. Marginal Space Deep Learning: Efficient Architecture for Volumetric Image Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesu, Florin C; Krubasik, Edward; Georgescu, Bogdan; Singh, Vivek; Yefeng Zheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2016-05-01

    Robust and fast solutions for anatomical object detection and segmentation support the entire clinical workflow from diagnosis, patient stratification, therapy planning, intervention and follow-up. Current state-of-the-art techniques for parsing volumetric medical image data are typically based on machine learning methods that exploit large annotated image databases. Two main challenges need to be addressed, these are the efficiency in scanning high-dimensional parametric spaces and the need for representative image features which require significant efforts of manual engineering. We propose a pipeline for object detection and segmentation in the context of volumetric image parsing, solving a two-step learning problem: anatomical pose estimation and boundary delineation. For this task we introduce Marginal Space Deep Learning (MSDL), a novel framework exploiting both the strengths of efficient object parametrization in hierarchical marginal spaces and the automated feature design of Deep Learning (DL) network architectures. In the 3D context, the application of deep learning systems is limited by the very high complexity of the parametrization. More specifically 9 parameters are necessary to describe a restricted affine transformation in 3D, resulting in a prohibitive amount of billions of scanning hypotheses. The mechanism of marginal space learning provides excellent run-time performance by learning classifiers in clustered, high-probability regions in spaces of gradually increasing dimensionality. To further increase computational efficiency and robustness, in our system we learn sparse adaptive data sampling patterns that automatically capture the structure of the input. Given the object localization, we propose a DL-based active shape model to estimate the non-rigid object boundary. Experimental results are presented on the aortic valve in ultrasound using an extensive dataset of 2891 volumes from 869 patients, showing significant improvements of up to 45

  8. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, C.J.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, JPJ

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional imag

  9. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, Cécile J; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2015-05-01

    In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional images. This study aimed to investigate and compare knowledge and skills used for interpretation of volumetric versus 2D images. Twenty radiology clerks were asked to think out loud while reading four or five volumetric computed tomography (CT) images in stack mode and four or five 2D CT images. Cases were presented in a digital testing program allowing stack viewing of volumetric data sets and changing views and window settings. Thoughts verbalized by the participants were registered and coded by a framework of knowledge and skills concerning three components: perception, analysis, and synthesis. The components were subdivided into 16 discrete knowledge and skill elements. A within-subject analysis was performed to compare cognitive processes during volumetric image readings versus 2D cross-sectional image readings. Most utterances contained knowledge and skills concerning perception (46%). A smaller part involved synthesis (31%) and analysis (23%). More utterances regarded perception in volumetric image interpretation than in 2D image interpretation (Median 48% vs 35%; z = -3.9; P Cognitive processes in volumetric and 2D cross-sectional image interpretation differ substantially. Volumetric image interpretation draws predominantly on perceptual processes, whereas 2D image interpretation is mainly characterized by synthesis. The results encourage the use of volumetric images for teaching and testing perceptual skills. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Semiautomatic segmentation of liver metastases on volumetric CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jiayong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, 101 Yingkou Road, Yang Pu District, Shanghai 200093 (China); Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: bz2166@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and quantification of liver metastases on CT images are critical to surgery/radiation treatment planning and therapy response assessment. To date, there are no reliable methods to perform such segmentation automatically. In this work, the authors present a method for semiautomatic delineation of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced volumetric CT images. Methods: The first step is to manually place a seed region-of-interest (ROI) in the lesion on an image. This ROI will (1) serve as an internal marker and (2) assist in automatically identifying an external marker. With these two markers, lesion contour on the image can be accurately delineated using traditional watershed transformation. Density information will then be extracted from the segmented 2D lesion and help determine the 3D connected object that is a candidate of the lesion volume. The authors have developed a robust strategy to automatically determine internal and external markers for marker-controlled watershed segmentation. By manually placing a seed region-of-interest in the lesion to be delineated on a reference image, the method can automatically determine dual threshold values to approximately separate the lesion from its surrounding structures and refine the thresholds from the segmented lesion for the accurate segmentation of the lesion volume. This method was applied to 69 liver metastases (1.1–10.3 cm in diameter) from a total of 15 patients. An independent radiologist manually delineated all lesions and the resultant lesion volumes served as the “gold standard” for validation of the method’s accuracy. Results: The algorithm received a median overlap, overestimation ratio, and underestimation ratio of 82.3%, 6.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, and a median average boundary distance of 1.2 mm. Conclusions: Preliminary results have shown that volumes of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced CT images can be accurately estimated by a semiautomatic segmentation

  11. Volumetric Spectroscopic Imaging of Glioblastoma Multiforme Radiation Treatment Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N. Andres [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Maudsley, Andrew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Gupta, Rakesh K. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Ishkanian, Fazilat; Huang, Kris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Walker, Gail R. [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core Resource, Sylvester Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Padgett, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Roy, Bhaswati [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Panoff, Joseph; Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Stoyanova, Radka, E-mail: RStoyanova@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) are used almost exclusively in radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), despite their well-recognized limitations. MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can identify biochemical patterns associated with normal brain and tumor, predominantly by observation of choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) distributions. In this study, volumetric 3-dimensional MRSI was used to map these compounds over a wide region of the brain and to evaluate metabolite-defined treatment targets (metabolic tumor volumes [MTV]). Methods and Materials: Volumetric MRSI with effective voxel size of ∼1.0 mL and standard clinical MR images were obtained from 19 GBM patients. Gross tumor volumes and edema were manually outlined, and clinical target volumes (CTVs) receiving 46 and 60 Gy were defined (CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}, respectively). MTV{sub Cho} and MTV{sub NAA} were constructed based on volumes with high Cho and low NAA relative to values estimated from normal-appearing tissue. Results: The MRSI coverage of the brain was between 70% and 76%. The MTV{sub NAA} were almost entirely contained within the edema, and the correlation between the 2 volumes was significant (r=0.68, P=.001). In contrast, a considerable fraction of MTV{sub Cho} was outside of the edema (median, 33%) and for some patients it was also outside of the CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}. These untreated volumes were greater than 10% for 7 patients (37%) in the study, and on average more than one-third (34.3%) of the MTV{sub Cho} for these patients were outside of CTV{sub 60}. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of whole-brain MRSI for radiation therapy planning of GBM and revealed that areas of metabolically active tumor are not covered by standard RT volumes. The described integration of MTV into the RT system will pave the way to future clinical trials investigating outcomes in patients treated based on

  12. Blockwise conjugate gradient methods for image reconstruction in volumetric CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W; Titley-Peloquin, D; Soleimani, M

    2012-11-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables volumetric image reconstruction from 2D projection data and plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Filtered back projection is still the most frequently used algorithm in applications. The algorithm discretizes the scanning process (forward projection) into a system of linear equations, which must then be solved to recover images from measured projection data. The conjugate gradients (CG) algorithm and its variants can be used to solve (possibly regularized) linear systems of equations Ax=b and linear least squares problems minx∥b-Ax∥2, especially when the matrix A is very large and sparse. Their applications can be found in a general CT context, but in tomography problems (e.g. CBCT reconstruction) they have not widely been used. Hence, CBCT reconstruction using the CG-type algorithm LSQR was implemented and studied in this paper. In CBCT reconstruction, the main computational challenge is that the matrix A usually is very large, and storing it in full requires an amount of memory well beyond the reach of commodity computers. Because of these memory capacity constraints, only a small fraction of the weighting matrix A is typically used, leading to a poor reconstruction. In this paper, to overcome this difficulty, the matrix A is partitioned and stored blockwise, and blockwise matrix-vector multiplications are implemented within LSQR. This implementation allows us to use the full weighting matrix A for CBCT reconstruction without further enhancing computer standards. Tikhonov regularization can also be implemented in this fashion, and can produce significant improvement in the reconstructed images.

  13. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei; Cai, Jing; Zhang, You; Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a techique to generate on-board volumetric cine-magnetic resonance imaging (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling, and on-board 2-dimensional cine MRI. One phase of a 4-dimensional MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. Three major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4-dimensional MRI based on principal-component analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2-dimensional cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both digital extended-cardiac torso (XCAT) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from 4 real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using volume-percent-difference (VPD), center-of-mass-shift (COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change, and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between normalized profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was, on average, 8.43 ± 1.52% and the COMS was, on average, 0.93 ± 0.58 mm across all time steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against noise levels up to SNR = 20. For

  14. Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Lynch, Kyle P.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2015-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional (3D), three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique based on volume illumination and light field imaging with a single plenoptic camera is described. A plenoptic camera uses a densely packed microlens array mounted near a high resolution image sensor to sample the spatial and angular distribution of light collected by the camera. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) computed tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct a volumetric intensity field from individual snapshots and a cross-correlation algorithm is used to estimate the velocity field from a pair of reconstructed particle volumes. This work provides an introduction to the basic concepts of light field imaging with a plenoptic camera and describes the unique implementation of MART in the context of plenoptic image data for 3D/3C PIV measurements. Simulations of a plenoptic camera using geometric optics are used to generate synthetic plenoptic particle images, which are subsequently used to estimate the quality of particle volume reconstructions at various particle number densities. 3D reconstructions using this method produce reconstructed particles that are elongated by a factor of approximately 4 along the optical axis of the camera. A simulated 3D Gaussian vortex is used to test the capability of single camera plenoptic PIV to produce a 3D/3C vector field, where it was found that lateral displacements could be measured to approximately 0.2 voxel accuracy in the lateral direction and 1 voxel in the depth direction over a 300× 200× 200 voxel volume. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated experimentally using a home-built plenoptic camera based on a 16-megapixel interline CCD camera and a 289× 193 array of microlenses and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. 3D/3C measurements were performed in the wake of a low Reynolds number circular cylinder and compared with measurements made using a conventional 2D/2C PIV system. Overall, single camera

  15. FEMUR SHAPE RECOVERY FROM VOLUMETRIC IMAGES USING 3-D DEFORMABLE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new scheme for femur shape recovery from volumetric images using deformable models was proposed. First, prior 3-D deformable femur models are created as templates using point distribution models technology. Second, active contour models are employed to segment the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric images of the tibial and femoral joints and the deformable models are initialized based on the segmentation results. Finally, the objective function is minimized to give the optimal results constraining the surface of shapes.

  16. Review of prospects and challenges of eye tracking in volumetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venjakob, Antje C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    While eye tracking research in conventional radiography has flourished over the past decades, the number of eye tracking studies that looked at multislice images lags behind. A possible reason for the lack of studies in this area might be that the eye tracking methodology used in the context of conventional radiography cannot be applied one-on-one to volumetric imaging material. Challenges associated with eye tracking in volumetric imaging are particularly associated with the selection of stimulus material, the detection of events in the eye tracking data, the calculation of meaningful eye tracking parameters, and the reporting of abnormalities. However, all of these challenges can be addressed in the design of the experiment. If this is done, eye tracking studies using volumetric imaging material offer almost unlimited opportunity for perception research and are highly relevant as the number of volumetric images that are acquired and interpreted is rising.

  17. An Universal Modeling Method for Enhancing the Volumetric Accuracy of CNC Machine Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Volumetric error modeling method is an important te ch nique for enhancement the accuracy of CNC machine tools by error compensation. I n the research field, the main question is how to find an universal kinematics m odeling method for different kinds of NC machine tools. Multi-body system theor y is always used to solve the dynamics problem of complex physical system. But t ill now, the error factors that always exist in practice system is still not con sidered. In this paper, the accuracy kinematics of MB...

  18. Potential Applications of Flat-Panel Volumetric CT in Morphologic, Functional Small Animal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Greschus

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive radiologic imaging has recently gained considerable interest in basic, preclinical research for monitoring disease progression, therapeutic efficacy. In this report, we introduce flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (fpVCT as a powerful new tool for noninvasive imaging of different organ systems in preclinical research. The three-dimensional visualization that is achieved by isotropic high-resolution datasets is illustrated for the skeleton, chest, abdominal organs, brain of mice. The high image quality of chest scans enables the visualization of small lung nodules in an orthotopic lung cancer model, the reliable imaging of therapy side effects such as lung fibrosis. Using contrast-enhanced scans, fpVCT displayed the vascular trees of the brain, liver, kidney down to the subsegmental level. Functional application of fpVCT in dynamic contrast-enhanced scans of the rat brain delivered physiologically reliable data of perfusion, tissue blood volume. Beyond scanning of small animal models as demonstrated here, fpVCT provides the ability to image animals up to the size of primates.

  19. Image quality assessment of a pre-clinical flat-panel volumetric micro-CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Louise Y.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Holdsworth, David W.

    2006-03-01

    Small animal imaging has recently become an area of increased interest because more human diseases can be modeled in transgenic and knockout rodents. Current micro-CT systems are capable of achieving spatial resolution on the order of 10 μm, giving highly detailed anatomical information. However, the speed of data acquisition of these systems is relatively slow, when compared with clinical CT systems. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging has proven to be a powerful tool clinically in detecting and diagnosing cancer, stroke, pulmonary and ischemic heart diseases. In order to perform this technique in mice and rats, quantitative CT images must be acquired at a rate of at least 1 Hz. Recently, a research pre-clinical CT scanner (eXplore Ultra, GE Healthcare) has been designed specifically for dynamic perfusion imaging in small animals. Using an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector and a clinical slip-ring gantry, this system is capable of acquiring volumetric image data at a rate of 1 Hz, with in-plane resolution of 150 μm, while covering the entire thoracic region of a mouse or whole organs of a rat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the principal imaging performance of the micro-CT system, in terms of spatial resolution, image uniformity, linearity, dose and voxel noise for the feasibility of imaging mice and rats. Our investigations show that 3D images can be obtained with a limiting spatial resolution of 2.7 line pairs per mm and noise of 42 HU, using an acquisition interval of 8 seconds at an entrance dose of 6.4 cGy.

  20. Volumetric Diffuse Optical Tomography for Small Animals Using a CCD-Camera-Based Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Jing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D volumetric diffuse optical tomography for small animal imaging by using a CCD-camera-based imaging system with a newly developed depth compensation algorithm (DCA. Our computer simulations and laboratory phantom studies have demonstrated that the combination of a CCD camera and DCA can significantly improve the accuracy in depth localization and lead to reconstruction of 3D volumetric images. This approach may present great interests for noninvasive 3D localization of an anomaly hidden in tissue, such as a tumor or a stroke lesion, for preclinical small animal models.

  1. A hand-held row-column addressed CMUT probe with integrated electronics for volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher;

    2015-01-01

    A 3 MHz, λ / 2-pitch 62+62 channel row-column addressed 2-D CMUT array designed to be mounted in a probe handle and connected to a commercial BK Medical scanner for real-time volumetric imaging is presented. It is mounted and wire-bonded on a flexible PCB, which is connected to two rigid PCBs wit...

  2. Discrete volumetric digital image correlation for the investigation of granular type media at microscale: accuracy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornert M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of efficient 3D imaging tools such as X-Rays computed microtomography combined with the extension to volumetric images of Digital Image Correlation (DIC techniques provide new insights on the analysis of materials and structures. Among many other possible fields of application, geomaterials are good candidates for such investigations, owing to their relative transparency to X-rays and the presence in many samples of a natural contrast suitable for deformation mapping. However, these materials often deform discontinuously at microscale, for instance in the form of the development of a networks of microcracks. Discontinuity is even the dominant rule in granular-type materials such as sand in which the contribution to overall deformation of the microcontinuous phenomena -elastic strains inside grains- are negligible. To investigate deformation at the scale of these discontinuous mechanisms, specific DIC algorithms are required, which override the assumption of continuity of the transformation at the scale of the correlation windows. The recent so-called Discrete-DIC procedure (Hall et al, 2010 is a possible answer. We recall here its general principles and focus on its potential accuracy, from both theoretical and practical points of view. We show that the position and the rotation of individual grains with an average diameter of 500µm can be determined from images recorded with a laboratory microCT scanner, with a 15µm voxel size, with an accuracy of the order of 1µm and 0,1 degree, respectively.

  3. Feature-based Alignment of Volumetric Multi-modal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Zöllei, Lilla; Wells, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for aligning image volumes acquired from different imaging modalities (e.g. MR, CT) based on 3D scale-invariant image features. A novel method for encoding invariant feature geometry and appearance is developed, based on the assumption of locally linear intensity relationships, providing a solution to poor repeatability of feature detection in different image modalities. The encoding method is incorporated into a probabilistic feature-based model for multi-modal image alignment. The model parameters are estimated via a group-wise alignment algorithm, that iteratively alternates between estimating a feature-based model from feature data, then realigning feature data to the model, converging to a stable alignment solution with few pre-processing or pre-alignment requirements. The resulting model can be used to align multi-modal image data with the benefits of invariant feature correspondence: globally optimal solutions, high efficiency and low memory usage. The method is tested on the difficult RIRE data set of CT, T1, T2, PD and MP-RAGE brain images of subjects exhibiting significant inter-subject variability due to pathology. PMID:24683955

  4. Progress in two-dimensional arrays for real-time volumetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, E D; Davidsen, R E; Fiering, J O; Hruschka, T A; Smith, S W

    1998-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation of two dimensional array transducers for real-time volumetric imaging are described. The transducers we have previously described operated at frequencies below 3 MHz and were unwieldy to the operator because of the interconnect schemes used in connecting to the transducer handle. Several new transducers have been developed using new connection technology. A 40 x 40 = 1,600 element, 3.5 MHz array was fabricated with 256 transmit and 256 receive elements. A 60 x 60 = 3,600 element 5.0 MHz array was constructed with 248 transmit and 256 receive elements. An 80 x 80 = 6,400 element, 2.5 MHz array was fabricated with 256 transmit and 208receive elements. 2-D transducer arrays were also developed for volumetric scanning in an intra cardiac catheter, a 10 x 10 = 100 element 5.0 MHz forward-looking array and an 11 x 13 = 143 element 5.0 MHz side-scanning array. The-6dB fractional bandwidths for the different arrays varied from 50% to 63%, and the 50 omega insertion loss for all the transducers was about-64 dB. The transducers were used to generate real-time volumetric images in phantoms and in vivo using the Duke University real time volumetric imaging system, which is capable of generating multiple planes at any desired angle and depth within the pyramidal volume.

  5. Optimization of element length for imaging small volumetric reflectors with linear ultrasonic arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    A 3D ultrasonic simulation study is presented, aimed at understanding the effect of element length for imaging small volumetric flaws with linear arrays in ultrasonically noisy materials. The geometry of a linear array can be described by the width, pitch and total number of the elements along with the length perpendicular to imaging plane. This paper is concerned with the latter parameter, which tends to be ignored in array optimization studies and is often chosen arbitrarily for industrial ...

  6. Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.

  7. Posttraumatic syringomyelia: volumetric phantom and patient studies using MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Michael; Habicht, Dirk; Kalvine, Kira; Sartor, Klaus [Department of Neuroradiology, Medical School, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Aschoff, Alfred [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the volume of posttraumatic syringomyelia (PTS) based on standard MRI data acquisitions, and to compare the volumes with the neurological deficits of the patients. Firstly, phantom studies were performed using routine T1- (T1W; TR 500 ms, TE 13 ms) spin-echo (SE) images, 3D gradient-echo (GE) images and T2-weighted (T2W) turbo spin-echo (TSE) images (TR 3000 ms, TE 130 ms), in the sagittal plane. The slices were interleaved so that there was no gap. Twelve phantoms simulating a PTS were constructed and filled with fluid. Each volume was exactly measured immediately prior to filling (volumes: 3600-74,000 mm{sup 3}, mean 27,500 mm{sup 3}). In the clinical study 32 patients with PTS were examined using the same protocol. Patients were supine and a phased-array coil was used. The phantom studies revealed measurement errors of within 35%. There were problems defining the boundaries in the small and irregular phantoms as well as in small and irregular PTS, and due to the partial-volume averaging effect. The two small irregular phantoms could only be measured on the axial images. The T2W images in the axial plane showed the best results: measurement accuracy 92%. In the clinical study all examinations were technically successful. The volumes of the PTS ranged between 200 and 19,800 mm{sup 3}; the mean volume was 4075 mm{sup 3}. Our initial results show that the volume measurement of a PTS using standard MRI sequences can help generate more objective and accurate measures of spinal cord lesions, and this may enhance the sensitivity of MRI in detecting disease progression or regression after treatment. (orig.)

  8. Selective-plane illumination microscopy for high-content volumetric biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorty, Ryan; Huang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Light-sheet microscopy, also named selective-plane illumination microscopy, enables optical sectioning with minimal light delivered to the sample. Therefore, it allows one to gather volumetric datasets of developing embryos and other light-sensitive samples over extended times. We have configured a light-sheet microscope that, unlike most previous designs, can image samples in formats compatible with high-content imaging. Our microscope can be used with multi-well plates or with microfluidic devices. In designing our optical system to accommodate these types of sample holders we encounter large optical aberrations. We counter these aberrations with both static optical components in the imaging path and with adaptive optics. Potential applications of this microscope include studying the development of a large number of embryos in parallel and over long times with subcellular resolution and doing high-throughput screens on organisms or cells where volumetric data is necessary.

  9. Innovations of wide-field optical-sectioning fluorescence microscopy: toward high-speed volumetric bio-imaging with simplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiun-Yann

    Optical microscopy has become an indispensable tool for biological researches since its invention, mostly owing to its sub-cellular spatial resolutions, non-invasiveness, instrumental simplicity, and the intuitive observations it provides. Nonetheless, obtaining reliable, quantitative spatial information from conventional wide-field optical microscopy is not always intuitive as it appears to be. This is because in the acquired images of optical microscopy the information about out-of-focus regions is spatially blurred and mixed with in-focus information. In other words, conventional wide-field optical microscopy transforms the three-dimensional spatial information, or volumetric information about the objects into a two-dimensional form in each acquired image, and therefore distorts the spatial information about the object. Several fluorescence holography-based methods have demonstrated the ability to obtain three-dimensional information about the objects, but these methods generally rely on decomposing stereoscopic visualizations to extract volumetric information and are unable to resolve complex 3-dimensional structures such as a multi-layer sphere. The concept of optical-sectioning techniques, on the other hand, is to detect only two-dimensional information about an object at each acquisition. Specifically, each image obtained by optical-sectioning techniques contains mainly the information about an optically thin layer inside the object, as if only a thin histological section is being observed at a time. Using such a methodology, obtaining undistorted volumetric information about the object simply requires taking images of the object at sequential depths. Among existing methods of obtaining volumetric information, the practicability of optical sectioning has made it the most commonly used and most powerful one in biological science. However, when applied to imaging living biological systems, conventional single-point-scanning optical-sectioning techniques often

  10. Rapidly-steered single-element ultrasound for real-time volumetric imaging and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Mark; Western, Craig; Solek, Roman; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dmitre; Schlosser, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric ultrasound (US) imaging has the potential to provide real-time anatomical imaging with high soft-tissue contrast in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic guidance applications. However, existing volumetric US machines utilize "wobbling" linear phased array or matrix phased array transducers which are costly to manufacture and necessitate bulky external processing units. To drastically reduce cost, improve portability, and reduce footprint, we propose a rapidly-steered single-element volumetric US imaging system. In this paper we explore the feasibility of this system with a proof-of-concept single-element volumetric US imaging device. The device uses a multi-directional raster-scan technique to generate a series of two-dimensional (2D) slices that were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) volumes. At 15 cm depth, 90° lateral field of view (FOV), and 20° elevation FOV, the device produced 20-slice volumes at a rate of 0.8 Hz. Imaging performance was evaluated using an US phantom. Spatial resolution was 2.0 mm, 4.7 mm, and 5.0 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions at 7.5 cm. Relative motion of phantom targets were automatically tracked within US volumes with a mean error of -0.3+/-0.3 mm, -0.3+/-0.3 mm, and -0.1+/-0.5 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions, respectively. The device exhibited a mean spatial distortion error of 0.3+/-0.9 mm, 0.4+/-0.7 mm, and -0.3+/-1.9 in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions. With a production cost near $1000, the performance characteristics of the proposed system make it an ideal candidate for diagnostic and image-guided therapy applications where form factor and low cost are paramount.

  11. Label-free volumetric optical imaging of intact murine brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Choi, Heejin; Chung, Kwanghun; Bouma, Brett E.

    2017-04-01

    A central effort of today’s neuroscience is to study the brain’s ’wiring diagram’. The nervous system is believed to be a network of neurons interacting with each other through synaptic connection between axons and dendrites, therefore the neuronal connectivity map not only depicts the underlying anatomy, but also has important behavioral implications. Different approaches have been utilized to decipher neuronal circuits, including electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). However, these approaches typically demand extensive sectioning and reconstruction for a brain sample. Recently, tissue clearing methods have enabled the investigation of a fully assembled biological system with greatly improved light penetration. Yet, most of these implementations, still require either genetic or exogenous contrast labeling for light microscopy. Here we demonstrate a high-speed approach, termed as Clearing Assisted Scattering Tomography (CAST), where intact brains can be imaged at optical resolution without labeling by leveraging tissue clearing and the scattering contrast of optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI).

  12. Biological Imaging Software Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Berthold, Michael R.; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Ibáñez, Luis; Manjunath, B.S.; Martone, Maryann E.; Murphy, Robert F.; Peng, Hanchuan; Plant, Anne L.; Roysam, Badrinath; Stuurman, Nico; Swedlow, Jason R.; Tomancak, Pavel; Carpenter, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Few technologies are more widespread in modern biological laboratories than imaging. Recent advances in optical technologies and instrumentation are providing hitherto unimagined capabilities. Almost all these advances have required the development of software to enable the acquisition, management, analysis, and visualization of the imaging data. We review each computational step that biologists encounter when dealing with digital images, the challenges in that domain, and the overall status of available software for bioimage informatics, focusing on open source options. PMID:22743775

  13. Two-dimensional catheter arrays for real-time intracardiac volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Edward D.; Fiering, Jason O.; Lee, Warren; Wolf, Patrick D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    1999-06-01

    We have previously described 2D arrays of several thousand elements operating up to 5.0 MHz for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Lately, there has been interest in developing catheter based intracardiac imaging systems to aid in the precise tracking of anatomical features for improved diagnoses and therapies. We have constructed several arrays for real time intracardiac volumetric imaging based upon two different designs; a 10 X 10 equals 100 element 5.0 MHz forward looking 2D array, and a 13 X 11 equals 143 element 5.0 MHz 2D array for side scanning applications.

  14. Deep learning for automatic localization, identification, and segmentation of vertebral bodies in volumetric MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzani, Amin; Rasoulian, Abtin; Seitel, Alexander; Fels, Sidney; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an automatic method for vertebra localization, labeling, and segmentation in multi-slice Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Prior work in this area on MR images mostly requires user interaction while our method is fully automatic. Cubic intensity-based features are extracted from image voxels. A deep learning approach is used for simultaneous localization and identification of vertebrae. The localized points are refined by local thresholding in the region of the detected vertebral column. Thereafter, a statistical multi-vertebrae model is initialized on the localized vertebrae. An iterative Expectation Maximization technique is used to register the vertebral body of the model to the image edges and obtain a segmentation of the lumbar vertebral bodies. The method is evaluated by applying to nine volumetric MR images of the spine. The results demonstrate 100% vertebra identification and a mean surface error of below 2.8 mm for 3D segmentation. Computation time is less than three minutes per high-resolution volumetric image.

  15. 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging: in vivo quantification of arterial volumetric flow rate in a single heartbeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Mafalda; Provost, Jean; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2016-12-01

    We present herein 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging, a novel ultrasound-based volumetric imaging technique for the quantitative mapping of blood flow. Complete volumetric blood flow distribution imaging was achieved through 2D tilted plane-wave insonification, 2D multi-angle cross-beam beamforming, and 3D vector Doppler velocity components estimation by least-squares fitting. 4D ultrafast ultrasound flow imaging was performed in large volumetric fields of view at very high volume rate (>4000 volumes s-1) using a 1024-channel 4D ultrafast ultrasound scanner and a 2D matrix-array transducer. The precision of the technique was evaluated in vitro by using 3D velocity vector maps to estimate volumetric flow rates in a vessel phantom. Volumetric Flow rate errors of less than 5% were found when volumetric flow rates and peak velocities were respectively less than 360 ml min-1 and 100 cm s-1. The average volumetric flow rate error increased to 18.3% when volumetric flow rates and peak velocities were up to 490 ml min-1 and 1.3 m s-1, respectively. The in vivo feasibility of the technique was shown in the carotid arteries of two healthy volunteers. The 3D blood flow velocity distribution was assessed during one cardiac cycle in a full volume and it was used to quantify volumetric flow rates (375  ±  57 ml min-1 and 275  ±  43 ml min-1). Finally, the formation of 3D vortices at the carotid artery bifurcation was imaged at high volume rates.

  16. Volumetric image classification using homogeneous decomposition and dictionary learning: A study using retinal optical coherence tomography for detecting age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrak, Abdulrahman; Coenen, Frans; Zheng, Yalin

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) (volumetric) diagnostic imaging techniques are indispensable with respect to the diagnosis and management of many medical conditions. However there is a lack of automated diagnosis techniques to facilitate such 3D image analysis (although some support tools do exist). This paper proposes a novel framework for volumetric medical image classification founded on homogeneous decomposition and dictionary learning. In the proposed framework each image (volume) is recursively decomposed until homogeneous regions are arrived at. Each region is represented using a Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) which is transformed into a set of feature vectors. The Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is then used to generate a "dictionary" and the Improved Fisher Kernel (IFK) approach is used to encode feature vectors so as to generate a single feature vector for each volume, which can then be fed into a classifier generator. The principal advantage offered by the framework is that it does not require the detection (segmentation) of specific objects within the input data. The nature of the framework is fully described. A wide range of experiments was conducted with which to analyse the operation of the proposed framework and these are also reported fully in the paper. Although the proposed approach is generally applicable to 3D volumetric images, the focus for the work is 3D retinal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images in the context of the diagnosis of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). The results indicate that excellent diagnostic predictions can be produced using the proposed framework.

  17. Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Giger, Maryellen L; Li, Hui; Bick, Ulrich; Newstead, Gillian M

    2007-09-01

    Automated image analysis aims to extract relevant information from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (CE-MRI) of the breast and improve the accuracy and consistency of image interpretation. In this work, we extend the traditional 2D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to investigate a volumetric texture analysis approach and apply it for the characterization of breast MR lesions. Our database of breast MR images was obtained using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence and consists of 121 biopsy-proven lesions (77 malignant and 44 benign). A fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) based method is employed to automatically segment 3D breast lesions on CE-MR images. For each 3D lesion, a nondirectional GLCM is then computed on the first postcontrast frame by summing 13 directional GLCMs. Texture features are extracted from the nondirectional GLCMs and the performance of each texture feature in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign breast lesions is assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our results show that the classification performance of volumetric texture features is significantly better than that based on 2D analysis. Our investigations of the effects of various of parameters on the diagnostic accuracy provided means for the optimal use of the approach.

  18. [Change in condylar and mandibular morphology in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: cone beam volumetric imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagiola, Umberto; Mercatali, Lorenzo; Bellintani, Claudio; Fodor, Attila; Farronato, Giampietro; Lőrincz, Adám

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to show the importance of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography to volumetrically quantify TMJ damage in patients with JIA, measuring condylar and mandibular real volumes. 34 children with temporomandibular involvement by Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis were observed by Cone Beam Computerized Tomography. 4 were excluded because of several imaging noises. The mandible was isolated from others craniofacial structures; the whole mandibular volume and its components' volumes (condyle, ramus, hemibody, hemisymphysis on right side and on left side) has been calculated by a 3D volume rendering technique. The results show a highly significant statistical difference between affected side volumetric values versus normal side volumetric values above all on condyle region (P < 0.01), while they don't show any statistical differences between right side versus left side. The Cone Beam Computerized Tomography represents a huge improvement in understanding of the condyle and mandibular morphological changes, even in the early stages of the Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. The JIA can lead in children to temporomandibular joint damage with facial development and growth alterations.

  19. Volumetric synthetic aperture imaging with a piezoelectric 2D row-column probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher; Lei, Anders; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row-column addressed transducer array. Utilizing single element transmit events, a volume rate of 90 Hz down to 14 cm deep is achieved. Data are obtained using the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS with a 70 MHz sampling frequency and beamformed using a delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. A signal-to-noise ratio of up to 32 dB is measured on the beamformed images of a tissue mimicking phantom with attenuation of 0.5 dB cm-1 MHz-1, from the surface of the probe to the penetration depth of 300λ. Measured lateral resolution as Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) is between 4λ and 10λ for 18% to 65% of the penetration depth from the surface of the probe. The averaged contrast is 13 dB for the same range. The imaging performance assessment results may represent a reference guide for possible applications of such an array in different medical fields.

  20. Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina

    CERN Document Server

    Hillmann, Dierck; Hain, Carola; Sudkamp, Helge; Franke, Gesa; Pfäffle, Clara; Winter, Christian; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    Research and medicine rely on non-invasive optical techniques to image living tissue with high resolution in space and time. But so far a single data acquisition could not provide entirely diffraction-limited tomographic volumes of rapidly moving or changing targets, which additionally becomes increasingly difficult in the presence of aberrations, e.g., when imaging retina in vivo. We show, that a simple interferometric setup based on parallelized optical coherence tomography acquires volumetric data with 10 billion voxels per second, exceeding previous imaging speeds by an order of magnitude. This allows us to computationally obtain and correct defocus and aberrations resulting in entirely diffraction-limited volumes. As demonstration, we imaged living human retina with clearly visible nerve fiber layer, small capillary networks, and photoreceptor cells, but the technique is also applicable to obtain phase-sensitive volumes of other scattering structures at unprecedented acquisition speeds.

  1. Aberration-free volumetric high-speed imaging of in vivo retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, Dierck; Spahr, Hendrik; Hain, Carola; Sudkamp, Helge; Franke, Gesa; Pfäffle, Clara; Winter, Christian; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2016-10-01

    Certain topics in research and advancements in medical diagnostics may benefit from improved temporal and spatial resolution during non-invasive optical imaging of living tissue. However, so far no imaging technique can generate entirely diffraction-limited tomographic volumes with a single data acquisition, if the target moves or changes rapidly, such as the human retina. Additionally, the presence of aberrations may represent further difficulties. We show that a simple interferometric setup-based on parallelized optical coherence tomography-acquires volumetric data with 10 billion voxels per second, exceeding previous imaging speeds by an order of magnitude. This allows us to computationally obtain and correct defocus and aberrations resulting in entirely diffraction-limited volumes. As demonstration, we imaged living human retina with clearly visible nerve fiber layer, small capillary networks, and photoreceptor cells. Furthermore, the technique can also obtain phase-sensitive volumes of other scattering structures at unprecedented acquisition speeds.

  2. Integrated circuits for volumetric ultrasound imaging with 2-D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Anshuman; Choe, Jung Woo; Lee, Byung Chul; Wygant, Ira O; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Oralkan, Ömer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2013-12-01

    Real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging systems require transmit and receive circuitry to generate ultrasound beams and process received echo signals. The complexity of building such a system is high due to requirement of the front-end electronics needing to be very close to the transducer. A large number of elements also need to be interfaced to the back-end system and image processing of a large dataset could affect the imaging volume rate. In this work, we present a 3-D imaging system using capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology that addresses many of the challenges in building such a system. We demonstrate two approaches in integrating the transducer and the front-end electronics. The transducer is a 5-MHz CMUT array with an 8 mm × 8 mm aperture size. The aperture consists of 1024 elements (32 × 32) with an element pitch of 250 μm. An integrated circuit (IC) consists of a transmit beamformer and receive circuitry to improve the noise performance of the overall system. The assembly was interfaced with an FPGA and a back-end system (comprising of a data acquisition system and PC). The FPGA provided the digital I/O signals for the IC and the back-end system was used to process the received RF echo data (from the IC) and reconstruct the volume image using a phased array imaging approach. Imaging experiments were performed using wire and spring targets, a ventricle model and a human prostrate. Real-time volumetric images were captured at 5 volumes per second and are presented in this paper.

  3. Medical students' cognitive load in volumetric image interpretation : Insights from human-computer interaction and eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, Bobby G.; Van Der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Kirschner, Femke C.; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; Van Der Gijp, Anouk; Vincken, Koen L.

    2016-01-01

    Medical image interpretation is moving from using 2D- to volumetric images, thereby changing the cognitive and perceptual processes involved. This is expected to affect medical students' experienced cognitive load, while learning image interpretation skills. With two studies this explorative researc

  4. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia Molecular], e-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.br; Braga, J. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica; Correa, R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Ciencia Espacial e Atmosferica; Leite, J.P. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia, Psiquiatria e Psicologia Medica; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2009-08-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  5. Constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation of 3D volumetric MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Aleš; Salvado, Olivier; Acosta, Oscar; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Fripp, Jurgen

    2012-03-01

    Due to physical limitations inherent in magnetic resonance imaging scanners, three dimensional volumetric scans are often acquired with anisotropic voxel resolution. We investigate several interpolation approaches to reduce the anisotropy and present a novel approach - constrained reverse diffusion for thick slice interpolation. This technique was compared to common methods: linear and cubic B-Spline interpolation and a technique based on non-rigid registration of neighboring slices. The methods were evaluated on artificial MR phantoms and real MR scans of human brain. The constrained reverse diffusion approach delivered promising results and provides an alternative for thick slice interpolation, especially for higher anisotropy factors.

  6. Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography◊

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Choi, Stacey S.; Fuller, Alfred R.; Evans, Julia W.; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography (UHR-AO-OCT) instrumentation allowing monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction was used for volumetric in vivo retinal imaging of various retinal structures including the macula and optic nerve head (ONH). Novel visualization methods that simplify AO-OCT data viewing are presented, and include co-registration of AO-OCT volumes with fundus photography and stitching of multiple AO-OCT sub-volumes to create a large field of view (FOV) high-resolution volume. Additionally, we explored the utility of Interactive Science Publishing by linking all presented AO-OCT datasets with the OSA ISP software. PMID:19259248

  7. Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Choi, Stacey S; Fuller, Alfred R; Evans, Julia W; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S

    2009-03-02

    Ultrahigh-resolution adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (UHR-AO-OCT) instrumentation allowing monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction was used for volumetric in vivo retinal imaging of various retinal structures including the macula and optic nerve head (ONH). Novel visualization methods that simplify AO-OCT data viewing are presented, and include co-registration of AO-OCT volumes with fundus photography and stitching of multiple AO-OCT sub-volumes to create a large field of view (FOV) high-resolution volume. Additionally, we explored the utility of Interactive Science Publishing by linking all presented AO-OCT datasets with the OSA ISP software.

  8. Time-resolved computed tomography of the liver: retrospective, multi-phase image reconstruction derived from volumetric perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael A.; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Aspelin, Peter; Albiin, Nils; Brismar, Torkel B. [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Leidner, Bertil; Svensson, Anders [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-15

    To assess feasibility and image quality (IQ) of a new post-processing algorithm for retrospective extraction of an optimised multi-phase CT (time-resolved CT) of the liver from volumetric perfusion imaging. Sixteen patients underwent clinically indicated perfusion CT using 4D spiral mode of dual-source 128-slice CT. Three image sets were reconstructed: motion-corrected and noise-reduced (MCNR) images derived from 4D raw data; maximum and average intensity projections (time MIP/AVG) of the arterial/portal/portal-venous phases and all phases (total MIP/ AVG) derived from retrospective fusion of dedicated MCNR split series. Two readers assessed the IQ, detection rate and evaluation time; one reader assessed image noise and lesion-to-liver contrast. Time-resolved CT was feasible in all patients. Each post-processing step yielded a significant reduction of image noise and evaluation time, maintaining lesion-to-liver contrast. Time MIPs/AVGs showed the highest overall IQ without relevant motion artefacts and best depiction of arterial and portal/portal-venous phases respectively. Time MIPs demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate for arterialised liver lesions than total MIPs/AVGs and the raw data series. Time-resolved CT allows data from volumetric perfusion imaging to be condensed into an optimised multi-phase liver CT, yielding a superior IQ and higher detection rate for arterialised liver lesions than the raw data series. (orig.)

  9. Scene data fusion: Real-time standoff volumetric gamma-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnowski, Ross [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States); Haefner, Andrew; Mihailescu, Lucian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab - Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States); Vetter, Kai [Department of Nuclear Engineering, UC Berkeley, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab - Applied Nuclear Physics, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America (United States)

    2015-11-11

    An approach to gamma-ray imaging has been developed that enables near real-time volumetric (3D) imaging of unknown environments thus improving the utility of gamma-ray imaging for source-search and radiation mapping applications. The approach, herein dubbed scene data fusion (SDF), is based on integrating mobile radiation imagers with real-time tracking and scene reconstruction algorithms to enable a mobile mode of operation and 3D localization of gamma-ray sources. A 3D model of the scene, provided in real-time by a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm, is incorporated into the image reconstruction reducing the reconstruction time and improving imaging performance. The SDF concept is demonstrated in this work with a Microsoft Kinect RGB-D sensor, a real-time SLAM solver, and a cart-based Compton imaging platform comprised of two 3D position-sensitive high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. An iterative algorithm based on Compton kinematics is used to reconstruct the gamma-ray source distribution in all three spatial dimensions. SDF advances the real-world applicability of gamma-ray imaging for many search, mapping, and verification scenarios by improving the tractiblity of the gamma-ray image reconstruction and providing context for the 3D localization of gamma-ray sources within the environment in real-time.

  10. Quantification of smoothing requirement for 3D optic flow calculation of volumetric images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Tennakoon, Ruwan B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2013-01-01

    that a (surprisingly) small amount of local smoothing is required to satisfy both the necessary and sufficient conditions for accurate optic flow estimation. This notion is called 'just enough' smoothing, and its proper implementation has a profound effect on the preservation of local information in processing 3D...... dynamic scans. To demonstrate the effect of 'just enough' smoothing, a robust 3D optic flow method with quantized local smoothing is presented, and the effect of local smoothing on the accuracy of motion estimation in dynamic lung CT images is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences......Complexities of dynamic volumetric imaging challenge the available computer vision techniques on a number of different fronts. This paper examines the relationship between the estimation accuracy and required amount of smoothness for a general solution from a robust statistics perspective. We show...

  11. Imaging tools in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, York Kiat; Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G

    2012-01-01

    As modern imaging tools such as US and MRI become increasingly available, rheumatologists now have access to highly sensitive measures to assist in the evaluation of both the inflammatory and structural damage components underlying various arthritides over the disease duration. Both US and MRI ha...

  12. Live dynamic OCT imaging of cardiac structure and function in mouse embryos with 43 Hz direct volumetric data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Singh, Manmohan; Lopez, Andrew L.; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Schill, Alexander; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient phenotyping of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos has significant implications on understanding of early mammalian heart development and congenital cardiac defects. Recent studies established optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a powerful tool for live embryonic heart imaging in various animal models. However, current four-dimensional (4D) OCT imaging of the beating embryonic heart largely relies on gated data acquisition or postacquisition synchronization, which brings errors when cardiac cycles lack perfect periodicity and is time consuming and computationally expensive. Here, we report direct 4D OCT imaging of the structure and function of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos achieved by employing a Fourier domain mode-locking swept laser source that enables ~1.5 MHz A-line rate. Through utilizing both forward and backward scans of a resonant mirror, we obtained a ~6.4 kHz frame rate, which allows for a direct volumetric data acquisition speed of ~43 Hz, around 20 times of the early-stage mouse embryonic heart rate. Our experiments were performed on mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.5. Time-resolved 3D cardiodynamics clearly shows the heart structure in motion. We present analysis of cardiac wall movement and its velocity from the primitive atrium and ventricle. Our results suggest that the combination of ultrahigh-speed OCT imaging with live embryo culture could be a useful embryonic heart phenotyping approach for mouse mutants modeling human congenital heart diseases.

  13. Sub-Nyquist Sampling and Fourier Domain Beamforming in Volumetric Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, Amir; Birk, Michael; Chernyakova, Tanya; Eilam, Alon; Kempinski, Arcady; Eldar, Yonina C

    2016-05-01

    A key step in ultrasound image formation is digital beamforming of signals sampled by several transducer elements placed upon an array. High-resolution digital beamforming introduces the demand for sampling rates significantly higher than the signals' Nyquist rate, which greatly increases the volume of data that must be transmitted from the system's front end. In 3-D ultrasound imaging, 2-D transducer arrays rather than 1-D arrays are used, and more scan lines are needed. This implies that the amount of sampled data is vastly increased with respect to 2-D imaging. In this work, we show that a considerable reduction in data rate can be achieved by applying the ideas of Xampling and frequency domain beamforming (FDBF), leading to a sub-Nyquist sampling rate, which uses only a portion of the bandwidth of the ultrasound signals to reconstruct the image. We extend previous work on FDBF for 2-D ultrasound imaging to accommodate the geometry imposed by volumetric scanning and a 2-D grid of transducer elements. High image quality from low-rate samples is demonstrated by simulation of a phantom image composed of several small reflectors. Our technique is then applied to raw data of a heart ventricle phantom obtained by a commercial 3-D ultrasound system. We show that by performing 3-D beamforming in the frequency domain, sub-Nyquist sampling and low processing rate are achievable, while maintaining adequate image quality.

  14. VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF BEACHES VARIABILITY BASED ON GIS-TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dolotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In frame of cadastral beach evaluation the volumetric method of natural variability index is proposed. It base on spatial calculations with Cut-Fill method and volume accounting ofboththe common beach contour and specific areas for the each time.

  15. Autologous fat transplantation: volumetric tools for estimation of volume survival. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christian; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Busche, Marc N; Vogt, Peter M

    2013-04-01

    Autologous fat transplantation has gained great recognition in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Two main aspects are of predominant importance for progress control after autologous fat transplantation to the breast: quantitative information about the rate of fat survival in terms of effective volume persistence and qualitative information about the breast tissue to exclude potential complications of autologous fat transplantation. There are several tools available for use in evaluating the rate of volume survival. They are extensively compared in this review. The anthropometric method, thermoplastic casts, and Archimedes' principle of water displacement are not up to date anymore because of major drawbacks, first and foremost being reduced reproducibility and exactness. They have been replaced by more exact and reproducible tools such as MRI volumetry or 3D body surface scans. For qualitative and quantitative progress control, MRI volumetry offers all the necessary information: evaluation of fat survival and diagnostically valuable imaging to exclude possible complications of autologous fat transplantation. For frequent follow-up, e.g., monthly volume analysis, repeated MRI exams would not be good for the patient and are not cost effective. In these cases, 3D surface imaging is a good tool and especially helpful in a private practice setting where fast data acquisition is needed. This tool also offers the possibility of simulating the results of autologous fat transplantation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  16. Volumetric Medical Image Coding: An Object-based, Lossy-to-lossless and Fully Scalable Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyali, Habibiollah; Mertins, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an object-based, highly scalable, lossy-to-lossless 3D wavelet coding approach for volumetric medical image data (e.g., magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT)) is proposed. The new method, called 3DOBHS-SPIHT, is based on the well-known set partitioning in the hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and supports both quality and resolution scalability. The 3D input data is grouped into groups of slices (GOS) and each GOS is encoded and decoded as a separate unit. The symmetric tree definition of the original 3DSPIHT is improved by introducing a new asymmetric tree structure. While preserving the compression efficiency, the new tree structure allows for a small size of each GOS, which not only reduces memory consumption during the encoding and decoding processes, but also facilitates more efficient random access to certain segments of slices. To achieve more compression efficiency, the algorithm only encodes the main object of interest in each 3D data set, which can have any arbitrary shape, and ignores the unnecessary background. The experimental results on some MR data sets show the good performance of the 3DOBHS-SPIHT algorithm for multi-resolution lossy-to-lossless coding. The compression efficiency, full scalability, and object-based features of the proposed approach, beside its lossy-to-lossless coding support, make it a very attractive candidate for volumetric medical image information archiving and transmission applications.

  17. 3D imaging provides a high-resolution, volumetric approach for analyzing biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R; Policastro, Steven A; Strom, Matthew J; Riley, Scott C; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Drake, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    A volumetric approach for determining the fouling burden on surfaces is presented, consisting of a 3D camera imaging system with fine (5 μm) resolution. Panels immersed in an estuary on the southwest coast of Florida, USA were imaged and the data were used to quantify seasonal changes in the biofouling community. Test panels, which were submerged in seawater for up to one year, were analyzed before and after gentle scrubbing to quantify the biovolume of the total fouling community (ie soft and hard organisms) and the hard fouling community. Total biofouling ranged from 0.01 to 1.16 cm(3) cm(-2) throughout the immersion period; soft fouling constituted 22-87% of the total biovolume. In the future, this approach may be used to inform numerical models of fluid-surface interfaces and to evaluate, with high resolution, the morphology of fouling organisms in response to antifouling technologies.

  18. Optimization of element length for imaging small volumetric reflectors with linear ultrasonic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    A 3D ultrasonic simulation study is presented, aimed at understanding the effect of element length for imaging small volumetric flaws with linear arrays in ultrasonically noisy materials. The geometry of a linear array can be described by the width, pitch and total number of the elements along with the length perpendicular to imaging plane. This paper is concerned with the latter parameter, which tends to be ignored in array optimization studies and is often chosen arbitrarily for industrial array inspections. A 3D analytical model based on imaging a point target is described, validated and used to make calculations of relative Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as a function of element length. SNR is found to be highly sensitive to element length with a 12dB variation observed over the length range investigated. It is then demonstrated that the optimal length can be predicted directly from the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the imaging system as well as the natural focal point of the array element from 2D beam profiles perpendicular to the imaging plane. This result suggests that the optimal length for any imaging position can be predicted without the need for a full 3D model and is independent of element pitch and the number of elements. Array element design guidelines are then described with respect to wavelength and extensions of these results are discussed for application to realistically-sized defects and coarse-grained materials.

  19. Assessment of pituitary adenoma volumetric change using longitudinal MR image registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringstad, Geir Andre; Hald, John K. [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Clinic for Imaging and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Emblem, Kyrre Eeg [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Department of Medical Physics, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, The Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Holland, Dominic [University of California, Department of Neurosciences, San Diego, CA (United States); Dale, Anders M. [University of California, Department of Neurosciences, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Bjornerud, Atle [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Department of Medical Physics, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    Change detection is a crucial factor in monitoring of slowly evolving pathologies. The objective of the study was to test a semi-automatic method applied on longitudinal MRI monitoring of volume change in pituitary macroadenomas. The proposed method is based on a visual comparison of geometrically corrected, co-registered, intensity-normalized contrast-enhanced (CE) 3D GRE T1-weighted images. Qualitative volume changes based on this applied method were compared with experts' readings of conventional pre- and post-CE 2D T1-weighted images. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed two to four times in 13 patients with a total combination of 29 time points. Compared to conventional 2D MR readings, a diagnosis of tumor growth (yes/no) was changed in 5 of 13 patients (38%) at 9 of the 29 combinations of time points (31%) using the 3D-based semi-automatic method. With manual tumor tracings as reference, McNemar's test showed a significant difference between the two methods. Visual comparison of geometrically corrected, intensity-normalized, and affine-aligned longitudinal 3D images may enable more accurate assessment of qualitative volumetric change in pituitary adenomas than conventional reading of 2D images. (orig.)

  20. A method to detect landmark pairs accurately between intra-patient volumetric medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deshan; Zhang, Miao; Chang, Xiao; Fu, Yabo; Liu, Shi; Li, Harold H; Mutic, Sasa; Duan, Ye

    2017-08-23

    An image processing procedure was developed in this study to detect large quantity of landmark pairs accurately in pairs of volumetric medical images. The detected landmark pairs can be used to evaluate of deformable image registration (DIR) methods quantitatively. Landmark detection and pair matching were implemented in a Gaussian pyramid multi-resolution scheme. A 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) feature detection method and a 3D Harris-Laplacian corner detection method were employed to detect feature points, i.e., landmarks. A novel feature matching algorithm, Multi-Resolution Inverse-Consistent Guided Matching or MRICGM, was developed to allow accurate feature pairs matching. MRICGM performs feature matching using guidance by the feature pairs detected at the lower resolution stage and the higher confidence feature pairs already detected at the same resolution stage, while enforces inverse consistency. The proposed feature detection and feature pair matching algorithms were optimized to process 3D CT and MRI images. They were successfully applied between the inter-phase abdomen 4DCT images of three patients, between the original and the re-scanned radiation therapy simulation CT images of two head-neck patients, and between inter-fractional treatment MRIs of two patients. The proposed procedure was able to successfully detect and match over 6300 feature pairs on average. The automatically detected landmark pairs were manually verified and the mismatched pairs were rejected. The automatic feature matching accuracy before manual error rejection was 99.4%. Performance of MRICGM was also evaluated using seven digital phantom datasets with known ground truth of tissue deformation. On average, 11855 feature pairs were detected per digital phantom dataset with TRE = 0.77 ± 0.72 mm. A procedure was developed in this study to detect large number of landmark pairs accurately between two volumetric medical images. It allows a semi-automatic way to generate the

  1. Quantifying distortions in two-photon remote focussing images using a volumetric calibration specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David Corbett

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote focussing microscopy allows sharp, in-focus images to be acquired at speed from outside of the focal plane of an objective lens without any agitation of the specimen. However, without careful optical alignment, the advantages of remote focussing microscopy could be compromised by the introduction of depth-dependent scaling artefacts. To achieve an ideal alignment in a point-scanning remote focussing microscope, the lateral (XY scan mirror pair must be imaged onto the back focal plane of both the reference and imaging objectives, in a telecentric arrangement. However, for many commercial objective lenses, it can be difficult to accurately locate the position of the back focal plane. This paper investigates the impact of this limitation on the fidelity of three-dimensional data sets of living cardiac tissue, specifically the introduction of distortions. These distortions limit the accuracy of sarcomere measurements taken directly from raw volumetric data. The origin of the distortion is first identified through simulation of a remote focussing microscope. Using a novel three-dimensional calibration specimen it was then possible to quantify experimentally the size of the distortion as a function of objective misalignment. Finally, by first approximating and then compensating the distortion in imaging data from whole heart rodent studies, the variance of sarcomere length measurements was reduced by almost 50%.

  2. Volumetric label-free imaging and 3D reconstruction of mammalian cochlea based on two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Geng, Yang; Ye, Qing; Zhan, Zhenlin; Xie, Shusen

    2013-11-01

    The visualization of the delicate structure and spatial relationship of intracochlear sensory cells has relied on the laborious procedures of tissue excision, fixation, sectioning and staining for light and electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy is advantageous for its high resolution and deep penetration depth, yet disadvantageous due to the necessity of exogenous labeling. In this study, we present the volumetric imaging of rat cochlea without exogenous dyes using a near-infrared femtosecond laser as the excitation mechanism and endogenous two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) as the contrast mechanism. We find that TPEF exhibits strong contrast, allowing cellular and even subcellular resolution imaging of the cochlea, differentiating cell types, visualizing delicate structures and the radial nerve fiber. Our results further demonstrate that 3D reconstruction rendered with z-stacks of optical sections enables better revealment of fine structures and spatial relationships, and easily performed morphometric analysis. The TPEF-based optical biopsy technique provides great potential for new and sensitive diagnostic tools for hearing loss or hearing disorders, especially when combined with fiber-based microendoscopy.

  3. Effect of anatomical backgrounds on detectability in volumetric cone beam CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Park, Subok; Baek, Jongduk

    2016-03-01

    As anatomical noise is often a dominating factor affecting signal detection in medical imaging, we investigate the effects of anatomical backgrounds on signal detection in volumetric cone beam CT images. Signal detection performances are compared between transverse and longitudinal planes with either uniform or anatomical backgrounds. Sphere objects with diameters of 1mm, 5mm, 8mm, and 11mm are used as the signals. Three-dimensional (3D) anatomical backgrounds are generated using an anatomical noise power spectrum, 1/fβ, with β=3, equivalent to mammographic background [1]. The mean voxel value of the 3D anatomical backgrounds is used as an attenuation coefficient of the uniform background. Noisy projection data are acquired by the forward projection of the uniform and anatomical 3D backgrounds with/without sphere lesions and by the addition of quantum noise. Then, images are reconstructed by an FDK algorithm [2]. For each signal size, signal detection performances in transverse and longitudinal planes are measured by calculating the task SNR of a channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels. In the uniform background case, transverse planes yield higher task SNR values for all sphere diameters but 1mm. In the anatomical background case, longitudinal planes yield higher task SNR values for all signal diameters. The results indicate that it is beneficial to use longitudinal planes to detect spherical signals in anatomical backgrounds.

  4. Volumetric vessel reconstruction method for absolute blood flow velocity measurement in Doppler OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it not only relates to the properties of the laser and the scattering particles, but also relates to the geometry of both directions of the laser beam and the flow. In this paper, focusing on the analysis of cerebral hemodynamics, we presents a method to quantify the total absolute blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) based on volumetric vessel reconstruction from pure DOCT images. A modified region growing segmentation method is first used to localize the MCA on successive DOCT B-scan images. Vessel skeletonization, followed by an averaging gradient angle calculation method, is then carried out to obtain Doppler angles along the entire MCA. Once the Doppler angles are determined, the absolute blood flow velocity of each position on the MCA is easily found. Given a seed point position on the MCA, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV. Based on experiments conducted using a swept-source optical coherence tomography system, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches in the rodent brain.

  5. An initial study on the estimation of time-varying volumetric treatment images and 3D tumor localization from single MV cine EPID images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pankaj; Li, Ruijiang; Mak, Raymond H; Rottmann, Joerg; Bryant, Jonathan H; Williams, Christopher L; Berbeco, Ross I; Lewis, John H

    2014-08-01

    In this work the authors develop and investigate the feasibility of a method to estimate time-varying volumetric images from individual MV cine electronic portal image device (EPID) images. The authors adopt a two-step approach to time-varying volumetric image estimation from a single cine EPID image. In the first step, a patient-specific motion model is constructed from 4DCT. In the second step, parameters in the motion model are tuned according to the information in the EPID image. The patient-specific motion model is based on a compact representation of lung motion represented in displacement vector fields (DVFs). DVFs are calculated through deformable image registration (DIR) of a reference 4DCT phase image (typically peak-exhale) to a set of 4DCT images corresponding to different phases of a breathing cycle. The salient characteristics in the DVFs are captured in a compact representation through principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decouples the spatial and temporal components of the DVFs. Spatial information is represented in eigenvectors and the temporal information is represented by eigen-coefficients. To generate a new volumetric image, the eigen-coefficients are updated via cost function optimization based on digitally reconstructed radiographs and projection images. The updated eigen-coefficients are then multiplied with the eigenvectors to obtain updated DVFs that, in turn, give the volumetric image corresponding to the cine EPID image. The algorithm was tested on (1) Eight digital eXtended CArdiac-Torso phantom datasets based on different irregular patient breathing patterns and (2) patient cine EPID images acquired during SBRT treatments. The root-mean-squared tumor localization error is (0.73 ± 0.63 mm) for the XCAT data and (0.90 ± 0.65 mm) for the patient data. The authors introduced a novel method of estimating volumetric time-varying images from single cine EPID images and a PCA-based lung motion model. This is the first method to estimate

  6. An initial study on the estimation of time-varying volumetric treatment images and 3D tumor localization from single MV cine EPID images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj.mishra@varian.com; Mak, Raymond H.; Rottmann, Joerg; Bryant, Jonathan H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Berbeco, Ross I.; Lewis, John H. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Li, Ruijiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: In this work the authors develop and investigate the feasibility of a method to estimate time-varying volumetric images from individual MV cine electronic portal image device (EPID) images. Methods: The authors adopt a two-step approach to time-varying volumetric image estimation from a single cine EPID image. In the first step, a patient-specific motion model is constructed from 4DCT. In the second step, parameters in the motion model are tuned according to the information in the EPID image. The patient-specific motion model is based on a compact representation of lung motion represented in displacement vector fields (DVFs). DVFs are calculated through deformable image registration (DIR) of a reference 4DCT phase image (typically peak-exhale) to a set of 4DCT images corresponding to different phases of a breathing cycle. The salient characteristics in the DVFs are captured in a compact representation through principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decouples the spatial and temporal components of the DVFs. Spatial information is represented in eigenvectors and the temporal information is represented by eigen-coefficients. To generate a new volumetric image, the eigen-coefficients are updated via cost function optimization based on digitally reconstructed radiographs and projection images. The updated eigen-coefficients are then multiplied with the eigenvectors to obtain updated DVFs that, in turn, give the volumetric image corresponding to the cine EPID image. Results: The algorithm was tested on (1) Eight digital eXtended CArdiac-Torso phantom datasets based on different irregular patient breathing patterns and (2) patient cine EPID images acquired during SBRT treatments. The root-mean-squared tumor localization error is (0.73 ± 0.63 mm) for the XCAT data and (0.90 ± 0.65 mm) for the patient data. Conclusions: The authors introduced a novel method of estimating volumetric time-varying images from single cine EPID images and a PCA-based lung motion model

  7. Quantification of coronary microvascular resistance using angiographic images for volumetric blood flow measurement: in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Takarada, Shigeho; Molloi, Sabee

    2011-06-01

    Structural coronary microcirculation abnormalities are important prognostic determinants in clinical settings. However, an assessment of microvascular resistance (MR) requires a velocity wire. A first-pass distribution analysis technique to measure volumetric blood flow has been previously validated. The aim of this study was the in vivo validation of the MR measurement technique using first-pass distribution analysis. Twelve anesthetized swine were instrumented with a transit-time ultrasound flow probe on the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Microspheres were injected into the LAD to create a model of microvascular dysfunction. Adenosine (400 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)) was used to produce maximum hyperemia. A region of interest in the LAD arterial bed was drawn to generate time-density curves using angiographic images. Volumetric blood flow measurements (Q(a)) were made using a time-density curve and the assumption that blood was momentarily replaced with contrast agent during the injection. Blood flow from the flow probe (Q(p)), coronary pressure (P(a)), and right atrium pressure (P(v)) were continuously recorded. Flow probe-based normalized MR (NMR(p)) and angiography-based normalized MR (NMR(a)) were calculated using Q(p) and Q(a), respectively. In 258 measurements, Q(a) showed a strong correlation with the gold standard Q(p) (Q(a) = 0.90 Q(p) + 6.6 ml/min, r(2) = 0.91, P measure NMR without using a velocity wire, which can potentially be used to evaluate microvascular conditions during coronary arteriography.

  8. Mammographic Breast Density Assessment Using Automated Volumetric Software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) Categorization by Expert Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N; Brennan, Patrick C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate agreement on mammographic breast density (MD) assessment between automated volumetric software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) categorization by expert radiologists. Forty cases of left craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms from 20 women were used. All images had their volumetric density classified using Volpara density grade (VDG) and average volumetric breast density percentage. The same images were then classified into BIRADS categories (I-IV) by 20 American Board of Radiology examiners. The results demonstrated a moderate agreement (κ = 0.537; 95% CI = 0.234-0.699) between VDG classification and radiologists' BIRADS density assessment. Interreader agreement using BIRADS also demonstrated moderate agreement (κ = 0.565; 95% CI = 0.519-0.610) ranging from 0.328 to 0.669. Radiologists' average BIRADS was lower than average VDG scores by 0.33, with their mean being 2.13, whereas the mean VDG was 2.48 (U = -3.742; P BIRADS showed a very strong positive correlation (ρ = 0.91; P BIRADS and average volumetric breast density percentage (ρ = 0.94; P BIRADS; interreader variations still exist within BIRADS. Because of the increasing importance of MD measurement in clinical management of patients, widely accepted, reproducible, and accurate measures of MD are required. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an algorithm for real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Given a set of volumetric images of a patient at N breathing phases as the training data, we perform deformable image registration between a reference phase and the other N-1 phases, resulting in N-1 deformation vector fields (DVFs). These DVFs can be represented efficiently by a few eigenvectors and coefficients obtained from principal component analysis (PCA). By varying the PCA coefficients, we can generate new DVFs, which, when applied on the reference image, lead to new volumetric images. We then can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single projection image by optimizing the PCA coefficients such that its computed projection matches the measured one. The 3D location of the tumor can be derived by applying the inverted DVF on its position in the reference image. Our algorithm was implemented on graphics processing units...

  10. Needle Segmentation in Volumetric Optical Coherence Tomography Images for Ophthalmic Microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle segmentation is a fundamental step for needle reconstruction and image-guided surgery. Although there has been success stories in needle segmentation for non-microsurgeries, the methods cannot be directly extended to ophthalmic surgery due to the challenges bounded to required spatial resolution. As the ophthalmic surgery is performed by finer and smaller surgical instruments in micro-structural anatomies, specifically in retinal domains, difficulties are raised for delicate operation and sensitive perception. To address these challenges, in this paper we investigate needle segmentation in ophthalmic operation on 60 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT cubes captured during needle injection surgeries on ex-vivo pig eyes. Furthermore, we developed two different approaches, a conventional method based on morphological features (MF and a specifically designed full convolution neural networks (FCN method, moreover, we evaluate them on the benchmark for needle segmentation in the volumetric OCT images. The experimental results show that FCN method has a better segmentation performance based on four evaluation metrics while MF method has a short inference time, which provides valuable reference for future works.

  11. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging classification for Alzheimer's disease based on kernel density estimation of local features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hao; WANG Hu; WANG Yong-hui; ZHANG Yu-mei

    2013-01-01

    Background The classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been challenged by lack of effective and reliable biomarkers due to inter-subject variability.This article presents a classification method for AD based on kernel density estimation (KDE) of local features.Methods First,a large number of local features were extracted from stable image blobs to represent various anatomical patterns for potential effective biomarkers.Based on distinctive descriptors and locations,the local features were robustly clustered to identify correspondences of the same underlying patterns.Then,the KDE was used to estimate distribution parameters of the correspondences by weighting contributions according to their distances.Thus,biomarkers could be reliably quantified by reducing the effects of further away correspondences which were more likely noises from inter-subject variability.Finally,the Bayes classifier was applied on the distribution parameters for the classification of AD.Results Experiments were performed on different divisions of a publicly available database to investigate the accuracy and the effects of age and AD severity.Our method achieved an equal error classification rate of 0.85 for subject aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD and outperformed a recent local feature-based work regardless of both effects.Conclusions We proposed a volumetric brain MRI classification method for neurodegenerative disease based on statistics of local features using KDE.The method may be potentially useful for the computer-aided diagnosis in clinical settings.

  12. Development of an online radiology case review system featuring interactive navigation of volumetric image datasets using advanced visualization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Boh Kyoung; Jung, Ju Hyun; Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Kyoung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Hyun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jae Min [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    To develop an online radiology case review system that allows interactive navigation of volumetric image datasets using advanced visualization techniques. Our Institutional Review Board approved the use of the patient data and waived the need for informed consent. We determined the following system requirements: volumetric navigation, accessibility, scalability, undemanding case management, trainee encouragement, and simulation of a busy practice. The system comprised a case registry server, client case review program, and commercially available cloud-based image viewing system. In the pilot test, we used 30 cases of low-dose abdomen computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. In each case, a trainee was required to navigate through the images and submit answers to the case questions. The trainee was then given the correct answers and key images, as well as the image dataset with annotations on the appendix. After evaluation of all cases, the system displayed the diagnostic accuracy and average review time, and the trainee was asked to reassess the failed cases. The pilot system was deployed successfully in a hands-on workshop course. We developed an online radiology case review system that allows interactive navigation of volumetric image datasets using advanced visualization techniques.

  13. Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer’s calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.

  14. Volumetric imaging of oral epithelial neoplasia by MPM-SHGM: epithelial connective tissue interface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    The majority of oral cancers are comprised of oral squamous cell carcinoma in which neoplastic epithelial cells invade across the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI). Invasion is preceded by a multi-component process including epithelial hyperproliferation, loss of cell polarity, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia. In particular, volumetric imaging by these methods can reveal aspects of the 3D microstructure that are not possible by other methods and which could both further our understanding of neoplastic transformation and be explored for development of diagnostic approaches in this disease having only 55% 5-year survival rate. MPAM-SHG were applied to reveal the 3D structure of the critical ECTI interface that plays an integral part toward invasion. Epithelial dysplasia was induced in an established hamster model. MPAM-SHGM was applied to lesion sites, using 780 nm excitation (450-600nm emission) for autofluroescence of cellular and extracellular components; 840 nm using 420 nm bandpass filter for SHG. The ECTI surface was identified as the interface at which SHG signal began following the epithelium and was modeled as a 3D surface using Matlab. ECTI surface area and cell features at sites of epithelial expansion where ECTI was altered were measured; Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology. ROC analysis using ECTI image metrics indicated the ability to delineate normal from neoplasia with high sensitivity and specificity and it is noteworthy that inflammation did not significantly alter diagnostic potential of MPAM-SHGM .

  15. AMIDE: A Free Software Tool for Multimodality Medical Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markus Loening

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Amide's a Medical Image Data Examiner (AMIDE has been developed as a user-friendly, open-source software tool for displaying and analyzing multimodality volumetric medical images. Central to the package's abilities to simultaneously display multiple data sets (e.g., PET, CT, MRI and regions of interest is the on-demand data reslicing implemented within the program. Data sets can be freely shifted, rotated, viewed, and analyzed with the program automatically handling interpolation as needed from the original data. Validation has been performed by comparing the output of AMIDE with that of several existing software packages. AMIDE runs on UNIX, Macintosh OS X, and Microsoft Windows platforms, and it is freely available with source code under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  16. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:27579318

  17. Adaptive Cell Segmentation and Tracking for Volumetric Confocal Microscopy Images of a Developing Plant Meristem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Liu; Anirban Chakraborty; Damanpreet Singh; Ram Kishor Yadav; Gopi Meenakshisundaram; G. Venugopala Reddy; Amit Roy-Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Automated segmentation and tracking of cells in actively developing tissues can provide high-throughput and quantitative spatiotemporal measurements of a range of cell behaviors; cell expansion and cell-division kinetics leading to a better understanding of the underlying dynamics of morphogenesis.Here,we have studied the problem of constructing cell lineages in time-lapse volumetric image stacks obtained using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM).The novel contribution of the work lies in its ability to segment and track cells in densely packed tissue,the shoot apical meristem (SAM),through the use of a close-loop,adaptive segmentation,and tracking approach.The tracking output acts as an indicator of the quality of segmentation and,in turn,the segmentation can be improved to obtain better tracking results.We construct an optimization function that minimizes the segmentation error,which is,in turn,estimated from the tracking results.This adaptive approach significantly improves both tracking and segmentation when compared to an open loop framework in which segmentation and tracking modules operate separately.

  18. Semi-automatic segmentation of vertebral bodies in volumetric MR images using a statistical shape+pose model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzani, Amin; Rasoulian, Abtin; Fels, Sidney; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    Segmentation of vertebral structures in magnetic resonance (MR) images is challenging because of poor con­trast between bone surfaces and surrounding soft tissue. This paper describes a semi-automatic method for segmenting vertebral bodies in multi-slice MR images. In order to achieve a fast and reliable segmentation, the method takes advantage of the correlation between shape and pose of different vertebrae in the same patient by using a statistical multi-vertebrae anatomical shape+pose model. Given a set of MR images of the spine, we initially reduce the intensity inhomogeneity in the images by using an intensity-correction algorithm. Then a 3D anisotropic diffusion filter smooths the images. Afterwards, we extract edges from a relatively small region of the pre-processed image with a simple user interaction. Subsequently, an iterative Expectation Maximization tech­nique is used to register the statistical multi-vertebrae anatomical model to the extracted edge points in order to achieve a fast and reliable segmentation for lumbar vertebral bodies. We evaluate our method in terms of speed and accuracy by applying it to volumetric MR images of the spine acquired from nine patients. Quantitative and visual results demonstrate that the method is promising for segmentation of vertebral bodies in volumetric MR images.

  19. Correlation Between Liver Volumetric Computed Tomography Results and Measured Liver Weight: A Tool for Preoperative Planning of Liver Transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, L.J.; Hol, J.C.; Monshouwer, R.; Prokop, M.; Klein, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Before liver transplant, it is necessary to know the size of the organ in advance of the procedure. We studied the correlation between liver volumetric computed tomography results and liver weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postmortem volumetric computed tomography was conducted on cadavers

  20. Megahertz rate, volumetric imaging of bubble clouds in sonothrombolysis using a sparse hemispherical receiver array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, Christopher N.; Jones, Ryan M.; Goertz, David E.; O’Reilly, Meaghan A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-09-01

    It is well established that high intensity focused ultrasound can be used to disintegrate clots. This approach has the potential to rapidly and noninvasively resolve clot causing occlusions in cardiovascular diseases such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). However, lack of an appropriate treatment monitoring tool is currently a limiting factor in its widespread adoption. Here we conduct cavitation imaging with a large aperture, sparse hemispherical receiver array during sonothrombolysis with multi-cycle burst exposures (0.1 or 1 ms burst lengths) at 1.51 MHz. It was found that bubble cloud generation on imaging correlated with the locations of clot degradation, as identified with high frequency (30 MHz) ultrasound following exposures. 3D images could be formed at integration times as short as 1 µs, revealing the initiation and rapid development of cavitation clouds. Equating to megahertz frame rates, this is an order of magnitude faster than any other imaging technique available for in vivo application. Collectively, these results suggest that the development of a device to perform DVT therapy procedures would benefit greatly from the integration of receivers tailored to bubble activity imaging.

  1. MO-DE-210-06: Development of a Supercompounded 3D Volumetric Ultrasound Image Guidance System for Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T; Hrycushko, B; Zhao, B; Jiang, S; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For early-stage breast cancer, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is a cost-effective breast-conserving treatment. Irradiation in a prone position can mitigate respiratory induced breast movement and achieve maximal sparing of heart and lung tissues. However, accurate dose delivery is challenging due to breast deformation and lumpectomy cavity shrinkage. We propose a 3D volumetric ultrasound (US) image guidance system for accurate prone APBI Methods: The designed system, set beneath the prone breast board, consists of a water container, an US scanner, and a two-layer breast immobilization cup. The outer layer of the breast cup forms the inner wall of water container while the inner layer is attached to patient breast directly to immobilization. The US transducer scans is attached to the outer-layer of breast cup at the dent of water container. Rotational US scans in a transverse plane are achieved by simultaneously rotating water container and transducer, and multiple transverse scanning forms a 3D scan. A supercompounding-technique-based volumetric US reconstruction algorithm is developed for 3D image reconstruction. The performance of the designed system is evaluated with two custom-made gelatin phantoms containing several cylindrical inserts filled in with water (11% reflection coefficient between materials). One phantom is designed for positioning evaluation while the other is for scaling assessment. Results: In the positioning evaluation phantom, the central distances between the inserts are 15, 20, 30 and 40 mm. The distances on reconstructed images differ by −0.19, −0.65, −0.11 and −1.67 mm, respectively. In the scaling evaluation phantom, inserts are 12.7, 19.05, 25.40 and 31.75 mm in diameter. Measured inserts’ sizes on images differed by 0.23, 0.19, −0.1 and 0.22 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The phantom evaluation results show that the developed 3D volumetric US system can accurately localize target position and determine

  2. Volumetric structural magnetic resonance imaging findings in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima eAhmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI studies of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are limited. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD have been best studied in this regard. We systematically reviewed structural neuroimaging findings in pediatric PTSD and OCD. Methods: The literature was reviewed for all sMRI studies examining volumetric parameters using PubMed, ScienceDirect and PsychInfo databases, with no limit on the time frame of publication. Nine studies in pediatric PTSD and 6 in OCD were suitable for inclusion. Results: Volumetric findings were inconsistent in both disorders. In PTSD, findings suggest increased as well as decreased volumes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC and corpus callosum; whilst in OCD studies indicate volumetric increase of the putamen, with inconsistent findings for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and frontal regions. Conclusions: Methodological differences may account for some of this inconsistency and additional volume-based studies in pediatric anxiety disorders using more uniform approaches are needed.

  3. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Strobbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time

  4. ImageParser: a tool for finite element generation from three-dimensional medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada T

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite element method (FEM is a powerful mathematical tool to simulate and visualize the mechanical deformation of tissues and organs during medical examinations or interventions. It is yet a challenge to build up an FEM mesh directly from a volumetric image partially because the regions (or structures of interest (ROIs may be irregular and fuzzy. Methods A software package, ImageParser, is developed to generate an FEM mesh from 3-D tomographic medical images. This software uses a semi-automatic method to detect ROIs from the context of image including neighboring tissues and organs, completes segmentation of different tissues, and meshes the organ into elements. Results The ImageParser is shown to build up an FEM model for simulating the mechanical responses of the breast based on 3-D CT images. The breast is compressed by two plate paddles under an overall displacement as large as 20% of the initial distance between the paddles. The strain and tangential Young's modulus distributions are specified for the biomechanical analysis of breast tissues. Conclusion The ImageParser can successfully exact the geometry of ROIs from a complex medical image and generate the FEM mesh with customer-defined segmentation information.

  5. Cherenkov imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy for real-time radiation beam tracking and treatment response monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    External beam radiotherapy utilizes high energy radiation to target cancer with dynamic, patient-specific treatment plans. The otherwise invisible radiation beam can be observed via the optical Cherenkov photons emitted from interaction between the high energy beam and tissue. Using a specialized camera-system, the Cherenkov emission can thus be used to track the radiation beam on the surface of the patient in real-time, even for complex cases such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Two patients undergoing VMAT of the head and neck were imaged and analyzed, and the viability of the system to provide clinical feedback was established.

  6. Motion compensation in a tomographic ultrasound imaging system: Toward volumetric scans of a limb for prosthetic socket design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Bryan J; Feigin, Micha; Pestrov, Nikita; Zhang, Xiang; Lempitsky, Victor; Herr, Hugh M; Anthony, Brian W

    2015-08-01

    Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and repeatable process has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography, which has significant potential to expand its clinical applications, is being pursued to acquire data that may quantify and improve the design process and fabrication of prosthetic sockets. This paper presents a new multi-modal imaging approach for acquiring volumetric images of a human limb, specifically focusing on how motion of the limb is compensated for using optical imagery.

  7. Tooling Techniques Enhance Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    They can release as much energy as tens of billions of hydrogen bombs exploding at the same time. They send protons and electrons rocketing at near the speed of light. They heat gas in the Sun s atmosphere to tens of millions of degrees Celsius. They send a blast of gas and particles toward Earth, posing a danger to spacecraft and astronauts outside the planet s magnetosphere, in rare cases even knocking out radio communications and power grids on the ground. They are so-called solar eruptive events, made up of solar flares and the often associated coronal mass ejections. Because of the scientific mystery of how these solar eruptions are produced on the Sun with such scale and force, and also the major role they play in space weather that can impact life on Earth, NASA researchers have innovated new methods of gathering information about these violent events. One NASA mission, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has significantly advanced understanding of solar flares since its launch in 2002. RHESSI scientists use the spacecraft s imaging spectrometer to piece together pictures of solar flares from the high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray radiation they emit. While there is still much to be learned, data gathered by RHESSI has revealed how magnetic fields in the vast expanse of the solar atmosphere may be the force that drives the immense explosions. The instrument has imaged around 50,000 flares to date, providing information that may explain not only the workings of solar flares but also of much more massive energy releases from distant objects like black holes and quasars. We have been able to make images from X-rays with much finer resolution and greater sensitivity than have ever been made before, says Brian Dennis, RHESSI Mission Scientist and astrophysicist in the Solar Physics Laboratory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The key to RHESSI s unprecedented capabilities lie in a set of essential components a NASA partner created for the

  8. Sub-diffraction limit localization of proteins in volumetric space using Bayesian restoration of fluorescence images from ultrathin specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Wang

    Full Text Available Photon diffraction limits the resolution of conventional light microscopy at the lateral focal plane to 0.61λ/NA (λ = wavelength of light, NA = numerical aperture of the objective and at the axial plane to 1.4nλ/NA(2 (n = refractive index of the imaging medium, 1.51 for oil immersion, which with visible wavelengths and a 1.4NA oil immersion objective is -220 nm and -600 nm in the lateral plane and axial plane respectively. This volumetric resolution is too large for the proper localization of protein clustering in subcellular structures. Here we combine the newly developed proteomic imaging technique, Array Tomography (AT, with its native 50-100 nm axial resolution achieved by physical sectioning of resin embedded tissue, and a 2D maximum likelihood deconvolution method, based on Bayes' rule, which significantly improves the resolution of protein puncta in the lateral plane to allow accurate and fast computational segmentation and analysis of labeled proteins. The physical sectioning of AT allows tissue specimens to be imaged at the physical optimum of modern high NA plan-apochormatic objectives. This translates to images that have little out of focus light, minimal aberrations and wave-front distortions. Thus, AT is able to provide images with truly invariant point spread functions (PSF, a property critical for accurate deconvolution. We show that AT with deconvolution increases the volumetric analytical fidelity of protein localization by significantly improving the modulation of high spatial frequencies up to and potentially beyond the spatial frequency cut-off of the objective. Moreover, we are able to achieve this improvement with no noticeable introduction of noise or artifacts and arrive at object segmentation and localization accuracies on par with image volumes captured using commercial implementations of super-resolution microscopes.

  9. Single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS front-end system for real-time volumetric IVUS and ICE imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F Levent

    2014-02-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echography (ICE) catheters with real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging capability can provide unique benefits to many interventional procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary and structural heart diseases. Integration of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with front-end electronics in single-chip configuration allows for implementation of such catheter probes with reduced interconnect complexity, miniaturization, and high mechanical flexibility. We implemented a single-chip forward-looking (FL) ultrasound imaging system by fabricating a 1.4-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array using CMUT-on-CMOS technology on a front-end IC implemented in 0.35-μm CMOS process. The dual-ring array has 56 transmit elements and 48 receive elements on two separate concentric annular rings. The IC incorporates a 25-V pulser for each transmitter and a low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for each receiver, along with digital control and smart power management. The final shape of the silicon chip is a 1.5-mm-diameter donut with a 430-μm center hole for a guide wire. The overall front-end system requires only 13 external connections and provides 4 parallel RF outputs while consuming an average power of 20 mW. We measured RF A-scans from the integrated single- chip array which show full functionality at 20.1 MHz with 43% fractional bandwidth. We also tested and demonstrated the image quality of the system on a wire phantom and an ex vivo chicken heart sample. The measured axial and lateral point resolutions are 92 μm and 251 μm, respectively. We successfully acquired volumetric imaging data from the ex vivo chicken heart at 60 frames per second without any signal averaging. These demonstrative results indicate that single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS systems have the potential to produce realtime volumetric images with image quality and speed suitable for catheter-based clinical applications.

  10. Integration and evaluation of a needle-positioning robot with volumetric microcomputed tomography image guidance for small animal stereotactic interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waspe, Adam C.; McErlain, David D.; Pitelka, Vasek; Holdsworth, David W.; Lacefield, James C.; Fenster, Aaron [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Medical Biophysics, Department of Medical Imaging, Department of Surgery, and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Medical Biophysics, and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, Department of Medical Biophysics, Department of Medical Imaging, and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Preclinical research protocols often require insertion of needles to specific targets within small animal brains. To target biologically relevant locations in rodent brains more effectively, a robotic device has been developed that is capable of positioning a needle along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole in the skull under volumetric microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) guidance. Methods: An x-ray compatible stereotactic frame secures the head throughout the procedure using a bite bar, nose clamp, and ear bars. CT-to-robot registration enables structures identified in the image to be mapped to physical coordinates in the brain. Registration is accomplished by injecting a barium sulfate contrast agent as the robot withdraws the needle from predefined points in a phantom. Registration accuracy is affected by the robot-positioning error and is assessed by measuring the surface registration error for the fiducial and target needle tracks (FRE and TRE). This system was demonstrated in situ by injecting 200 {mu}m tungsten beads into rat brains along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole on the top of the skull under micro-CT image guidance. Postintervention micro-CT images of each skull were registered with preintervention high-field magnetic resonance images of the brain to infer the anatomical locations of the beads. Results: Registration using four fiducial needle tracks and one target track produced a FRE and a TRE of 96 and 210 {mu}m, respectively. Evaluation with tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms showed that locations could be targeted with a mean error of 154{+-}113 {mu}m. Conclusions: The integration of a robotic needle-positioning device with volumetric micro-CT image guidance should increase the accuracy and reduce the invasiveness of stereotactic needle interventions in small animals.

  11. Integration and evaluation of a needle-positioning robot with volumetric microcomputed tomography image guidance for small animal stereotactic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waspe, Adam C; McErlain, David D; Pitelka, Vasek; Holdsworth, David W; Lacefield, James C; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Preclinical research protocols often require insertion of needles to specific targets within small animal brains. To target biologically relevant locations in rodent brains more effectively, a robotic device has been developed that is capable of positioning a needle along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole in the skull under volumetric microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) guidance. An x-ray compatible stereotactic frame secures the head throughout the procedure using a bite bar, nose clamp, and ear bars. CT-to-robot registration enables structures identified in the image to be mapped to physical coordinates in the brain. Registration is accomplished by injecting a barium sulfate contrast agent as the robot withdraws the needle from predefined points in a phantom. Registration accuracy is affected by the robot-positioning error and is assessed by measuring the surface registration error for the fiducial and target needle tracks (FRE and TRE). This system was demonstrated in situ by injecting 200 microm tungsten beads into rat brains along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole on the top of the skull under micro-CT image guidance. Postintervention micro-CT images of each skull were registered with preintervention high-field magnetic resonance images of the brain to infer the anatomical locations of the beads. Registration using four fiducial needle tracks and one target track produced a FRE and a TRE of 96 and 210 microm, respectively. Evaluation with tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms showed that locations could be targeted with a mean error of 154 +/- 113 microm. The integration of a robotic needle-positioning device with volumetric micro-CT image guidance should increase the accuracy and reduce the invasiveness of stereotactic needle interventions in small animals.

  12. Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V; Troolin, Daniel R; Strand, Tyson

    2011-12-22

    Understanding how moving organisms generate locomotor forces is fundamental to the analysis of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow patterns that are generated during body and appendage oscillation. In the past, this has been accomplished using two-dimensional planar techniques that require reconstruction of three-dimensional flow patterns. We have applied a new, fully three-dimensional, volumetric imaging technique that allows instantaneous capture of wake flow patterns, to a classic problem in functional vertebrate biology: the function of the asymmetrical (heterocercal) tail of swimming sharks to capture the vorticity field within the volume swept by the tail. These data were used to test a previous three-dimensional reconstruction of the shark vortex wake estimated from two-dimensional flow analyses, and show that the volumetric approach reveals a different vortex wake not previously reconstructed from two-dimensional slices. The hydrodynamic wake consists of one set of dual-linked vortex rings produced per half tail beat. In addition, we use a simple passive shark-tail model under robotic control to show that the three-dimensional wake flows of the robotic tail differ from the active tail motion of a live shark, suggesting that active control of kinematics and tail stiffness plays a substantial role in the production of wake vortical patterns.

  13. Efficient morphological tools for astronomical image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschini, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many applications rely on a huge quantity of images at high resolution and with high quantity of information per pixel, due either to the technological improvements of the instruments or to the type of measurement observed. This thesis is focused on exploring and developing tools and new m

  14. 3D tumor localization through real-time volumetric x-ray imaging for lung cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Song, William Y; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-01-01

    Recently we have developed an algorithm for reconstructing volumetric images and extracting 3D tumor motion information from a single x-ray projection. We have demonstrated its feasibility using a digital respiratory phantom with regular breathing patterns. In this work, we present a detailed description and a comprehensive evaluation of the improved algorithm. The algorithm was improved by incorporating respiratory motion prediction. The accuracy and efficiency were then evaluated on 1) a digital respiratory phantom, 2) a physical respiratory phantom, and 3) five lung cancer patients. These evaluation cases include both regular and irregular breathing patterns that are different from the training dataset. For the digital respiratory phantom with regular and irregular breathing, the average 3D tumor localization error is less than 1 mm. On an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU card, the average computation time for 3D tumor localization from each projection ranges between 0.19 and 0.26 seconds, for both regular and irreg...

  15. Multi-detector CT (MDCT) evaluation in interstitial lung disease (ILD): Comparison of MinIP and volumetric high resolution CT (HRCT) images

    OpenAIRE

    Youssriah Y. Sabri; Iman M. Hamdy Ibrahim; Shady Mohamed Tarek Gamal; Hebatallah H. Assal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study: Is to compare the role of minimum intensity projection (MinIP) images with that of volumetric high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Patients and methods: 180 patients (149 females and 31 males) were included in this prospective study that took place over a duration of two and half years. All patients underwent HRCT and MinIP images. The positive findings were compared recording which technique was bette...

  16. A Methodological Evaluation of Volumetric Measurement Techniques including Three-Dimensional Imaging in Breast Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hoeffelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes’ principle under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  17. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffelin, H; Jacquemin, D; Defaweux, V; Nizet, J L

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  18. White matter development in early puberty: a longitudinal volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Schnack, Hugo G; van Soelen, Inge L C; van Baal, G Caroline; Peper, Jiska S; Kahn, René S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, H E

    2012-01-01

    White matter microstructure and volume show synchronous developmental patterns in children. White matter volume increases considerably during development. Fractional anisotropy, a measure for white matter microstructural directionality, also increases with age. Development of white matter volume and development of white matter microstructure seem to go hand in hand. The extent to which the same or different genetic and/or environmental factors drive these two aspects of white matter maturation is currently unknown. We mapped changes in white matter volume, surface area and diffusion parameters in mono- and dizygotic twins who were scanned at age 9 (203 individuals) and again at age 12 (126 individuals). Over the three-year interval, white matter volume (+6.0%) and surface area (+1.7%) increased, fiber bundles expanded (most pronounced in the left arcuate fasciculus and splenium), and fractional anisotropy increased (+3.0%). Genes influenced white matter volume (heritability ~85%), surface area (~85%), and fractional anisotropy (locally 7% to 50%) at both ages. Finally, volumetric white matter growth was negatively correlated with fractional anisotropy increase (r = -0.62) and this relationship was driven by environmental factors. In children who showed the most pronounced white matter growth, fractional anisotropy increased the least and vice-versa. Thus, white matter development in childhood may reflect a process of both expansion and fiber optimization.

  19. White matter development in early puberty: a longitudinal volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Brouwer

    Full Text Available White matter microstructure and volume show synchronous developmental patterns in children. White matter volume increases considerably during development. Fractional anisotropy, a measure for white matter microstructural directionality, also increases with age. Development of white matter volume and development of white matter microstructure seem to go hand in hand. The extent to which the same or different genetic and/or environmental factors drive these two aspects of white matter maturation is currently unknown. We mapped changes in white matter volume, surface area and diffusion parameters in mono- and dizygotic twins who were scanned at age 9 (203 individuals and again at age 12 (126 individuals. Over the three-year interval, white matter volume (+6.0% and surface area (+1.7% increased, fiber bundles expanded (most pronounced in the left arcuate fasciculus and splenium, and fractional anisotropy increased (+3.0%. Genes influenced white matter volume (heritability ~85%, surface area (~85%, and fractional anisotropy (locally 7% to 50% at both ages. Finally, volumetric white matter growth was negatively correlated with fractional anisotropy increase (r = -0.62 and this relationship was driven by environmental factors. In children who showed the most pronounced white matter growth, fractional anisotropy increased the least and vice-versa. Thus, white matter development in childhood may reflect a process of both expansion and fiber optimization.

  20. A new volumetric CT machine for dental imaging based on the cone-beam technique: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozzo, P. [Dept. of Medical Physics, University Hospital, Verona (Italy); Procacci, C.; Tacconi, A.; Tinazzi Martini, P.; Bergamo Andreis, I.A. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new type of volumetric CT which uses the cone-beam technique instead of traditional fan-beam technique. The machine is dedicated to the dento-maxillo-facial imaging, particularly for planning in the field of implantology. The main characteristics of the unit are presented with reference to the technical parameters as well as the software performance. Images obtained are reported as various 2D sections of a volume reconstruction. Also, measurements of the geometric accuracy and the radiation dose absorbed by the patient are obtained using specific phantoms. Absorbed dose is compared with that given off by spiral CT. Geometric accuracy, evaluated with reference to various reconstruction modalities and different spatial orientations, is 0.8-1 % for width measurements and 2.2 % for height measurements. Radiation dose absorbed during the scan shows different profiles in central and peripheral axes. As regards the maximum value of the central profile, dose from the new unit is approximately one sixth that of traditional spiral CT. The new system appears to be very promising in dento-maxillo-facial imaging and, due to the good ratio between performance and low cost, together with low radiation dose, very interesting in view of large-scale use of the CT technique in such diagnostic applications. (orig.) With 10 figs., 3 tabs., 15 refs.

  1. Detection of cerebral involvement in patients with active neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus by the use of volumetric magnetization transfer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, G P; Rood, M J; Huizinga, T W; de Jong, B A; Bollen, E L; van Buchem, M A

    2000-11-01

    To determine whether volumetric magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) histogram analysis can detect abnormalities in patients with active neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and to compare the MTI findings in patients with active NPSLE, chronic NPSLE, and multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as in normal control subjects. Eight female and 1 male patient with active nonthromboembolic NPSLE (mean +/- SD age 39 +/- 9 years), 10 female patients with chronic NPSLE (age 33 +/- 11 years), 10 female patients with SLE and no history of NPSLE (non-NPSLE; age 34 +/- 11 years), 10 female patients with inactive MS (age 41 +/- 6 years), and 10 healthy control subjects (age 33 +/- 11 years) underwent MTL. Using the MTI scans, histograms were composed from which we derived a variety of parameters that quantitatively reflect the uniformity of the brain parenchyma as well as the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid to intracranial volume, which reflects atrophy. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histograms in the non-NPSLE group and the healthy control group were similar, whereas those in the chronic NPSLE and MS groups were flatter. There was also flattening of the histograms in the active NPSLE group, but with a shift toward higher MTRs. Our results indicate that volumetric MTI analysis detects cerebral changes in the active phase of NPSLE. The abnormalities in the brain parenchyma of patients with chronic NPSLE produced MTI values that were the same as those in patients with inactive MS. MTI values in the active phase of NPSLE differed from those in the chronic phase, which might reflect the presence of inflammation. These preliminary results suggest that MTI might provide evidence for the presence of active NPSLE. MTI might also prove to be a valuable technique for monitoring treatment trials.

  2. Real-time volumetric lipid imaging in vivo by intravascular photoacoustics at 20 frames per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Springeling, Geert; Lovrak, Matija; Mastik, Frits; Iskander-Rizk, Sophinese; Wang, Tianshi; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; Van Soest, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    Lipid deposition can be assessed with combined intravascular photoacoustic/ultrasound (IVPA/US) imaging. To date, the clinical translation of IVPA/US imaging has been stalled by a low imaging speed and catheter complexity. In this paper, we demonstrate imaging of lipid targets in swine coronary arteries in vivo, at a clinically useful frame rate of 20 s−1. We confirmed image contrast for atherosclerotic plaque in human samples ex vivo. The system is on a mobile platform and provides real-time data visualization during acquisition. We achieved an IVPA signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. These data show that clinical translation of IVPA is possible in principle. PMID:28270995

  3. Gold nanoflowers for 3D volumetric molecular imaging of tumors by photoacoustic tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Jiang[1,4; Zijian Deng[2,4; Dan Yang[3; Xin Deng[1; Qi Li[1; Yinlin Sha[3; Changhui Li[2; Dongsheng Xu[1

    2015-01-01

    By binding molecular probes that target tumor cells, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with superior characteristics have shown great potential in tumor molecular imaging studies. The non-invasive, high-resolution, and three-dimensional imaging of the targeted AuNPs within the tumor is desirable for both diagnosis and therapy. In this study, gold nanoflowers (AuNFs) are presented as a novel contrast agent for photoacoustic tomography (PAT). By binding to folic acid, the molecular probe, the tail-vein injected AuNFs concentrated within the tumor site in mice; this was clearly visualized by three-dimensional (3D) PAT imaging. In addition, toxicity assay proved that AuNFs were harmless to living cells and animals. Our results demonstrate that AuNFs have great potential in tumor molecular imaging.

  4. Alpha shape theory for 3D visualization and volumetric measurement of brain tumor progression using magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoud Al-Tamimi, Mohammed Sabbih; Sulong, Ghazali; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi

    2015-07-01

    Resection of brain tumors is a tricky task in surgery due to its direct influence on the patients' survival rate. Determining the tumor resection extent for its complete information via-à-vis volume and dimensions in pre- and post-operative Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) requires accurate estimation and comparison. The active contour segmentation technique is used to segment brain tumors on pre-operative MR images using self-developed software. Tumor volume is acquired from its contours via alpha shape theory. The graphical user interface is developed for rendering, visualizing and estimating the volume of a brain tumor. Internet Brain Segmentation Repository dataset (IBSR) is employed to analyze and determine the repeatability and reproducibility of tumor volume. Accuracy of the method is validated by comparing the estimated volume using the proposed method with that of gold-standard. Segmentation by active contour technique is found to be capable of detecting the brain tumor boundaries. Furthermore, the volume description and visualization enable an interactive examination of tumor tissue and its surrounding. Admirable features of our results demonstrate that alpha shape theory in comparison to other existing standard methods is superior for precise volumetric measurement of tumor.

  5. The entire dural sinus tree is compressed in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a longitudinal, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, Axel; Bindeballe, Jan; Riedel, Christian; Jansen, Olav [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuroradiology, Kiel (Germany); Baalen, Andreas van [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuropediatrics, Kiel (Germany); Bartsch, Thorsten [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurology, Kiel (Germany); Doerner, Lutz [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurosurgery, Kiel (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the volumetric alterations of dural sinuses in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Standardized cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in 17 patients prior to and following treatment of IIH and in seven controls. Magnetic resonance venographies (MRV) were employed for (a) judgement of circumscript dural sinus stenoses and (b) computation of sinus volumes. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the superior sagittal sinuses (SSS) were measured on T2-weighted images. Results of the initial MRIs were compared to those on follow-up MRIs and to results of controls. Stenoses of the transverse sinuses (TS) resulting in cranial venous outflow obstruction (CVOO) were present in 15/17 (88%) patients, normalizing in 7/15 cases (47%) after treatment of IIH. CVOO was not detected in the control group. Segmentation of MRV revealed decreased dural sinus volumes in patients with IIH as compared to controls (P = 0.018). Sinus volumes increased significantly with normalization of intracranial pressure independent from disappearing of TS stenoses (P = 0.007). The CSA of the SSS were normal on the initial MRIs of patients with IIH and increased on follow-up after treatment (P < 0.001). However, volumetries displayed overlap in patients and controls. Patients with IIH not only exhibit bilateral stenoses of the TS as has been reported, but volume changes of their entire dural sinus system also occur. The potential etiopathological and diagnostic roles of these changes are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Non-invasive volumetric optoacoustic imaging of cardiac cycles in acute myocardial infarction model in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hasiao-Chun Amy; Déan-Ben, Xosé Luís.; Kimm, Melanie; Kosanke, Katja; Haas, Helena; Meier, Reinhard; Lohöfer, Fabian; Wildgruber, Moritz; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Extraction of murine cardiac functional parameters on a beat-by-beat basis remains challenging with the existing imaging modalities. Novel methods enabling in vivo characterization of functional parameters at a high temporal resolution are poised to advance cardiovascular research and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. We present a new approach based on analyzing contrast-enhanced optoacoustic (OA) images acquired at high volumetric frame rate without using cardiac gating or other approaches for motion correction. Acute myocardial infarction was surgically induced in murine models, and the method was modified to optimize for acquisition of artifact-free optoacoustic data. Infarcted hearts could be differentiated from healthy controls based on a significantly higher pulmonary transit time (PTT: infarct 2.07 s vs. healthy 1.34 s), while no statistically significant difference was observed in the heart rate (318 bpm vs. 309 bpm). In combination with the proven ability of optoacoustics to track targeted probes within the injured myocardium, our method is capable of depicting cardiac anatomy, function, and molecular signatures on a beat-by-beat basis, both with high spatial and temporal resolution, thus providing new insights into the study of myocardial ischemia.

  7. Multi-scale volumetric cell and tissue imaging based on optical projection tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Sungbea; Cho, Nam Hyun; Ryu, Yongjae; Jung, Sunwoo; Vavilin, Andrey; Min, Eunjung; Jung, Woonggyu

    2016-04-01

    Optical projection tomography is a new optical imaging method for visualizing small biological specimens in three dimension. The most important advantage of OPT is to fill the gap between MRI and confocal microscope for the specimen having the range of 1-10 mm. Thus, it has been mainly used for whole-mount small animals and developmental study since this imaging modality was developed. The ability of OPT delivering anatomical and functional information of relatively large tissue in 3D has made it a promising platform in biomedical research. Recently, the potential of OPT spans its coverage to cellular scale. Even though there are increasing demand to obtain better understanding of cellular dynamics, only few studies to visualize cellular structure, shape, size and functional morphology over tissue has been investigated in existing OPT system due to its limited field of view. In this study, we develop a novel optical imaging system for 3D cellular imaging with OPT integrated with dynamic focusing technique. Our tomographic setup has great potential to be used for identifying cell characteristic in tissue because it can provide selective contrast on dynamic focal plane allowing for fluorescence as well as absorption. While the dominant contrast of optical imaging technique is to use the fluorescence for detecting certain target only, the newly developed OPT system will offer considerable advantages over currently available method when imaging cellar molecular dynamics by permitting contrast variation. By achieving multi-contrast, it is expected for this new imaging system to play an important role in delivering better cytological information to pathologist.

  8. Parity-Time Symmetric Nonlocal Metasurfaces: All-Angle Negative Refraction and Volumetric Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Francesco; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Lens design for focusing and imaging has been optimized through centuries of developments; however, conventional lenses, even in their most ideal realizations, still suffer from fundamental limitations, such as limits in resolution and the presence of optical aberrations, which are inherent to the laws of refraction. In addition, volume-to-volume imaging of three-dimensional regions of space is not possible with systems based on conventional refractive optics, which are inherently limited to plane-to-plane imaging. Although some of these limitations have been at least theoretically relaxed with the advent of metamaterials, several challenges still stand in the way of ideal imaging of three-dimensional regions of space. Here, we show that the concept of parity-time symmetry, combined with tailored nonlocal responses, enables overcoming some of these challenges, and we propose the design of a loss-immune, linear, transversely invariant, planarized metamaterial lens, with reduced aberrations and the potential to realize volume-to-volume imaging.

  9. Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Imaging with a Piezoelectric 2-D Row-Column Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    to 32 dB is measured on the beamformed images of a tissue mimicking phantom with attenuation of 0.5 dB cm−1 MHz−1, from the surface of the probe to the penetration depth of 300λ. Measured lateral resolution as Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) is between 4λ and 10λ for 18 % to 65 % of the penetration...... depth from the surface of the probe. The averaged contrast is 13 dB for the same range. The imaging performance assessment results may represent a reference guide for possible applications of such an array in different medical fields...

  10. Cerebellar disorders: clinical/radiologic findings and modern imaging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Habas, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar disorders, also called cerebellar ataxias, comprise a large group of sporadic and genetic diseases. Their core clinical features include impaired control of coordination and gait, as well as cognitive/behavioral deficits usually not detectable by a standard neurologic examination and therefore often overlooked. Two forms of cognitive/behavioral syndromes are now well identified: (1) the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, which combines an impairment of executive functions, including planning and working memory, deficits in visuospatial skills, linguistic deficiencies such as agrammatism, and inappropriate behavior; and (2) the posterior fossa syndrome, a very acute form of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome occurring essentially in children. Sporadic ataxias include stroke, toxic causes, immune ataxias, infectious/parainfectious ataxias, traumatic causes, neoplasias and paraneoplastic syndromes, endocrine disorders affecting the cerebellum, and the so-called "degenerative ataxias" (multiple system atrophy, and sporadic adult-onset ataxias). Genetic ataxias include mainly four groups of disorders: autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias, autosomal-dominant ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias and episodic ataxias), mitochondrial disorders, and X-linked ataxias. In addition to biochemical studies and genetic tests, brain imaging techniques are a cornerstone for the diagnosis, clinicoanatomic correlations, and follow-up of cerebellar ataxias. Modern radiologic tools to assess cerebellar ataxias include: functional imaging studies, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, volumetric studies, and tractography. These complementary methods provide a multimodal appreciation of the whole long-range cerebellar network functioning, and allow the extraction of potential biomarkers for prognosis and rating level of recovery after treatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Volumetric Ultrasound Imaging with Row-Column Addressed 2-D Arrays Using Spatial Matched Filter Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann;

    2015-01-01

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging with row-column addressed 2-D arrays, the two orthogonal 1-D transmit and receive arrays are both used for one-way focusing in the lateral and elevation directions separately and since they are not in the same plane, the two-way focusing is the same as one-way focusing....

  12. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Velocity Vector Imaging and Volumetric Flow Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2013-01-01

    scanner SARUS. Measurements are conducted on a carotid artery flow phantom from Danish Phantom Design, and 20 frames are acquired with a constant flow rate of 16.7±0.17 mL/s provided by a Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies CompuFlow 1000 system. The peak velocity magnitude in the vessel is found...

  13. A Trimodality Comparison of Volumetric Bone Imaging Technologies. Part I: Short-term Precision and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy K. O.; Beattie, Karen A.; Min, Kevin K. H.; Webber, Colin E.; Gordon, Christopher L.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M. W.; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and peripheral magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) modalities can measure apparent bone microstructure at resolutions 200 μm or higher. However, validity and in vivo test-retest reproducibility of apparent bone microstructure have yet to be determined on 1.0 T pMRI (196 μm) and pQCT (200 μm). This study examined 67 women with a mean age of 74 ± 9 yr and body mass index of 27.65 ± 5.74 kg/m2, demonstrating validity for trabecular separation from pMRI, cortical thickness, and bone volume fraction from pQCT images compared with high-resolution pQCT (hr-pQCT), with slopes close to unity. However, because of partial volume effects, cortical and trabecular thickness of bone derived from pMRI and pQCT images matched hr-pQCT more only when values were small. Short-term reproducibility of bone outcomes was highest for bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and densitometric variables and lowest for trabecular outcomes measuring microstructure. Measurements at the tibia for pQCT images were more precise than at the radius. In part I of this 3-part series focused on trimodality comparisons of precision and validity, it is shown that pQCT images can yield valid and reproducible apparent bone structural outcomes, but because of longer scan time and potential for more motion, the pMRI protocol examined here remains limited in achieving reliable values. PMID:25129405

  14. 2-D IMAGE-BASED VOLUMETRIC MODELING FOR PARTICLE OF RANDOM SHAPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ken; Larry E. Banta; Jiang Gangyi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to predicting randomly-shaped particle volume based on its twoDimensional (2-D) digital image is explored. Conversion of gray-scale image of the particles to its binary counterpart is first performed using backlighting technique. The silhouette of particle is thus obtained, and consequently, informative features such as particle area, centroid and shape-related descriptors are collected. Several dimensionless parameters are defined, and used as regressor variables in a multiple linear regression model to predict particle volume. Regressor coefficients are found by fitting to a randomly selected sample of 501 particles ranging in size from 4.75mm to 25mm. The model testing experiment is conducted against a different aggregate sample of the similar statistical properties, the errors of the model-predicted volume of the batch is within ±2%.

  15. Automatic mitral annulus tracking in volumetric ultrasound using non-rigid image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Veene, Henri; Bertrand, Philippe B; Popovic, Natasa; Vandervoort, Pieter M; Claus, Piet; De Beule, Matthieu; Heyde, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mitral annular dynamics plays an important role in the diagnosis and selection of optimal valve repair strategies, but remains cumbersome and time-consuming if performed manually. In this paper we propose non-rigid image registration to automatically track the annulus in 3D ultrasound images for both normal and pathological valves, and compare the performance against manual tracing. Relevant clinical properties such as annular area, circumference and excursion could be extracted reliably by the tracking algorithm. The root-mean-square error, calculated as the difference between the manually traced landmarks (18 in total) and the automatic tracking, was 1.96 ± 0.46 mm over 10 valves (5 healthy and 5 diseased) which is within the clinically acceptable error range.

  16. Development of the SOFIA Image Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexander N.

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a Boeing 747SP carrying a 2.5 meter infrared telescope capable of operating between at altitudes of between twelve and fourteen kilometers, which is above more than 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The ability to make observations above most water vapor coupled with the ability to make observations from anywhere, anytime, make SOFIA one of the world s premiere infrared observatories. SOFIA uses three visible light CCD imagers to assist in pointing the telescope. The data from these imagers is stored in archive files as is housekeeping data, which contains information such as boresight and area of interest locations. A tool that could both extract and process data from the archive files was developed.

  17. A comparison of 1D and 1.5D arrays for imaging volumetric flaws in small bore pipework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    1.5D arrays can be seen as a potentially ideal compromise between 1D arrays and 2D matrix arrays in terms of focusing capability, element density, weld coverage and data processing time. This paper presents an initial study of 1D and 1.5D arrays for high frequency (15MHz) imaging of volumetric flaws in small-bore (30-60mm outer diameter) thin-walled (3-8mm) pipework. A combination of 3D modelling and experimental work is used to determine Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement with a strong relationship between SNR and the longer dimension of element size observed. Similar behavior is demonstrated experimentally rendering a 1mm diameter Flat Bottom Hole (FBH) in Copper-Nickel alloy undetectable using a larger array element. A 3-5dB SNR increase is predicted when using a 1.5D array assuming a spherical reflector and a 2dB increase was observed on experimental trials with a FBH. It is argued that this improvement is likely to be a lower bound estimate due to the specular behavior of a FBH with future trials planned on welded samples with realistic flaws.

  18. Volumetric alterations in the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus in bulimia nervosa: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Joana; Ramos, Ana Filipa; Maia, Liliana; Castro, Liliana; Conceição, Eva; Geliebter, Allan; Machado, Paulo P P; Gonçalves, Óscar; Sampaio, Adriana

    2015-03-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors (such as purging, fasting, or excessive exercise) to prevent weight gain. BN has been associated with deficits in inhibitory control processes. The basal ganglia specifically, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the caudate nucleus (CN) are part of the frontostriatal circuits involved in inhibitory control. The main goal of this study was to investigate the presence of morphological alterations in the NAc and the CN in a sample of patients diagnosed with BN. Forty-one female participants, 21 diagnosed with BN and 20 healthy matched controls (HC), underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition and clinical assessment. The NAc and the CN were manually segmented using the software Slicer 3D. The results reveal a significant volumetric decrease in the CN and a preserved NAc volume in BN compared to the control group. These findings suggest a contributory role of the caudate nucleus part of the dorsal striatum in the psychopathology of BN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ultrasound: A novel tool for airway imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharthkumar Bhikhabhai Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The scope of ultrasound is emerging in medical science, particularly outside traditional areas of radiology practice. Aims: We designed this study to evaluate feasibility of bedside sonography as a tool for airway assessment and to describe sonographic anatomy of airway. Settings and Design: A prospective, clinical study. Materials and Methods: We included 100 adult, healthy volunteers of either sex to undergo airway imaging systemically starting from floor of the mouth to the sternal notch in anterior aspect of neck by sonography. Results: We could visualize mandible and hyoid bone as a bright hyperechoic structure with hypoechoic acoustic shadow underneath. Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal rings appeared hypoechoic. Vocal cords were visualized through thyroid cartilage. Interface between air and mucosa lining the airway produced a bright hyperechoic linear appearance. Artifacts created by intraluminal air prevented visualization of posterior pharynx, posterior commissure, and posterior wall of trachea. Conclusions: Ultrasound is safe, quick, noninvasive, repeatable, and bedside tool to assess the airway and can provide real-time dynamic images relevant for several aspects of airway management.

  20. Volumetric Image Guidance Using Carina vs Spine as Registration Landmarks for Conventionally Fractionated Lung Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, Caroline; Higgins, Jane; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sun, Alexander; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada); Bezjak, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bezjak@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the relative accuracy of 2 image guided radiation therapy methods using carina vs spine as landmarks and then to identify which landmark is superior relative to tumor coverage. Methods and Materials: For 98 lung patients, 2596 daily image-guidance cone-beam computed tomography scans were analyzed. Tattoos were used for initial patient alignment; then, spine and carina registrations were performed independently. A separate analysis assessed the adequacy of gross tumor volume, internal target volume, and planning target volume coverage on cone-beam computed tomography using the initial, middle, and final fractions of radiation therapy. Coverage was recorded for primary tumor (T), nodes (N), and combined target (T+N). Three scenarios were compared: tattoos alignment, spine registration, and carina registration. Results: Spine and carina registrations identified setup errors {>=}5 mm in 35% and 46% of fractions, respectively. The mean vector difference between spine and carina matching had a magnitude of 3.3 mm. Spine and carina improved combined target coverage, compared with tattoos, in 50% and 34% (spine) to 54% and 46% (carina) of the first and final fractions, respectively. Carina matching showed greater combined target coverage in 17% and 23% of fractions for the first and final fractions, respectively; with spine matching, this was only observed in 4% (first) and 6% (final) of fractions. Carina matching provided superior nodes coverage at the end of radiation compared with spine matching (P=.0006), without compromising primary tumor coverage. Conclusion: Frequent patient setup errors occur in locally advanced lung cancer patients. Spine and carina registrations improved combined target coverage throughout the treatment course, but carina matching provided superior combined target coverage.

  1. Imaging Three-Dimensional Myocardial Mechanics Using Navigator-gated Volumetric Spiral Cine DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaodong; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.; Meyer, Craig H.; Kramer, Christopher M.; Epstein, Frederick H.

    2010-01-01

    A navigator-gated 3D spiral cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) pulse sequence for imaging 3D myocardial mechanics was developed. In addition, previously-described 2D post-processing algorithms including phase unwrapping, tissue tracking, and strain tensor calculation for the left ventricle (LV) were extended to 3D. These 3D methods were evaluated in 5 healthy volunteers, using 2D cine DENSE and historical 3D myocardial tagging as reference standards. With an average scan time of 20.5 ± 5.7 minutes, 3D data sets with a matrix size of 128 × 128 × 22, voxel size of 2.8 × 2.8 × 5.0 mm3, and temporal resolution of 32 ms were obtained with displacement encoding in three orthogonal directions. Mean values for end-systolic mid-ventricular mid-wall radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strain were 0.33 ± 0.10, −0.17 ± 0.02, and −0.16 ± 0.02, respectively. Transmural strain gradients were detected in the radial and circumferential directions, reflecting high spatial resolution. Good agreement by linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis was achieved when comparing normal strains measured by 2D and 3D cine DENSE. Also, the 3D strains, twist, and torsion results obtained by 3D cine DENSE were in good agreement with historical values measured by 3D myocardial tagging. PMID:20574967

  2. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  3. Generation of 3D ultrasound biomicroscopic images: technique validation and in vivo volumetric imaging of rat lateral gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Santos da Fonseca Martins

    Full Text Available Introduction Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is a technique for generating high-resolution images, with frequencies from 20 MHz to 100 MHz. For example, it has been used in animal research related to models of injury and diseases that mimic human conditions. With a three-dimensional ultrasound (3D image system, an organ can be viewed at various angles and the volume estimated, contributing to an accurate diagnosis. This work refers to the generation of 3D-UBM images, employing a 35 MHz ultrasound system, from multiple two-dimensional (2D images. Phantoms were used to validate the technique and to determine its reliability of volume measurements. Additionally, the technique was used to obtain 3D images of the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Methods Four different phantoms were used and ten acquisition sequences of 2D-images acquired for each one. Thereafter, 5 volume segmentations were performed for each acquisition sequence, resulting in 50 measured volumes for each phantom. The physical volumes of all phantoms were used to validate the technique based on the coefficient of variation (CV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Images of the gastrocnemius muscle were acquired and the partial volume quantified. Results The CV and ICC confirmed the reliability of volume measurements obtained by segmentation. Moreover, cross-sectional 2D images of rat hindlimb were obtained, allowing to identify the gastrocnemius muscle and to partially quantify the muscle volume from 3D images. Conclusion The results indicated that the technique is valid to generate 3D images and quantify the volume of a muscle compatible with the dimensions of a small animal.

  4. Volumetric assessment of tumour response using functional MR imaging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with a combination of doxorubicin-eluting beads and sorafenib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona-Villalobos, Celia Pamela [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Halappa, Vivek Gowdra; Bonekamp, Susanne; Kamel, Ihab R. [Johns Hopkins University, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.; Reyes, Diane [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cosgrove, David [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pawlik, Timothy M. [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Department of Surgical Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-09-17

    To prospectively assess treatment response using volumetric functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with the combination of doxorubicin-eluting bead-transarterial chemoembolization (DEB TACE) and sorafenib. A single center study enrolled 41 patients treated with systemic sorafenib, 400 mg twice a day, combined with DEB TACE. All patients had a pre-treatment and 3-4 week post-treatment MRI. Anatomic response criteria (RECIST, mRECIST and EASL) and volumetric functional response (ADC, enhancement) were assessed. Statistical analyses included paired Student's t-test, Kaplan-Meier curves, Cohen's Kappa, and multivariate cox proportional hazard model. Median tumour size by RECIST remained unchanged post-treatment (8.3 ± 4.1 cm vs. 8.1 ± 4.3 cm, p = 0.44). There was no significant survival difference for early response by RECIST (p = 0.93). EASL and mRECIST could not be analyzed in 12 patients. Volumetric ADC increased significantly (1.32 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec to 1.60 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec, p < 0.001), and volumetric enhancement decreased significantly in HAP (38.2 % to 17.6 %, p < 0.001) and PVP (76.6 % to 41.2 %, p < 0.005). Patients who demonstrated ≥ 65 % decrease PVP enhancement had significantly improved overall survival compared to non-responders (p < 0.005). Volumetric PVP enhancement was demonstrated to be significantly correlated with survival in the combination of DEB TACE and sorafenib for patients with HCC, enabling precise stratification of responders and non-responders. (orig.)

  5. Trabecular bone characterization on the continuum of plates and rods using in vivo MR imaging and volumetric topological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Jin, Dakai; Liu, Yinxiao; Wehrli, Felix W; Chang, Gregory; Snyder, Peter J; Regatte, Ravinder R; Saha, Punam K

    2016-09-21

    Osteoporosis is associated with increased risk of fractures, which is clinically defined by low bone mineral density. Increasing evidence suggests that trabecular bone (TB) micro-architecture is an important determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. We present an improved volumetric topological analysis algorithm based on fuzzy skeletonization, results of its application on in vivo MR imaging, and compare its performance with digital topological analysis. The new VTA method eliminates data loss in the binarization step and yields accurate and robust measures of local plate-width for individual trabeculae, which allows classification of TB structures on the continuum between perfect plates and rods. The repeat-scan reproducibility of the method was evaluated on in vivo MRI of distal femur and distal radius, and high intra-class correlation coefficients between 0.93 and 0.97 were observed. The method's ability to detect treatment effects on TB micro-architecture was examined in a 2 years testosterone study on hypogonadal men. It was observed from experimental results that average plate-width and plate-to-rod ratio significantly improved after 6 months and the improvement was found to continue at 12 and 24 months. The bone density of plate-like trabeculae was found to increase by 6.5% (p  =  0.06), 7.2% (p  =  0.07) and 16.2% (p  =  0.003) at 6, 12, 24 months, respectively. While the density of rod-like trabeculae did not change significantly, even at 24 months. A comparative study showed that VTA has enhanced ability to detect treatment effects in TB micro-architecture as compared to conventional method of digital topological analysis for plate/rod characterization in terms of both percent change and effect-size.

  6. Automated Breast Volumetric Sonography Compared with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Jewish BRCA 1/2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halshtok Neiman, Osnat; Erlich, Zippy; Friedman, Eitan; Rundstein, Arie; Shalmon, Anat; Servadio, Yael; Sklair Levy, Miri

    2016-10-01

    Automated breast volumetric sonography (ABVS) is a new technology with various possible applications. To compare ABVS and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the surveillance of women with BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers. We conducted a prospective study in Jewish female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who underwent breast MRI and ABVS. The results of both exams performed 6 months apart or less, and relevant clinical data, were reviewed. The BIRADS results were divided into three subgroups according to subsequent expected management: BIRADS 1-2 (normal study), BIRADS 3 (probably benign finding), and BIRADS 4 and 5 (suspicious findings). BIRADS 0 and 6 scores were excluded from the study. Distribution of ABVS and MRI BIRADS scores were compared using McNemar's test, and concordance was calculated using the Cohen kappa test. Overall, 68 women, 40 BRCA1 and 28 BRCA2 mutation carriers, age range 26-69 (mean 44.55 ± 12.1 years), underwent 79 paired ABVS and MRI examinations. McNemar's test calculations showed no significant difference between MRI and ABVS BIRADS score distribution. Cohen's kappa test resulted in k = 0.158, an agreement that can be described as only "slight agreement" between both modalities. Of 14 discordant cases there was one cancer, revealed by MRI and not by ABVS performed 6 months prior to MRI. ABVS showed slight agreement with MRI in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These preliminary results on a small group of healthy high risk patients suggest that the diagnostic abilities of ABVS are inferior to MRI. Further studies encompassing larger groups are needed.

  7. Bone bruise in acute traumatic patellar dislocation: volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis with follow-up mean of 12 months

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paakkala, Antti; Paakkala, Timo [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Sillanpaeae, Petri; Maeenpaeae, Heikki [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini [University of Tampere, School of Public Health, Tampere (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    The aim of the study was to assess volumetric analysis of bone bruises in acute primary traumatic patellar dislocation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resolving resolution of bruises in follow-up MRI. MRI was performed in 23 cases. A follow-up examination was done at a mean of 12 months after dislocation. Volumes of patellar and femur bruises for every patient were evaluated separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists, and mean values of the bruises were assessed. Other MRI findings were evaluated, together with agreement by consensus. Bone bruise volumes were compared with other MR findings. In the acute study 100% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 96% bruising of the patella. The bruise was located at the medial femoral condyle in 30% and at the patellar median ridge in 74% of patients. The median volume of the femoral bruise was 25,831 mm{sup 3} and of the patellar bruise 2,832 mm{sup 3}. At the follow-up study 22% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 39% bruising of the patella, the median volumes of the bruises being 5,062 mm{sup 3} and 1,380 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Larger patellar bruise volume correlated with larger femur bruise volume in the acute (r=0.389, P=0.074) and the follow-up (r=1.000, P<0.01) studies. Other MRI findings did not correlate significantly with bone bruise volumes. Bone bruising is the commonest finding in cases of acute patellar dislocation, being seen even 1 year after trauma and indicating significant bone trabecular injury in the patellofemoral joint. A large bruise volume may be associated with subsequent chondral lesion progression at the patella. We concluded that the measurement of bone bruise volume in patients with acute patellar dislocation is a reproducible method but requires further studies to evaluate its clinical use. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of an in-line particle imaging tool for monitoring twin-screw granulation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dhondt, Jens; De Leersnyder, Fien;

    2015-01-01

    ). The volumetric size distribution obtained from the in-line measurements of the granules leaving the twin-screw granulator using the Eyecon™ camera was compared with the off-line measurements obtainedby sieving of the granule samples collected before and after the drying unit operation. For the intermediate size...... range (diameter 250–1000 μm), the Eyecon™ measurements showed to be promising as they were in agreement with off-line measurement results obtained before the drying unit. However, the image analysis algorithm and data post-processing of the Eyecon™ images for the fines and oversized ranges require......Twin-screw granulation is an emerging continuous wet granulation technique in the pharmaceutical industry due to several advantages over batch granulation. However, for the implementation of a fully continuous linein an industrial environment, in-process measurement tools are required to monitor...

  9. Quantitative volumetric analysis of the optic radiation in the normal human brain using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Hoon Lee; Ji-Won Park; Cheol-Pyo Hong

    2014-01-01

    To attain the volumetric information of the optic radiation in normal human brains, we per-formed diffusion tensor imaging examination in 13 healthy volunteers. Simultaneously, we used a brain normalization method to reduce individual brain variation and increase the accuracy of volumetric information analysis. In addition, tractography-based group mapping method was also used to investigate the probability and distribution of the optic radiation pathways. Our results showed that the measured optic radiation ifber tract volume was a range of about 0.16%and that the fractional anisotropy value was about 0.53. Moreover, the optic radiation probability ifber pathway that was determined with diffusion tensor tractography-based group mapping was able to detect the location relatively accurately. We believe that our methods and results are help-ful in the study of optic radiation ifber tract information.

  10. Volumetric error compensation based on rapid identification for NC machine tools%基于原始误差项快速辨识的空间几何误差补偿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小力; 周云飞; 李斌

    2007-01-01

    The mapping relationships among the motion coordinate errors along nine single coordinate lines, the straightness error and 21 other initial error items, and the mapping relationships among the tool geometric errors related to work-piece space and initial error items are researched using laser interferometer for a three-axis machining center. Then, a nine-line measurement method and a volumetric error compensation method are put forward. Moreover, the rapid identification of initial error items and compensation of volumetric error are realized.

  11. Cardiac imaging with multi-sector data acquisition in volumetric CT: variation of effective temporal resolution and its potential clinical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Hsieh, Jiang; Taha, Basel H.; Vass, Melissa L.; Seamans, John L.; Okerlund, Darin R.

    2009-02-01

    With increasing longitudinal detector dimension available in diagnostic volumetric CT, step-and-shoot scan is becoming popular for cardiac imaging. In comparison to helical scan, step-and-shoot scan decouples patient table movement from cardiac gating/triggering, which facilitates the cardiac imaging via multi-sector data acquisition, as well as the administration of inter-cycle heart beat variation (arrhythmia) and radiation dose efficiency. Ideally, a multi-sector data acquisition can improve temporal resolution at a factor the same as the number of sectors (best scenario). In reality, however, the effective temporal resolution is jointly determined by gantry rotation speed and patient heart beat rate, which may significantly lower than the ideal or no improvement (worst scenario). Hence, it is clinically relevant to investigate the behavior of effective temporal resolution in cardiac imaging with multi-sector data acquisition. In this study, a 5-second cine scan of a porcine heart, which cascades 6 porcine cardiac cycles, is acquired. In addition to theoretical analysis and motion phantom study, the clinical consequences due to the effective temporal resolution variation are evaluated qualitative or quantitatively. By employing a 2-sector image reconstruction strategy, a total of 15 (the permutation of P(6, 2)) cases between the best and worst scenarios are studied, providing informative guidance for the design and optimization of CT cardiac imaging in volumetric CT with multi-sector data acquisition.

  12. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  13. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Essers, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 13 patients, four treatment co

  14. Volumetric modulated arc therapy and breath-hold in image-guided locoregional left-sided breast irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Essers, M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and/or voluntary moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (vmDIBH) in the radiation therapy (RT) of left-sided breast cancer including the regional lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 13 patients, four treatment

  15. Free-breathing radial volumetric interpolated breathhold examination vs breath-hold cartesian volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination magnetic resonance imaging of the liver at 1.5T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sireesha Yedururi; HyunSeon C Kang; Wei Wei; Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak; Leonardo P Marcal; R Jason Stafford; Brandy J Willis; Janio Szklaruk

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare breath-hold cartesian volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination(cVIBE) and freebreathing radial VIBE(rVIBE) and determine whether rVIBE could replace cVIBE in routine liver magnetic resonance imaging(MRI).METHODS: In this prospective study, 15 consecutive patients scheduled for routine MRI of the abdomen underwent pre- and post-contrast breath-hold cVIBE imaging(19 s acquisition time) and free-breathing rVIBE imaging(111 s acquisition time) on a 1.5T Siemens scanner. Three radiologists with 2, 4, and 8 years post-fellowship experience in abdominal imaging evaluated all images. The radiologists were blinded to the sequence types, which were presented in a random order for each patient. For each sequence, the radiologists scored the cVIBE and rVIBE images for liver edge sharpness, hepatic vessel clarity, presence of artifacts, lesion conspicuity, fat saturation, and overall image quality using a five-point scale. RESULTS: Compared to rVIBE, cVIBE yielded significantly(P < 0.001) higher scores for liver edge sharpness(mean score, 3.87 vs 3.37), hepatic-vessel clarity(3.71 vs 3.18), artifacts(3.74 vs 3.06), lesion conspicuity(3.81 vs 3.2), and overall image quality(3.91 vs 3.24). cVIBE and rVIBE did not significantly differ in quality of fat saturation(4.12 vs 4.03, P = 0.17). The inter-observer variability with respect to differences between rVIBE and cVIBE scores was close to zero compared to random error and inter-patient variation. Quality of rVIBE images was rated as acceptable for all parameters. CONCLUSION: rVIBE cannot replace cVIBE in routine liver MRI. At 1.5T, free-breathing rVIBE yields acceptable, although slightly inferior image quality compared to breath-hold cVIBE.

  16. Three-dimensional full-range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in-vivo volumetric imaging of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Nan; Bu, Peng; Guo, Xin; Wang, Xiangzhao

    2012-03-01

    A three dimensional full-range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (complex FDOCT) system based on sinusoidal phase-modulating method is proposed. With the system, the range of imaging depth is doubled and the sensitivity degradation with the lateral scan distance is avoided. Fourier analysis of B-scan data along lateral scan distance is used for reconstructing the complex spectral interferograms. The B-scan based Fourier method improves the system tolerance of sample movement and makes data processing less time consuming. In vivo volumetric imaging of human skin with the proposed full-range FDOCT system is demonstrated. The mirror image rejection ratio is about 30 dB. The stratum corneum, the epidermis and the upper dermis of skin can be clearly identified in the reconstructed three dimensional FDOCT images.

  17. Surface imaging, laser positioning or volumetric imaging for breast cancer with nodal involvement treated by helical TomoTherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop, Frederik; Pasquier, David; Baczkiewic, Amandine; Doré, Julie; Bequet, Lena; Steux, Emeline; Gadroy, Anne; Bouillon, Jacqueline; Florence, Clement; Muszynski, Laurence; Lacour, Mathilde; Lartigau, Eric

    2016-09-08

    A surface imaging system, Catalyst (C-Rad), was compared with laser-based positioning and daily mega voltage computed tomography (MVCT) setup for breast patients with nodal involvement treated by helical TomoTherapy. Catalyst-based positioning performed better than laser-based positioning. The respective modalities resulted in a standard deviation (SD), 68% confidence interval (CI) of positioning of left-right, craniocaudal, anterior-posterior, roll: 2.4 mm, 2.7 mm, 2.4 mm, 0.9° for Catalyst positioning, and 6.1 mm, 3.8 mm, 4.9 mm, 1.1° for laser-based positioning, respectively. MVCT-based precision is a combination of the interoperator variability for MVCT fusion and the patient movement during the time it takes for MVCT and fusion. The MVCT fusion interoperator variability for breast patients was evaluated at one SD left-right, craniocaudal, ant-post, roll as: 1.4 mm, 1.8 mm, 1.3 mm, 1.0°. There was no statistically significant difference between the automatic MVCT registration result and the manual adjustment; the automatic fusion results were within the 95% CI of the mean result of 10 users, except for one specific case where the patient was positioned with large yaw. We found that users add variability to the roll correction as the automatic registration was more consistent. The patient position uncertainty confidence interval was evaluated as 1.9 mm, 2.2 mm, 1.6 mm, 0.9° after 4 min, and 2.3 mm, 2.8 mm, 2.2 mm, 1° after 10 min. The combination of this patient movement with MVCT fusion interoperator variability results in total standard deviations of patient posi-tion when treatment starts 4 or 10 min after initial positioning of, respectively: 2.3 mm, 2.8 mm, 2.0 mm, 1.3° and 2.7 mm, 3.3 mm, 2.6 mm, 1.4°. Surface based positioning arrives at the same precision when taking into account the time required for MVCT imaging and fusion. These results can be used on a patient-per-patient basis to decide which positioning system performs the best after the

  18. Tumoral tracing and reconstruction of doses with images of MV acquired during treatment arco therapy volumetric; Seguimiento tumoral y reconstruccion de dosis con imagenes de MV adquiridas durante tratamientos de arcoterapia volumetrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azcona Armendariz, J. D.; Li, R.; Xing, L.

    2015-07-01

    Develop a strategy of tracking MV tumor on images acquired with flat panel and apply it to the characterization of the movement and dose reconstruction The research was conducted using a linear accelerator Varian True Beam, equipped with imaging system by Megavoltage. used images of patients with prostate cancer treated with volumetric arcotheraphy. (Author)

  19. Single step full volumetric reconstruction optical coherence tomography utilizing compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoyang; Liu, Jiansheng; cheng, Jiangtao; Liu, Haitao; Zhou, Hongwen

    2017-03-01

    3D optical coherence tomography imaging (OCT) combined with compressive sensing (CS) has been proved to be an attractive and effective tool in a variety of fields, such as medicine and biology. To achieve high quality imaging while using as less CS sampling rate as possible is the goal of this approach. Here we present an innovative single step fully 3D CS-OCT volumetric image recovery method, in which 3D OCT volumetric image of the object is compressively sampled via our proposed CS coding strategies in all three dimensions while its sparsity is simultaneously taken into consideration in every direction. The object can be directly recovered as the whole volume reconstruction via our advanced full 3D CS reconstruction algorithm. The numerical simulations of a human retina OCT volumetric image reconstruction by our method demonstrate a PSNR of as high as 38dB at a sampling rate of less than 10%.

  20. SU-E-I-10: Investigation On Detectability of a Small Target for Different Slice Direction of a Volumetric Cone Beam CT Image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C; Han, M; Baek, J [Yonsei University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the detectability of a small target for different slice direction of a volumetric cone beam CT image and its impact on dose reduction. Methods: Analytic projection data of a sphere object (1 mm diameter, 0.2/cm attenuation coefficient) were generated and reconstructed by FDK algorithm. In this work, we compared the detectability of the small target from four different backprojection Methods: hanning weighted ramp filter with linear interpolation (RECON 1), hanning weighted ramp filter with Fourier interpolation (RECON2), ramp filter with linear interpolation (RECON 3), and ramp filter with Fourier interpolation (RECON4), respectively. For noise simulation, 200 photons per measurement were used, and the noise only data were reconstructed using FDK algorithm. For each reconstructed volume, axial and coronal slice were extracted and detection-SNR was calculated using channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with dense difference-of-Gaussian (D-DOG) channels. Results: Detection-SNR of coronal images varies for different backprojection methods, while axial images have a similar detection-SNR. Detection-SNR{sup 2} ratios of coronal and axial images in RECON1 and RECON2 are 1.33 and 1.15, implying that the coronal image has a better detectability than axial image. In other words, using coronal slices for the small target detection can reduce the patient dose about 33% and 15% compared to using axial slices in RECON 1 and RECON 2. Conclusion: In this work, we investigated slice direction dependent detectability of a volumetric cone beam CT image. RECON 1 and RECON 2 produced the highest detection-SNR, with better detectability in coronal slices. These results indicate that it is more beneficial to use coronal slice to improve detectability of a small target in a volumetric cone beam CT image. This research was supported by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Korea, under the IT Consilience Creative Program (NIPA-2014-H0201

  1. Evaluation of five image registration tools for abdominal CT: pitfalls and opportunities with soft anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher P.; Xu, Zhoubing; Burke, Ryan P.; Baucom, Rebeccah; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Image registration has become an essential image processing technique to compare data across time and individuals. With the successes in volumetric brain registration, general-purpose software tools are beginning to be applied to abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Herein, we evaluate five current tools for registering clinically acquired abdominal CT scans. Twelve abdominal organs were labeled on a set of 20 atlases to enable assessment of correspondence. The 20 atlases were pairwise registered based on only intensity information with five registration tools (affine IRTK, FNIRT, Non-Rigid IRTK, NiftyReg, and ANTs). Following the brain literature, the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), mean surface distance, and Hausdorff distance were calculated on the registered organs individually. However, interpretation was confounded due to a significant proportion of outliers. Examining the retrospectively selected top 1 and 5 atlases for each target revealed that there was a substantive performance difference between methods. To further our understanding, we constructed majority vote segmentation with the top 5 DSC values for each organ and target. The results illustrated a median improvement of 85% in DSC between the raw results and majority vote. These experiments show that some images may be well registered to some targets using the available software tools, but there is significant room for improvement and reveals the need for innovation and research in the field of registration in abdominal CTs. If image registration is to be used for local interpretation of abdominal CT, great care must be taken to account for outliers (e.g., atlas selection in statistical fusion).

  2. A longitudinal observational study of brain atrophy rate reflecting four decades of multiple sclerosis: a comparison of serial 1D, 2D, and volumetric measurements from MRI images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martola, Juha; Zhang, Yi; Aspelin, Peter; Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Radiology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, Jakob [Karolinska Institutet, The Medical Statistics Unit, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Stockholm (Sweden); Fredrikson, Sten; Stawiarz, Leszek; Hillert, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Flodmark, Olof; Lilja, Anders [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Anders [Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a variable progression with an early onset of atrophy. Individual longitudinal radiological evaluations (over decades) are difficult to perform due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the past, patients lost in follow-up, and the continuous updating of scanners. We studied a cohort with widespread disease duration at baseline. The observed individual atrophy rates over time of 10 years represented four decades of disease span. Thirty-seven MS patients (age range 24-65 years with disease duration 1-33 years) were consecutively selected and evaluated with MRI at baseline 1995 and in 1996. They were followed up for a decade (mean of 9.25 years, range 7.3-10 years) up to 2003-2005. Brain parenchymal volume and volumes of the supratentorial ventricles were analyzed with semi-automated volumetric measurements at three time points (1995, 1996, and 2003-2005). Volumetric differences were found over shorter periods of time (1-7 months); however, differences vanished by the end of follow-up. A uniform longitudinal decrease in brain volume and increase in ventricle volumes were found. Frontal horn width (1D) correlated strongest to 3D measures. No statistical differences of atrophy rates between MS courses were found. Supratentorial ventricular volumes were associated with disability and this association persisted during follow-up. Despite variable clinical courses, the degenerative effects of MS progression expressed in brain atrophy seem to uniformly progress over longer periods of time. These volumetric changes can be detected using 1D and 2D measurements performed on a routine PACS workstation. (orig.)

  3. Visual Images as Tools of Teacher Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nancy M.; Van Harken, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    As aspiring professionals, pre-service teachers must become good consumers of educational research as well as competent researchers who can use tools of inquiry to improve their practice and conduct their own educational research. Many, however, resist learning research skills or find difficulties in doing so. This article presents ways in which…

  4. Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.

  5. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  6. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong

    2000-01-01

    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  7. Volumetric error modeling and sensitivity analysis for a five-axis ultra-precision machine tool%超精密五轴机床的几何误差建模和灵敏度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文利; 姚鑫骅

    2015-01-01

    Studies the volumetric error modeling and its sensitivity analysis for the purpose of machine design .The volumetric er-ror model of a five-axis machine tool with the configuration of RTTTR is established based on rigid body kinematics and homoge -neous transformation matrix ,in which 37 error components are involved .The sensitivity analysis of volumetric error regarding 37 error components is carried out respectively .The analysis results will be used for the accuracy design and manufacture of a five -axis ultra-precision machine tool .%基于设计出超精密机床的目的,研究了机床的几何误差建模和误差的灵敏度分析。基于刚体运动学和齐次变换矩阵( Homogeneous Transformation Matrix ,HTM)建立了RTTTR配置的超精密五轴机床的几何误差模型,模型涉及37个误差分量。分别对37个误差分量进行了几何误差的灵敏度分析,分析结果将应用于超精密五轴机床的设计与制造上。

  8. Smaller right amygdala in Caucasian alcohol-dependent male patients with a history of intimate partner violence: a volumetric imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishu; Kerich, Mike; Schwandt, Melanie L; Rawlings, Robert R; McKellar, Joshua D; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W; George, David T

    2013-05-01

    Studies have shown that various brain structure abnormalities are associated with chronic alcohol abuse and impulsive aggression. However, few imaging studies have focused on violent individuals with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The present study used volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the volumes of different structural components of prefrontal cortex and six subcortical structures in perpetrators of intimate partner violence with alcohol dependence (IPV-ADs), non-violent alcohol-dependent patients (non-violent ADs) and healthy controls (HCs). Caucasian men (n = 54), ages 24-55, who had participated in National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism treatment programs, were grouped together as IPV-ADs (n = 27), non-violent ADs (n = 14) and HCs (n = 13). The MRI scan was performed at least 3 weeks from the participant's last alcohol use. T1-weighted images were used to measure the volumes of intracranial space, gray and white matter, orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, and six subcortical structures. Results revealed that IPV-ADs, compared with non-violent ADs and HCs, had a significant volume reduction in the right amygdala. No significant volumetric difference was found in other structures. This finding suggests that structural deficits in the right amygdala may underlie impulsive types of aggression often seen in alcohol-dependent patients with a history of IPV. It adds to a growing literature suggesting that there are fundamental differences between alcohol-dependent patients with and without IPV. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Photoelectron Imaging as a Quantum Chemistry Visualization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumbling, Emily R.; Pichugin, Kostyantyn; Mabbs, Richard; Sanov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    An overview and simple example of photoelectron imaging is presented, highlighting its efficacy as a pedagogical tool for visualizing quantum phenomena. Specifically, photoelectron imaging of H[superscript -] (the simplest negative ion) is used to demonstrate several quantum mechanical principles. This example could be incorporated into an…

  10. Prospective assessment of urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual symptoms before, during and after image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Joen; Widmark, Anders; Fransson, Per

    2015-01-01

    . One year after RT, there was no longer any difference compared to baseline for any of the urinary symptoms. All gastrointestinal symptoms except for nausea increased significantly at the end of RT. One year after RT, patients also reported slightly higher degrees of stool frequency, bowel leakage......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the development of 24 urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual symptoms in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) during and after image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy (IG-VMAT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 87 patients with PCa...... RT compared to baseline were analysed by a mixed model analysis of repeated measurements with the following covariates: age, comorbidity, smoking and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). RESULTS: All urinary problems except for haematuria increased significantly at the end of RT compared to baseline...

  11. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  12. An Experiential Survey on Image Mining Tools, Techniques and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lakshmi Devasena,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitization in every sector leads to the growth of digital data in a tremendous amount. Digital data are not only available in the form of text but it is also available in the form of images, audio andvideo. Decision making people in every field like business, public sector, hospital, etc. are trying to get useful and implicit information from the already existing digital data bases. Image mining is the concept used to extract implicit and useful data from images stored in the large data bases. Image mining is used in variety of fields like medical diagnosis, space research, remote sensing, agriculture, industries and even in the educational field. This paper elaborates the research works already done in image mining and also summarizes different tool developed, algorithms emerged and the applications of image mining used to extract the useful images in various fields.

  13. SU-E-T-237: Deformable Image Registration and Deformed Dose Composite for Volumetric Evaluation of Multimodal Gynecological Cancer Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, D; Sherertz, T; Ellis, R; Podder, T [Seidman Cancer Center University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cantley, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Herrmann, K [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy plans for patients with cervical cancer treated with EBRT followed by HDR brachytherapy are optimized by constraining dose to organs at risk (OARs). Risk of treatment related toxicities is estimated based on the dose received to the hottest 2cc (D2cc) of the bladder, bowel, rectum, and sigmoid. To account for intrafractional variation in OAR volume and positioning, a dose deformation method is proposed for more accurate evaluation of dose distribution for these patients. Methods: Radiotherapy plans from five patients who received 50.4Gy pelvic EBRT followed by 30Gy in five fractions of HDR brachytherapy, using split-ring and tandem applicators, were retrospectively evaluated using MIM Software version 6.0. Dose accumulation workflows were used for initial deformation of EBRT and HDR planning CTs onto a common HDR planning CT. The Reg Refine tool was applied with user-specified local alignments to refine the deformation. Doses from the deformed images were transferred to the common planning CT. Deformed doses were scaled to the EQD2, following the linear-quadratic BED model (considered α/β ratio for tumor as 10, and 3 for rest of the tissues), and then combined to create the dose composite. MIM composite doses were compared to the clinically-reported plan assessments based upon the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) guidelines for cervical HDR brachytherapy treatment. Results: Bladder D2cc exhibited significant reduction (−11.4%±3.85%, p< 0.02) when evaluated using MIM deformable dose composition. Differences observed for bowel, rectum, and sigmoid D2cc were not significant (−0.58±7.37%, −4.13%±13.7%, and 8.58%±4.71%, respectively and p>0.05 for all) relative to the calculated values used clinically. Conclusion: Application of deformable dose composite techniques may lead to more accurate total dose reporting and can allow for elevated dose to target structures with the assurance of not exceeding dose to OARs. Further study into

  14. EBSD Imaging of Monazite: a Petrochronological Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, C. M.; Cottle, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in in-situ U-Th/Pb monazite petrochronology allow ages obtained from micron-scale portions of texturally-constrained, individual crystals to be placed directly into a quantitative Pressure-Temperature framework. However, there remain major unresolved challenges in linking monazite ages to specific deformation events and discerning the effects of deformation on the isotopic and elemental tracers in these phases. Few studies have quantitatively investigated monazite microstructure, and these studies have largely focused only on crystals produced experimentally (e.g. Reddy et al., 2010). The dispersion in age data commonly yielded from monazite U-Th/Pb datasets suggest that monazite dynamically recrystallises during deformation. It remains unclear how this continual recrystallisation is reflected in the monazite crystal structure, and how this subsequently impacts the ages (or age ranges) yielded from single crystals. Here, combined laser ablation split-stream analysis of deformed monazite, EBSD imaging and Pressure-Temperature (P-T) phase equilibria modelling is used to quantify the influence of deformation on monazite (re)crystallisation mechanisms and its subsequent effect on the crystallographic structure, ages and trace-element distribution in individual grains. These data provide links between ages and specific deformation events, thus helping further our understanding of the role of dynamic recrystallisation in producing age variation within and between crystals in a deformed rock. These data provide a new dimension to the field of petrochronology, demonstrating the importance of fully integrating the Pressure-Temperature-time-deformation history of accessory phases to better interpret the meaningfulness of ages yielded from deformed rocks. Reddy, S. et al., 2010. Mineralogical Magazine 74: 493-506

  15. Anatomy, variants, and pathologies of the superior glenohumeral ligament: Magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence and conventional magnetic resonance arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogul, Hayri; Karaca, Leyla; Emre, Cahit; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Tuncer, Kutsi; Topai, Murat; Okur, Aylin; Kantarci, Mecit [Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this review was to demonstrate magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography findings of anatomy, variants, and pathologic conditions of the superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL). This review also demonstrates the applicability of a new MR arthrography sequence in the anterosuperior portion of the glenohumeral joint. The SGHL is a very important anatomical structure in the rotator interval that is responsible for stabilizing the long head of the biceps tendon. Therefore, a torn SGHL can result in pain and instability. Observation of the SGHL is difficult when using conventional MR imaging, because the ligament may be poorly visualized. Shoulder MR arthrography is the most accurately established imaging technique for identifying pathologies of the SGHL and associated structures. The use of three dimensional (3D) volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences produces thinner image slices and enables a higher in-plane resolution than conventional MR arthrography sequences. Therefore, shoulder MR arthrography using 3D VIBE sequences may contribute to evaluating of the smaller intraarticular structures such as the SGHL.

  16. Toward the development of an image quality tool for active millimeter wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Weatherall, James C.; Greca, Joseph; Smith, Barry T.

    2015-05-01

    Preliminary design considerations for an image quality tool to complement millimeter wave imaging systems are presented. The tool is planned for use in confirming operating parameters; confirmation of continuity for imaging component design changes, and analysis of new components and detection algorithms. Potential embodiments of an image quality tool may contain materials that mimic human skin in order to provide a realistic signal return for testing, which may also help reduce or eliminate the need for mock passengers for developmental testing. Two candidate materials, a dielectric liquid and an iron-loaded epoxy, have been identified and reflection measurements have been performed using laboratory systems in the range 18 - 40 GHz. Results show good agreement with both laboratory and literature data on human skin, particularly in the range of operation of two commercially available millimeter wave imaging systems. Issues related to the practical use of liquids and magnetic materials for image quality tools are discussed.

  17. Study of inter-fraction movements of tongue during radiation therapy in cases of tongue malignancy using volumetric cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Athar Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Tongue is a mobile organ in head and neck region predisposing it for geographic miss during the course of fractionated radiotherapy for tongue malignancy. This study analyses movement of tongue during the course of radiotherapy using volumetric KV-cone beam computed tomography (KV-CBCT imaging for patients of tongue malignancy treated without using tongue bite. Methods: We analysed 100 KV-cone beam CTs performed on 10 patients with carcinoma of tongue undergoing fractionated radiotherapy. All the patients underwent thermoplastic mask immobilisation and CT simulation. During the course of radiotherapy, all patients underwent volumetric KV-CBCT imaging to assess the movements of tongue. Five arbitrary reference points were used to analyse the movements of tongue in 3-dimensions: 1 Point A: Tip of tongue; 2 Point B: Point over right lateral border, 4 cm posterior to the tip of tongue; 3 Point C: Point over left lateral border, 4 cm posterior to the tip of tongue; 4 Point D: Point over superior most part (dorsum of tongue, 4 cm posterior to the tip of tongue; 5 Point E: Point over the surface of base of tongue at the level of tip of epiglottis. Results: Mean movements of point A: +0.21 cm (SD: 0.12 and -0.23 cm (SD: 0.14, point B: +0.14 cm (SD: 0.04 and -0.19 cm (SD: 0.1, point C: +0.12 cm (SD: 0.05 and -0.14 cm (SD: 0.06, point D: +0.15 cm (SD: 0.07 and -0.29 cm (SD: 0.22 and point E: +0.23 cm (SD: 0.15 and -0.23 cm (SD: 0.14. Conclusion: Organ movement is one of the great challenges encountered during radiotherapy. Tongue is one such organ in head and neck region. Concept of internal target volume (ITV margin which takes into account the internal organ movements should be considered for tongue malignancies. ITV to PTV margin will depend on the setup accuracy, immobilization device and imaging modality utilised for setup verification. In an IGRT (Image Guided Radio Therapy setup, a PTV margin of 0.3 to 0.5 cm from ITV would be safe.

  18. Beginning Digital Image Processing Using Free Tools For Photographers

    CERN Document Server

    Montabone, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Since the advent of digital photography, we have been able to post-process our pictures. However, to do it properly, we have to become digital art apprentices. Sebastian Montabone is a computer vision expert who wants us to use our cameras and image processing software to come up with works of art. In this book, he teaches image processing techniques of ascending difficulty based on freely available tools. The book teaches you to use the best tools for the job, and it focuses on the techniques, not the environments or toolchains in which they run. Also in this book, youa??ll learn about the Ca

  19. Volumetric flow imaging reveals the importance of vortex ring formation in squid swimming tail-first and arms-first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S; Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Williams, Sheila; Thompson, Joseph T

    2016-02-01

    Squids use a pulsed jet and fin movements to swim both arms-first (forward) and tail-first (backward). Given the complexity of the squid multi-propulsor system, 3D velocimetry techniques are required for the comprehensive study of wake dynamics. Defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry, a volumetric velocimetry technique, and high-speed videography were used to study arms-first and tail-first swimming of brief squid Lolliguncula brevis over a broad range of speeds [0-10 dorsal mantle lengths (DML) s(-1)] in a swim tunnel. Although there was considerable complexity in the wakes of these multi-propulsor swimmers, 3D vortex rings and their derivatives were prominent reoccurring features during both tail-first and arms-first swimming, with the greatest jet and fin flow complexity occurring at intermediate speeds (1.5-3.0 DML s(-1)). The jet generally produced the majority of thrust during rectilinear swimming, increasing in relative importance with speed, and the fins provided no thrust at speeds >4.5 DML s(-1). For both swimming orientations, the fins sometimes acted as stabilizers, producing negative thrust (drag), and consistently provided lift at low/intermediate speeds (swimming orientation, and η for swimming sequences with clear isolated jet vortex rings was significantly greater (η=78.6±7.6%, mean±s.d.) than that for swimming sequences with clear elongated regions of concentrated jet vorticity (η=67.9±19.2%). This study reveals the complexity of 3D vortex wake flows produced by nekton with hydrodynamically distinct propulsors.

  20. SU-E-J-73: Generation of Volumetric Images with a Respiratory Motion Model Based On An External Surrogate Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Mishra, P; Dhou, S; Lewis, J [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion during radiotherapy treatment can differ significantly from motion observed during imaging for treatment planning. Our goal is to use an initial 4DCT scan and the trace of an external surrogate marker to generate 3D images of patient anatomy during treatment. Methods: Deformable image registration is performed on images from an initial 4DCT scan. The deformation vectors are used to develop a patient-specific linear relationship between the motion of each voxel and the trajectory of an external surrogate signal. Correlations in motion are taken into account with principal component analysis, reducing the number of free parameters. This model is tested with digital phantoms reproducing the breathing patterns of ten measured patient tumor trajectories, using five seconds of data to develop the model and the subsequent thirty seconds to test its predictions. The model is also tested with a breathing physical anthropomorphic phantom programmed to reproduce a patient breathing pattern. Results: The error (mean absolute, 95th percentile) over 30 seconds in the predicted tumor centroid position ranged from (0.8, 1.3) mm to (2.2, 4.3) mm for the ten patient breathing patterns. The model reproduced changes in both phase and amplitude of the breathing pattern. Agreement between prediction and truth over the entire image was confirmed by assessing the global voxel intensity RMS error. In the physical phantom, the error in the tumor centroid position was less than 1 mm for all images. Conclusion: We are able to reconstruct 3D images of patient anatomy with a model correlating internal respiratory motion with motion of an external surrogate marker, reproducing the expected tumor centroid position with an average accuracy of 1.4 mm. The images generated by this model could be used to improve dose calculations for treatment planning and delivered dose estimates. This work was partially funded by a research grant from Varian Medical Systems.

  1. Infrared Thermal Imaging as a Tool in University Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a valuable tool in physics education at the university level. It can help to visualize and thereby enhance understanding of physical phenomena from mechanics, thermal physics, electromagnetism, optics and radiation physics, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. We report on its use as lecture demonstrations, student…

  2. Adaptive geometric tessellation for 3D reconstruction of anisotropically developing cells in multilayer tissues from sparse volumetric microscopy images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The need for quantification of cell growth patterns in a multilayer, multi-cellular tissue necessitates the development of a 3D reconstruction technique that can estimate 3D shapes and sizes of individual cells from Confocal Microscopy (CLSM image slices. However, the current methods of 3D reconstruction using CLSM imaging require large number of image slices per cell. But, in case of Live Cell Imaging of an actively developing tissue, large depth resolution is not feasible in order to avoid damage to cells from prolonged exposure to laser radiation. In the present work, we have proposed an anisotropic Voronoi tessellation based 3D reconstruction framework for a tightly packed multilayer tissue with extreme z-sparsity (2-4 slices/cell and wide range of cell shapes and sizes. The proposed method, named as the 'Adaptive Quadratic Voronoi Tessellation' (AQVT, is capable of handling both the sparsity problem and the non-uniformity in cell shapes by estimating the tessellation parameters for each cell from the sparse data-points on its boundaries. We have tested the proposed 3D reconstruction method on time-lapse CLSM image stacks of the Arabidopsis Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM and have shown that the AQVT based reconstruction method can correctly estimate the 3D shapes of a large number of SAM cells.

  3. A three-dimensional weighted cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm for image reconstruction in volumetric CT under a circular source trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Hsieh, Jiang; Hagiwara, Akira; Nilsen, Roy A.; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Drapkin, Evgeny

    2005-08-01

    The original FDK algorithm proposed for cone beam (CB) image reconstruction under a circular source trajectory has been extensively employed in medical and industrial imaging applications. With increasing cone angle, CB artefacts in images reconstructed by the original FDK algorithm deteriorate, since the circular trajectory does not satisfy the so-called data sufficiency condition (DSC). A few 'circular plus' trajectories have been proposed in the past to help the original FDK algorithm to reduce CB artefacts by meeting the DSC. However, the circular trajectory has distinct advantages over other scanning trajectories in practical CT imaging, such as head imaging, breast imaging, cardiac, vascular and perfusion applications. In addition to looking into the DSC, another insight into the CB artefacts existing in the original FDK algorithm is the inconsistency between conjugate rays that are 180° apart in view angle (namely conjugate ray inconsistency). The conjugate ray inconsistency is pixel dependent, varying dramatically over pixels within the image plane to be reconstructed. However, the original FDK algorithm treats all conjugate rays equally, resulting in CB artefacts that can be avoided if appropriate weighting strategies are exercised. Along with an experimental evaluation and verification, a three-dimensional (3D) weighted axial cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm is proposed in this paper for image reconstruction in volumetric CT under a circular source trajectory. Without extra trajectories supplemental to the circular trajectory, the proposed algorithm applies 3D weighting on projection data before 3D backprojection to reduce conjugate ray inconsistency by suppressing the contribution from one of the conjugate rays with a larger cone angle. Furthermore, the 3D weighting is dependent on the distance between the reconstruction plane and the central plane determined by the circular trajectory. The proposed 3D weighted axial CB-FBP algorithm

  4. Volumetric soft tissue brain imaging on xCAT, a mobile flat-panel x-ray CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbijewski, Wojciech; Stayman, J. Webster

    2009-02-01

    We discuss the ongoing development of soft-tissue imaging capabilities on xCAT, a highly portable, flat-panel based cone-beam X-ray CT platform. By providing the ability to rapidly detect intra-cranial bleeds and other symptoms of stroke directly at the patient's bedside, our new system can potentially significantly improve the management of neurological emergency and intensive care patients. The paper reports on the design of our system, as well as on the methods used to combat artifacts due to scatter, non-linear detector response and scintillator glare. Images of cadaveric head samples are also presented and compared with conventional CT scans.

  5. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  6. Volumetric analysis of the hypothalamus in Huntington Disease using 3T MRI: the IMAGE-HD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Gabery

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Non-motor symptoms and signs such as psychiatric disturbances, sleep problems and metabolic dysfunction are part of the disease manifestation. These aspects may relate to changes in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain involved in the regulation of emotion, sleep and metabolism. Neuropathological and imaging studies using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as well as positron emission tomography (PET have demonstrated pathological changes in the hypothalamic region during early stages in symptomatic HD. In this investigation, we aimed to establish a robust method for measurements of the hypothalamic volume in MRI in order to determine whether the hypothalamic dysfunction in HD is associated with the volume of this region. Using T1-weighted imaging, we describe a reproducible delineation procedure to estimate the hypothalamic volume which was based on the same landmarks used in histologically processed postmortem hypothalamic tissue. Participants included 36 prodromal HD (pre-HD, 33 symptomatic HD (symp-HD and 33 control participants who underwent MRI scanning at baseline and 18 months follow-up as part of the IMAGE-HD study. We found no evidence of cross-sectional or longitudinal changes between groups in hypothalamic volume. Our results suggest that hypothalamic pathology in HD is not associated with volume changes.

  7. Volumetric Analysis of the Hypothalamus in Huntington Disease Using 3T MRI: The IMAGE-HD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabery, Sanaz; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Lundh, Sofia Hult; Cheong, Rachel Y.; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Stout, Julie C.; Egan, Gary F.; Kirik, Deniz; Petersén, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Non-motor symptoms and signs such as psychiatric disturbances, sleep problems and metabolic dysfunction are part of the disease manifestation. These aspects may relate to changes in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain involved in the regulation of emotion, sleep and metabolism. Neuropathological and imaging studies using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as positron emission tomography (PET) have demonstrated pathological changes in the hypothalamic region during early stages in symptomatic HD. In this investigation, we aimed to establish a robust method for measurements of the hypothalamic volume in MRI in order to determine whether the hypothalamic dysfunction in HD is associated with the volume of this region. Using T1-weighted imaging, we describe a reproducible delineation procedure to estimate the hypothalamic volume which was based on the same landmarks used in histologically processed postmortem hypothalamic tissue. Participants included 36 prodromal HD (pre-HD), 33 symptomatic HD (symp-HD) and 33 control participants who underwent MRI scanning at baseline and 18 months follow-up as part of the IMAGE-HD study. We found no evidence of cross-sectional or longitudinal changes between groups in hypothalamic volume. Our results suggest that hypothalamic pathology in HD is not associated with volume changes. PMID:25659157

  8. Towards an automatic tool for resolution evaluation of mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, J. E. E. [FUMEC, Av. Alfonso Pena 3880, CEP 30130-009 Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: juliae@fumec.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Quality of Mammographies from the Public and Private Services of the State. With an essentially educational character, an evaluation of the image quality is monthly held from a breast phantom in each mammographic equipment. In face of this, this work proposes to develop a protocol for automatic evaluation of image quality of mammograms so that the radiological protection and image quality requirements are met in the early detection of breast cancer. Specifically, image resolution will be addressed and evaluated, as a part of the program of image quality evaluation. Results show that for the fourth resolution and using 28 phantom images with the ground truth settled, the computer analysis of the resolution is promising and may be used as a tool for the assessment of the image quality. (Author)

  9. Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging using an MR-compatible hand-induced robotic device suggests training-induced neuroplasticity in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Asimina; Astrakas, Loukas; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Singhal, Aneesh B; Moskowitz, Michael A; Rosen, Bruce; Tzika, Aria A

    2013-11-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and a frequent cause of long-term adult impairment. Improved strategies to enhance motor function in individuals with chronic disability from stroke are thus required. Post‑stroke therapy may improve rehabilitation and reduce long-term disability; however, objective methods for evaluating the specific impact of rehabilitation are rare. Brain imaging studies on patients with chronic stroke have shown evidence for reorganization of areas showing functional plasticity after a stroke. In this study, we hypothesized that brain mapping using a novel magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible hand device in conjunction with state‑of‑the‑art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can serve as a novel biomarker for brain plasticity induced by rehabilitative motor training in patients with chronic stroke. This hypothesis is based on the premises that robotic devices, by stimulating brain plasticity, can assist in restoring movement compromised by stroke-induced pathological changes in the brain and that these changes can then be monitored by advanced MRI. We serially examined 15 healthy controls and 4 patients with chronic stroke. We employed a combination of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetric MRI using a 3-tesla (3T) MRI system using a 12-channel Siemens Tim coil and a novel MR-compatible hand‑induced robotic device. DTI data revealed that the number of fibers and the average tract length significantly increased after 8 weeks of hand training by 110% and 64%, respectively (pstroke than previously thought, showing that structural plasticity is possible even after 6 months due to retained neuroplasticity. Our study is an example of personalized medicine using advanced neuroimaging methods in conjunction with robotics in the molecular medicine era.

  10. A computationally efficient method for automatic registration of orthogonal x-ray images with volumetric CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xin [ADSIP Research Centre, University of Central Lancashire, Preston (United Kingdom); Varley, Martin R [ADSIP Research Centre, University of Central Lancashire, Preston (United Kingdom); Shark, Lik-Kwan [ADSIP Research Centre, University of Central Lancashire, Preston (United Kingdom); Shentall, Glyn S [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Kirby, Mike C [Satellite Centres, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-21

    The paper presents a computationally efficient 3D-2D image registration algorithm for automatic pre-treatment validation in radiotherapy. The novel aspects of the algorithm include (a) a hybrid cost function based on partial digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) generated along projected anatomical contours and a level set term for similarity measurement; and (b) a fast search method based on parabola fitting and sensitivity-based search order. Using CT and orthogonal x-ray images from a skull and a pelvis phantom, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional ray-casting full DRR based registration method. Not only is the algorithm shown to be computationally more efficient with registration time being reduced by a factor of 8, but also the algorithm is shown to offer 50% higher capture range allowing the initial patient displacement up to 15 mm (measured by mean target registration error). For the simulated data, high registration accuracy with average errors of 0.53 mm {+-} 0.12 mm for translation and 0.61 deg, {+-} 0.29 deg. for rotation within the capture range has been achieved. For the tested phantom data, the algorithm has also shown to be robust without being affected by artificial markers in the image.

  11. A computationally efficient method for automatic registration of orthogonal x-ray images with volumetric CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Varley, Martin R.; Shark, Lik-Kwan; Shentall, Glyn S.; Kirby, Mike C.

    2008-02-01

    The paper presents a computationally efficient 3D-2D image registration algorithm for automatic pre-treatment validation in radiotherapy. The novel aspects of the algorithm include (a) a hybrid cost function based on partial digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) generated along projected anatomical contours and a level set term for similarity measurement; and (b) a fast search method based on parabola fitting and sensitivity-based search order. Using CT and orthogonal x-ray images from a skull and a pelvis phantom, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional ray-casting full DRR based registration method. Not only is the algorithm shown to be computationally more efficient with registration time being reduced by a factor of 8, but also the algorithm is shown to offer 50% higher capture range allowing the initial patient displacement up to 15 mm (measured by mean target registration error). For the simulated data, high registration accuracy with average errors of 0.53 mm ± 0.12 mm for translation and 0.61° ± 0.29° for rotation within the capture range has been achieved. For the tested phantom data, the algorithm has also shown to be robust without being affected by artificial markers in the image.

  12. COCHLEAR LENGTH DETERMINATION IN TEMPORAL BONE SPECIMENS USING HISTOLOGICAL SERIAL MICRO GRINDING IMAGING, MICRO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND FLAT-PANEL VOLUMETRIC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Würfel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear length virtually describes the length of the cochlea in a straight line. Several theoretical options for measuring the length of the cochlea are conceivable. In choosing the type of cochlear implant electrode, this can play a crucial role. A wide range of electrodes is available, especially among the models designed to preserve residual hearing and structural integrity. It is believed that the depth of cochlear implant electrode insertion has an influence on the functional hearing based on the area of the cochlea that is electrically stimulated. Method: Imaging of nine human temporal bone specimens was performed using histological serial microgrinding imaging, micro computed tomography (microCT and experimental flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (fpVCT. Measurements were then performed by outlining the cochlea in OsiriX (Pixmeo, Los Angeles USA. Results: The cochlear length of 9 human temporal bones was determined in each histological serial microgrinding imaging, fpVCT and microCT. Cochlear length ranges in histological serial grinding imaging from 45.3 mm to 38.7 mm, in microCT from 46.1 mm to 39.3 mm and in fpVCT from 45.8 mm to 39.8 mm. Significant inter- and intraindividual differences in the cochlear length were observed. The presented methodology is capable of determining the cochlear length in each imaging modality. Discussion: A methodology to experimentally determine the cochlear length is interesting from both clinical and preclinical perspectives. Insertion studies are highly relevant to the development and evaluation of new electrode arrays. This study presents a measurement methodology that allows for individualized cochlear length measurement based on three established imaging modalities. The data presented here confirm differences in cochlear length. The method described here can be used to evaluate a cochlea in an experimental setting. This allows an individualized, pre-interventional evaluation of the

  13. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Assessment of Diastolic Function by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacif, Marcelo S; Almeida, Andre L C; Young, Alistair A; Cowan, Brett R; Armstrong, Anderson C; Yang, Eunice; Sibley, Christopher T; Hundley, W Gregory; Liu, Songtao; Lima, Joao Ac; Bluemke, David A

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance is in need of a simple and robust method for diastolic function assessment that can be done with routine protocol sequences. To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) model-based volumetric assessment of diastolic function using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and compare the results obtained with the model with those obtained by echocardiography. The study participants provided written informed consent and were included if having undergone both echocardiography and cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) CMR on the same day. Guide points at the septal and lateral mitral annulus were used to define the early longitudinal relaxation rate (E'), while a time-volume curve from the 3D model was used to assess diastolic filling parameters. We determined the correlation between 3D CMR and echocardiography and the accuracy of CMR in classifying the diastolic function grade. The study included 102 subjects. The E/A ratio by CMR was positively associated with the E/A ratio by echocardiography (r = 0.71, p potencial na avaliação rotineira da função diastólica por RMC.

  14. An automated deformable image registration evaluation of confidence tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Neil; Chen, Josephine; Kim, Hojin; Morin, Olivier; Nie, Ke; Pouliot, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is a powerful tool for radiation oncology, but it can produce errors. Beyond this, DIR accuracy is not a fixed quantity and varies on a case-by-case basis. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of an automated program to create a patient- and voxel-specific evaluation of DIR accuracy. AUTODIRECT is a software tool that was developed to perform this evaluation for the application of a clinical DIR algorithm to a set of patient images. In brief, AUTODIRECT uses algorithms to generate deformations and applies them to these images (along with processing) to generate sets of test images, with known deformations that are similar to the actual ones and with realistic noise properties. The clinical DIR algorithm is applied to these test image sets (currently 4). From these tests, AUTODIRECT generates spatial and dose uncertainty estimates for each image voxel based on a Student’s t distribution. In this study, four commercially available DIR algorithms were used to deform a dose distribution associated with a virtual pelvic phantom image set, and AUTODIRECT was used to generate dose uncertainty estimates for each deformation. The virtual phantom image set has a known ground-truth deformation, so the true dose-warping errors of the DIR algorithms were also known. AUTODIRECT predicted error patterns that closely matched the actual error spatial distribution. On average AUTODIRECT overestimated the magnitude of the dose errors, but tuning the AUTODIRECT algorithms should improve agreement. This proof-of-principle test demonstrates the potential for the AUTODIRECT algorithm as an empirical method to predict DIR errors.

  15. Development of tools, technologies, and methodologies for imaging sensor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, H.; Bynum, K.; Steely, S.; Nicholson, R.; Horne, H.

    2013-05-01

    Ground testing of space- and air-borne imaging sensor systems is supported by Vis-to-LWIR imaging sensor calibration and characterization, as well as hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation with high-fidelity complex scene projection to validate sensor mission performance. To accomplish this successfully, there must be the development of tools, technologies, and methodologies that are used in space simulation chambers for such testing. This paper provides an overview of such efforts being investigated and implemented at Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC).

  16. Digital holographic microscopy for longitudinal volumetric imaging of growth and treatment response in three-dimensional tumor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; La, Jeffrey; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-11-01

    We report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, nondestructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro three-dimensional (3-D) tumor models. Following established methods, we prepared 3-D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple time points throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify the nodule thickness over time under normal growth and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner, total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time-dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3-D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3-D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  17. Open source tools for standardized privacy protection of medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Chung-Yueh; Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Kao, Tsair; Hein, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    In addition to the primary care context, medical images are often useful for research projects and community healthcare networks, so-called "secondary use". Patient privacy becomes an issue in such scenarios since the disclosure of personal health information (PHI) has to be prevented in a sharing environment. In general, most PHIs should be completely removed from the images according to the respective privacy regulations, but some basic and alleviated data is usually required for accurate image interpretation. Our objective is to utilize and enhance these specifications in order to provide reliable software implementations for de- and re-identification of medical images suitable for online and offline delivery. DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images are de-identified by replacing PHI-specific information with values still being reasonable for imaging diagnosis and patient indexing. In this paper, this approach is evaluated based on a prototype implementation built on top of the open source framework DCMTK (DICOM Toolkit) utilizing standardized de- and re-identification mechanisms. A set of tools has been developed for DICOM de-identification that meets privacy requirements of an offline and online sharing environment and fully relies on standard-based methods.

  18. Fast volumetric imaging of bound and pore water in cortical bone using three-dimensional ultrashort-TE (UTE) and inversion recovery UTE sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Carl, Michael; Ma, Yajun; Shao, Hongda; Lu, Xing; Chen, Bimin; Chang, Eric Y; Wu, Zhihong; Du, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    We report the three-dimensional ultrashort-TE (3D UTE) and adiabatic inversion recovery UTE (IR-UTE) sequences employing a radial trajectory with conical view ordering for bi-component T2 * analysis of bound water (T2 *(BW) ) and pore water (T2 *(PW) ) in cortical bone. An interleaved dual-echo 3D UTE acquisition scheme was developed for fast bi-component analysis of bound and pore water in cortical bone. A 3D IR-UTE acquisition scheme employing multiple spokes per IR was developed for bound water imaging. Two-dimensional UTE (2D UTE) and IR-UTE sequences were employed for comparison. The sequences were applied to bovine bone samples (n = 6) and volunteers (n = 6) using a 3-T scanner. Bi-component fitting of 3D UTE images of bovine samples showed a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.26 ± 0.04 ms and T2 *(PW) of 4.16 ± 0.35 ms, with fractions of 21.5 ± 3.6% and 78.5 ± 3.6%, respectively. The 3D IR-UTE signal showed a single-component decay with a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.29 ± 0.05 ms, suggesting selective imaging of bound water. Similar results were achieved with the 2D UTE and IR-UTE sequences. Bi-component fitting of 3D UTE images of the tibial midshafts of healthy volunteers showed a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.32 ± 0.08 ms and T2 *(PW) of 5.78 ± 1.24 ms, with fractions of 34.2 ± 7.4% and 65.8 ± 7.4%, respectively. Single-component fitting of 3D IR-UTE images showed a mean T2 *(BW) of 0.35 ± 0.09 ms. The 3D UTE and 3D IR-UTE techniques allow fast volumetric mapping of bound and pore water in cortical bone. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Bladder dose accumulation based on a biomechanical deformable image registration algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E S; Muren, L P; Sørensen, T S

    2012-01-01

    ) to improve the accuracy of bladder dose assessment. For each of nine prostate cancer patients, the initial treatment plan was re-calculated on eight to nine repeat computed tomography (CT) scans. The planned bladder dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters were compared to corresponding parameters derived from...... DIR-based accumulations and DVH summation were small and well within 1 Gy. For the investigated treatment scenario, DIR- based bladder dose accumulation did not result in substantial improvement of dose estimation as compared to the straightforward DVH summation. Large variations were found...... in individual patients between the doses from the initial treatment plan and the accumulated bladder doses. Hence, the use of repeat imaging has a potential for improved accuracy in treatment dose reporting....

  20. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  1. Democratization of Nanoscale Imaging and Sensing Tools Using Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Euan; Wei, Qingshan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-07-07

    Providing means for researchers and citizen scientists in the developing world to perform advanced measurements with nanoscale precision can help to accelerate the rate of discovery and invention as well as improve higher education and the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers worldwide. Here, we review some of the recent progress toward making optical nanoscale measurement tools more cost-effective, field-portable, and accessible to a significantly larger group of researchers and educators. We divide our review into two main sections: label-based nanoscale imaging and sensing tools, which primarily involve fluorescent approaches, and label-free nanoscale measurement tools, which include light scattering sensors, interferometric methods, photonic crystal sensors, and plasmonic sensors. For each of these areas, we have primarily focused on approaches that have either demonstrated operation outside of a traditional laboratory setting, including for example integration with mobile phones, or exhibited the potential for such operation in the near future.

  2. Association of metabolic dysregulation with volumetric brain magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive markers of subclinical brain aging in middle-aged adults: the Framingham Offspring Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Zaldy S; Beiser, Alexa S; Fox, Caroline S; Au, Rhoda; Himali, Jayandra J; Debette, Stephanie; Decarli, Charles; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wolf, Philip A; Seshadri, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    ...) in middle-aged adults. Framingham Offspring participants who underwent volumetric MRI and detailed cognitive testing and were free of clinical stroke and dementia during examination 7 (1998-2001...

  3. Pneumatization of the temporal portion of the zygomatic arch: The contribution of computed tomography to the reconstruction in volumetric two-dimensional and three-dimensional, with the aid of image rendering protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C M Romano-Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatization refers to the asymptomatic development of cavities containing air within them. There is great variability in the extent of temporal bone pneumatization. Nevertheless, in a few cases it extends to the zygomatic process. Images are presented in which the panoramic radiograph and hypocycloidal tomography reveal this variation from the norm, to which professionals must be alert, since the images may simulate the presence of pathology. In this case report we describe the presence of pneumatization of the petrous and zygomatic portions of the temporal bone, demonstrating the contribution of CT to reconstruction in volumetric 2D and 3D, with the aid of image rendering protocols.

  4. 数控机床三维空间误差建模及补偿技术研究%Research on Compensation Technique for 3-Dimension Volumetric Errors of CNC Machine Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赤洲; 陈蔚芳; 赵鹏; 刘明灯

    2012-01-01

    3-Dimension volumetric errors of CNC machine tools will cause a decrease in machining quality. To overcome this problem, ensure the machining accuracy, two compensation strategies based on error modeling by using multi-body system theory are proposed. One is offline compensation, the other is embedded compensation. Offline compensation, a kind of correction compensation based on NC program, realizes the compensation of 3-Dimension volumetric errors of CNC machine tools by mapping the errors to NC program and modifying the NC program. Embedded compensation is a kind of online compensation based on CNC system, and it realizes the compensation by modifying the data flow of CNC system. This method is on the foundation of the amalgamation of CNC system and 3-Dimension volumetric errors model. Results from experiments show that both of the two compensation strategies significantly improve the precision of CNC machine tools and not affect the machine reliability.%为了提高数控机床的加工精度,解决由机床三维空间误差引起的工件加工质量降低的问题,在研究多体系统理论误差建模技术的基础上,提出离线补偿和嵌入式补偿两种补偿策略.离线补偿是基于数控加工程序的修正补偿,将机床三维空间误差映射到数控加工程序,通过修改加工程序实现对机床的三维空间误差补偿;嵌入式补偿是基于数控系统的在线补偿,将机床三维空间误差融合到数控系统中,通过修正数控系统中的数据流实现对机床的三维空间误差补偿.实验表明,在不影响机床可靠性的前提下,两种补偿策略均显著提高了数控机床的加工精度.

  5. 3D thermal medical image visualization tool: Integration between MRI and thermographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu de Souza, Mauren; Chagas Paz, André Augusto; Sanches, Ionildo Jóse; Nohama, Percy; Gamba, Humberto Remigio

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional medical image reconstruction using different images modalities require registration techniques that are, in general, based on the stacking of 2D MRI/CT images slices. In this way, the integration of two different imaging modalities: anatomical (MRI/CT) and physiological information (infrared image), to generate a 3D thermal model, is a new methodology still under development. This paper presents a 3D THERMO interface that provides flexibility for the 3D visualization: it incorporates the DICOM parameters; different color scale palettes at the final 3D model; 3D visualization at different planes of sections; and a filtering option that provides better image visualization. To summarize, the 3D thermographc medical image visualization provides a realistic and precise medical tool. The merging of two different imaging modalities allows better quality and more fidelity, especially for medical applications in which the temperature changes are clinically significant.

  6. Radial volumetric imaging breath-hold examination (VIBE) with k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) for dynamic gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI of the liver: advantages over Cartesian VIBE in the arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaga, Yasunari; Ohya, Ayumi; Tokoro, Hirokazu; Yamada, Akira; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Kadoya, Masumi [Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Matsumoto (Japan); Ueda, Hitoshi; Kitou, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Yasuo; Shiobara, Aya; Tamaru, Naomichi [Radiology Division of Shinshu University Hospital, Matsumoto (Japan); Nickel, Marcel D. [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, H IM MR PI TIO Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Maruyama, Katsuya [Siemens Japan. K. K., Imaging and Therapy Systems Division, Shinagawa, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    To compare radial volumetric imaging breath-hold examination with k-space weighted image contrast reconstruction (r-VIBE-KWIC) to Cartesian VIBE (c-VIBE) in arterial phase dynamic gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of the liver. We reviewed 53 consecutive DCE-MRI studies performed on a 3-T unit using c-VIBE and 53 consecutive cases performed using r-VIBE-KWIC with full-frame image subset (r-VIBE{sub full}) and sub-frame image subsets (r-VIBE{sub sub}; temporal resolution, 2.5-3 s). All arterial phase images were scored by two readers on: (1) contrast-enhancement ratio (CER) in the abdominal aorta; (2) scan timing; (3) artefacts; (4) visualisation of the common, right, and left hepatic arteries. Mean abdominal aortic CERs for c-VIBE, r-VIBE{sub full}, and r-VIBE{sub sub} were 3.2, 4.3 and 6.5, respectively. There were significant differences between each group (P < 0.0001). The mean score for c-VIBE was significantly lower than that for r-VIBE{sub full} and r-VIBE{sub sub} in all factors except for visualisation of the common hepatic artery (P < 0.05). The mean score of all factors except for scan timing for r-VIBE{sub sub} was not significantly different from that for r-VIBE{sub full}. Radial VIBE-KWIC provides higher image quality than c-VIBE, and r-VIBE{sub sub} features high temporal resolution without image degradation in arterial phase DCE-MRI. circle Radial VIBE-KWIC minimised artefact and produced high-quality and high-temporal-resolution images. circle Maximum abdominal aortic enhancement was observed on sub-frame images of r-VIBE-KWIC. (orig.)

  7. Light-field camera-based 3D volumetric particle image velocimetry with dense ray tracing reconstruction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengxian; Ding, Junfei; New, T. H.; Soria, Julio

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a dense ray tracing reconstruction technique for a single light-field camera-based particle image velocimetry. The new approach pre-determines the location of a particle through inverse dense ray tracing and reconstructs the voxel value using multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART). Simulation studies were undertaken to identify the effects of iteration number, relaxation factor, particle density, voxel-pixel ratio and the effect of the velocity gradient on the performance of the proposed dense ray tracing-based MART method (DRT-MART). The results demonstrate that the DRT-MART method achieves higher reconstruction resolution at significantly better computational efficiency than the MART method (4-50 times faster). Both DRT-MART and MART approaches were applied to measure the velocity field of a low speed jet flow which revealed that for the same computational cost, the DRT-MART method accurately resolves the jet velocity field with improved precision, especially for the velocity component along the depth direction.

  8. Advanced imaging tools to investigate multiple sclerosis pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Benedetta; Louapre, Céline; Stankoff, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Conventional MR imaging techniques still lack specificity for the underlying central nervous system tissue damage in multiple sclerosis (MS), impeding a comprehensive investigation of the key mechanisms responsible for neurological disability such as myelin damage and repair, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. A range of novel and advanced imaging tools, using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) or positron emission tomography (PET) technologies are now emerging and open the perspective to obtain unique insights into the disease mechanisms. Both can be employed either in experimental models or in patients with MS, and they have already allowed to obtain imaging metrics that significantly correlate with clinical scores. In this review, we summarize the main evidence supporting the use of quantitative MR and PET as essential investigation tools to explore myelin changes, neuronal damage and compartmentalized inflammation in MS. The clinical translation of these imaging techniques has the potential to improve the design of future clinical trials and to allow the measurement of the effects of new drugs aimed at enhancing myelin repair and reducing neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.

  9. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis: emerging markers, tools, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Put, Stéphanie; Westhovens, René; Lahoutte, Tony; Matthys, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Early diagnosis and effective monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are important for a positive outcome. Instant treatment often results in faster reduction of inflammation and, as a consequence, less structural damage. Anatomical imaging techniques have been in use for a long time, facilitating diagnosis and monitoring of RA. However, mere imaging of anatomical structures provides little information on the processes preceding changes in synovial tissue, cartilage, and bone. Molecular imaging might facilitate more effective diagnosis and monitoring in addition to providing new information on the disease pathogenesis. A limiting factor in the development of new molecular imaging techniques is the availability of suitable probes. Here, we review which cells and molecules can be targeted in the RA joint and discuss the advances that have been made in imaging of arthritis with a focus on such molecular targets as folate receptor, F4/80, macrophage mannose receptor, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, phosphatidylserine, and matrix metalloproteinases. In addition, we discuss a new tool that is being introduced in the field, namely the use of nanobodies as tracers. Finally, we describe additional molecules displaying specific features in joint inflammation and propose these as potential new molecular imaging targets, more specifically receptor activator of nuclear factor κB and its ligand, chemokine receptors, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, αVβ₃ integrin, P2X7 receptor, suppression of tumorigenicity 2, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, and osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Volumetric Analysis: Novel Tools to Study Thyroid Hormone Disruption and Its Effect on White Matter Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans and wildlife are exposed to environmental pollutants that have been shown to interfere with the thyroid hormone system and thus may affect brain development. Our goal was to expose pregnant rats to propylthiouracil (PTU) to measure the effects of a goitrogen on white matte...

  11. In-office rapid volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids under ultrasound imaging guidance: Preclinical and early clinical experience with the Mirabilis transabdominal HIFU treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, José G. Garza; León, Ivan Hernandez; Sáenz, Lorena Castillo; Aguirre, Juan M. Aguilar; Lagos, Joel J. Islas; Parsons, Jessica E.; Darlington, Gregory P.; Lau, Michael P. H.

    2017-03-01

    Mirabilis Medica, Inc. (Bothell, WA, USA) has developed a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for producing rapid transabdominal volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids in an office-based setting. The Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System utilizes integrated ultrasound imaging guidance and short treatment times under 15 minutes. Treatment with the Mirabilis system is generally well tolerated using only oral analgesia without anesthesia or sedation. This paper summarizes certain technical aspects of the Mirabilis HIFU technology, the preclinical development process, and the results of the first in-human clinical study using the Mirabilis system. During preclinical studies, an in vivo transcutaneous porcine lower extremity model was used in a total of 180 adult swine to develop the HIFU treatment regimen parameters. Additionally, 108 excised human uteri with fibroids obtained from scheduled hysterectomies were treated in an ex vivo experimental setup and evaluated. These preclinical activities resulted in a HIFU treatment technique referred to as Mirabilis Shell Ablation, which enables rapid volumetric fibroid ablation by directing the HIFU energy to the outer perimeter of the target volume (the `shell') without insonating its core. This method results in efficient fibroid treatment through a synergistic combination of direct tissue ablation, cooperative heating effects, and indirect ischemic necrosis in the interior of the volume. After refining this technique and performing safety testing in the in vivo porcine model, a clinical pilot study was conducted to assess the initial safety and performance of the Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System for transabdominal treatment of uterine fibroids in eligible women who were scheduled to undergo hysterectomy following treatment with the device. A total of 37 women meeting certain eligibility criteria were treated at two clinical sites in Mexico. Twenty-nine (29) of these 37 women received only prophylactic sublingual

  12. Ultrasonic wavefield imaging: Research tool or emerging NDE method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic wavefield imaging refers to acquiring full waveform data over a region of interest for waves generated by a stationary source. Although various implementations of wavefield imaging have existed for many years, the widespread availability of laser Doppler vibrometers that can acquire signals in the high kHz and low MHz range has resulted in a rapid expansion of fundamental research utilizing full wavefield data. In addition, inspection methods based upon wavefield imaging have been proposed for standalone nondestructive evaluation (NDE) with most of these methods coming from the structural health monitoring (SHM) community and based upon guided waves. If transducers are already embedded in or mounted on the structure as part of an SHM system, then a wavefield-based inspection can potentially take place with very little required disassembly. A frequently-proposed paradigm for wavefield NDE is its application as a follow-up inspection method using embedded SHM transducers as guided wave sources if the in situ SHM system generates an alarm. Discussed here is the broad role of wavefield imaging as it relates to ultrasonic NDE, both as a research tool and as an emerging NDE method. Examples of current research are presented based upon both guided and bulk wavefield imaging in metals and composites, drawing primarily from the author's work. Progress towards wavefield NDE is discussed in the context of defect detection and characterization capabilities, scan times, data quality, and required data analysis. Recent research efforts are summarized that can potentially enable wavefield NDE.

  13. Monitoring Active Volcanos Using Aerial Images and the Orthoview Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marsella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic areas, where it can be difficult to perform direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely adopted for routine volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, they have remarkable potentialities for observing active volcanic features (e.g., fissures, lava flows and the connected deformation processes. The ability to obtain accurate quantitative data of definite accuracy in short time spans makes digital photogrammetry a suitable method for controlling the evolution of rapidly changing large-area volcanic phenomena. The systematic acquisition of airborne photogrammetric datasets can be adopted for implementing a more effective procedure aimed at long-term volcano monitoring and hazard assessment. In addition, during the volcanic crisis, the frequent acquisition of oblique digital images from helicopter allows for quasi-real-time monitoring to support mitigation actions by civil protection. These images are commonly used to update existing maps through a photo-interpretation approach that provide data of unknown accuracy. This work presents a scientific tool (Orthoview that implements a straightforward photogrammetric approach to generate digital orthophotos from single-view oblique images provided that at least four Ground Control Points (GCP and current Digital Elevation Models (DEM are available. The influence of the view geometry, of sparse and not-signalized GCP and DEM inaccuracies is analyzed for evaluating the performance of the developed tool in comparison with other remote sensing techniques. Results obtained with datasets from Etna and Stromboli volcanoes demonstrate that 2D features measured on the produced orthophotos can reach sub-meter-level accuracy.

  14. Biological Database of Images and Genomes: tools for community annotations linking image and genomic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Andrew T; Jurkovic, Dominika A; Balish, Mitchell F; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    Genomic data and biomedical imaging data are undergoing exponential growth. However, our understanding of the phenotype–genotype connection linking the two types of data is lagging behind. While there are many types of software that enable the manipulation and analysis of image data and genomic data as separate entities, there is no framework established for linking the two. We present a generic set of software tools, BioDIG, that allows linking of image data to genomic data. BioDIG tools can be applied to a wide range of research problems that require linking images to genomes. BioDIG features the following: rapid construction of web-based workbenches, community-based annotation, user management and web services. By using BioDIG to create websites, researchers and curators can rapidly annotate a large number of images with genomic information. Here we present the BioDIG software tools that include an image module, a genome module and a user management module. We also introduce a BioDIG-based website, MyDIG, which is being used to annotate images of mycoplasmas. Database URL: BioDIG website: http://biodig.org BioDIG source code repository: http://github.com/FriedbergLab/BioDIG The MyDIG database: http://mydig.biodig.org/ PMID:23550062

  15. 五轴数控机床的空间误差建模与解耦补偿分析%Volumetric error modeling and decoupled error compensation analysis of five-axis CNC machine tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要小鹏; 殷国富; 方辉; 程锦; 李光明

    2011-01-01

    针对五轴联动数控机床的位置与姿态误差补偿过程中各运动轴的误差补偿量与刀具和工件间的误差值耦合关系较为复杂的问题,在解析五轴机床运动学方程的基础上,利用多轴机床的误差运动学原理,建立了用各运动轴坐标系变换矩阵描述的机床误差模型.基于小误差补偿运动假设,分析了误差运动和补偿运动间的相互关系,对五轴机床各运动轴的位置与方向的误差补偿运动进行了解耦,建立了五轴数控机床的一种新的空间几何误差补偿模型和补偿算法.基于此算法开发了具有空间补偿功能的后处理模块,并通过实验验证了该模块在提高机床加工精度方面的有效性.%Aiming at the problem that the position and orientation error compensation of a five-axis machine tool is more complicated because of the complex coupled effects between the joint variables and the position/orientation of the tools and work-piece, the paper gives a volumetric error model by using the coordinate transformation method on the basis of analyzing the kinematics equations of five-axis machine tools and multi-axis machine tools' error kinematics principle. Based on the rigid body kinematics with small error assumption and the analysis of error motions and the compensation motions, a new volumetric error compensation model and a compensation algorithm are presented by decoupling the error compensation motions, thus the position and orientation compensation values of the joint variables can be obtained finally with the model. A new post-processing module was created by the compensation algorithm , and it was tested by experiment with the five-axis machine tools and the experimental results show that the machining accuracy can be improved effectively when using it.

  16. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, M; Biederer, J; Jochens, A; Bornemann, L; Soza, G; Heller, M; Bolte, H

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible image evaluation. The current standard is one-dimensional measurement (e.g. RECIST) with inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is discussed as an alternative for therapy monitoring of lung and liver metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph node metastases in a phantom study. Fifty artificial lymph nodes were produced in a size range from 10 to 55mm; some of them enhanced using iodine contrast media. All nodules were placed in an artificial chest phantom (artiCHEST®) within different surrounding tissues. MDCT was performed using different collimations (1-5 mm) at varying reconstruction kernels (B20f, B40f, B60f). Volume and RECIST measurements were performed using Oncology Software (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) and were compared to reference volume and diameter by calculating absolute percentage errors. The software performance allowed a robust volumetric analysis in a phantom setting. Unsatisfying segmentation results were frequently found for native nodules within surrounding muscle. The absolute percentage error (APE) for volumetric analysis varied between 0.01 and 225%. No significant differences were seen between different reconstruction kernels. The most unsatisfactory segmentation results occurred in higher slice thickness (4 and 5 mm). Contrast enhanced lymph nodes showed better segmentation results by trend. The semi-automated 3D-volumetric analysis software tool allows a reliable and convenient segmentation of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom setting. Lymph nodes adjacent to tissue of similar density cause segmentation problems. For volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases in clinical routine a slice thickness of ≤3mm and a medium soft reconstruction kernel (e.g. B40f for Siemens scan systems) may be a suitable compromise for semi-automated volumetric analysis. Copyright

  17. ENVISION, innovative medical imaging tools for particle therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. ENVISION aims at developing medical imaging tools to improve the dose delivery to the patient, to ensure a safer and more effective treatment. The animation covers some of these tools, including Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), motion monitoring techniques and simulation. The ENVISION project is co-funded by the European Commission under FP7 Grant Agreement N. 241851. ENVISION serves as a training platform for the Marie Curie Initial Training Programme ENTERVISION, funded by the European Commission under FP7 Grant Agreement N. 264552. Project Management: Manuela Cirilli 3D animation: Jeroen Huijben, Nymus3d Produced by: CERN KT/Life Sciences and ENVISION

  18. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo, E-mail: csuxiaobo123456@163.com [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Guanyun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function.

  19. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  20. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-08-22

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule's location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of

  1. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule’s location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (Mea{{n}RHD} , ST{{D}RHD} and C{{V}RHD}{) }~ of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of the CT-derived and

  2. Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of 70 kVp whole brain volumetric CT perfusion imaging: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiao Kun; Ni, Qian Qian; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Chen, Guo Zhong; Luo, Song; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States); Fuller, Stephen R.; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy for acute infarct detection and radiation dose of 70 kVp whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA) reconstructed from CTP source data. Patients were divided into three groups (n = 50 each): group A, 80 kVp, 21 scanning time points; groups B, 70 kVp, 21 scanning time points; group C, 70 kVp, 17 scanning time points. Objective and subjective image quality of CTP and CTA were compared. Diagnostic accuracy for detecting acute infarct and cerebral artery stenosis ≥ 50 % was calculated for CTP and CTA with diffusion weighted imaging and digital subtraction angiography as reference standards. Effective radiation dose was compared. There were no differences in any perfusion parameter value between three groups (P > 0.05). No difference was found in subjective image quality between three groups (P > 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy for detecting acute infarct and vascular stenosis showed no difference between three groups (P > 0.05). Compared with group A, radiation doses of groups B and C were decreased by 28 % and 37 % (both P < 0.001), respectively. Compared with 80 kVp protocol, 70 kVp brain CTP allows comparable vascular and perfusion assessment and lower radiation dose while maintaining high diagnostic accuracy in detecting acute infarct. (orig.)

  3. Volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of endovenous laser treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas F.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Schaur, Peter; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is one of the most common medical conditions with reported prevalence estimates as high as 30% in the adult population. Although conservative management with compression therapy may improve the symptoms associated with CVI, healing often demands invasive procedures. Besides established surgical methods like vein stripping or bypassing, endovenous laser therapy (ELT) emerged as a promising novel treatment option during the last 15 years offering multiple advantages such as less pain and faster recovery. Much of the treatment success hereby depends on monitoring of the treatment progression using clinical imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound. The latter however do not provide sufficient contrast, spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging capacity which is necessary for accurate online lesion assessment during treatment. As a consequence, incidence of recanalization, lack of vessel occlusion and collateral damage remains highly variable among patients. In this study, we examined the capacity of volumetric optoacoustic tomography (VOT) for real-time monitoring of ELT using an ex-vivo ox foot model. ELT was performed on subcutaneous veins while optoacoustic signals were acquired and reconstructed in real-time and at a spatial resolution in the order of 200μm. VOT images showed spatio-temporal maps of the lesion progression, characteristics of the vessel wall, and position of the ablation fiber's tip during the pull back. It was also possible to correlate the images with the temperature elevation measured in the area adjacent to the ablation spot. We conclude that VOT is a promising tool for providing online feedback during endovenous laser therapy.

  4. Method and tool for generating and managing image quality allocations through the design and development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Andrew W.; Olson, Craig; Theisen, Michael J.; Addiego, Chris J.; Hutchins, Tiffany G.; Goodman, Timothy D.

    2016-05-01

    Performance models for infrared imaging systems require image quality parameters; optical design engineers need image quality design goals; systems engineers develop image quality allocations to test imaging systems against. It is a challenge to maintain consistency and traceability amongst the various expressions of image quality. We present a method and parametric tool for generating and managing expressions of image quality during the system modeling, requirements specification, design, and testing phases of an imaging system design and development project.

  5. Image-guided localization accuracy of stereoscopic planar and volumetric imaging methods for stereotactic radiation surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkoo; Jin, Jian-Yue; Walls, Nicole; Nurushev, Teamour; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J; Ryu, Samuel

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the positioning accuracies of two image-guided localization systems, ExacTrac and On-Board Imager (OBI), in a stereotactic treatment unit. An anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with eight internal metal markers (BBs) was used. The center of one BB was set as plan isocenter. The phantom was set up on a treatment table with various initial setup errors. Then, the errors were corrected using each of the investigated systems. The residual errors were measured with respect to the radiation isocenter using orthogonal portal images with field size 3 × 3 cm(2). The angular localization discrepancies of the two systems and the correction accuracy of the robotic couch were also studied. A pair of pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images was acquired for each angular correction. Then, the correction errors were estimated by using the internal BBs through fiducial marker-based registrations. The isocenter localization errors (μ ±σ) in the left/right, posterior/anterior, and superior/inferior directions were, respectively, -0.2 ± 0.2 mm, -0.8 ± 0.2 mm, and -0.8 ± 0.4 mm for ExacTrac, and 0.5 ± 0.7 mm, 0.6 ± 0.5 mm, and 0.0 ± 0.5 mm for OBI CBCT. The registration angular discrepancy was 0.1 ± 0.2° between the two systems, and the maximum angle correction error of the robotic couch was 0.2° about all axes. Both the ExacTrac and the OBI CBCT systems showed approximately 1 mm isocenter localization accuracies. The angular discrepancy of two systems was minimal, and the robotic couch angle correction was accurate. These positioning uncertainties should be taken as a lower bound because the results were based on a rigid dosimetry phantom. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying a visual language for image processing as a graphical teaching tool in medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, James J.; Tanimoto, Steven L.; Rowberg, Alan H.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Typical user interaction in image processing is with command line entries, pull-down menus, or text menu selections from a list, and as such is not generally graphical in nature. Although applying these interactive methods to construct more sophisticated algorithms from a series of simple image processing steps may be clear to engineers and programmers, it may not be clear to clinicians. A solution to this problem is to implement a visual programming language using visual representations to express image processing algorithms. Visual representations promote a more natural and rapid understanding of image processing algorithms by providing more visual insight into what the algorithms do than the interactive methods mentioned above can provide. Individuals accustomed to dealing with images will be more likely to understand an algorithm that is represented visually. This is especially true of referring physicians, such as surgeons in an intensive care unit. With the increasing acceptance of picture archiving and communications system (PACS) workstations and the trend toward increasing clinical use of image processing, referring physicians will need to learn more sophisticated concepts than simply image access and display. If the procedures that they perform commonly, such as window width and window level adjustment and image enhancement using unsharp masking, are depicted visually in an interactive environment, it will be easier for them to learn and apply these concepts. The software described in this paper is a visual programming language for imaging processing which has been implemented on the NeXT computer using NeXTstep user interface development tools and other tools in an object-oriented environment. The concept is based upon the description of a visual language titled `Visualization of Vision Algorithms' (VIVA). Iconic representations of simple image processing steps are placed into a workbench screen and connected together into a dataflow path by the user. As

  7. Spectrum image analysis tool - A flexible MATLAB solution to analyze EEL and CL spectrum images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Franz-Philipp; Hofer, Ferdinand; Krenn, Joachim R

    2017-02-01

    Spectrum imaging techniques, gaining simultaneously structural (image) and spectroscopic data, require appropriate and careful processing to extract information of the dataset. In this article we introduce a MATLAB based software that uses three dimensional data (EEL/CL spectrum image in dm3 format (Gatan Inc.'s DigitalMicrograph(®))) as input. A graphical user interface enables a fast and easy mapping of spectral dependent images and position dependent spectra. First, data processing such as background subtraction, deconvolution and denoising, second, multiple display options including an EEL/CL moviemaker and, third, the applicability on a large amount of data sets with a small work load makes this program an interesting tool to visualize otherwise hidden details.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Adam P; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2013-08-28

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment.

  9. DESIGN AN ADVANCE COMPUTER-AIDED TOOL FOR IMAGE AUTHENTICATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Teymourzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, advancements in the fields of digital image processing and artificial intelligence have been applied in solving many real-life problems. This could be seen in facial image recognition for security systems, identity registrations. Hence a bottleneck of identity registration is image processing. These are carried out in form of image preprocessing, image region extraction by cropping, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and image compression using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT. Other processing include filtering and histogram equalization using contrast stretching is performed while enhancing the image as part of the analytical tool. Hence, this research work presents a universal integration image forgery detection analysis tool with image facial recognition using Black Propagation Neural Network (BPNN processor. The proposed designed tool is a multi-function smart tool with the novel architecture of programmable error goal and light intensity. Furthermore, its advance dual database increases the efficiency for high performance application. With the fact that, the facial image recognition will always, give a matching output or closest possible output image for every input image irrespective of the authenticity, the universal smart GUI tool is proposed and designed to perform image forgery detection with the high accuracy of ±2% error rate. Meanwhile, a novel structure that provides efficient automatic image forgery detection for all input test images for the BPNN recognition is presented. Hence, an input image will be authenticated before being fed into the recognition tool.

  10. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Reid; Ruggiero, Christy; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Kelly, Patrick; Scoggins, Wayne; Tandon, Lav

    2011-03-01

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  11. Interactive image quantification tools in nuclear material forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruggiero, Christy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harvey, Neal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Pat [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scoggins, Wayne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-03

    Morphological and microstructural features visible in microscopy images of nuclear materials can give information about the processing history of a nuclear material. Extraction of these attributes currently requires a subject matter expert in both microscopy and nuclear material production processes, and is a time consuming, and at least partially manual task, often involving multiple software applications. One of the primary goals of computer vision is to find ways to extract and encode domain knowledge associated with imagery so that parts of this process can be automated. In this paper we describe a user-in-the-loop approach to the problem which attempts to both improve the efficiency of domain experts during image quantification as well as capture their domain knowledge over time. This is accomplished through a sophisticated user-monitoring system that accumulates user-computer interactions as users exploit their imagery. We provide a detailed discussion of the interactive feature extraction and segmentation tools we have developed and describe our initial results in exploiting the recorded user-computer interactions to improve user productivity over time.

  12. Characterization of three dimensional volumetric strain distribution during passive tension of the human tibialis anterior using Cine Phase Contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elisabeth R; Morrow, Duane A; Felmlee, Joel P; Murthy, Naveen S; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2016-10-03

    Intramuscular pressure correlates strongly with muscle tension and is a promising tool for quantifying individual muscle force. However, clinical application is impeded by measurement variability that is not fully understood. Previous studies point to regional differences in IMP, specifically increasing pressure with muscle depth. Based on conservation of mass, intramuscular pressure and volumetric strain distributions may be inversely related. Therefore, we hypothesized volumetric strain would decrease with muscle depth. To test this we quantified 3D volumetric strain in the tibialis anterior of 12 healthy subjects using Cine Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Cine Phase Contrast data were collected while a custom apparatus rotated the subjects' ankle continuously between neutral and plantarflexion. A T2-weighted image stack was used to define the resting tibials anterior position. Custom and commercial post-processing software were used to quantify the volumetric strain distribution. To characterize regional strain changes, the muscle was divided into superior-inferior sections and either medial-lateral or anterior-posterior slices. Mean volumetric strain was compared across the sections and slices. As hypothesized, volumetric strain demonstrated regional differences with a decreasing trend from the anterior (superficial) to the posterior (deep) muscle regions. Statistical tests showed significant main effects and interactions of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior position as well as superior-inferior and medial-lateral position on regional strain. These data support our hypothesis and imply a potential relationship between regional volumetric strain and intramuscular pressure. This finding may advance our understanding of intramuscular pressure variability sources and lead to more reliable measurement solutions in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of substantia nigra T1 hyperintensity in Parkinson's disease dementia, Alzheimer's disease and age-matched controls: Volumetric analysis of neuromelanin imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Ju Yeon; Yun, Won Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Ki Chang; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases.

  14. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  15. Review of free software tools for image analysis of fluorescence cell micrographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, V; Franz, D; Held, C; Münzenmayer, C; Palmisano, R; Wittenberg, T

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of free software tools have been made available for the evaluation of fluorescence cell micrographs. The main users are biologists and related life scientists with no or little knowledge of image processing. In this review, we give an overview of available tools and guidelines about which tools the users should use to segment fluorescence micrographs. We selected 15 free tools and divided them into stand-alone, Matlab-based, ImageJ-based, free demo versions of commercial tools and data sharing tools. The review consists of two parts: First, we developed a criteria catalogue and rated the tools regarding structural requirements, functionality (flexibility, segmentation and image processing filters) and usability (documentation, data management, usability and visualization). Second, we performed an image processing case study with four representative fluorescence micrograph segmentation tasks with figure-ground and cell separation. The tools display a wide range of functionality and usability. In the image processing case study, we were able to perform figure-ground separation in all micrographs using mainly thresholding. Cell separation was not possible with most of the tools, because cell separation methods are provided only by a subset of the tools and are difficult to parametrize and to use. Most important is that the usability matches the functionality of a tool. To be usable, specialized tools with less functionality need to fulfill less usability criteria, whereas multipurpose tools need a well-structured menu and intuitive graphical user interface.

  16. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated as a fun...... is increased. Altogether, the model is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for a quantitative analysis of the effect of process conditions. Based on the presented findings and considerations, examples of future work are mentioned for the further improvement of the model.......The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...

  17. Computer Vision Tools for Finding Images and Video Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Computer vision offers a variety of techniques for searching for pictures in large collections of images. Appearance methods compare images based on the overall content of the image using certain criteria. Finding methods concentrate on matching subparts of images, defined in a variety of ways, in hope of finding particular objects. These ideas…

  18. Computer Vision Tools for Finding Images and Video Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Computer vision offers a variety of techniques for searching for pictures in large collections of images. Appearance methods compare images based on the overall content of the image using certain criteria. Finding methods concentrate on matching subparts of images, defined in a variety of ways, in hope of finding particular objects. These ideas…

  19. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  20. [Development of a Text-Data Based Learning Tool That Integrates Image Processing and Displaying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Takeyuki

    2015-01-01

    We developed a text-data based learning tool that integrates image processing and displaying by Excel. Knowledge required for programing this tool is limited to using absolute, relative, and composite cell references and learning approximately 20 mathematical functions available in Excel. The new tool is capable of resolution translation, geometric transformation, spatial-filter processing, Radon transform, Fourier transform, convolutions, correlations, deconvolutions, wavelet transform, mutual information, and simulation of proton density-, T1-, and T2-weighted MR images. The processed images of 128 x 128 pixels or 256 x 256 pixels are observed directly within Excel worksheets without using any particular image display software. The results of image processing using this tool were compared with those using C language and the new tool was judged to have sufficient accuracy to be practically useful. The images displayed on Excel worksheets were compared with images using binary-data display software. This comparison indicated that the image quality of the Excel worksheets was nearly equal to the latter in visual impressions. Since image processing is performed by using text-data, the process is visible and facilitates making contrasts by using mathematical equations within the program. We concluded that the newly developed tool is adequate as a computer-assisted learning tool for use in medical image processing.

  1. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonckers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI, stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI, and pharmacological MRI (phMRI. Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anaesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically-induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest (ROIs. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g. treatment, lesion etc. modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with

  2. Optical Brain Imaging: A Powerful Tool for Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinpei; Xia, Yanfang; Wang, Xuecen; Si, Ke; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-01

    As the control center of organisms, the brain remains little understood due to its complexity. Taking advantage of imaging methods, scientists have found an accessible approach to unraveling the mystery of neuroscience. Among these methods, optical imaging techniques are widely used due to their high molecular specificity and single-molecule sensitivity. Here, we overview several optical imaging techniques in neuroscience of recent years, including brain clearing, the micro-optical sectioning tomography system, and deep tissue imaging.

  3. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality.

  4. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E. [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); Keeser, D. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innenstadtkliniken Medical Centre, Munich (Germany)

    2014-10-16

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  5. Vega-Constellation Tools to Analize Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savorskiy, V.; Loupian, E.; Balashov, I.; Kashnitskii, A.; Konstantinova, A.; Tolpin, V.; Uvarov, I.; Kuznetsov, O.; Maklakov, S.; Panova, O.; Savchenko, E.

    2016-06-01

    Creating high-performance means to manage massive hyperspectral data (HSD) arrays is an actual challenge when it is implemented to deal with disparate information resources. Aiming to solve this problem the present work develops tools to work with HSD in a distributed information infrastructure, i.e. primarily to use those tools in remote access mode. The main feature of presented approach is in the development of remotely accessed services, which allow users both to conduct search and retrieval procedures on HSD sets and to provide target users with tools to analyze and to process HSD in remote mode. These services were implemented within VEGA-Constellation family information systems that were extended by adding tools oriented to support the studies of certain classes of natural objects by exploring their HSD. Particular developed tools provide capabilities to conduct analysis of such objects as vegetation canopies (forest and agriculture), open soils, forest fires, and areas of thermal anomalies. Developed software tools were successfully tested on Hyperion data sets.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging: a potential new tool for arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueding

    2012-12-01

    The potential application of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technology to diagnostic imaging and therapeutic monitoring of inflammatory arthritis has been explored. The feasibility of our bench-top joint imaging systems in delineating soft articular tissue structures in a noninvasive manner was validated first on rat models and then on human peripheral joints. Based on the study on commonly used arthritis rat models, the capability of PAI to differentiate arthritic joints from the normal was also examined. With sufficient imaging depth, PAI can realize tomographic imaging of a human peripheral joint or a small-animal joint as a whole organ noninvasively. By presenting additional optical contrast and tissue functional information such as blood volume and blood oxygen saturation, PAI may provide an opportunity for early diagnosis of inflammatory joint disorders, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, and for monitoring of therapeutic outcomes with improved sensitivity and accuracy.

  7. Magnetic volumetric hologram memory with magnetic garnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2014-06-30

    Holographic memory is a promising next-generation optical memory that has a higher recording density and a higher transfer rate than other types of memory. In holographic memory, magnetic garnet films can serve as rewritable holographic memory media by use of magneto-optical effect. We have now demonstrated that a magnetic hologram can be recorded volumetrically in a ferromagnetic garnet film and that the signal image can be reconstructed from it for the first time. In addition, multiplicity of the magnetic hologram was also confirmed; the image could be reconstructed from a spot overlapped by other spots.

  8. Three-dimensional image analysis as a tool for embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Andre

    1992-06-01

    In the study of cell fate, cell lineage, and morphogenetic transformation it is necessary to obtain 3-D data. Serial sections of glutaraldehyde fixed and glycol methacrylate embedded material provide high resolution data. Clonal spread during germ layer formation in the mouse embryo has been followed by labeling a progenitor epiblast cell with horseradish peroxidase and staining its descendants one or two days later, followed by histological processing. Reconstruction of a 3-D image from histological sections must provide a solution for the alignment problem. As we want to study images at different magnification levels, we have chosen a method in which the sections are aligned under the microscope. Positioning is possible through a translation and a rotation stage. The first step for reconstruction is a coarse alignment on the basis of the moments in a binary, low magnification image of the embedding block. Thereafter, images of higher magnification levels are aligned by optimizing a similarity measure between the images. To analyze, first a global 3-D second order surface is fitted on the image to obtain the orientation of the embryo. The coefficients of this fit are used to normalize the size of the different embryos. Thereafter, the image is resampled with respect to the surface to create a 2-D mapping of the embryo and to guide the segmentation of the different cell layers which make up the embryo.

  9. Population Pharmacokinetics of Tracers: A New Tool for Medical Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandia, Peggy; Jaudet, Cyril; Chatelut, Etienne; Concordet, Didier

    2017-02-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography is a medical imaging method measuring the activity of a radiotracer chosen to accumulate in cancer cells. A recent trend of medical imaging analysis is to account for the radiotracer's pharmacokinetic properties at a voxel (three-dimensional-pixel) level to separate the different tissues. These analyses are closely linked to population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling. Kineticists possess the cultural background to improve medical imaging analysis. This article stresses the common points with population pharmacokinetics and highlights the methodological locks that need to be lifted.

  10. Compton scatter imaging: A tool for historical exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, G. [GE Security Germany GmbH, Heselstuecken 3, D-22453 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Geoffrey.Harding@ge.com; Harding, E. [University of Muenster, Interdisciplinary Research Training Group ' Societal symbolism in mediaeval and early modern times' (German Research Foundation, DFG), Pferdegasse 3/D-48143 Muenster (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This review discusses the principles and technological realisation of a technique, termed Compton scatter imaging (CSI), which is based on spatially resolved detection of Compton scattered X-rays. The applicational focus of this review is to objects of historical interest. Following a historical survey of CSI, a description is given of the major characteristics of Compton X-ray scatter. In particular back-scattered X-rays allow massive objects to be imaged, which would otherwise be too absorbing for the conventional transmission X-ray technique. The ComScan (an acronym for Compton scatter scanner) is a commercially available backscatter imaging system, which is discussed here in some detail. ComScan images from some artefacts of historical interest, namely a fresco, an Egyptian mummy and a mediaeval clasp are presented and their use in historical analysis is indicated. The utility of scientific and technical advance for not only exploring history, but also restoring it, is briefly discussed.

  11. Image processing tool for automatic feature recognition and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xing; Stoddard, Ryan J.

    2017-05-02

    A system for defining structures within an image is described. The system includes reading of an input file, preprocessing the input file while preserving metadata such as scale information and then detecting features of the input file. In one version the detection first uses an edge detector followed by identification of features using a Hough transform. The output of the process is identified elements within the image.

  12. Prototyping and Testing a New Volumetric Curvature Tool for Modeling Reservoir Compartments and Leakage Pathways in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer: Reducing Uncertainty in CO2 Storage and Permanence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, Jason [Univ. of Kansas and Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States); Holubnyak, Yevhen [Univ. of Kansas and Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States); Watney, Willard [Univ. of Kansas and Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2016-12-09

    This DOE-funded project evaluates the utility of seismic volumetric curvature (VC) for predicting stratal and structural architecture diagnostic of paleokarst reservoirs. Of special interest are applications geared toward carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). VC has been championed for identifying faults (offset <¼ λ) that cannot be imaged by conventional 3-D seismic attributes such as coherence. The objective of this research was to evaluate VC-techniques for reducing uncertainties in reservoir compartmentalization studies and seal risk assessments especially for saline aquifers. A 2000-ft horizontal lateral was purposefully drilled across VC-imaged lineaments—interpreted to record a fractured and a fault-bounded doline—to physically confirm their presence. The 15-mi² study area is located in southeastern Bemis-Shutts Field, which is situated along the crest of the Central Kansas Uplift (CKU) in Ellis County, Kansas. The uppermost Arbuckle (200+ ft) has extensive paleokarst including collapsed paleocaverns and dolines related to exceedingly prolonged pre-Simpson (Sauk–Tippecanoe) and/or pre-Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure. A lateral borehole was successfully drilled across the full extent (~1100 ft) of a VC-inferred paleokarst doline. Triple combo (GR-neutron/density-resistivity), full-wave sonic, and borehole micro-imager logs were successfully run to TD on drill-pipe. Results from the formation evaluation reveal breccias (e.g., crackle, mosaic, chaotic), fractures, faults, vugs (1-6"), and unaffected host strata consistent with the pre-spud interpretation. Well-rounded pebbles were also observed on the image log. VC-inferred lineaments coincide with 20–80-ft wide intervals of high GR values (100+ API), matrix-rich breccias, and faults. To further demonstrate their utility, VC attributes are integrated into a geocellular modeling workflow: 1) to constrain the structural model; 2) to generate facies probability grids, and; 3) to collocate

  13. Heartbeat OCT: a new tool for interventional imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wieser, Wolfgang; Regar, Evelyn; Lancee, Charles T.; Springeling, Geert; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Huber, Robert; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a super fast intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) system called Heartbeat OCT. Heartbeat OCT relies on a Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) laser and a micro-motor based catheter. The system enables acquisition of a uniformly sampled data set within one cardiac cycle, triggered by the ECG, to restore 3D OCT image fidelity. Here, we present a robust and easy to operate preclinical prototype system for interventional imaging which greatly facilitates data acquisition. The new system is using a fully automatic 1.6 MHz turnkey FDML laser with increased stability. The entire system was mounted into a 1.6 x 0.8 x 0.7 m cart. It is coupled to a guidewire compatible rapid-exchange catheter that can be used for routine imaging. The system is robust, compact, and moveable. We present the design, demonstrate ex-vivo imaging results and discuss in-vivo applications, as well as considerations for clinical translation of the technology. The ex-vivo imaging experiments were conducted with metal stents and bioresorbable vascular scaffold. The images provide clear and comprehensive visualization of the stents structure not only in cross-section but also in longitudinal rendering and 3D construction.

  14. Volumetric T1 and T2 magnetic resonance brain toolkit for relaxometry mapping simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da Silva Senra Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Relaxometry images are an important magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique in the clinical routine. Many diagnoses are based on the relaxometry maps to infer abnormal state in the tissue characteristic relaxation constant. In order to study the performance of these image processing approaches, a controlled simulated environment is necessary. However, a simulated relaxometry image tool is still lacking. This study proposes a computational anatomical brain phantom for MRI relaxometry images, which aims to offer an easy and flexible toolkit to test different image processing techniques, applied to MRI relaxometry maps in a controlled simulated environment. Methods A pipeline of image processing techniques such as brain extraction, image segmentation, normalization to a common space and signal relaxation decay simulation, were applied to a brain structural ICBM brain template, on both T1 and T2 weighted images, in order to simulate a volumetric brain relaxometry phantom. The FMRIB Software Library (FSL toolkits were used here as the base image processing needed to all the relaxometry reconstruction. Results All the image processing procedures are performed using automatic algorithms. In addition, different artefact levels can be set from different sources such as Rician noise and radio-frequency inhomogeneity noises. Conclusion The main goal of this project is to help researchers in their future image processing analysis involving MRI relaxometry images, offering reliable and robust brain relaxometry simulation modelling. Furthermore, the entire pipeline is open-source, which provides a wide collaboration between researchers who may want to improve the software and its functionality.

  15. Use of diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging as a tool in acute stroke clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warach Steven

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In light of the slow progress in developing effective therapies for ischemic stroke, magnetic resonance imaging techniques have emerged as new tools in stroke clinical trials. Rapid imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and angiography are being incorporated into phase II and phase III stroke trials to optimize patient selection based on positive imaging diagnosis of the ischemic pathophysiology specifically related to a drug's mechanism of action and as a direct biomarker of the effect of a treatment's effect on the brain.

  16. MatchGUI: A Graphical MATLAB-Based Tool for Automatic Image Co-Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Adnan I.

    2011-01-01

    MatchGUI software, based on MATLAB, automatically matches two images and displays the match result by superimposing one image on the other. A slider bar allows focus to shift between the two images. There are tools for zoom, auto-crop to overlap region, and basic image markup. Given a pair of ortho-rectified images (focused primarily on Mars orbital imagery for now), this software automatically co-registers the imagery so that corresponding image pixels are aligned. MatchGUI requires minimal user input, and performs a registration over scale and inplane rotation fully automatically

  17. Designing a Training Tool for Imaging Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    about how to weave together their disparate fields into a seamless web of knowledge . Learners often cannot visualize how the concepts and skills they...a seamless web of knowledge ? " How does the availability of a mental modeling tool enhance the ability of instructional designers to prepare

  18. EpiTools: An Open-Source Image Analysis Toolkit for Quantifying Epithelial Growth Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Davide; Hoppe, Andreas; Restrepo, Simon; Gatti, Lorenzo; Tournier, Alexander L; Tapon, Nicolas; Basler, Konrad; Mao, Yanlan

    2016-01-11

    Epithelia grow and undergo extensive rearrangements to achieve their final size and shape. Imaging the dynamics of tissue growth and morphogenesis is now possible with advances in time-lapse microscopy, but a true understanding of their complexities is limited by automated image analysis tools to extract quantitative data. To overcome such limitations, we have designed a new open-source image analysis toolkit called EpiTools. It provides user-friendly graphical user interfaces for accurately segmenting and tracking the contours of cell membrane signals obtained from 4D confocal imaging. It is designed for a broad audience, especially biologists with no computer-science background. Quantitative data extraction is integrated into a larger bioimaging platform, Icy, to increase the visibility and usability of our tools. We demonstrate the usefulness of EpiTools by analyzing Drosophila wing imaginal disc growth, revealing previously overlooked properties of this dynamic tissue, such as the patterns of cellular rearrangements.

  19. SU-E-T-582: On-Line Dosimetric Verification of Respiratory Gated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using the Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaly, B; Gaede, S [London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, ON (United Kingdom); Department of Oncology, Western University, London, ON (United Kingdom); Xhaferllari, I [London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, ON (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical utility of on-line verification of respiratory gated VMAT dosimetry during treatment. Methods: Portal dose images were acquired during treatment in integrated mode on a Varian TrueBeam (v. 1.6) linear accelerator for gated lung and liver patients that used flattening filtered beams. The source to imager distance (SID) was set to 160 cm to ensure imager clearance in case the isocenter was off midline. Note that acquisition of integrated images resulted in no extra dose to the patient. Fraction 1 was taken as baseline and all portal dose images were compared to that of the baseline, where the gamma comparison and dose difference were used to measure day-to-day exit dose variation. All images were analyzed in the Portal Dosimetry module of Aria (v. 10). The portal imager on the TrueBeam was calibrated by following the instructions for dosimetry calibration in service mode, where we define 1 calibrated unit (CU) equal to 1 Gy for 10×10 cm field size at 100 cm SID. This reference condition was measured frequently to verify imager calibration. Results: The gamma value (3%, 3 mm, 5% threshold) ranged between 92% and 100% for the lung and liver cases studied. The exit dose can vary by as much as 10% of the maximum dose for an individual fraction. The integrated images combined with the information given by the corresponding on-line soft tissue matched cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were useful in explaining dose variation. For gated lung treatment, dose variation was mainly due to the diaphragm position. For gated liver treatment, the dose variation was due to both diaphragm position and weight loss. Conclusion: Integrated images can be useful in verifying dose delivery consistency during respiratory gated VMAT, although the CBCT information is needed to explain dose differences due to anatomical changes.

  20. Image decomposition as a tool for validating stress analysis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mottershead J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is good practice to validate analytical and numerical models used in stress analysis for engineering design by comparison with measurements obtained from real components either in-service or in the laboratory. In reality, this critical step is often neglected or reduced to placing a single strain gage at the predicted hot-spot of stress. Modern techniques of optical analysis allow full-field maps of displacement, strain and, or stress to be obtained from real components with relative ease and at modest cost. However, validations continued to be performed only at predicted and, or observed hot-spots and most of the wealth of data is ignored. It is proposed that image decomposition methods, commonly employed in techniques such as fingerprinting and iris recognition, can be employed to validate stress analysis models by comparing all of the key features in the data from the experiment and the model. Image decomposition techniques such as Zernike moments and Fourier transforms have been used to decompose full-field distributions for strain generated from optical techniques such as digital image correlation and thermoelastic stress analysis as well as from analytical and numerical models by treating the strain distributions as images. The result of the decomposition is 101 to 102 image descriptors instead of the 105 or 106 pixels in the original data. As a consequence, it is relatively easy to make a statistical comparison of the image descriptors from the experiment and from the analytical/numerical model and to provide a quantitative assessment of the stress analysis.

  1. Development of Software for Analyzing Breakage Cutting ToolsBased on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦玲; 刘献礼; 王鹏; 王波; 王红运

    2004-01-01

    As the present day digital microsystems do not provide specialized microscopes that can detect cutting-tool, analysis software has been developed using VC++. A module for verge test and image segmentation is designed specifically for cutting-tools. Known calibration relations and given postulates are used in scale measurements. Practical operations show that the software can perform accurate detection.

  2. FibrilTool, an ImageJ plug-in to quantify fibrillar structures in raw microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, Arezki; Burian, Agata; Borowska-Wykręt, Dorota; Uyttewaal, Magalie; Wrzalik, Roman; Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Hamant, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Cell biology heavily relies on the behavior of fibrillar structures, such as the cytoskeleton, yet the analysis of their behavior in tissues often remains qualitative. Image analysis tools have been developed to quantify this behavior, but they often involve an image pre-processing stage that may bias the output and/or they require specific software. Here we describe FibrilTool, an ImageJ plug-in based on the concept of nematic tensor, which can provide a quantitative description of the anisotropy of fiber arrays and their average orientation in cells, directly from raw images obtained by any form of microscopy. FibrilTool has been validated on microtubules, actin and cellulose microfibrils, but it may also help analyze other fibrillar structures, such as collagen, or the texture of various materials. The tool is ImageJ-based, and it is therefore freely accessible to the scientific community and does not require specific computational setup. The tool provides the average orientation and anisotropy of fiber arrays in a given region of interest (ROI) in a few seconds.

  3. Potential of imaging spectroscopy as tool for pasture management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Lokhorst, C.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Kornet, J.G.; Kasper, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of imaging spectroscopy to predict the herbage mass of dry matter (DM), DM content of herbage and crude fibre, ash, total sugars and mineral (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn and Fe) concentrations was evaluated. The experimental system used measured reflectance between 404 and 1650 nm at high spa

  4. Stem Cells as a Tool for Breast Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Padín-Iruegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a scientific field of interest due to their therapeutic potential. There are different groups, depending on the differentiation state. We can find lonely stem cells, but generally they distribute in niches. Stem cells don’t survive forever. They are affected for senescence. Cancer stem cells are best defined functionally, as a subpopulation of tumor cells that can enrich for tumorigenic property and can regenerate heterogeneity of the original tumor. Circulating tumor cells are cells that have detached from a primary tumor and circulate in the bloodstream. They may constitute seeds for subsequent growth of additional tumors (metastasis in different tissues. Advances in molecular imaging have allowed a deeper understanding of the in vivo behavior of stem cells and have proven to be indispensable in preclinical and clinical studies. One of the first imaging modalities for monitoring pluripotent stem cells in vivo, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI offers high spatial and temporal resolution to obtain detailed morphological and functional information. Advantages of radioscintigraphic techniques include their picomolar sensitivity, good tissue penetration, and translation to clinical applications. Radionuclide imaging is the sole direct labeling technique used thus far in human studies, involving both autologous bone marrow derived and peripheral stem cells.

  5. New tools for cost-effective delivery of breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gerald R

    2002-01-01

    Breast imaging has a deserved reputation as a very difficult financial proposition for hospitals. Regulation, low reimbursement, costly new technologies and staff shortages all combine to create an operational environment that is difficult, at best. While it may not be possible for every hospital to make breast imaging profitable, it is the obligation of every hospital to make this and all service lines as cost-effective as possible. While the typical care episode in a hospital will include several different services or procedures, the breast-imaging patient is typically in the department or breast center for a single procedure. Consequently, all of the administrative and facility costs of the patient encounter must be borne by the reimbursement for the single procedure. Breast imaging involves relatively expensive technology and highly-trained, and costly, technologists in its delivery. The costs of these inputs are relatively fixed; therefore material improvement can only be realized through the redesign of process. Analysis of the process of care delivery is critical to any discussion of the economics of breast imaging. Breast imaging can basically be divided into two categories: screening mammography and diagnostic procedures. This is a very important distinction, because screening mammography requires only general supervision, while the balance of breast imaging requires the direct supervision of the physician. Decoupling the physician from the examination allows the organization of screening delivery programs in highly efficient, high-throughput systems. On the diagnostic side of breast imaging, the primary economic enhancement that can be realized is from the delivery of more than one procedure during the patient visit. Mammography has high fixed costs (technology and technologist) and, where high fixed costs are found, profitability is determined by process and volume. Where process can be optimized to a level that will allow a positive return for each

  6. P2-37: Processing Affordance Information from Invisible Tool Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinho Cho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A recent study showed that viewing manipulable objects such as images of tools induces the neural activation of posterior parietal areas. This neural activation is observed even when visual awareness of the image is visually suppressed. (Fang and He, 2005 Nature Neuroscience 10 1380–1385; Almeida et al, 2010 Psychological Science 21 772–778. However, the specific visuomotor information in tool images that drives the activation of dorsal areas is still unclear. We measured priming effect of invisible tool prime (left or right handed orientation. Observers distinguished the orientation of target tools (appropriate for left vs right handed grip briefly presented following visually suppressed primes (Experiment1. Also we measured the suppression time of tool images whose handle direction was presented in a left- or right-handed orientation. A dynamic noise pattern was presented to one of the observer's eyes at full contrast, while images of tools (left or right handed were simultaneously presented to the left or right visual field of the other eye. The subjects were asked to respond to the appearance of any partial or full part of the test image (Experiment 2. Results showed that (1 observers responded faster in the congruent condition (the same orientation between prime and target and (2 tool images shown in the right visual field took less time to gain dominance against the dynamic noise. These results suggest that even without overt recognition of presented tools, an object's affordance can be registered and processed in the brain. A recent study showed that viewing manipulable objects such as images of tools induces the neural activation of posterior parietal areas. This neural activation is observed even when visual awareness of the image is visually suppressed (Almeida et al., 2010 Psychological Science 21 772–778; Fang and He, 2005 Nature Neuroscience 10 1380–1385. However, the specific visuomotor information in tool images that

  7. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography : a promising new imaging tool in breast cancer detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalji, Ulrich; Lobbes, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDM) is a promising new breast imaging tool for breast cancer detection. In CEDM, an iodine-based contrast agent is intravenously administered and subsequently, dual-energy mammography is performed. This results in a set of images containing both a regular

  8. An image-guided tool to prevent hospital acquired infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Melinda; Szilágyi, László; Lehotsky, Ákos; Haidegger, Tamás; Benyó, Balázs

    2011-03-01

    Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) represent the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and claims hundreds of thousands of lives annually in the rest of the world. This paper presents a novel low-cost mobile device|called Stery-Hand|that helps to avoid HAI by improving hand hygiene control through providing an objective evaluation of the quality of hand washing. The use of the system is intuitive: having performed hand washing with a soap mixed with UV re ective powder, the skin appears brighter in UV illumination on the disinfected surfaces. Washed hands are inserted into the Stery-Hand box, where a digital image is taken under UV lighting. Automated image processing algorithms are employed in three steps to evaluate the quality of hand washing. First, the contour of the hand is extracted in order to distinguish the hand from the background. Next, a semi-supervised clustering algorithm classies the pixels of the hand into three groups, corresponding to clean, partially clean and dirty areas. The clustering algorithm is derived from the histogram-based quick fuzzy c-means approach, using a priori information extracted from reference images, evaluated by experts. Finally, the identied areas are adjusted to suppress shading eects, and quantied in order to give a verdict on hand disinfection quality. The proposed methodology was validated through tests using hundreds of images recorded in our laboratory. The proposed system was found robust and accurate, producing correct estimation for over 98% of the test cases. Stery-Hand may be employed in general practice, and it may also serve educational purposes.

  9. Functional neuro-imaging as a pre-surgical tool in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfi Haneef; David K. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuro-imaging techniques are helpful in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy for localization of the epileptogenic zone as ancillary tools to electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or when other localization techniques are normal, non-concordant or discordant. Positron emission tomography (PET) and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT) imaging are traditional tests that have been reported to have good sensitivity and specificit...

  10. Image-matching as a medical diagnostic support tool (DST) for brain diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K; Nielsen, J F; Nelson, Marvin D; Liu, Lifeng

    2005-01-01

    Imaging-matching is an important research area in imaging informatics. We have developed and evaluated a novel diagnostic support tool (DST) based on medical image matching using MR brain images. The approach consists of two steps, database generation and image matching. The database contains pre-diagnosed MR brain images. As the images are added to the database, they are registered to the 3D Talairach coordinate system. In addition, regions of interests (ROI) are generated, and image-processing techniques are used to extract relevant image parameters related to the brain and diseases from the ROIs and from the entire MR image. The second step is to retrieve relevant information from the database by performing image matching. In this step, the physician first submits a query image. The DST computes the similarity between the query image and each of the images in the database, and then presents the most similar images to the user. Since the database contains pre-diagnosed images, the retrieved cases tend to contain relevant diagnostic information. To evaluate the usefulness of the DST in a clinical setting, pediatric brain diseases were used. The database contains 2500 pediatric patients between ages 0 and 18 with brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of known brain lesions. A testbed was established at the Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) for acquiring MR images from the PACS server of patients with known lesions. These images were matched against those in the DST pediatric brain MR database. An expert pediatric neuroradiologist evaluated the matched results. We found that in most cases, the image-matching method was able to quickly retrieve images with relevant diagnostic content. The evaluation method and results are given.

  11. International Youth Diplomacy as a Tool of Russian Image Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadov Babek Rashid ogly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world forming and using the positive image of state actors can be considered among the most important elements of their actions on the international stage. Today it becomes obvious that the efficient use of social mechanisms as new forms of international cooperation, especially in the humanitarian field, is carried out by means of public diplomacy, which actively forms the target audience and creates the basis for the formation of country’s positive image. The targeted actions of world politics centers aimed at expanding the scope of their humanitarian presence on the international stage determine the relevance of wider use of the Institute for Public Diplomacy as a mechanism of foreign cultural policy development. Today, public diplomacy is becoming the demanded mechanism in international youth environment where there is a growth of involvement of active representatives of nongovernmental organizations who have specific knowledge and skills in international communication. These aspects of public diplomacy determine the need to address issues related to the qualitative characteristics of youth diplomacy, especially with the criteria of its effectiveness. This article analyzes one of the modern forms of aggravated international youth activity, which represents the significant mechanism in the formation of a positive image of Russia in the international youth sector. In fact, it is the first attempt to understand the role of diplomacy in organized youth sector, for which new opportunities of interaction with their peers from other countries are opened. The author refers to the history of the emergence of the term “international youth diplomacy” and offers the author’s version occurrences of the term in the scientific and journalistic usage. The article identifies some problematic aspects and main directions of its development in the context of youth organizations activity with a number of public institutions. “Small” part

  12. Ratsnake: A Versatile Image Annotation Tool with Application to Computer-Aided Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Iakovidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation and annotation are key components of image-based medical computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems. In this paper we present Ratsnake, a publicly available generic image annotation tool providing annotation efficiency, semantic awareness, versatility, and extensibility, features that can be exploited to transform it into an effective CAD system. In order to demonstrate this unique capability, we present its novel application for the evaluation and quantification of salient objects and structures of interest in kidney biopsy images. Accurate annotation identifying and quantifying such structures in microscopy images can provide an estimation of pathogenesis in obstructive nephropathy, which is a rather common disease with severe implication in children and infants. However a tool for detecting and quantifying the disease is not yet available. A machine learning-based approach, which utilizes prior domain knowledge and textural image features, is considered for the generation of an image force field customizing the presented tool for automatic evaluation of kidney biopsy images. The experimental evaluation of the proposed application of Ratsnake demonstrates its efficiency and effectiveness and promises its wide applicability across a variety of medical imaging domains.

  13. SOFI Simulation Tool: A Software Package for Simulating and Testing Super-Resolution Optical Fluctuation Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsault, Arik; Lukes, Tomas; Sharipov, Azat; Geissbuehler, Stefan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Lasser, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) allows one to perform sub-diffraction fluorescence microscopy of living cells. By analyzing the acquired image sequence with an advanced correlation method, i.e. a high-order cross-cumulant analysis, super-resolution in all three spatial dimensions can be achieved. Here we introduce a software tool for a simple qualitative comparison of SOFI images under simulated conditions considering parameters of the microscope setup and essential properties of the biological sample. This tool incorporates SOFI and STORM algorithms, displays and describes the SOFI image processing steps in a tutorial-like fashion. Fast testing of various parameters simplifies the parameter optimization prior to experimental work. The performance of the simulation tool is demonstrated by comparing simulated results with experimentally acquired data.

  14. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  15. Establishing magnetic resonance imaging as an accurate and reliable tool to diagnose and monitor esophageal cancer in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Kosovec

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for detection of esophageal cancer in the Levrat model of end-to-side esophagojejunostomy. BACKGROUND: The Levrat model has proven utility in terms of its ability to replicate Barrett's carcinogenesis by inducing gastroduodenoesophageal reflux (GDER. Due to lack of data on the utility of non-invasive methods for detection of esophageal cancer, treatment efficacy studies have been limited, as adenocarcinoma histology has only been validated post-mortem. It would therefore be of great value if the validity and reliability of MRI could be established in this setting. METHODS: Chronic GDER reflux was induced in 19 male Sprague-Dawley rats using the modified Levrat model. At 40 weeks post-surgery, all animals underwent endoscopy, MRI scanning, and post-mortem histological analysis of the esophagus and anastomosis. With post-mortem histology serving as the gold standard, assessment of presence of esophageal cancer was made by five esophageal specialists and five radiologists on endoscopy and MRI, respectively. RESULTS: The accuracy of MRI and endoscopic analysis to correctly identify cancer vs. no cancer was 85.3% and 50.5%, respectively. ROC curves demonstrated that MRI rating had an AUC of 0.966 (p<0.001 and endoscopy rating had an AUC of 0.534 (p = 0.804. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for identifying cancer vs. no-cancer was 89.1% and 80% respectively, as compared to 45.5% and 57.5% for endoscopy. False positive rates of MRI and endoscopy were 20% and 42.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MRI is a more reliable diagnostic method than endoscopy in the Levrat model. The non-invasiveness of the tool and its potential to volumetrically quantify the size and number of tumors likely makes it even more useful in evaluating novel agents and their efficacy in treatment studies of esophageal cancer.

  16. Molecular Beacons: Powerful Tools for Imaging RNA in Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Contreras, Ricardo; Vaca, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA functional studies highlights the pivotal role of these molecules in cell physiology. Diverse methods have been implemented to measure the expression levels of various RNA species, using either purified RNA or fixed cells. Despite the fact that fixed cells offer the possibility to observe the spatial distribution of RNA, assays with capability to real-time monitoring RNA transport into living cells are needed to further understand the role of RNA dynamics in cellular functions. Molecular beacons (MBs) are stem-loop hairpin-structured oligonucleotides equipped with a fluorescence quencher at one end and a fluorescent dye (also called reporter or fluorophore) at the opposite end. This structure permits that MB in the absence of their target complementary sequence do not fluoresce. Upon binding to targets, MBs emit fluorescence, due to the spatial separation of the quencher and the reporter. Molecular beacons are promising probes for the development of RNA imaging techniques; nevertheless much work remains to be done in order to obtain a robust technology for imaging various RNA molecules together in real time and in living cells. The present work concentrates on the different requirements needed to use successfully MB for cellular studies, summarizing recent advances in this area. PMID:21876785

  17. Molecular Beacons: Powerful Tools for Imaging RNA in Living Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Monroy-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in RNA functional studies highlights the pivotal role of these molecules in cell physiology. Diverse methods have been implemented to measure the expression levels of various RNA species, using either purified RNA or fixed cells. Despite the fact that fixed cells offer the possibility to observe the spatial distribution of RNA, assays with capability to real-time monitoring RNA transport into living cells are needed to further understand the role of RNA dynamics in cellular functions. Molecular beacons (MBs are stem-loop hairpin-structured oligonucleotides equipped with a fluorescence quencher at one end and a fluorescent dye (also called reporter or fluorophore at the opposite end. This structure permits that MB in the absence of their target complementary sequence do not fluoresce. Upon binding to targets, MBs emit fluorescence, due to the spatial separation of the quencher and the reporter. Molecular beacons are promising probes for the development of RNA imaging techniques; nevertheless much work remains to be done in order to obtain a robust technology for imaging various RNA molecules together in real time and in living cells. The present work concentrates on the different requirements needed to use successfully MB for cellular studies, summarizing recent advances in this area.

  18. Experimental assessment of the influence of beam hardening filters on image quality and patient dose in volumetric 64-slice X-ray CT scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ay, Mohammad Reza; Mehranian, Abolfazi; Maleki, Asghar; Ghadiri, Hossien; Ghafarian, Pardis; Zaidi, Habib

    Beam hardening filters have long been employed in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) to preferentially absorb soft and low-energy X-rays having no or little contribution to image formation, thus allowing the reduction of patient dose and beam hardening artefacts. In this work, we studied the influence

  19. Comparison between 3D volumetric rendering and multiplanar slices on the reliability of linear measurements on CBCT images: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Maria Freire FERNANDES

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of two methods of measurements of linear distances (multiplanar 2D and tridimensional reconstruction 3D obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT with different voxel sizes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten dry human mandibles were scanned at voxel sizes of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. Craniometric anatomical landmarks were identified twice by two independent operators on the multiplanar reconstructed and on volume rendering images that were generated by the software Dolphin®. Subsequently, physical measurements were performed using a digital caliper. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman were used for evaluating accuracy and reliability (p<0.05. RESULTS: Excellent intraobserver reliability and good to high precision interobserver reliability values were found for linear measurements from CBCT 3D and multiplanar images. Measurements performed on multiplanar reconstructed images were more accurate than measurements in volume rendering compared with the gold standard. No statistically significant difference was found between voxel protocols, independently of the measurement method. CONCLUSIONS: Linear measurements on multiplanar images of 0.2 and 0.4 voxel are reliable and accurate when compared with direct caliper measurements. Caution should be taken in the volume rendering measurements, because the measurements were reliable, but not accurate for all variables. An increased voxel resolution did not result in greater accuracy of mandible measurements and would potentially provide increased patient radiation exposure.

  20. Experimental assessment of the influence of beam hardening filters on image quality and patient dose in volumetric 64-slice X-ray CT scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ay, Mohammad Reza; Mehranian, Abolfazi; Maleki, Asghar; Ghadiri, Hossien; Ghafarian, Pardis; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Beam hardening filters have long been employed in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) to preferentially absorb soft and low-energy X-rays having no or little contribution to image formation, thus allowing the reduction of patient dose and beam hardening artefacts. In this work, we studied the influence o

  1. Experimental assessment of the influence of beam hardening filters on image quality and patient dose in volumetric 64-slice X-ray CT scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ay, Mohammad Reza; Mehranian, Abolfazi; Maleki, Asghar; Ghadiri, Hossien; Ghafarian, Pardis; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Beam hardening filters have long been employed in X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) to preferentially absorb soft and low-energy X-rays having no or little contribution to image formation, thus allowing the reduction of patient dose and beam hardening artefacts. In this work, we studied the influence o

  2. Paired inspiratory/expiratory volumetric CT and deformable image registration for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of airflow limitation in smokers with or without copd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Nishii, Tatsuya; Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate paired inspiratory/expiratory computed tomography (CT; iCT/eCT) and deformable image registration for quantitative and qualitative assessment of airflow limitation in smokers. Paired iCT/eCT images acquired from 35 smokers (30 men and 5 women) were coregistered and subtraction images (air trapping CT images [aCT]) generated. To evaluate emphysema quantitatively, the percentage of low-attenuation volume (LAV%) on iCT was calculated at -950 HU, as were mean and kurtosis on aCT for quantitative assessment of air trapping. Parametric response maps of emphysema (PRMe) and of functional small airways disease (PRMs) were also obtained. For qualitative evaluation of emphysema, low-attenuation areas on iCT were scored by consensus of two radiologists using Goddard classification. To assess air trapping qualitatively, the degree of air trapping on aCT was scored. For each quantitative and qualitative index, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient for forced expiratory flow in 1 second was calculated, and differences in correlation coefficients were statistically tested. The correlation coefficients for the indices were as follows: mean on aCT, 0.800; kurtosis on aCT, -0.726; LAV%, -0.472; PRMe, -0.570; PRMs, -0.565; addition of PRMe and PRMs, -0.653; emphysema score, -0.502; air trapping score, -0.793. The indices showing significant differences were as follows: mean on aCT and addition of PRMe and PRMs (P = 1.43 × 10(-8)); air trapping score and emphysema score (P = .0169). Air trapping images yielded more accurate quantitative and qualitative evaluation of airflow limitation than did LAV%, PRMe, PRMs, and Goddard classification. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Image fusion analysis of volumetric changes after interstitial low-dose-rate iodine-125 irradiation of supratentorial low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julow, Jeno; Major, Tibor; Mangel, László; Bajzik, Gábor; Viola, Arpad

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the volumes of tumor necrosis, reactive zone and edema with the three-dimensional dose distributions after brachytherapy treatments of gliomas. The investigation was performed an average of 14.2 months after low-dose-rate (125)I interstitial irradiation of 25 inoperable low-grade gliomas. The prescribed dose was 50-60 Gy to the tumor surface. Dose planning and image fusion were performed with the BrainLab-Target 1.19 software. In the CT/ MRI images, the "triple ring" (tumor necrosis, reactive ring and edema) developing after the interstitial irradiation of the brain tumors was examined. The images with the triple ring were fused with the planning images, and the isodose curves were superimposed on them. The volumes of the three regions were measured. The average dose at the necrosis border was determined from the isodose distribution. For quantitative assessment of the dose distributions, the dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), homogeneity index (HI), coverage index (CI) and conformal index (COIN) were calculated. The relative volumes of the different parts of the triple ring after the interstitial irradiation compared to the reference dose volume were the following: necrosis, 40.9%, reactive zone, 47.1%, and edema, 367%. The tumor necrosis developed at 79.1 Gy on average. The average DNR, HI, CI and COIN were 0.45, 0.24, 0.94 and 0.57, respectively. The image fusion analysis of the volume of tumor necrosis, reactive ring and edema caused by interstitial irradiation and their correlation with the dose distribution provide valuable information for patient follow-up, treatment options, and effects and side effects of radio therapy.

  4. Atlas-guided volumetric diffuse optical tomography enhanced by generalized linear model analysis to image risk decision-making responses in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Jing; Li, Lin; Cazzell, Mary; Liu, Hanli

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a variant of functional near infrared spectroscopy and has the capability of mapping or reconstructing three dimensional (3D) hemodynamic changes due to brain activity. Common methods used in DOT image analysis to define brain activation have limitations because the selection of activation period is relatively subjective. General linear model (GLM)-based analysis can overcome this limitation. In this study, we combine the atlas-guided 3D DOT image reconstruction with GLM-based analysis (i.e., voxel-wise GLM analysis) to investigate the brain activity that is associated with risk decision-making processes. Risk decision-making is an important cognitive process and thus is an essential topic in the field of neuroscience. The Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) is a valid experimental model and has been commonly used to assess human risk-taking actions and tendencies while facing risks. We have used the BART paradigm with a blocked design to investigate brain activations in the prefrontal and frontal cortical areas during decision-making from 37 human participants (22 males and 15 females). Voxel-wise GLM analysis was performed after a human brain atlas template and a depth compensation algorithm were combined to form atlas-guided DOT images. In this work, we wish to demonstrate the excellence of using voxel-wise GLM analysis with DOT to image and study cognitive functions in response to risk decision-making. Results have shown significant hemodynamic changes in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active-choice mode and a different activation pattern between genders; these findings correlate well with published literature in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fNIRS studies.

  5. Positioning variation analysis using Cone Beam Computed Tomography volumetric images; Analise das variacoes de posicionamento utilizando imagens volumetricas de Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Conico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Camila T.; Fontana, Thiago S.; Habitzreuter, Angela B.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Rodrigues, Laura N., E-mail: camila_fmedica@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo(ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-12-15

    Radiotherapy is one of the main treatment modalities of malignancies, either associated with other techniques or not. The successful use of radiation depends on several factors, such as the choice of treatment technique, dosimetric accuracy and geometric precision. The movement of internal organs plays a role quite significant in the calculation of setup margins, but during treatment, the most important variation is the patient’s positioning error. This study evaluated the geometric accuracy in positioning patients with anal canal, prostate, and head and neck cancer, who were treated at ICESP. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images of 40 patients were used, totalizing 224 images. For every CBCT image, the displacement was calculated through the fusion between the images acquired before the treatment and CT images obtained in the simulation.The average deviation was 0.24±0.10 cm to the left-right direction, 0.21±0.12 cm in the anterior-posterior and 0.30±0.18 cm in the superior-inferior direction for cases of anal canal; 0.20±0.10 cm in the left-right, 0.20±0.10 cm in the anterior-posterior and 0.23±0.11 cm in superior-inferior direction for prostate treatments; and 0.11±0.07 cm in the left-right, 0.13±0.06 cm in the anterior-posterior and 0.15±0.10 cm in superior-inferior direction for the treatment of head and neck. The results found were within the predicted PTV margins used at the Institution. (author)

  6. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  7. An interactive image segmentation method for lithological boundary detection: A rapid mapping tool for geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuki, Yathunanthan; Holden, Eun-Jung; Kovesi, Peter; Micklethwaite, Steven

    2017-03-01

    Large volumes of images are collected by geoscientists using remote sensing platforms. Manual analysis of these images is a time consuming task and there is a need for fast and robust image interpretation tools. In particular the reliable mapping of lithological boundaries is a critical step for geological interpretation. In this contribution we developed an interactive image segmentation algorithm that harnesses the geologist's input and exploits automated image analysis to provide a practical tool for lithology boundary detection, using photographic images of rock surfaces. In the proposed method, the user is expected to draw rough markings to indicate the locations of different geological units in the image. Image segmentation is performed by segmenting regions based on their homogeneity in colour. This results in a high density of segmented regions which are then iteratively merged based on the colour of different geological units and the user input. Finally, a post-processing step allows the user to edit the boundaries. An experiment was conducted using photographic rock surface images collected by a UAV and a handheld digital camera. The proposed technique was applied to detect lithology boundaries. It was found that the proposed method reduced the interpretation time by a factor of four relative to manual segmentation, while achieving more than 96% similarity in boundary detection. As a result the proposed method has the potential to provide practical support for interpreting large volume of complex geological images.

  8. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using different b-value combinations for the evaluation of treatment results after volumetric MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikink, Marlijne E.; Voogt, Marianne J.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Nijenhuis, Robbert J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keserci, Bilgin [Samsung Medical Center, High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Philips Healthcare, Advanced Science and Development, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-sun [Samsung Medical Center, High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Medical Center, Sunkyunkwan University, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Vincken, Koen L.; Bartels, Lambertus W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To assess the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping using different b-value combinations for treatment evaluation after magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) of uterine fibroids. Fifty-six patients with 67 uterine fibroids were treated with volumetric MR-HIFU. Pre-treatment and post-treatment images were obtained using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1WI) and DWI using b = 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC maps were generated using subsets of b-values to investigate the effects of tissue ablation on water diffusion and perfusion in fibroids treated with MR-HIFU. Four combinations of b-values were used: (1) all b-values; (2) b = 0, 200 s/mm{sup 2}; (3) b = 400, 600, 800 s/mm{sup 2}; and (4) b = 0, 800 s/mm{sup 2}. Using the lowest b-values (0 and 200 s/mm{sup 2}), the mean ADC value in the ablated tissue reduced significantly (p < 0.001) compared with baseline. Calculating the ADC value with the highest b-values (400, 600, 800 s/mm{sup 2}), the ADC increased significantly (p < 0.001) post-treatment. ADC maps calculated with the lowest b-values resulted in the best visual agreement of non-perfused fibroid tissue detected on CE images. Other b-value combinations and normal myometrium showed no difference in ADC after MR-HIFU treatment. A decrease in contrast agent uptake within the ablated region on CE-T1WI was correlated to a significantly decreased ADC when b = 0 and 200 s/mm{sup 2} were used. (orig.)

  9. Contrast-enhanced, real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging of tissue perfusion: preliminary results in a rabbit model of testicular torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltiel, H. J.; Padua, H. M.; Gargollo, P. C.; Cannon, G. M., Jr.; Alomari, A. I.; Yu, R.; Clement, G. T.

    2011-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the clinical investigation of a wide variety of perfusion disorders. Quantitative analysis of perfusion is not widely performed, and is limited by the fact that data are acquired from a single tissue plane, a situation that is unlikely to accurately reflect global perfusion. Real-time perfusion information from a tissue volume in an experimental rabbit model of testicular torsion was obtained with a two-dimensional matrix phased array US transducer. Contrast-enhanced imaging was performed in 20 rabbits during intravenous infusion of the microbubble contrast agent Definity® before and after unilateral testicular torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. The degree of torsion was 0° in 4 (sham surgery), 180° in 4, 360° in 4, 540° in 4, and 720° in 4. An automated technique was developed to analyze the time history of US image intensity in experimental and control testes. Comparison of mean US intensity rate of change and of ratios between mean US intensity rate of change in experimental and control testes demonstrated good correlation with testicular perfusion and mean perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabeled microspheres, an accepted 'gold standard'. This method is of potential utility in the clinical evaluation of testicular and other organ perfusion.

  10. Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources◊

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cense, Barry; Koperda, Eric; Brown, Jeffrey M.; Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Gao, Weihua; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrabroadband sources, such as multiplexed superluminescent diodes (SLDs) and femtosecond lasers, have been successfully employed in adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) systems for ultrahigh resolution retinal imaging. The large cost differential of these sources, however, motivates the need for a performance comparison. Here, we compare the performance of a Femtolasers Integral Ti:Sapphire laser and a Superlum BroadLighter T840, using the same AO-OCT system and the same subject. In addition, we investigate the capability of our instrument equipped with the Integral to capture volume images of the fovea and adjacent regions on a second subject using the AO to control focus in the retina and custom and freeware image registration software to reduce eye motion artifacts. Monochromatic ocular aberrations were corrected with a woofer-tweeter AO system. Coherence lengths of the Integral and BroadLighter were measured in vivo at 3.2 μm and 3.3 μm, respectively. The difference in dynamic range was 5 dB, close to the expected variability of the experiment. Individual cone photoreceptors, retinal capillaries and nerve fiber bundles were distinguished in all three dimensions with both sources. The acquired retinal volumes are provided for viewing in OSA ISP, allowing the reader to data mine at the microscope level. PMID:19259249

  11. Semi-automatic image personalization tool for variable text insertion and replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hengzhou; Bala, Raja; Fan, Zhigang; Eschbach, Reiner; Bouman, Charles A.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2010-02-01

    Image personalization is a widely used technique in personalized marketing,1 in which a vendor attempts to promote new products or retain customers by sending marketing collateral that is tailored to the customers' demographics, needs, and interests. With current solutions of which we are aware such as XMPie,2 DirectSmile,3 and AlphaPicture,4 in order to produce this tailored marketing collateral, image templates need to be created manually by graphic designers, involving complex grid manipulation and detailed geometric adjustments. As a matter of fact, the image template design is highly manual, skill-demanding and costly, and essentially the bottleneck for image personalization. We present a semi-automatic image personalization tool for designing image templates. Two scenarios are considered: text insertion and text replacement, with the text replacement option not offered in current solutions. The graphical user interface (GUI) of the tool is described in detail. Unlike current solutions, the tool renders the text in 3-D, which allows easy adjustment of the text. In particular, the tool has been implemented in Java, which introduces flexible deployment and eliminates the need for any special software or know-how on the part of the end user.

  12. Test Facility for Volumetric Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, M.; Dibowski, G.; Pfander, M.; Sack, J. P.; Schwarzbozl, P.; Ulmer, S.

    2006-07-01

    Long-time testing of volumetric absorber modules is an inevitable measure to gain the experience and reliability required for the commercialization of the open volumetric receiver technology. While solar tower test facilities are necessary for performance measurements of complete volumetric receivers, the long-term stability of individual components can be tested in less expensive test setups. For the qualification of the aging effects of operating cycles on single elements of new absorber materials and designs, a test facility was developed and constructed in the framework of the KOSMOSOL project. In order to provide the concentrated solar radiation level, the absorber test facility is integrated into a parabolic dish system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Several new designs of ceramic absorbers were developed and tested during the last months. (Author)

  13. New tools for digital medical image processing implemented in DIP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Erica A.C.; Santana, Ivan E. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Viera, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry, also called phantoms, are mostly built from stacks of images CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) obtained from scans of patients or volunteers. The construction of voxel phantoms requires computational processing for transforming image formats, dimensional image compression (2D) to form three-dimensional arrays (3D), quantization, resampling, enhancement, restoration and image segmentation, among others. Hardly the computational dosimetry researcher finds all these skills into a single software and often it results in a decreased development of their research or inadequate use of alternative tools. The need to integrate the various tasks of the original digital image processing to obtain an image that can be used in a computational model of exposure led to the development of software DIP (Digital Image Processing). This software reads, writes and edits binary files containing the 3D matrix corresponding to a stack of cross-sectional images of a given geometry that can be a human body or other volume of interest. It can also read any type of computer image and do conversions. When the task involves only one output image, it is saved in the JPEG standard Windows. When it involves a stack of images, the binary output file is called SGI (Interactive Graphic Simulations, a symbol already used in other publications of the Research Group in Numerical Dosimetry). The following paper presents the third version of the DIP software and emphasizes the new tools it implemented. Currently it has the menus Basics, Views, Spatial Domain, Frequency Domain, Segmentations and Study. Each menu contains items and subitems with features that generally require an image as input and produce an image or an attribute in the output. (author)

  14. Using Microsoft PowerPoint as an Astronomical Image Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2006-12-01

    Engaging students in the analysis of authentic scientific data is an effective way to teach them about the scientific process and to develop their problem solving, teamwork and communication skills. In astronomy several image processing and analysis software tools have been developed for use in school environments. However, the practical implementation in the classroom is often difficult because the teachers may not have the comfort level with computers necessary to install and use these tools, they may not have adequate computer privileges and/or support, and they may not have the time to learn how to use specialized astronomy software. To address this problem, we have developed a set of activities in which students analyze astronomical images using basic tools provided in PowerPoint. These include measuring sizes, distances, and angles, and blinking images. In contrast to specialized software, PowerPoint is broadly available on school computers. Many teachers are already familiar with PowerPoint, and the skills developed while learning how to analyze astronomical images are highly transferable. We will discuss several practical examples of measurements, including the following: -Variations in the distances to the sun and moon from their angular sizes -Magnetic declination from images of shadows -Diameter of the moon from lunar eclipse images -Sizes of lunar craters -Orbital radii of the Jovian moons and mass of Jupiter -Supernova and comet searches -Expansion rate of the universe from images of distant galaxies

  15. A learning tool for optical and microwave satellite image processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashondhi, Gaurav K.; Mohanty, Jyotirmoy; Eeti, Laxmi N.; Bhattacharya, Avik; De, Shaunak; Buddhiraju, Krishna M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a self-learning tool, which contains a number of virtual experiments for processing and analysis of Optical/Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The tool is named Virtual Satellite Image Processing and Analysis Lab (v-SIPLAB) Experiments that are included in Learning Tool are related to: Optical/Infrared - Image and Edge enhancement, smoothing, PCT, vegetation indices, Mathematical Morphology, Accuracy Assessment, Supervised/Unsupervised classification etc.; Basic SAR - Parameter extraction and range spectrum estimation, Range compression, Doppler centroid estimation, Azimuth reference function generation and compression, Multilooking, image enhancement, texture analysis, edge and detection. etc.; SAR Interferometry - BaseLine Calculation, Extraction of single look SAR images, Registration, Resampling, and Interferogram generation; SAR Polarimetry - Conversion of AirSAR or Radarsat data to S2/C3/T3 matrix, Speckle Filtering, Power/Intensity image generation, Decomposition of S2/C3/T3, Classification of S2/C3/T3 using Wishart Classifier [3]. A professional quality polarimetric SAR software can be found at [8], a part of whose functionality can be found in our system. The learning tool also contains other modules, besides executable software experiments, such as aim, theory, procedure, interpretation, quizzes, link to additional reading material and user feedback. Students can have understanding of Optical and SAR remotely sensed images through discussion of basic principles and supported by structured procedure for running and interpreting the experiments. Quizzes for self-assessment and a provision for online feedback are also being provided to make this Learning tool self-contained. One can download results after performing experiments.

  16. X-ray imaging plate performance investigation based on a Monte Carlo simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, M., E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr [Laboratoire Vibration Acoustique (LVA), INSA de Lyon, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Duvauchelle, Ph.; Kaftandjian, V. [Laboratoire Vibration Acoustique (LVA), INSA de Lyon, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Peterzol-Parmentier, A. [AREVA NDE-Solutions, 4 Rue Thomas Dumorey, 71100 Chalon-sur-Saône (France); Schumm, A. [EDF R& D SINETICS, 1 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2015-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) based on imaging plate (IP) technology represents a potential replacement technique for traditional film-based industrial radiography. For investigating the IP performance especially at high energies, a Monte Carlo simulation tool based on PENELOPE has been developed. This tool tracks separately direct and secondary radiations, and monitors the behavior of different particles. The simulation output provides 3D distribution of deposited energy in IP and evaluation of radiation spectrum propagation allowing us to visualize the behavior of different particles and the influence of different elements. A detailed analysis, on the spectral and spatial responses of IP at different energies up to MeV, has been performed. - Highlights: • A Monte Carlo tool for imaging plate (IP) performance investigation is presented. • The tool outputs 3D maps of energy deposition in IP due to different signals. • The tool also provides the transmitted spectra along the radiation propagation. • An industrial imaging case is simulated with the presented tool. • A detailed analysis, on the spectral and spatial responses of IP, is presented.

  17. Feasibility of flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (fpVCT) in experimental small animal imaging of osteoporosis - initial experience; Erste Erfahrungen mit einem Flaechendetektor-Volumen-CT (fpVCT) in der experimentellen Osteoporosediagnostik am Kleintiermodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, R.; Dullin, C.; Herrmann, K.P.; Kluever, I.; Zaroban, A.; Knollmann, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Goettingen; Stuermer, E.K.; Sehmisch, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Goettingen (Germany). Klinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Plastische und Wiederherstellungschirurgie; Funke, M. [Klinikum Mittelbaden, Baden-Baden (Germany). Radiologische Klinik an der Stadtklinik

    2006-10-15

    Flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (fpVCT) is a new, noninvasive CT imaging modality with increased isotropic resolution. Technical details, potential applications, and our initial experience with a fpVCT prototype scanner in the imaging of osteoporosis in a rat model are presented. To date, 21 rats have been investigated in vivo with fpVCT. Pharmacologic effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and structure were of special interest. Image evaluation focussed on the second lumbar vertebra and the left femoral bone. To validate measurement results, BMD values calculated with fpVCT were correlated with results of BMD measurements from ashing of the second lumbar vertebra and femoral bones. Our initial results show that fpVCT is capable of detecting differences in BMD between ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol and a control group with high statistical significance (p<0.05), corresponding to ashing as the gold standard. In a rat model, fpVCT imaging is especially useful in longitudinal in vivo investigations of BMD measures. Spatial resolution of up to 150 {mu}m allows imaging of the trabecular structure only in human cadaveric bones. (orig.) [German] Die Flaechendetektor-Volumen-Computertomographie (fpVCT) ist eine neuartige CT-Bildgebungstechnik, die eine gesteigerte isotrope Ortsaufloesung ermoeglicht. In dieser Arbeit wird ueber Technik, Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten und erste Erfahrungen beim Einsatz eines fpVCT-Prototyps in der experimentellen Diagnostik der Osteoporose am Rattenmodell berichtet. Bisher konnten 21 Ratten in vivo am fpVCT untersucht werden. Von besonderem Interesse waren Medikamentenwirkungen auf Knochendichte (''bone mineral density'', BMD) und -struktur. Die Auswertung der gewonnenen Bilddaten fokussierte sich auf den 2. Lendenwirbelkoerper und das linke Femur. Um die Messergebnisse zu ueberpruefen, wurden die mittels fpVCT errechneten BMD-Werte mit den Ergebnissen der Dichtemessung der veraschten 2. LWK und Femora

  18. Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography-based microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-04-01

    Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-rate volumetric OCT-based microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame rate of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video rate up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.

  19. The Multisensory Attentional Consequences of Tool Use: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Nicholas P.; Spence, Charles; Hansen, Peter C.; Mackay, Clare E.; Calvert, Gemma A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Tool use in humans requires that multisensory information is integrated across different locations, from objects seen to be distant from the hand, but felt indirectly at the hand via the tool. We tested the hypothesis that using a simple tool to perceive vibrotactile stimuli results in the enhanced processing of visual stimuli presented at the distal, functional part of the tool. Such a finding would be consistent with a shift of spatial attention to the location where the tool is used. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested this hypothesis by scanning healthy human participants' brains using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while they used a simple tool to discriminate between target vibrations, accompanied by congruent or incongruent visual distractors, on the same or opposite side to the tool. The attentional hypothesis was supported: BOLD response in occipital cortex, particularly in the right hemisphere lingual gyrus, varied significantly as a function of tool position, increasing contralaterally, and decreasing ipsilaterally to the tool. Furthermore, these modulations occurred despite the fact that participants were repeatedly instructed to ignore the visual stimuli, to respond only to the vibrotactile stimuli, and to maintain visual fixation centrally. In addition, the magnitude of multisensory (visual-vibrotactile) interactions in participants' behavioural responses significantly predicted the BOLD response in occipital cortical areas that were also modulated as a function of both visual stimulus position and tool position. Conclusions/Significance These results show that using a simple tool to locate and to perceive vibrotactile stimuli is accompanied by a shift of spatial attention to the location where the functional part of the tool is used, resulting in enhanced processing of visual stimuli at that location, and decreased processing at other locations. This was most clearly observed in the right hemisphere lingual gyrus. Such

  20. Local study of defects during sintering of UO2: image processing and quantitative analysis tools:

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Girard; Jean-Marc Chaix; François Valdivieso; Patrice Goeuriot; Jacques Lechelle

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the image analysis tools developed and used to quantify the local effects, of heterogeneities during sintering of ceramic materials applied in nuclear fuels. Specific materials, containing a controlled dispersion of well defined heterogeneities (dense or porous aggregates) in the ceramics matrix have been prepared and sintered. In order to characterize the materials in the vicinity of these likely isolated heterogeneities, large SEM images are first acquired around hetero...

  1. An image guidance system for positioning robotic cochlear implant insertion tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Trevor L.; Webster, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    Cochlear implants must be inserted carefully to avoid damaging the delicate anatomical structures of the inner ear. This has motivated several approaches to improve the safety and efficacy of electrode array insertion by automating the process with specialized robotic or manual insertion tools. When such tools are used, they must be positioned at the entry point to the cochlea and aligned with the desired entry vector. This paper presents an image guidance system capable of accurately positioning a cochlear implant insertion tool. An optical tracking system localizes the insertion tool in physical space while a graphical user interface incorporates this with patient- specific anatomical data to provide error information to the surgeon in real-time. Guided by this interface, novice users successfully aligned the tool with an mean accuracy of 0.31 mm.

  2. Working with OpenCV and Intel Image Proccessing Libraries. Proccessing image data tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Lizán, Francisco José; Llorens Largo, Faraón; Pujol López, Mar; Rizo Aldeguer, Ramón; Villagrá Arnedo, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    We will provide an overview of Intel OpenCV and Image Processing Libraries. We present an application of real-time gesture recognition using the libraries (segmenting a foreground object, creating Motion History Image (MHI), updating the intensity gradients, and recovering directional motion information). Some times most companies spent a lot of time and money implementing those well-known techniques. OpenCV and IPL implement a huge amount of standard and advanced image processing techniqu...

  3. Ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography with high pitch: diagnostic yield of a volumetric planning scan and effects on dose reduction and imaging strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, B; Huppertz, A; Lembcke, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of an ultra-low-dose dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scan with high pitch for delimiting the range of the subsequent standard CTCA scan. Methods: 30 patients with an indication for CTCA were prospectively examined using a two-scan dual-source CTCA protocol (2.0 × 64.0 × 0.6 mm; pitch, 3.4; rotation time of 280 ms; 100 kV): Scan 1 was acquired with one-fifth of the tube current suggested by the automatic exposure control software [CareDose 4D™ (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) using 100 kV and 370 mAs as a reference] with the scan length from the tracheal bifurcation to the diaphragmatic border. Scan 2 was acquired with standard tube current extending with reduced scan length based on Scan 1. Nine central coronary artery segments were analysed qualitatively on both scans. Results: Scan 2 (105.1 ± 10.1 mm) was significantly shorter than Scan 1 (127.0 ± 8.7 mm). Image quality scores were significantly better for Scan 2. However, in 5 of 6 (83%) patients with stenotic coronary artery disease, a stenosis was already detected in Scan 1 and in 13 of 24 (54%) patients with non-stenotic coronary arteries, a stenosis was already excluded by Scan 1. Using Scan 2 as reference, the positive- and negative-predictive value of Scan 1 was 83% (5 of 6 patients) and 100% (13 of 13 patients), respectively. Conclusion: An ultra-low-dose CTCA planning scan enables a reliable scan length reduction of the following standard CTCA scan and allows for correct diagnosis in a substantial proportion of patients. Advances in knowledge: Further dose reductions are possible owing to a change in the individual patient's imaging strategy as a prior ultra-low-dose CTCA scan may already rule out the presence of a stenosis or may lead to a direct transferal to an invasive catheter procedure. PMID:25710210

  4. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  5. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  6. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jeremiah D. [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45504 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  7. Assessment of the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches by contrast-enhanced dynamic volumetric hepatic parallel magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility, reliability and accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werder, Robert; Weishaupt, Dominik; Marincek, Borut [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Lutz, Amelie M.; Willmann, Juergen K. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Stanford University, MIPS, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); McCormack, Lucas [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Department of Biostatistics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new three-dimensional gradient-echo (GRE) MR sequence performed with a parallel acquisition technique to shorten breath-hold times (parallel GRE MRI) in the detection of arterial variants and stenosis of the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. A total of 102 patients underwent dynamic parallel GRE MRI, timed to the arterial phase by a test bolus (mean breath-hold time, 17 s). For both quantitative and qualitative analysis, the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches were divided into 13 arterial segments. In a subanalysis of 55/102 patients, the accuracy of parallel GRE MRI compared to MDCT in the detection arterial variants and stenosis was calculated for two independent readers. Mean SNRs and CNRs were 47.2 and 35.6, respectively. Image quality was rated good or excellent in 1,234/1,326 segments (93%). Hepatic and renal arterial variants were identified with an accuracy of 93 and 95%, respectively (reader 1) and 98 and 100%, respectively (reader 2). Both readers detected arterial stenosis with an accuracy of 98%. Interobserver agreement was good to excellent for the detection of hepatic ({kappa}=0.69) and renal ({kappa}=0.92) variants and for the diagnosis of stenosis ({kappa}=0.96). Dynamic three-dimensional parallel GRE MRI is feasible and allows a reliable and accurate diagnosis of arterial variants and stenosis of the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches in a short breath-hold-time. (orig.)

  8. Web based tools for visualizing imaging data and development of XNATView, a zero footprint image viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gutman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in web technologies now allow direct visualization of imaging data sets without necessitating the download of large file sets or the installation of software. This allows centralization of file storage and facilitates image review and analysis. XNATView is a light framework recently developed in our lab to visualize DICOM images stored in The Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT. It consists of a PyXNAT-based framework to wrap around the REST API and query the data in XNAT. XNATView was developed to simplify quality assurance, help organize imaging data, and facilitate data sharing for intra- and inter-laboratory collaborations. Its zero-footprint design allows the user to connect to XNAT from a web browser, navigate through projects, experiments, and subjects, and view DICOM images with accompanying metadata all within a single viewing instance.

  9. Challenges and solutions in the calibration of projection lens pupil-image metrology tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonaker, Steve; Riffel, Bryan; Nishinaga, Hisashi

    2009-03-01

    As imaging requirements and limits continue to be pushed tighter and lower, it has become imperative that accurate and repeatable measurement of the projection lens (PL) pupil be readily available. These are important for setup and adjustment of the illumination distribution, measurement and optimization of the lens aberrations, and verification of lens NA and transmission. Accurate testing of these items is critical during initial installation and setup of a photolithography tool, but it continues to prove useful each time any projection lens pupil-image measurement is made. The basic raw data from any such measurement is in the form of a pixelized 'image' captured by a projection lens pupil microscope. Such images have typically been referred to as pupilgrams1, and many prior works have reported on their application and analysis1,2,3. Each of these measurements can be affected by errors in the measurement tool used. The error modes can be broadly divided into two distinct groups: uncompensated transmission loss, and uncompensated distortion (or remapping) error. For instance, in illuminator measurements, the first will yield intensity error and the second will yield image shape mapping error. These errors may or may not lie exclusively in the optics of the measurement tool. But, regardless of their source, they will propagate through the analysis of the pupilgram images. For this reason, at minimum they must be measured and judged for relative impact, if only to confirm that the errors do not change the conclusions or results. In this paper, we will discuss and present methods for measuring the image distortion present in a PL pupil-image microscope. These data are used to build a 'map' of errors vs. position in the lens pupil. The maps then serve as the basis for image-processing-based compensation that can be applied to all subsequent microscope images. A novel vitally important feature of the technique presented is that it calibrates the distortion of the

  10. Developing a Web Tool for Searching and Viewing Collections of High-Quality Cultural Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Searching for information and viewing visual representations of products in e-organisations is a common activity of the e-visitors to these organisations. For example, in e-museums, users are shown images or other visual information of the existing objects. The aim of this paper is to present a tool which supports the effective searching…

  11. Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Nankivil, Derek; Shen, Liangbo; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Viet, Du Tran; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Current-generation software for rendering volumetric OCT data sets based on ray casting results in volume visualizations with indistinct tissue features and sub-optimal depth perception. Recent developments in hand-held and microscope-integrated intrasurgical OCT designed for real-time volumetric imaging motivate development of rendering algorithms which are both visually appealing and fast enough to support real time rendering, potentially from multiple viewpoints for stereoscopic visualization. We report on an enhanced, real time, integrated volumetric rendering pipeline which incorporates high performance volumetric median and Gaussian filtering, boundary and feature enhancement, depth encoding, and lighting into a ray casting volume rendering model. We demonstrate this improved model implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware for real-time volumetric rendering of OCT data during tissue phantom and live human surgical imaging. We show that this rendering produces enhanced 3D visualizations of pathology and intraoperative maneuvers compared to standard ray casting.

  12. A computer tool for the fusion and visualization of thermal and magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichinho, Gerson Linck; Gariba, Munir Antonio; Sanches, Ionildo José; Gamba, Humberto Remigio; Cruz, Felipe Pardal Franco; Nohama, Percy

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of temperature variation along the surface of the body, provided by digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI), is becoming a valuable auxiliary tool for the early detection of many diseases in medicine. However, DITI is essentially a 2-D technique and its image does not provide useful anatomical information associated with it. However, multimodal image registration and fusion may overcome this difficulty and provide additional information for diagnosis purposes. In this paper, a new method of registering and merging 2-D DITI and 3-D MRI is presented. Registration of the images acquired from the two modalities is necessary as they are acquired with different image systems. Firstly, the body volume of interest is scanned by a MRI system and a set of 2-D DITI of it, at orthogonal angles, is acquired. Next, it is necessary to register these two different sets of images. This is done by creating 2-D MRI projections from the reconstructed 3-D MRI volume and registering it with the DITI. Once registered, the DITI is then projected over the 3-D MRI. The program developed to assess the proposed method to combine MRI and DITI resulted in a new tool for fusing two different image modalities, and it can help medical doctors.

  13. TiConverter: A training image converting tool for multiple-point geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlelmula F., Mohamed M.; Killough, John; Fraim, Michael

    2016-11-01

    TiConverter is a tool developed to ease the application of multiple-point geostatistics whether by the open source Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software (SGeMS) or other available commercial software. TiConverter has a user-friendly interface and it allows the conversion of 2D training images into numerical representations in four different file formats without the need for additional code writing. These are the ASCII (.txt), the geostatistical software library (GSLIB) (.txt), the Isatis (.dat), and the VTK formats. It performs the conversion based on the RGB color system. In addition, TiConverter offers several useful tools including image resizing, smoothing, and segmenting tools. The purpose of this study is to introduce the TiConverter, and to demonstrate its application and advantages with several examples from the literature.

  14. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  15. SIMS ion microscopy as a novel, practical tool for subcellular chemical imaging in cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, S

    2003-01-15

    The development of cryogenic sample preparations, subcellular image quantification schemes, and correlative confocal laser scanning microscopy and ion microscopy have made dynamic SIMS a versatile tool in biology and medicine. For example, ion microscopy can provide much needed, novel information on calcium influx and intracellular calcium stores at organelle resolution in normal and transformed cells in order to better understand the altered calcium signaling in malignant cells. 3-D SIMS imaging of cells revealed dynamic gradients of calcium in cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. Studies of subcellular localization of anticancer drugs is another area of research where ion microscopy can provide novel observations in many types of cancers. Ion microscopy is already an essential tool in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer as it can be used to quantitatively image the subcellular location of boron in cells and tissues. This information is critically needed for testing the efficacy of boronated agents and for calculations of radiation dosimetry.

  16. Three-dimensional image registration as a tool for forensic odontology: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Bennamoun, Mohammed

    2013-09-01

    Frequently, human dentition is utilized for victim identification. This report introduces a new human identification technique based on the principle of 3-dimensional (3D) image registration of the dentition. With the aid of a dry human skull, postmortem (PM) and antemortem (AM) scenarios were assumed. The skull in its initial state composed the PM scenario. Virtual 3D PM images were reconstructed from medical CT images. The AM scenario was achieved by reconstructing the missing hard and soft tissues of the skull by dental waxes. Virtual 3D AM images were obtained by laser surface scanning. The virtual PM and AM images were registered at 2 levels: arch level and tooth level. At arch level, the deviation between the 2 images was 0.147 mm for the maxilla and 0.166 mm for the mandible. At tooth level, the deviation average ranged from 0.077 to 0.237 mm. Qualitatively, even image fit was observed for the arches, intact teeth, and teeth with minimal deficiencies. As the tooth defect increased, the alignment discrepancy increased. It is concluded that 3D image registration ensured an accurate superimposition of the 3D images and can be used as a robust tool for forensic identification.

  17. An MRI-based semiautomated volumetric quantification of hip osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizos, K.N.; Siafakas, M.S.; Karachalios, T.S. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Univ. of Thessalia, Larissa (Greece); Fotiadis, D.I. [Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Soucacos, P.N. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    Objective: To objectively and precisely define the spatial distribution of osteonecrosis and to investigate the influence of various factors including etiology. Design: A volumetric method is presented to describe the size and spatial distribution of necrotic lesions of the femoral head, using MRI scans. The technique is based on the definition of an equivalent sphere model for the femoral head. Patients: The gender, age, number of hips involved, disease duration, pain intensity, limping disability and etiology were correlated with the distribution of the pathologic bone. Seventy-nine patients with 122 hips affected by osteonecrosis were evaluated. Results: The lesion size ranged from 7% to 73% of the sphere equivalent. The lateral octants presented considerable variability, ranging from wide lateral lesions extending beyond the lip of the acetabulum, to narrow medial lesions, leaving a lateral supporting pillar of intact bone. Patients with sickle cell disease and steroid administration presented the largest lesions. The extent of the posterior superior medial octant involvement correlated with the symptom intensity, a younger age and male gender. Conclusion: The methodology presented here has proven a reliable and straightforward imaging tool for precise assessment of necrotic lesions. It also enables us to target accurately the drilling and grafting procedures. (orig.)

  18. Creation of a simple natural language processing tool to support an imaging utilization quality dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jordan; Koziatek, Christian; Theobald, Jason; Smith, Silas; Iturrate, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Testing for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with cost and risk to patients (e.g. radiation). To assess the appropriateness of imaging utilization at the provider level, it is important to know that provider's diagnostic yield (percentage of tests positive for the diagnostic entity of interest). However, determining diagnostic yield typically requires either time-consuming, manual review of radiology reports or the use of complex and/or proprietary natural language processing software. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to develop and implement a simple, user-configurable, and open-source natural language processing tool to classify radiology reports with high accuracy and 2) to use the results of the tool to design a provider-specific VTE imaging dashboard, consisting of both utilization rate and diagnostic yield. Two physicians reviewed a training set of 400 lower extremity ultrasound (UTZ) and computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) reports to understand the language used in VTE-positive and VTE-negative reports. The insights from this review informed the arguments to the five modifiable parameters of the NLP tool. A validation set of 2,000 studies was then independently classified by the reviewers and by the tool; the classifications were compared and the performance of the tool was calculated. The tool was highly accurate in classifying the presence and absence of VTE for both the UTZ (sensitivity 95.7%; 95% CI 91.5-99.8, specificity 100%; 95% CI 100-100) and CTPA reports (sensitivity 97.1%; 95% CI 94.3-99.9, specificity 98.6%; 95% CI 97.8-99.4). The diagnostic yield was then calculated at the individual provider level and the imaging dashboard was created. We have created a novel NLP tool designed for users without a background in computer programming, which has been used to classify venous thromboembolism reports with a high degree of accuracy. The tool is open-source and available for download at http

  19. On the Uncertain Future of the Volumetric 3D Display Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.

    2017-06-01

    Volumetric displays permit electronically processed images to be depicted within a transparent physical volume and enable a range of cues to depth to be inherently associated with image content. Further, images can be viewed directly by multiple simultaneous observers who are able to change vantage positions in a natural way. On the basis of research to date, we assume that the technologies needed to implement useful volumetric displays able to support translucent image formation are available. Consequently, in this paper we review aspects of the volumetric paradigm and identify important issues which have, to date, precluded their successful commercialization. Potentially advantageous characteristics are outlined and demonstrate that significant research is still needed in order to overcome barriers which continue to hamper the effective exploitation of this display modality. Given the recent resurgence of interest in developing commercially viable general purpose volumetric systems, this discussion is of particular relevance.

  20. Volumes to learn: advancing therapeutics with innovative computed tomography image data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Michael L

    2010-09-15

    Semi-automated methods for calculating tumor volumes from computed tomography images are a new tool for advancing the development of cancer therapeutics. Volumetric measurements, relying on already widely available standard clinical imaging techniques, could shorten the observation intervals needed to identify cohorts of patients sensitive or resistant to treatment. ©2010 AACR.

  1. A new imaging tool for realtime measurement of flow velocity in intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With modern imaging modalities of the brain a significant number of unruptured aneurysms are detected. However, not every aneurysm is prone to rupture. Because treatment morbidity is about 10% it is crucial to identify unstable aneurysms for which treatment should be discussed. Recently, new imaging tools allow analysis of flow dynamics and wall stability have become available. It seems that they might provide additional data for better risk profiling. In this study we present a new imaging tool for analysis of flow dynamics, which calculates fluid velocity in an aneurysm (Phillips Electronics, N.V.. It may identify regions with high flow and calculate flow reduction after stenting of aneurysms. Contrast is injected with a stable injection speed of 2 mL/sec for 3 sec. Two clinical cases are illustrated. Velocity in aneurysms and areas of instability can be identified and calculated during angiography in real-time. After stenting and flow diverter deployment flow reduction in the internal carotid aneurysm was reduced by 60% and there was a reduction of about 65% in the posterior cerebral artery in the second case we are reporting. The dynamic flow software calculates the flow profile in the aneurysm immediately after contrast injection. It is a real-time, patient specific tool taking into account systole, diastole and flexibility of the vasculature. These factors are an improvement as compared to current models of computational flow dynamics. We think it is a highly efficient, user friendly tool. Further clinical studies are on their way.

  2. Prototype of Partial Cutting Tool of Geological Map Images Distributed by Geological Web Map Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Geological maps and topographical maps play an important role in disaster assessment, resource management, and environmental preservation. These map information have been distributed in accordance with Web services standards such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) recently. In this study, a partial cutting tool of geological map images distributed by geological WMTS was implemented with Free and Open Source Software. The tool mainly consists of two functions: display function and cutting function. The former function was implemented using OpenLayers. The latter function was implemented using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). All other small functions were implemented by PHP and Python. As a result, this tool allows not only displaying WMTS layer on web browser but also generating a geological map image of intended area and zoom level. At this moment, available WTMS layers are limited to the ones distributed by WMTS for the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan. The geological map image can be saved as GeoTIFF format and WebGL format. GeoTIFF is one of the georeferenced raster formats that is available in many kinds of Geographical Information System. WebGL is useful for confirming a relationship between geology and geography in 3D. In conclusion, the partial cutting tool developed in this study would contribute to create better conditions for promoting utilization of geological information. Future work is to increase the number of available WMTS layers and the types of output file format.

  3. A New Imaging Tool for Realtime Measurement of Flow Velocity in Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios K; Kaschner, Marius; Cornelius, Jan F; Kamp, Marcel A; Tortora, Angelo; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Turowski, Bernd

    2017-06-07

    With modern imaging modalities of the brain a significant number of unruptured aneurysms are detected. However, not every aneurysm is prone to rupture. Because treatment morbidity is about 10% it is crucial to identify unstable aneurysms for which treatment should be discussed. Recently, new imaging tools allow analysis of flow dynamics and wall stability have become available. It seems that they might provide additional data for better risk profiling. In this study we present a new imaging tool for analysis of flow dynamics, which calculates fluid velocity in an aneurysm (Phillips Electronics, N.V.). It may identify regions with high flow and calculate flow reduction after stenting of aneurysms. Contrast is injected with a stable injection speed of 2 mL/sec for 3 sec. Two clinical cases are illustrated. Velocity in aneurysms and areas of instability can be identified and calculated during angiography in real-time. After stenting and flow diverter deployment flow reduction in the internal carotid aneurysm was reduced by 60% and there was a reduction of about 65% in the posterior cerebral artery in the second case we are reporting. The dynamic flow software calculates the flow profile in the aneurysm immediately after contrast injection. It is a real-time, patient specific tool taking into account systole, diastole and flexibility of the vasculature. These factors are an improvement as compared to current models of computational flow dynamics. We think it is a highly efficient, user friendly tool. Further clinical studies are on their way.

  4. Simultaneous whole-animal 3D-imaging of neuronal activity using light field microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Prevedel, R; Hoffmann, M; Pak, N; Wetzstein, G; Kato, S; Schrödel, T; Raskar, R; Zimmer, M; Boyden, E S; Vaziri, A

    2014-01-01

    3D functional imaging of neuronal activity in entire organisms at single cell level and physiologically relevant time scales faces major obstacles due to trade-offs between the size of the imaged volumes, and spatial and temporal resolution. Here, using light-field microscopy in combination with 3D deconvolution, we demonstrate intrinsically simultaneous volumetric functional imaging of neuronal population activity at single neuron resolution for an entire organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The simplicity of our technique and possibility of the integration into epi-fluoresence microscopes makes it an attractive tool for high-speed volumetric calcium imaging.

  5. Amazon Rainforest Deforestation Daily Detection Tool Using Artificial Neural Networks and Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio César Cazella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA [1] sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides the parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to find the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrixes to determine the degree of success of the network. Part of the municipality of Porto Velho, in Rondônia state, is located inside the tile H11V09 of the MODIS/TERRA sensor, which was used as the study area. A spectrum-temporal analysis of this area was made on 57 images from 20 of May to 15 of July 2003 using the trained neural network. This analysis allowed us to verify the quality of the implemented neural network classification as well as helping our understanding of the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest. The great potential of neural networks for image classification was perceived with this work. However, the generation of consistent alarms, in other words, detecting predatory actions at the beginning; instead of firing false alarms is a complex task that has not yet been solved. Therefore, the major contribution of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis and practical use of neural networks and satellite images to combat illegal deforestation.

  6. PyElph - a software tool for gel images analysis and phylogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ana Brânduşa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents PyElph, a software tool which automatically extracts data from gel images, computes the molecular weights of the analyzed molecules or fragments, compares DNA patterns which result from experiments with molecular genetic markers and, also, generates phylogenetic trees computed by five clustering methods, using the information extracted from the analyzed gel image. The software can be successfully used for population genetics, phylogenetics, taxonomic studies and other applications which require gel image analysis. Researchers and students working in molecular biology and genetics would benefit greatly from the proposed software because it is free, open source, easy to use, has a friendly Graphical User Interface and does not depend on specific image acquisition devices like other commercial programs with similar functionalities do. Results PyElph software tool is entirely implemented in Python which is a very popular programming language among the bioinformatics community. It provides a very friendly Graphical User Interface which was designed in six steps that gradually lead to the results. The user is guided through the following steps: image loading and preparation, lane detection, band detection, molecular weights computation based on a molecular weight marker, band matching and finally, the computation and visualization of phylogenetic trees. A strong point of the software is the visualization component for the processed data. The Graphical User Interface provides operations for image manipulation and highlights lanes, bands and band matching in the analyzed gel image. All the data and images generated in each step can be saved. The software has been tested on several DNA patterns obtained from experiments with different genetic markers. Examples of genetic markers which can be analyzed using PyElph are RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, RAPD

  7. Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Evaluation Tools for GOES-R ABI and GLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian; Graybill, Justin; Slingerland, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. This paper describes the software design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  8. Enhanced CellClassifier: a multi-class classification tool for microscopy images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath Peter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Light microscopy is of central importance in cell biology. The recent introduction of automated high content screening has expanded this technology towards automation of experiments and performing large scale perturbation assays. Nevertheless, evaluation of microscopy data continues to be a bottleneck in many projects. Currently, among open source software, CellProfiler and its extension Analyst are widely used in automated image processing. Even though revolutionizing image analysis in current biology, some routine and many advanced tasks are either not supported or require programming skills of the researcher. This represents a significant obstacle in many biology laboratories. Results We have developed a tool, Enhanced CellClassifier, which circumvents this obstacle. Enhanced CellClassifier starts from images analyzed by CellProfiler, and allows multi-class classification using a Support Vector Machine algorithm. Training of objects can be done by clicking directly "on the microscopy image" in several intuitive training modes. Many routine tasks like out-of focus exclusion and well summary are also supported. Classification results can be integrated with other object measurements including inter-object relationships. This makes a detailed interpretation of the image possible, allowing the differentiation of many complex phenotypes. For the generation of the output, image, well and plate data are dynamically extracted and summarized. The output can be generated as graphs, Excel-files, images with projections of the final analysis and exported as variables. Conclusion Here we describe Enhanced CellClassifier which allows multiple class classification, elucidating complex phenotypes. Our tool is designed for the biologist who wants both, simple and flexible analysis of images without requiring programming skills. This should facilitate the implementation of automated high-content screening.

  9. Software tools of the Computis European project to process mass spectrometry images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbe, Marie-France; Both, Jean-Pierre; Prideaux, Brendan; Klinkert, Ivo; Picaud, Vincent; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Atfons; Guevara, Victor; Stoeckli, Markus; Roempp, Andreas; Heeren, Ron M A; Spengler, Bernhard; Gala, Olivier; Haan, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Among the needs usually expressed by teams using mass spectrometry imaging, one that often arises is that for user-friendly software able to manage huge data volumes quickly and to provide efficient assistance for the interpretation of data. To answer this need, the Computis European project developed several complementary software tools to process mass spectrometry imaging data. Data Cube Explorer provides a simple spatial and spectral exploration for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) and time of flight-secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) data. SpectViewer offers visualisation functions, assistance to the interpretation of data, classification functionalities, peak list extraction to interrogate biological database and image overlay, and it can process data issued from MALDI-ToF, ToF-SIMS and desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) equipment. EasyReg2D is able to register two images, in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format, issued from different technologies. The collaboration between the teams was hampered by the multiplicity of equipment and data formats, so the project also developed a common data format (imzML) to facilitate the exchange of experimental data and their interpretation by the different software tools. The BioMap platform for visualisation and exploration of MALDI-ToF and DESI images was adapted to parse imzML files, enabling its access to all project partners and, more globally, to a larger community of users. Considering the huge advantages brought by the imzML standard format, a specific editor (vBrowser) for imzML files and converters from proprietary formats to imzML were developed to enable the use of the imzML format by a broad scientific community. This initiative paves the way toward the development of a large panel of software tools able to process mass spectrometry imaging datasets in the future.

  10. [OsiriX, a useful tool for processing tomographic images in patients with facial fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Martínez, Eduardo; Cienfuegos-Monroy, Ricardo; Fernández-Sobrino, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    OsiriX, a Mac OS X-based open source program, is presented as a useful tool to process tomographic images for diagnosis and preoperative planning in patients with facial fractures. CT scans were performed on 124 patients with facial fractures treated at the Department of Maxillofacial and Reconstructive Surgery of the Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia "Lomas Verdes" in Mexico City. Information obtained was recorded in DICOM format in CDs and processed in a Macintosh laptop with OsiriX software, doing multiplanar and 3D reconstructions. Surgical findings were compared to the images obtained by the software. Of the surgical findings, 96.5% matched with the OsiriX images. Only 3.5% of the OsiriX images were not consistent because of distortion or artifacts in the CT due to firearm projectiles and Erich arch bars near the involved area. Based on the results obtained, the authors consider that the OsiriX software is a useful tool for diagnosis and preoperative planning in patients with facial fractures. Furthermore, it prevents the loss of information due to the process of image selection by the radiology staff.

  11. Multiple sparse volumetric priors for distributed EEG source reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobbe, Gregor; van Mierlo, Pieter; De Vos, Maarten; Mijović, Bogdan; Hallez, Hans; Van Huffel, Sabine; López, José David; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2014-10-15

    We revisit the multiple sparse priors (MSP) algorithm implemented in the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM) for distributed EEG source reconstruction (Friston et al., 2008). In the present implementation, multiple cortical patches are introduced as source priors based on a dipole source space restricted to a cortical surface mesh. In this note, we present a technique to construct volumetric cortical regions to introduce as source priors by restricting the dipole source space to a segmented gray matter layer and using a region growing approach. This extension allows to reconstruct brain structures besides the cortical surface and facilitates the use of more realistic volumetric head models including more layers, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), compared to the standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models. We illustrated the technique with ERP data and anatomical MR images in 12 subjects. Based on the segmented gray matter for each of the subjects, cortical regions were created and introduced as source priors for MSP-inversion assuming two types of head models. The standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models and extended 4-layered head models including CSF. We compared these models with the current implementation by assessing the free energy corresponding with each of the reconstructions using Bayesian model selection for group studies. Strong evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP approach compared to the MSP approach based on cortical patches for both types of head models. Overall, the strongest evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP reconstructions based on the extended head models including CSF. These results were verified by comparing the reconstructed activity. The use of volumetric cortical regions as source priors is a useful complement to the present implementation as it allows to introduce more complex head models and volumetric source priors in future studies.

  12. THE IMAGE OF PIRACY AND MARITIME TERRORISM. THE MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawliczek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article was the issue of shaping the image of piracy and maritime terrorism. Emphasis was put on the media, including those using information and communication technologies. The answers to problem questions were sought: (1 Who and why forms that image (2 what tools are used for its construction. The article presents the trends and development tendencies of the analyzed phenomena, based on the report of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD. Furthermore, the results of surveys, conducted among students of military academies, on perception of piracy and maritime terrorism, are cited.

  13. BrainCAT - a tool for automated and combined functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging brain connectivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Gonçalves Marques

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal neuroimaging studies have recently become a trend in the neuroimaging field and are certainly a standard for the future. Brain connectivity studies combining functional activation patterns using resting-state or task related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI tractography have growing popularity. However, there is a scarcity of solutions to perform optimized, intuitive and consistent multimodal fMRI/DTI studies. Here we propose a new tool, BrainCAT (Brain Connectivity Analysis Tool, for an automated and standard multimodal analysis of combined fMRI/DTI data, using freely available tools. With a friendly graphical user interface (GUI, BrainCAT aims to make data processing easier and faster, implementing a fully automated data processing pipeline and minimizing the need for user intervention, which hopefully will expand the use of combined fMRI/DTI studies. Its validity was tested in an ageing study of the Default Mode Network (DMN white matter connectivity. The results evidenced the cingulum bundle as the structural connector of the Precuneus/Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC and the Medial Frontal Cortex (MFC, regions of the DMN. Moreover mean FA values along the cingulum extracted with BrainCAT showed a strong correlation with FA values from the manual selection of the same bundle. Taken together, these results provide evidence that BrainCAT is suitable for these analyses.

  14. Imaging calcium signals in vivo: a powerful tool in physiology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James T

    2011-08-01

    The design and engineering of organic fluorescent Ca(2+) indicators approximately 30 years ago opened the door for imaging cellular Ca(2+) signals with a high degree of temporal and spatial resolution. Over this time, Ca(2+) imaging has revolutionized our approaches for tissue-level spatiotemporal analysis of functional organization and has matured into a powerful tool for in situ imaging of cellular activity in the living animal. In vivo Ca(2+) imaging with temporal resolution at the millisecond range and spatial resolution at micrometer range has been achieved through novel designs of Ca(2+) sensors, development of modern microscopes and powerful imaging techniques such as two-photon microscopy. Imaging Ca(2+) signals in ensembles of cells within tissue in 3D allows for analysis of integrated cellular function, which, in the case of the brain, enables recording activity patterns in local circuits. The recent development of miniaturized compact, fibre-optic-based, mechanically flexible microendoscopes capable of two-photon microscopy opens the door for imaging activity in awake, behaving animals. This development is poised to open a new chapter in physiological experiments and for pharmacological approaches in the development of novel therapies.

  15. Functional neuro-imaging as a pre-surgical tool in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chen, David K

    2014-03-01

    Functional neuro-imaging techniques are helpful in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy for localization of the epileptogenic zone as ancillary tools to electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or when other localization techniques are normal, non-concordant or discordant. Positron emission tomography (PET) and ictal single photon emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT) imaging are traditional tests that have been reported to have good sensitivity and specificity although the results are better with more expertise as is true for any technique. More recently magnetoencephalogram/magnetic source imaging (MEG/MSI), diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in localization and functional mapping during the pre-surgical work-up of epilepsy. Newer techniques such as fMRI-EEG, functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and near infra-red spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magneto nanoparticles hold promise for further development that could then be applied in the work-up of epilepsy surgery. In this manuscript, we review these techniques and their current position in the pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy.

  16. Non-invasive radiotracer imaging as a tool for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R E; Burns, H D; Hamill, T G; Eng, W S; Francis, B E; Ryan, C

    2000-07-01

    Non-Invasive Radiotracer Imaging (NIRI) uses either short-lived positron-emitting isotopes, such as 11C and 18F, for Positron Emis ion Tomography (PET) or single photon emitting nuclides, e.g., 123I, which provide images using planar imaging or Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). These high-resolution imaging modalities provide anatomical distribution and localization of radiolabeled drugs, which can be used to generate real time receptor occupancy and off-rate studies in humans. This can be accomplished by either isotopically labeling a potential new drug (usually with 11C), or indirectly by studying how the unlabelled drug inhibits specific radioligand binding in vivo. Competitive blockade studies can be accomplished using a radiolabeled analogue which binds to the site of interest, rather than a radiolabeled version of the potential drug. Imaging, particularly PET imaging, can be used to demonstrate the effect of a drug through a biochemical marker of processes such as glucose metabolism or blood flow. NIRI as a development tool in the pharmaceutical industry is gaining increased acceptance as its unique ability to provide such critical information in human subjects is recognized. This section will review recent examples that illustrate the utility of NIRI, principally PET, in drug development, and the potential of imaging advances in the development of cancer drugs and gene therapy. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the design of new radiotracers for novel targets.

  17. XMapTools a program for X-ray images processing and thermobarometric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre; Burn, Marco; Loury, Chloé; Vidal, Olivier; Engi, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Metamorphic rocks are made up of a mosaic of local thermodynamic equilibria. They frequently involve minerals that grew at different equilibrium conditions of Pressure (P), Temperature (T) and fO2. The identification of relationships between microstructures and metamorphic conditions can be achieved using continuous P-T estimates in two dimensions. The resulting P-T maps can be derived from standardized X-ray images and superimposed to the observed deformation structures and assemblages at thin section scale. XMapTools 1.6.5 (Lanari et al. 2014; find out more at http://www.xmaptools.com), is a set of MATLAB©-based graphical user interface programs to process electron microprobe X-ray images. XMapTools provides an efficient method to standardize X-ray images (raw intensities) into maps of oxide weight percent compositions. This analytical standardization is done using Castaing's approach, employing internal standards. The classification function allows to automatically separate the different minerals phases and other parts of the maps such as fractures or mineral boundaries using a K-means clustering approach. A set of ~50 external functions is providing in the XMapTools package (1) to calculate structural formulae for common minerals from the standardized analyses, and (2) to estimate the P-T conditions of growth or equilibration, with the semi-empirical geothermobarometry functions. For chemically heterogeneous samples, local effective bulk (LEB) can be derived by means of standardized X-ray images. In addition, two graphical user interface modules Chem2D and TriPlot3D can be used to plot the mineral compositions into binary and ternary diagrams. The program XMapTools can easily be coupled with forward (i.e. rock-specific equilibrium phase diagrams) and inverse (i.e. multi-equilibrium) thermodynamics models to estimate the P-T conditions of crystallization at the microscale. This presentation introduces XMapTools and includes typical examples of its functionality

  18. Image navigation and registration performance assessment tool set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-05-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99. 73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  19. Global segmentation and curvature analysis of volumetric data sets using trivariate B-spline functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldea, Octavian; Elber, Gershon; Rivlin, Ehud

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a method to globally segment volumetric images into regions that contain convex or concave (elliptic) iso-surfaces, planar or cylindrical (parabolic) iso-surfaces, and volumetric regions with saddle-like (hyperbolic) iso-surfaces, regardless of the value of the iso-surface level. The proposed scheme relies on a novel approach to globally compute, bound, and analyze the Gaussian and mean curvatures of an entire volumetric data set, using a trivariate B-spline volumetric representation. This scheme derives a new differential scalar field for a given volumetric scalar field, which could easily be adapted to other differential properties. Moreover, this scheme can set the basis for more precise and accurate segmentation of data sets targeting the identification of primitive parts. Since the proposed scheme employs piecewise continuous functions, it is precise and insensitive to aliasing.

  20. Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approva l 26 FEB 2016 1. Your paper, entitled Crime Scene Investigation: Clinical Aoolication of...or technical information as a publication/presentation, a new 59 MDW Form 3039 must be submitted for review and approval.] Crime Scene Investiga...tion: Clinical Application of Chemical Shift Imaging as a Problem Solving Tool 1. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED Crime Scene

  1. Automated static image analysis as a novel tool in describing the physical properties of dietary fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kurek,Marcin Andrzej; Piwińska, Monika; Wyrwisz, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The growing interest in the usage of dietary fiber in food has caused the need to provide precise tools for describing its physical properties. This research examined two dietary fibers from oats and beets, respectively, in variable particle sizes. The application of automated static image analysis for describing the hydration properties and particle size distribution of dietary fiber was analyzed. Conventional tests for water holding capacity (WHC) were conducted. The particles were...

  2. REFINED SATELLITE IMAGE ORIENTATION IN THE FREE OPEN-SOURCE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TOOLS APERO/MICMAC

    OpenAIRE

    E. Rupnik; M. Pierrot Deseilligny; Delorme, A.; Klinger, Y

    2016-01-01

    This publication presents the RPC-based bundle adjustment implemented in the freeware open-source photogrammetric tool Apero/MicMac. The bundle adjustment model is based on some polynomial correction functions, enriched with a physical constraint that introduces the notion of a global sensor rotation into the model. The devised algorithms are evaluated against two datasets consisting of two stereo and a triplet pair of the Pleiades images. Two sets of correction functions and a number of G...

  3. Online industrial thermography of die casting tooling using dual-wavelength IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourous, Helen E.; Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Luster, Spencer D.; Sacha, Jaroslaw P.

    1998-03-01

    Recent advances in IR system technology coupled with significant reduction sin cost are making thermography a viable tool for on-line monitoring of industrial processes. This paper describes the implementation of a novel rugged thermal imaging system based on a dual-wavelength technique for a large intelligent process monitoring project. The objective of the portion described herein is to deploy a non-contact means of monitoring die cast tooling surface thermal conditions and analyzing the data in the context of the process monitor. The technical and practical challenges of developing such a non-contact thermal measurement system for continuous inspection in an industrial environment are discussed, and methods of resolving them are presented. These challenges include implementation of a wavelength filter system for quantitative determination of the surface temperature. Additionally, emissivity variations of the tooling surface as well as IR reflections are discussed. The primary issues that are addressed, however, are compensation for ambient temperature conditions and optimization of the calibration process. Other issues center on remote camera control, image acquisition, data synchronization, and data interpretation. An example application of this system, along with in-plant images and thermal data, is described.

  4. BOMBER: A tool for estimating water quality and bottom properties from remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Claudia; Candiani, Gabriele; Bresciani, Mariano; Lee, Zhongping; Gagliano, Stefano; Pepe, Monica

    2012-08-01

    BOMBER (Bio-Optical Model Based tool for Estimating water quality and bottom properties from Remote sensing images) is a software package for simultaneous retrieval of the optical properties of water column and bottom from remotely sensed imagery, which makes use of bio-optical models for optically deep and optically shallow waters. Several menus allow the user to choose the model type, to specify the input and output files, and to set all of the variables involved in the model parameterization and inversion. The optimization technique allows the user to retrieve the maps of chlorophyll concentration, suspended particulate matter concentration, coloured dissolved organic matter absorption and, in case of shallow waters, bottom depth and distributions of up to three different types of substrate, defined by the user according to their albedo. The software requires input image data that must be atmospherically corrected to remote sensing reflectance values. For both deep and shallow water models, a map of the relative error involved in the inversion procedure is also given. The tool was originally intended to estimate water quality in lakes; however thanks to its general design, it can be applied to any other aquatic environments (e.g., coastal zones, estuaries, lagoons) for which remote sensing reflectance values are known. BOMBER is fully programmed in IDL (Interactive Data Language) and uses IDL widgets as graphical user interface. It runs as an add-on tool for the ENVI+IDL image processing software and is available on request.

  5. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  6. Development of Automated Image Analysis Tools for Verification of Radiotherapy Field Accuracy with AN Electronic Portal Imaging Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei

    1995-01-01

    The successful management of cancer with radiation relies on the accurate deposition of a prescribed dose to a prescribed anatomical volume within the patient. Treatment set-up errors are inevitable because the alignment of field shaping devices with the patient must be repeated daily up to eighty times during the course of a fractionated radiotherapy treatment. With the invention of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs), patient's portal images can be visualized daily in real-time after only a small fraction of the radiation dose has been delivered to each treatment field. However, the accuracy of human visual evaluation of low-contrast portal images has been found to be inadequate. The goal of this research is to develop automated image analysis tools to detect both treatment field shape errors and patient anatomy placement errors with an EPID. A moments method has been developed to align treatment field images to compensate for lack of repositioning precision of the image detector. A figure of merit has also been established to verify the shape and rotation of the treatment fields. Following proper alignment of treatment field boundaries, a cross-correlation method has been developed to detect shifts of the patient's anatomy relative to the treatment field boundary. Phantom studies showed that the moments method aligned the radiation fields to within 0.5mm of translation and 0.5^ circ of rotation and that the cross-correlation method aligned anatomical structures inside the radiation field to within 1 mm of translation and 1^ circ of rotation. A new procedure of generating and using digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) at megavoltage energies as reference images was also investigated. The procedure allowed a direct comparison between a designed treatment portal and the actual patient setup positions detected by an EPID. Phantom studies confirmed the feasibility of the methodology. Both the moments method and the cross -correlation technique were

  7. Volumetric intake flow measurements of an IC engine using magnetic resonance velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenhammer, Daniel; Baum, Elias; Peterson, Brian; Böhm, Benjamin; Jung, Bernd; Grundmann, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) measurements are performed in a 1:1 scale model of a single-cylinder optical engine to investigate the volumetric flow within the intake and cylinder geometry during flow induction. The model is a steady flow water analogue of the optical IC-engine with a fixed valve lift of mm to simulate the induction flow at crank-angle bTDC. This setup resembles a steady flow engine test bench configuration. MRV measurements are validated with phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements performed within the symmetry plane of the optical engine. Differences in experimental operating parameters between MRV and PIV measurements are well addressed. Comparison of MRV and PIV measurements is demonstrated using normalized mean velocity component profiles and showed excellent agreement in the upper portion of the cylinder chamber (i.e., mm). MRV measurements are further used to analyze the ensemble average volumetric flow within the 3D engine domain. Measurements are used to describe the 3D overflow and underflow behavior as the annular flow enters the cylinder chamber. Flow features such as the annular jet-like flows extending into the cylinder, their influence on large-scale in-cylinder flow motion, as well as flow recirculation zones are identified in 3D space. Inlet flow velocities are analyzed around the entire valve curtain perimeter to quantify percent mass flow rate entering the cylinder. Recirculation zones associated with the underflow are shown to reduce local mass flow rates up to 50 %. Recirculation zones are further analyzed in 3D space within the intake manifold and cylinder chamber. It is suggested that such recirculation zones can have large implications on cylinder charge filling and variations of the in-cylinder flow pattern. MRV is revealed to be an important diagnostic tool used to understand the volumetric induction flow within engine geometries and is potentially suited to evaluate flow changes due to intake

  8. Interdisciplinary Approach to Tool-Handle Design Based on Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Harih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Products are becoming increasingly complex; therefore, designers are faced with a challenging task to incorporate new functionality, higher performance, and optimal shape design. Traditional user-centered design techniques such as designing with anthropometric data do not incorporate enough subject data to design products with optimal shape for best fit to the target population. To overcome these limitations, we present an interdisciplinary approach with medical imaging. The use of this approach is being presented on the development of an optimal sized and shaped tool handle where the hand is imaged using magnetic resonance imaging machine. The obtained images of the hand are reconstructed and imported into computer-aided design software, where optimal shape of the handle is obtained with Boolean operations. Methods can be used to develop fully customized products with optimal shape to provide best fit to the target population. This increases subjective comfort rating, performance and can prevent acute and cumulative trauma disorders. Provided methods are especially suited for products where high stresses and exceptional performance is expected (high performance tools, professional sports, and military equipment, etc.. With the use of these interdisciplinary methods, the value of the product is increased, which also increases the competitiveness of the product on the market.

  9. Agreement between a computer-assisted tool and radiologists to classify lesions in breast elastography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcomini, Karem D.; Fleury, Eduardo F. C.; Oliveira, Vilmar M.; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.; Schiabel, Homero; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2017-03-01

    Breast elastography is a new sonographic technique that provides additional information to evaluate tissue stiffness. However, interpreting breast elastography images can vary depending on the radiologist. In order to provide quantitative and less subjective data regarding the stiffness of a lesion, we developed a tool to measure the amount of hard area in a lesion from the 2D image. The database consisted of 78 patients with 83 breast lesions (31 malignant and 52 benign). Two radiologists and one resident manually drew the contour of the lesions in B-mode ultrasound images and the contour was mapped in the elastography image. By using the system proposed, the radiologists obtained a very good diagnostic agreement among themselves (kappa = 0.86), achieving the same sensitivity and specificity (80.7 and 88.5, respectively), and an AUC of 0.883 for Radiologist 1 and 0.892 for Radiologist 2. The Resident had less interobserver agreement, as well as lower specificity and AUC, which may be related to less experience. Furthermore, the radiologists had an agreement with the tool used in the automatic method higher than 90%. Thus, the method developed was useful in aiding the diagnosis of breast lesions in strain elastography, minimizing its subjectivity.

  10. 3D Volumetric Modeling and Microvascular Reconstruction of Irradiated Lumbosacral Defects After Oncologic Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Garcia-Tutor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locoregional flaps are sufficient in most sacral reconstructions. However, large sacral defects due to malignancy necessitate a different reconstructive approach, with local flaps compromised by radiation and regional flaps inadequate for broad surface areas or substantial volume obliteration. In this report, we present our experience using free muscle transfer for volumetric reconstruction in such cases, and demonstrate 3D haptic models of the sacral defect to aid preoperative planning.Methods: Five consecutive patients with irradiated sacral defects secondary to oncologic resections were included, surface area ranging from 143-600cm2. Latissimus dorsi-based free flap sacral reconstruction was performed in each case, between 2005 and 2011. Where the superior gluteal artery was compromised, the subcostal artery was used as a recipient vessel. Microvascular technique, complications and outcomes are reported. The use of volumetric analysis and 3D printing is also demonstrated, with imaging data converted to 3D images suitable for 3D printing with Osirix software (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland. An office-based, desktop 3D printer was used to print 3D models of sacral defects, used to demonstrate surface area and contour and produce a volumetric print of the dead space needed for flap obliteration. Results: The clinical series of latissimus dorsi free flap reconstructions is presented, with successful transfer in all cases, and adequate soft-tissue cover and volume obliteration achieved. The original use of the subcostal artery as a recipient vessel was successfully achieved. All wounds healed uneventfully. 3D printing is also demonstrated as a useful tool for 3D evaluation of volume and dead-space.Conclusion: Free flaps offer unique benefits in sacral reconstruction where local tissue is compromised by irradiation and tumor recurrence, and dead-space requires accurate volumetric reconstruction. We describe for the first time the use of

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the publicly available Laboratory for Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA) software tool: comparison of fully automated area and volumetric density measures in a case-control study with digital mammography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keller, Brad M; Chen, Jinbo; Daye, Dania; Conant, Emily F; Kontos, Despina

    2015-01-01

    .... We investigated associations between breast cancer and fully automated measures of breast density made by a new publicly available software tool, the Laboratory for Individualized Breast Radiodensity Assessment (LIBRA...

  12. Computational Analysis of Brain Images: Towards a Useful Tool in Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puonti, Oula

    generative modeling, which combines detailed prior models of the human neuroanatomy and pathologies with models of the MRI imaging process. This approach allows us to describe the observed MRI data in a principled manner, and to integrate explicit models of different disease effects and imaging artifacts...... into the framework when needed. This thesis presents an introduction to the theory behind the generative modeling approach, and an overview of the main results. The first part concentrates on segmenting different neuroanatomical structures in MRI scans of healthy subjects, and the second part describes how......Due to its excellent soft tissue contrast and versatility, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become arguably the most important tool for studying the structure and disorders of the human brain. Although in recent years tremendous advances have been made in automatic segmentation of brain MRI...

  13. POW: A Tcl/Tk Plotting and Image Display Interface Tool for GUIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. E.; Angelini, L.

    We present a new Tcl/Tk based GUI interface tool which features plotting of curve and image data and allows for user input via return of regions or specific cursor positions. The package is accessible from C, Tcl, or \\fortran. POW operates on data arrays, passed to it as pointers. Each data array sent to POW is treated as either an Image object or a Vector object. Vectors are combined to form Curves. Curves and Images may then be combined to form a displayed Graph. Several Graphs can be displayed in a single Tk top-level window. The Graphs can be rearranged, magnified, and zoomed to regions of interest by the user. Individual graph axes can be ``linked'' to implement a ``multiple y-axis'' (or x-axis) plot. The POW display can be written out in PostScript, for printing.

  14. OpenComet: an automated tool for comet assay image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyori, Benjamin M; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Thiagarajan, P S; Hsu, David; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  15. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Gyori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  16. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieneke, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data.

  17. Susceptibility weighted imaging: a new tool in magnetic resonance imaging of stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K. [Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum (India); Kesavadas, C. [Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum (India)], E-mail: chandkesav@yahoo.com; Thomas, B.; Gupta, A.K.; Thamburaj, K.; Kapilamoorthy, T. Raman [Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum (India)

    2009-01-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance (MR) technique that is exquisitely sensitive to paramagnetic substances, such as deoxygenated blood, blood products, iron, and calcium. This sequence allows detection of haemorrhage as early as 6 h and can reliably detect acute intracerebral parenchymal, as well as subarachnoid haemorrhage. It detects early haemorrhagic transformation within an infarct and provides insight into the cerebral haemodynamics following stroke. It helps in the diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis. It also has applications in the work-up of stroke patients. The sequence helps in detecting microbleeds in various conditions, such as vasculitis, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy, subacute infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL), amyloid angiopathy, and Binswanger's disease. The sequence also aids in the diagnosis of vascular malformations and perinatal cerebrovascular injuries. This review briefly illustrates the utility of this MR technique in various aspects of stroke diagnosis and management.

  18. Theory of Volumetric Moving Dislocation in Poroelastic Halfspace and Characterization of Magma Intrusion Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Zhihua; Elsworth Derek; Sheng Jianlong

    2005-01-01

    The undrained change in pore fluid pressure that accompanies dike intrusion may be conveniently represented as a moving volumetric dislocation. The concept of a dilation center was developed to represent the field of undrained pressure change in a saturated linear elastic medium. Since instantaneous pore fluid pressures can be developed to a considerable distance from the dislocation, monitoring the rate of pressure generation and subsequent pressure dissipation in a fully coupled manner enables certain characteristics of the resulting dislocation to be defined. The principal focus of this study is the application of dislocation-based methods to analyze the behavior of the fluid pressure response induced by intrusive dislocations in a semi-infinite space, such as dike intrusion, hydraulic fracturing and piezometer insertion. Partially drained pore pressures result from the isothermal introduction of volumetric moving pencil-like dislocations described as analogs to moving point dislocation within a semi-infinite saturated elastic medium. To represent behavior within the halfspace, an image dislocation is positioned under the moving coordinate frame fixed to the front of the primary moving dislocation, to yield an approximate solution for pore pressure for constant fluid pressure conditions. Induced pore pressures are concisely described under a minimum set of dimensionless parameter groupings representing propagation velocity, and relative geometry. Charts defining induced pore fluid pressure at a static measuring point provide a meaningful tool for determining unknown parameters in data reduction. Two intrusive events at Krafla, Iceland are examined using the type curve matching techniques. Predicted parameters agree favorably with field data.

  19. Volumetric capnography: In the diagnostic work-up of chronic thromboembolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mello Moreira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Mello Moreira1, Renato Giuseppe Giovanni Terzi1, Laura Cortellazzi2, Antonio Luis Eiras Falcão1, Heitor Moreno Junior2, Luiz Cláudio Martins2, Otavio Rizzi Coelho21Department of Surgery, 2Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The morbidity and mortality of pulmonary embolism (PE have been found to be related to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The examinations used to diagnose PE are expensive and not always easily accessible. These options include noninvasive examinations, such as clinical pretests, ELISA D-dimer (DD tests, and volumetric capnography (VCap. We report the case of a patient whose diagnosis of PE was made via pulmonary arteriography. The clinical pretest revealed a moderate probability of the patient having PE, and the DD result was negative; however, the VCap associated with arterial blood gases result was positive. The patient underwent all noninvasive exams following admission to hospital and again eight months after discharge. Results gained from invasive tests were similar to those produced by image exams, highlighting the importance of VCap as an important noninvasive tool.Keywords: pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, volumetric capnography, d-dimers, pretest probability

  20. Evaluation of an Automated Analysis Tool for Prostate Cancer Prediction Using Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C Roethke

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic performance of an automated analysis tool for the assessment of prostate cancer based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI of the prostate.A fully automated analysis tool was used for a retrospective analysis of mpMRI sets (T2-weighted, T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced, and diffusion-weighted sequences. The software provided a malignancy prediction value for each image pixel, defined as Malignancy Attention Index (MAI that can be depicted as a colour map overlay on the original images. The malignancy maps were compared to histopathology derived from a combination of MRI-targeted and systematic transperineal MRI/TRUS-fusion biopsies.In total, mpMRI data of 45 patients were evaluated. With a sensitivity of 85.7% (with 95% CI of 65.4-95.0, a specificity of 87.5% (with 95% CI of 69.0-95.7 and a diagnostic accuracy of 86.7% (with 95% CI of 73.8-93.8 for detection of prostate cancer, the automated analysis results corresponded well with the reported diagnostic accuracies by human readers based on the PI-RADS system in the current literature.The study revealed comparable diagnostic accuracies for the detection of prostate cancer of a user-independent MAI-based automated analysis tool and PI-RADS-scoring-based human reader analysis of mpMRI. Thus, the analysis tool could serve as a detection support system for less experienced readers. The results of the study also suggest the potential of MAI-based analysis for advanced lesion assessments, such as cancer extent and staging prediction.

  1. Visualization of volumetric seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael; Ashfaq Ahmed, Khawar; Gajewski, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Mostly driven by demands of high quality subsurface imaging, highly specialized tools and methods have been developed to support the processing, visualization and interpretation of seismic data. 3D seismic data acquisition and 4D time-lapse seismic monitoring are well-established techniques in academia and industry, producing large amounts of data to be processed, visualized and interpreted. In this context, interactive 3D visualization methods proved to be valuable for the analysis of 3D seismic data cubes - especially for sedimentary environments with continuous horizons. In crystalline and hard rock environments, where hydraulic stimulation techniques may be applied to produce geothermal energy, interpretation of the seismic data is a more challenging problem. Instead of continuous reflection horizons, the imaging targets are often steep dipping faults, causing a lot of diffractions. Without further preprocessing these geological structures are often hidden behind the noise in the data. In this PICO presentation we will present a workflow consisting of data processing steps, which enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, followed by a visualization step based on the use the commercially available general purpose 3D visualization system Avizo. Specifically, we have used Avizo Earth, an extension to Avizo, which supports the import of seismic data in SEG-Y format and offers easy access to state-of-the-art 3D visualization methods at interactive frame rates, even for large seismic data cubes. In seismic interpretation using visualization, interactivity is a key requirement for understanding complex 3D structures. In order to enable an easy communication of the insights gained during the interactive visualization process, animations of the visualized data were created which support the spatial understanding of the data.

  2. Identifying biological landmarks using a novel cell measuring image analysis tool: Cell-o-Tape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Andrew P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to quantify the geometry of plant organs at the cellular scale can provide novel insights into their structural organization. Hitherto manual methods of measurement provide only very low throughput and subjective solutions, and often quantitative measurements are neglected in favour of a simple cell count. Results We present a tool to count and measure individual neighbouring cells along a defined file in confocal laser scanning microscope images. The tool allows the user to extract this generic information in a flexible and intuitive manner, and builds on the raw data to detect a significant change in cell length along the file. This facility can be used, for example, to provide an estimate of the position of transition into the elongation zone of an Arabidopsis root, traditionally a location sensitive to the subjectivity of the experimenter. Conclusions Cell-o-tape is shown to locate cell walls with a high degree of accuracy and estimate the location of the transition feature point in good agreement with human experts. The tool is an open source ImageJ/Fiji macro and is available online.

  3. PopulationProfiler: A Tool for Population Analysis and Visualization of Image-Based Cell Screening Data

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszewski, Damian J.; Carolina Wählby; Jordi Carreras Puigvert; Ida-Maria Sintorn

    2016-01-01

    Image-based screening typically produces quantitative measurements of cell appearance. Large-scale screens involving tens of thousands of images, each containing hundreds of cells described by hundreds of measurements, result in overwhelming amounts of data. Reducing per-cell measurements to the averages across the image(s) for each treatment leads to loss of potentially valuable information on population variability. We present PopulationProfiler-a new software tool that reduces per-cell mea...

  4. High throughput tools to access images from clinical archives for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L

    2015-04-01

    Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( www.mi2b2.org ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research.

  5. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  6. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale. PMID:28059149

  7. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haoyu; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve spatially multiplexed discrete and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  8. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-06

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  9. Impact of rate control tools on very fast non-embedded wavelet image encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, O.; Martínez-Rach, M.; Oliver, J.; Malumbres, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the design of very fast wavelet image encoders focused on applications (interactive real-time image&video applications, GIS systems, etc) and devices (digital cameras, mobile phones, PDAs, etc) where coding delay and/or available computing resources (working memory and power processing) are critical for proper operation. Most of these fast wavelet image encoders are non-embedded in order to reduce complexity, so no rate control tools are available for scalable coding applications. In this work, we analyze the impact of simple rate control tools for these encoders in order to determine if the inclusion of rate control functionality is worth enough with respect to popular embedded encoders like SPIHT and JPEG2000. We perform the study by adding rate control to the nonembedded LTW encoder, showing that the increase in complexity still maintains LTW competitive with respect SPIHT and JPEG2000 in terms of R/D performance, coding delay and memory consumption.

  10. DIRECT VOXEL-PROJECTION FOR VOLUMETRIC DATA RENDERING IN MEDICAL IMAGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠; 郭玉红

    2002-01-01

    The volumetric rendering of 3-D medical image data is very effective method for communication about radiological studies to clinicians. Algorithms that produce images with artifacts and inaccuracies are not clinically useful. This paper proposed a direct voxel-projection algorithm to implement volumetric data rendering. Using this algorithm, arbitrary volume rotation, transparent and cutaway views are generated satisfactorily. Compared with the existing raytracing methods, it improves the projection image quality greatly. Some experimental results about real medical CT image data demonstrate the advantages and fidelity of the proposed algorithm.

  11. SPECT Imaging as a Tool for Testing and Challenging Assumptions About Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.; DeVol, T. A.; Tornai, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging has shown promise for unraveling the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes on contaminant transport. Micro-CT scans, for instance, are increasingly utilized to image the pore-scale structure of rocks and soils, which can subsequently be used within modeling studies. A disadvantage of micro-CT, however, is that this imaging modality does not directly detect contaminants. In contrast, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) can provide the three-dimensional distribution of gamma emitting materials and is thus ideal for imaging the transport of radionuclides. SPECT is of particular interest as a tool for both directly imaging the behavior of long-lived radionuclides of interest, e.g., 99Tc and 137Cs, as well as monitoring shorter-lived isotopes as in-situ tracers of flow and biogeochemical processes. We demonstrate the potential of combining CT and SPECT imaging to improve the mechanistic understanding of flow and transport processes within a heterogeneous porous medium. In the experiment, a column was packed with 0.2mm glass beads with a cylindrical zone of 2mm glass beads embedded near the outlet; this region could be readily identified within the CT images. The column was injected with a pulse of NaCl solution spiked with 99mTcO4- and monitored using SPECT while aliquots of the effluent were used to analyze the breakthrough of both solutes. The breakthrough curves could be approximately replicated by a one-dimensional transport model, but the SPECT data revealed that the tracers migrated around the inclusion of larger beads. Although the zone of large-diameter beads was expected to act as a preferential pathway, the observed behavior could only be replicated in numerical transport simulations if this region was treated as a low-permeability zone relative to the rest of the column. This simple experiment demonstrates the potential of SPECT for investigating flow and transport phenomena within a porous medium.

  12. PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AS A TOOL TO CHANGE THE IMAGE OF A COUNTRY IN CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vaxevanidou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the means, the methods, and the techniques of public diplomacy that a country in crisis, such as Greece, should use. The paper addresses the very issues of whether a country in crisis can conduct public diplomacy and whether it should be recognized as a legitimate and powerful actor in the field. In a broader sense, it focuses on the processes that a country should follow and how a better understanding and framing of its situation, principles, and policy can be provided. A crucial factor for such countries is the choice of communication channels, which includes traditional tools like press releases, letters to editor, editorials, interviews, or more active tools like social media, events, campaigns, and networking. In this paper, three dimensions of public diplomacy are examined, and appropriate tools to be developed in the short, medium and long-term are proposed. The results of the study are based on case studies, methods, and tools employed by Greece during the last years that the country has faced a huge economic crisis. There is a short presentation on the methods that Greece tries to adopt in order to enhance its image worldwide. Keywords: reactive public diplomacy, proactive public diplomacy, relationship building

  13. A novel reconstruction tool (syngo DynaCT Head Clear) in the post-processing of DynaCT images to reduce artefacts and improve image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescher, Stephanie; Reh, Christina; Hoelter, Maya Christina; Czeppan, Katja; Porto, Luciana; Blasel, Stella; Berkefeld, Joachim; Wagner, Marlies

    2016-01-19

    Latest generations of flat detector (FD) neuroangiography systems are able to obtain CT-like images of the brain parenchyma. Owing to the geometry of the C-arm system, cone beam artifacts are common and reduce image quality, especially at the periphery of the field of view. An advanced reconstruction algorithm (syngo DynaCT Head Clear) tackles these artifacts by using a modified interpolation-based 3D correction algorithm to improve image quality. Eleven volumetric datasets from FD-CT scans were reconstructed with the standard algorithm as well as with the advanced algorithm. In a two-step data analysis process, two reviewers compared dedicated regions of the skull and brain in both reconstruction modes using a 5-point scale (1, much better; 5, much worse; advanced vs standard algorithm). Both reviewers were blinded to the reconstruction mode. In a second step, two additional observers independently evaluated image quality of the 3D data (non-comparative evaluation) in dedicated regions also using a 5-point scale (1, not diagnostically evaluable; 5, good quality, perfectly usable for diagnosis) for both reconstruction algorithms. Both in the comparative evaluation of dedicated brain regions and in the independent analysis of the FD-CT datasets the observers rated a better image quality if the advanced algorithm was used. The improvement in image quality was statistically significant at both the supraganglionic (p=0.018) and the infratentorial (p=0.002) levels. The advanced reconstruction algorithm reduces typical artifacts in FD-CT images and improves image quality at the periphery of the field of view. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Virtual Ray Tracing as a Conceptual Tool for Image Formation in Mirrors and Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Lasse; Savinainen, Antti; Saarelainen, Markku

    2016-12-01

    The ray tracing method is widely used in teaching geometrical optics at the upper secondary and university levels. However, using simple and straightforward examples may lead to a situation in which students use the model of ray tracing too narrowly. Previous studies show that students seem to use the ray tracing method too concretely instead of as a conceptual model. This suggests that introductory physics students need to understand the nature of the ray model more profoundly. In this paper, we show how a virtual ray tracing model can be used as a tool for image formation in more complex and unconventional cases. We believe that this tool has potential in helping students to better appreciate the nature of the ray model.

  15. Cloud based N-dimensional weather forecast visualization tool with image analysis capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laka-Iñurrategi, M.; Alberdi, I.; Alonso, K.; Quartulli, M.

    2013-10-01

    Until recently the majority of data analysis and visualization tools were desktop applications that demanded high requirement hardware to carry out those processes. However, nowadays there is a trend to evolve this kind of applications to service based solutions that can be accessed remotely. Considering the implications that the weather has in the health and the safety of the human beings, authorities require a further knowledge of the weather forecasts and their impacts but they have difficulties to properly understand the raw forecasts since they usually are not experts in the field of meteorology. For this purpose, we have designed and implemented a framework that permits a remote access to weather forecasts. With this tool, the practitioners can access, visualise and interact with the data from a web browser. Furthermore, it contains an image and numeric analysis module that permits the generation of new information what is helpful in decision making processes.

  16. Fast scattering simulation tool for multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, A., E-mail: artur.sossin@cea.fr [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tabary, J.; Rebuffel, V. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-01

    A combination of Monte Carlo (MC) and deterministic approaches was employed as a means of creating a simulation tool capable of providing energy resolved x-ray primary and scatter images within a reasonable time interval. Libraries of Sindbad, a previously developed x-ray simulation software, were used in the development. The scatter simulation capabilities of the tool were validated through simulation with the aid of GATE and through experimentation by using a spectrometric CdTe detector. A simple cylindrical phantom with cavities and an aluminum insert was used. Cross-validation with GATE showed good agreement with a global spatial error of 1.5% and a maximum scatter spectrum error of around 6%. Experimental validation also supported the accuracy of the simulations obtained from the developed software with a global spatial error of 1.8% and a maximum error of around 8.5% in the scatter spectra.

  17. Using surface heave to estimate reservoir volumetric strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanayakkara, A.S.; Wong, R.C.K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed numerical tool for estimating reservoir volumetric strain distribution using surface vertical displacements and solving an inverse problem. Waterflooding, steam injection, carbon dioxide sequestration and aquifer storage recovery are among the subsurface injection operations that are responsible for reservoir dilations which propagate to the surrounding formations and extend to the surface resulting in surface heaves. Global positioning systems and surface tiltmeters are often used to measure the characteristics of these surface heaves and to derive valuable information regarding reservoir deformation and flow characteristics. In this study, Tikhonov regularization techniques were adopted to solve the ill-posed inversion problem commonly found in standard inversion techniques such as Gaussian elimination and least squares methods. Reservoir permeability was then estimated by inverting the volumetric strain distribution. Results of the newly developed numerical tool were compared with results from fully-coupled finite element simulation of fluid injection problems. The reservoir volumetric strain distribution was successfully estimated along with an approximate value for reservoir permeability.

  18. Test-bench system for a borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianping; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Liu, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool (BAAR) is a new generation of imaging logging tool, which is able to investigate stratums in a relatively larger range of space around the borehole. The BAAR is designed based on the idea of modularization with a very complex structure, so it has become urgent for us to develop a dedicated test-bench system to debug each module of the BAAR. With the help of a test-bench system introduced in this paper, test and calibration of BAAR can be easily achieved. The test-bench system is designed based on the client/server model. The hardware system mainly consists of a host computer, an embedded controlling board, a bus interface board, a data acquisition board and a telemetry communication board. The host computer serves as the human machine interface and processes the uploaded data. The software running on the host computer is designed based on VC++. The embedded controlling board uses Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Machines 7 (ARM7) as the micro controller and communicates with the host computer via Ethernet. The software for the embedded controlling board is developed based on the operating system uClinux. The bus interface board, data acquisition board and telemetry communication board are designed based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. To examine the feasibility of the test-bench system, it was set up to perform a test on BAAR. By analyzing the test results, an unqualified channel of the electronic receiving cabin was discovered. It is suggested that the test-bench system can be used to quickly determine the working condition of sub modules of BAAR and it is of great significance in improving production efficiency and accelerating industrial production of the logging tool.

  19. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging: A New Tool for the Diagnosis of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Feng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ARFI imaging in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules 3.10 m/s had been found to be independent risk factors for predicting PTMC. Conclusion. ARFI elastography can provide elasticity information of PTMC quantitatively (VTQ and directly reflects the overall elastic properties (VTI. Gender, hypoechogenicity, taller than wide, VTI elastography score ≥ 4, and SWV > 3.10 m/s are independent risk factors for predicting PTMC. ARFI elastography seems to be a new tool for the diagnosis of PTMC.

  1. Refined Satellite Image Orientation in the Free Open-Source Photogrammetric Tools Apero/micmac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, E.; Pierrot Deseilligny, M.; Delorme, A.; Klinger, Y.

    2016-06-01

    This publication presents the RPC-based bundle adjustment implemented in the freeware open-source photogrammetric tool Apero/MicMac. The bundle adjustment model is based on some polynomial correction functions, enriched with a physical constraint that introduces the notion of a global sensor rotation into the model. The devised algorithms are evaluated against two datasets consisting of two stereo and a triplet pair of the Pleiades images. Two sets of correction functions and a number of GCPs configurations are examined. The obtained geo-referencing accuracy falls below the size of 1GSD.

  2. OPEN SOURCE IMAGE-PROCESSING TOOLS FOR LOW-COST UAV-BASED LANDSLIDE INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Niethammer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has become more common and the availability of lightweight digital cameras has enabled UAV-systems to represent affordable and practical remote sensing platforms, allowing flexible and high- resolution remote sensing investigations. In the course of numerous UAV-based remote sensing campaigns significant numbers of airborne photographs of two different landslides have been acquired. These images were used for ortho-mosaic and digital terrain model (DTM generation, thus allowing for high-resolution landslide monitoring. Several new open source image- and DTM- processing tools are now providing a complete remote sensing working cycle with the use of no commercial hard- or software.

  3. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  4. Vespucci: A Free, Cross-Platform Tool for Spectroscopic Data Analysis and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Foose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vespucci is a software application developed for imaging and analysis of hyperspectral datasets. Vespucci offers several advantages over other software packages, including a simple user interface with a small learning curve, no cost, and less restrictive licensing. Vespucci expands several analysis techniques including univariate imaging, principal components analysis, partial-least-squares regression, and vertex components analysis with endmember extraction, and k-means clustering. Additionally, Vespucci can perform a number of useful data-processing operations, including filtering, normalization, baseline correction, and background subtraction. Datasets that consist of spatial or temporal data with a corresponding digital signal, including spectroscopic images, mass spectrometric images, and X-ray diffraction data can be processed in this software. A few use cases for Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies are provided. Vespucci is written in C++ and makes use of the MLPACK [3], Armadillo [9], Qt, and QCustomPlot libraries. Vespucci is a graphically-driven package that is designed with ease-of-use in mind and is equally capable to other available tools. Vespucci’s capabilities are extended by interfaces to Octave and R to allow existing research code to be run from a common environment. Additionally, Vespucci’s C++ classes can be used to construct more specialized programs when an application programming interface (API is desired. The source code and a Windows binary distribution can be accessed at https://github.com/dpfoose/Vespucci.

  5. PREDICTION OF SMARTPHONES’ PERCEIVED IMAGE QUALITY USING SOFTWARE EVALUATION TOOL VIQET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchas ZOREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of resources and efforts have been made in recent years to assess how the smartphones users perceived the image quality. Unfortunately, only limited success has been achieved and the image quality assessment still based on many physical human visual test. The paper describes the new model proposed for perceived quality based on human visual tests compared with image analysis by the software application tool. The values of parameters of perceived image quality (brightness, contrast, color saturation and sharpness were calibrated based on results from human visual experiments.PREDICŢIA CALITĂŢII PERCEPUTE A IMAGINILOR AFIȘATE DE SMARTPHONE-URI UTILIZÂND APLICAŢIA DE EVALUARE VIQETÎn ultimii ani au fost depuse eforturi semnificative pentru a evalua modul în care utilizatorii de smartphone  percep calitatea imaginilor. Din păcate, a fost atins doar un progres limitat, evaluarea calităţii imaginiilor bazându-se încă pe multiple teste vizuale umane. În lucrare este descris un nou model al calităţii percepute pe baza testelor vizuale umane, comparate cu analiza imaginii efectuate cu o aplicaţie software. Valorile parametrilor calităţii  percepute a imaginii (lu­minozitate, contrast, saturaţia culorilor şi claritatea au fost calibrate pe baza rezultatelor experimentelor vizuale umane.

  6. [Consideration on molecular imaging technology as a tool for drug research and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2009-03-01

    Molecular imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are known as powerful tools for clinical diagnosis in neurology, oncology and so on. As applications to new drug research and development, there are three methodologies which are PK (Pharmacokinetics study), PD (Pharmacodynamic study), and efficacy study. When we use these methodologies for the drug research, we must consider construction of technological environment (tracer, animal model, imaging analysis software, and clinical database) and regulatory environment for GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) and GCP (Good Clinical Practice) level. Additionally, concept of microdosing and exploratory clinical study was proposed in western countries and the guidance on microdosing study was also announced by Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry on June 3rd 2008. However they may be still in learning phase, we must meet with complexity, high cost, and indigestion. To promote molecular imaging technology into the drug research, integration of the scientists between academia and industry is important because it needs much type of the advanced technologies and skills.

  7. Laminar Python: tools for cortical depth-resolved analysis of high-resolution brain imaging data in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Huntenburg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly available high-resolution brain imaging data require specialized processing tools that can leverage their anatomical detail and handle their size. Here, we present user-friendly Python tools for cortical depth resolved analysis in such data. Our implementation is based on the CBS High-Res Brain Processing framework, and aims to make high-resolution data processing tools available to the broader community.

  8. ABISM: an interactive image quality assessment tool for adaptive optics instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.; Tourneboeuf, Martin

    2016-07-01

    ABISM (Automatic Background Interactive Strehl Meter) is a interactive tool to evaluate the image quality of astronomical images. It works on seeing-limited point spread functions (PSF) but was developed in particular for diffraction-limited PSF produced by adaptive optics (AO) systems. In the VLT service mode (SM) operations framework, ABISM is designed to help support astronomers or telescope and instruments operators (TIOs) to quickly measure the Strehl ratio (SR) during or right after an observing block (OB) to evaluate whether it meets the requirements/predictions or whether is has to be repeated and will remain in the SM queue. It's a Python-based tool with a graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used with little AO knowledge. The night astronomer (NA) or Telescope and Instrument Operator (TIO) can launch ABISM in one click and the program is able to read keywords from the FITS header to avoid mistakes. A significant effort was also put to make ABISM as robust (and forgiven) with a high rate of repeatability. As a matter of fact, ABISM is able to automatically correct for bad pixels, eliminate stellar neighbours and estimate/fit properly the background, etc.

  9. Scanning probe microscopy beyond imaging: a general tool for quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscio, Andrea

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast and general approach for quantitative analysis of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) images is reported. As a proof of concept it is used to determine with a high degree of precision the value of observables such as 1) the height, 2) the flowing current and 3) the corresponding surface potential (SP) of flat nanostructures such as gold electrodes, organic semiconductor architectures and graphenic sheets. Despite histogram analysis, or frequency count (Fc), being the most common mathematical tool used to analyse SPM images, the analytical approach is still lacking. By using the mathematical relationship between Fc and the collected data, the proposed method allows quantitative information on observable values close to the noise level to be gained. For instance, the thickness of nanostructures deposited on very rough substrates can be quantified, and this makes it possible to distinguish the contribution of an adsorbed nanostructure from that of the underlying substrate. Being non-numerical, this versatile analytical approach is a useful and general tool for quantitative analysis of the Fc that enables all signals acquired and recorded by an SPM data array to be studied with high precision.

  10. Pulsed thermographic inspection of CFRP structures: experimental results and image analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakeas, P.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Koui, M.; Maldague, X.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, three different CFRP specimens with internal artificial delaminations of various sizes and located at different depths were investigated by means of Pulsed Thermography (PT) under laboratory conditions. The three CFRP panels, having the same thickness and defects characteristics but with a different shape (planar, trapezoid and curved), were assessed after applying various signal processing tools on the acquired thermal data (i.e. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction, Pulsed Phase Thermography and Principal Component Thermography). The effectiveness of the above processing tools was initially evaluated in a qualitative manner, comparing the imaging outputs and the information retrieval in terms of defect detectability enhancement and noise reduction. Simultaneously, the produced defect detectability was evaluated through Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) computations, quantifying the image quality and the intensity contrast produced between the defected area and the adjacent background area of the test panel. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the implementation of PT along with the application of advanced signal processing algorithms can be a useful technique for NDT assessment, providing enhanced qualitative information. Nevertheless, SNR analysis showed that despite the enhanced visibility resulting from these algorithms, these can be properly applied in order to retrieve the best possible information according to the user's demands.

  11. Optimizing parameter choice for FSL-Brain Extraction Tool (BET) on 3D T1 images in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Valeriu; Battaglini, M; Hoogstrate, W S;

    2012-01-01

    Brain atrophy studies often use FSL-BET (Brain Extraction Tool) as the first step of image processing. Default BET does not always give satisfactory results on 3DT1 MR images, which negatively impacts atrophy measurements. Finding the right alternative BET settings can be a difficult and time...

  12. (19)F-heptuloses as tools for the non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaisse, Willy J; Zhang, Ying; Louchami, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Suitable analogs of d-mannoheptulose are currently considered as possible tools for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic islet insulin-producing cells. Here, we examined whether (19)F-heptuloses could be used for non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells. After 20 min incubation, the uptake...

  13. Design and implementation of World Wide Web-based tools for image management in computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Henri, Christopher J.; Rubin, Richard K.; Cox, Robert D.; Bret, Patrice M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes our experience in developing and using several web-based tools to facilitate access to and management of images from inside and outside of our department. Having recently eliminated film in ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a simple method was required to access imaging from computers already existing throughout the hospital. The success of the World Wide Web (WWW), the familiarity of endusers with web browsers, and the relative ...

  14. Challenges of adapting a dual-wavelength infrared imaging system as an industrial inspection tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Kourous, Helen E.; Luster, Spencer D.; Sacha, Jaroslaw P.; Graff, Stephen

    1997-09-01

    Non-contact thermal measurement techniques such as on-line thermography can be valuable tools for process monitoring and quality control. Many manufacturing processes such as welding or casting are thermally driven, or exhibit strong correlation between thermal conditions and product characteristics. Infrared inspection of self-emitted radiation can provide valuable insight into process parameters not routinely observed yet which dominate product quality. Recent advances in IR system technology coupled with significant reductions in cost are making thermography a viable tool for such on-line monitoring. This paper describes the implementation of a novel rugged thermal imaging system based on a dual-wavelength technique for a large intelligent process monitoring project. The object of the portion described herein is to deploy a non- contact means of monitoring tooling surface thermal conditions. The technical and practical challenges of developing such a non-contact thermal measurement system for continuous inspection in an industrial environment are discussed, and methods of resolving them are presented. These challenges include implementation of a wavelength filter system for quantitative determination of the surface temperature. Also, unlike visible-spectrum machine vision applications, surface emissivity of the test object as well as reflections from other IR emitters must be taken into account when measuring infrared radiation for a part or process. However, the primary issues that must be addressed prior to deployment are compensation for ambient temperature conditions and optimization of the calibration process. Other issues center on remote camera control, image acquisition, data synchronization, and data interpretation. An example application of this system, along with preliminary data, is described.

  15. Towards a Systematic Screening Tool for Quality Assurance and Semiautomatic Fraud Detection for Images in the Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, Lars; Wormer, Holger; Ickstadt, Katja

    2017-08-01

    The quality and authenticity of images is essential for data presentation, especially in the life sciences. Questionable images may often be a first indicator for questionable results, too. Therefore, a tool that uses mathematical methods to detect suspicious images in large image archives can be a helpful instrument to improve quality assurance in publications. As a first step towards a systematic screening tool, especially for journal editors and other staff members who are responsible for quality assurance, such as laboratory supervisors, we propose a basic classification of image manipulation. Based on this classification, we developed and explored some simple algorithms to detect copied areas in images. Using an artificial image and two examples of previously published modified images, we apply quantitative methods such as pixel-wise comparison, a nearest neighbor and a variance algorithm to detect copied-and-pasted areas or duplicated images. We show that our algorithms are able to detect some simple types of image alteration, such as copying and pasting background areas. The variance algorithm detects not only identical, but also very similar areas that differ only by brightness. Further types could, in principle, be implemented in a standardized scanning routine. We detected the copied areas in a proven case of image manipulation in Germany and showed the similarity of two images in a retracted paper from the Kato labs, which has been widely discussed on sites such as pubpeer and retraction watch.

  16. Serial volumetric registration of pulmonary CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Silvestre; Silva, Augusto; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2008-03-01

    Detailed morphological analysis of pulmonary structures and tissue, provided by modern CT scanners, is of utmost importance as in the case of oncological applications both for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In this case, a patient may go through several tomographic studies throughout a period of time originating volumetric sets of image data that must be appropriately registered in order to track suspicious radiological findings. The structures or regions of interest may change their position or shape in CT exams acquired at different moments, due to postural, physiologic or pathologic changes, so, the exams should be registered before any follow-up information can be extracted. Postural mismatching throughout time is practically impossible to avoid being particularly evident when imaging is performed at the limiting spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a method for intra-patient registration of pulmonary CT studies, to assist in the management of the oncological pathology. Our method takes advantage of prior segmentation work. In the first step, the pulmonary segmentation is performed where trachea and main bronchi are identified. Then, the registration method proceeds with a longitudinal alignment based on morphological features of the lungs, such as the position of the carina, the pulmonary areas, the centers of mass and the pulmonary trans-axial principal axis. The final step corresponds to the trans-axial registration of the corresponding pulmonary masked regions. This is accomplished by a pairwise sectional registration process driven by an iterative search of the affine transformation parameters leading to optimal similarity metrics. Results with several cases of intra-patient, intra-modality registration, up to 7 time points, show that this method provides accurate registration which is needed for quantitative tracking of lesions and the development of image fusion strategies that may effectively assist the follow-up process.

  17. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gallio

    Full Text Available Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  18. HPASubC: A suite of tools for user subclassification of human protein atlas tissue images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby C Cornish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human protein atlas (HPA is a powerful proteomic tool for visualizing the distribution of protein expression across most human tissues and many common malignancies. The HPA includes immunohistochemically-stained images from tissue microarrays (TMAs that cover 48 tissue types and 20 common malignancies. The TMA data are used to provide expression information at the tissue, cellular, and occasionally, subcellular level. The HPA also provides subcellular data from confocal immunofluorescence data on three cell lines. Despite the availability of localization data, many unique patterns of cellular and subcellular expression are not documented. Materials and Methods: To get at this more granular data, we have developed a suite of Python scripts, HPASubC, to aid in subcellular, and cell-type specific classification of HPA images. This method allows the user to download and optimize specific HPA TMA images for review. Then, using a playstation-style video game controller, a trained observer can rapidly step through 10′s of 1000′s of images to identify patterns of interest. Results: We have successfully used this method to identify 703 endothelial cell (EC and/or smooth muscle cell (SMCs specific proteins discovered within 49,200 heart TMA images. This list will assist us in subdividing cardiac gene or protein array data into expression by one of the predominant cell types of the myocardium: Myocytes, SMCs or ECs. Conclusions: The opportunity to further characterize unique staining patterns across a range of human tissues and malignancies will accelerate our understanding of disease processes and point to novel markers for tissue evaluation in surgical pathology.

  19. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  20. Land use mapping from CBERS-2 images with open source tools by applying different classification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhouse-García, Antonio J.; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús Gabriel; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco J.

    2016-02-01

    Land cover classification is often based on different characteristics between their classes, but with great homogeneity within each one of them. This cover is obtained through field work or by mean of processing satellite images. Field work involves high costs; therefore, digital image processing techniques have become an important alternative to perform this task. However, in some developing countries and particularly in Casacoima municipality in Venezuela, there is a lack of geographic information systems due to the lack of updated information and high costs in software license acquisition. This research proposes a low cost methodology to develop thematic mapping of local land use and types of coverage in areas with scarce resources. Thematic mapping was developed from CBERS-2 images and spatial information available on the network using open source tools. The supervised classification method per pixel and per region was applied using different classification algorithms and comparing them among themselves. Classification method per pixel was based on Maxver algorithms (maximum likelihood) and Euclidean distance (minimum distance), while per region classification was based on the Bhattacharya algorithm. Satisfactory results were obtained from per region classification, where overall reliability of 83.93% and kappa index of 0.81% were observed. Maxver algorithm showed a reliability value of 73.36% and kappa index 0.69%, while Euclidean distance obtained values of 67.17% and 0.61% for reliability and kappa index, respectively. It was demonstrated that the proposed methodology was very useful in cartographic processing and updating, which in turn serve as a support to develop management plans and land management. Hence, open source tools showed to be an economically viable alternative not only for forestry organizations, but for the general public, allowing them to develop projects in economically depressed and/or environmentally threatened areas.

  1. PHIV-RootCell: a supervised image analysis tool for rice root anatomical parameter quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eLartaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed the PHIV-RootCell software to quantify anatomical traits of rice roots transverse section images. Combined with an efficient root sample processing method for image acquisition, this program permits supervised measurements of areas (those of whole root section, stele, cortex and central metaxylem vessels, number of cell layers and number of cells per cell layer. The PHIV-RootCell toolset runs under ImageJ, an independent operating system that has a license-free status. To demonstrate the usefulness of PHIV-RootCell, we conducted a genetic diversity study and an analysis of salt-stress responses of root anatomical parameters in rice (Oryza sativa L.. Using 16 cultivars, we showed that we could discriminate between some of the varieties even at the 6 day-old stage, and that tropical japonica varieties had larger root sections due to an increase in cell number. We observed, as described previously, that root sections become enlarged under salt stress. However, our results show an increase in cell number in ground tissues (endodermis and cortex but a decrease in external (peripheral tissues (sclerenchyma, exodermis and epidermis. Thus, the PHIV-RootCell program is a user-friendly tool that will be helpful for future genetic and physiological studies that investigate root anatomical trait variations.

  2. A pigment analysis tool for hyperspectral images of cultural heritage artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Di; Messinger, David W.; Howell, David

    2017-05-01

    The Gough Map, in the collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford University, is one of the earliest surviving maps of Britain. Previous research deemed that it was likely created over the 15th century and afterwards it was extensively revised more than once. In 2015, the Gough Map was imaged using a hyperspectral imaging system at the Bodleian Library. The collection of the hyperspectral image (HSI) data was aimed at faded text enhancement for reading and pigment analysis for the material diversity of its composition and potentially the timeline of its creation. In this research, we introduce several methods to analyze the green pigments in the Gough Map, especially the number and spatial distribution of distinct green pigments. One approach, called the Gram Matrix, has been used to estimate the material diversity in a scene (i.e., endmember selection and dimensionality estimation). Here, we use the Gram Matrix technique to study the within-material differences of pigments in the Gough map with common visual color. We develop a pigment analysis tool that extracts visually common pixels, green pigments in this case, from the Gough Map and estimates its material diversity. It reveals that the Gough Map consists of at least six kinds of dominant green pigments. Both historical geographers and cartographic historians will benefit from this work to analyze the pigment diversity using HSI of cultural heritage artifacts.

  3. The City Image and the Local Public Administration: a Working Tool in Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cristian NEACȘU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  The goal of this study consist of identifyingand testing in operational terms the concept of cityimage in the decision-making processes, both asfar as the urban planning and the future policies oflocal and regional development are concerned or inthe management of public spaces. It is well-knownthe fact that the simple series of statistical dataand the models based upon them do not sketchout a complete image regarding the urban reality,the perception of habitants at a micro-scale levelabout habituation conditions, illustrated by thecity image, presenting itself as a barometer of thedysfunctionalities encountered in the city. Thus, thepractical implications of this concept based on anew vision in the philosophy of the managementof urban spaces are likely to be interestingenough. Using this tool in the policies and in theactivity of public administration, in urbanism etc.,complementarily to statistical analyses, shouldaccompany any type of local development policyin order to enhance life quality and to transmit acertain life style, well appreciated by the residentswhich should bestow the city distinctiveness anda particular status in the regional and nationalhierarchy. The conceptual scheme of this studyis based on three elements: theory (what doesthe city image represent?, method (how could wemap at a micro-scale level?, case study (whichare the results and the tests of the applicability inthe city of Ploieşti.

  4. Photothermal Mid-Infrared Microscopy: a new tool for hyperspectral chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertiri, Alket; Hong, Mi; Sander, Michelle; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method for label free microscopy in the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum based on the photothermal effect. A Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) tuned to an infrared active vibrational molecular normal mode is used as the pump laser. A low-phase noise Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser (1.5 μm) is used as the probe. We demonstrate the method using a patterned image target with liquid crystal 4-cyano-4-octylbiphenyl (8CB) as the mid-infrared absorber. The QCL is tuned across the C-H scissoring band, with a peak absorption at 1607cm-1. Absorption of the modulated pump beam results in a change in the dielectric function and the refractive index at the probe beam frequency. The resultant scatter of the probe is observed in heterodyne lock-in detection. The combination of heterodyne detection, high brightness mid-infrared QCLs and low-phase noise stable EDF lasers provides an ultra-sensitive method for obtaining mid-infrared microscope images using short-wavelength optical detectors, whose performance far exceeds those of cryogenically cooled broadband mid-infrared detectors. The method provides a powerful new tool for hyperspectral label-free mid-infrared imaging.

  5. RootGraph: a graphic optimization tool for automated image analysis of plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinhai; Zeng, Zhanghui; Connor, Jason N; Huang, Chun Yuan; Melino, Vanessa; Kumar, Pankaj; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2015-11-01

    This paper outlines a numerical scheme for accurate, detailed, and high-throughput image analysis of plant roots. In contrast to existing root image analysis tools that focus on root system-average traits, a novel, fully automated and robust approach for the detailed characterization of root traits, based on a graph optimization process is presented. The scheme, firstly, distinguishes primary roots from lateral roots and, secondly, quantifies a broad spectrum of root traits for each identified primary and lateral root. Thirdly, it associates lateral roots and their properties with the specific primary root from which the laterals emerge. The performance of this approach was evaluated through comparisons with other automated and semi-automated software solutions as well as against results based on manual measurements. The comparisons and subsequent application of the algorithm to an array of experimental data demonstrate that this method outperforms existing methods in terms of accuracy, robustness, and the ability to process root images under high-throughput conditions.

  6. Algorithms and programming tools for image processing on the MPP:3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the third and final report on the work done for NASA Grant 5-403 on Algorithms and Programming Tools for Image Processing on the MPP:3. All the work done for this grant is summarized in the introduction. Work done since August 1986 is reported in detail. Research for this grant falls under the following headings: (1) fundamental algorithms for the MPP; (2) programming utilities for the MPP; (3) the Parallel Pascal Development System; and (4) performance analysis. In this report, the results of two efforts are reported: region growing, and performance analysis of important characteristic algorithms. In each case, timing results from MPP implementations are included. A paper is included in which parallel algorithms for region growing on the MPP is discussed. These algorithms permit different sized regions to be merged in parallel. Details on the implementation and peformance of several important MPP algorithms are given. These include a number of standard permutations, the FFT, convolution, arbitrary data mappings, image warping, and pyramid operations, all of which have been implemented on the MPP. The permutation and image warping functions have been included in the standard development system library.

  7. Seeking tools for image fusion between computed tomography, structural and functional magnetic resonance methods for applications in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Guerra Sanches da Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate tools for the fusion of images generatedby tomography and structural and functional magnetic resonanceimaging. Methods: Magnetic resonance and functional magneticresonance imaging were performed while a volunteer who hadpreviously undergone cranial tomography performed motor andsomatosensory tasks in a 3-Tesla scanner. Image data were analyzedwith different programs, and the results were compared. Results:We constructed a flow chart of computational processes that allowedmeasurement of the spatial congruence between the methods. Therewas no single computational tool that contained the entire set offunctions necessary to achieve the goal. Conclusion: The fusion ofthe images from the three methods proved to be feasible with the useof four free-access software programs (OsiriX, Register, MRIcro andFSL. Our results may serve as a basis for building software that willbe useful as a virtual tool prior to neurosurgery.

  8. From interventionist imaging to intraoperative guidance: New perspectives by combining advanced tools and navigation with radio-guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Valdés Olmos, R; Nieweg, O E; Faccini, R; Grootendorst, M R; Wester, H J; Navab, N; Vojnovic, B; van der Poel, H; Martínez-Román, S; Klode, J; Wawroschek, F; van Leeuwen, F W B

    2017-08-03

    The integration of medical imaging technologies into diagnostic and therapeutic approaches can provide a preoperative insight into both anatomical (e.g. using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, or ultrasound (US)), as well as functional aspects (e.g. using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), lymphoscintigraphy, or optical imaging). Moreover, some imaging modalities are also used in an interventional setting (e.g. CT, US, gamma or optical imaging) where they provide the surgeon with real-time information during the procedure. Various tools and approaches for image-guided navigation in cancer surgery are becoming feasible today. With the development of new tracers and portable imaging devices, these advances will reinforce the role of interventional molecular imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua

    2001-06-01

    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  10. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  12. Validation of Planning Target Volume Margins by Analyzing Intrafractional Localization Errors for 14 Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Three-Dimensional Cross-Correlation between the Prostate Images of Planning CT and Intrafraction Cone-Beam CT during Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenshiro Shiraishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-averaged intreatment prostate localization errors were calculated, for the first time, by three-dimensional prostate image cross-correlation between planning CT and intrafraction kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT. The intrafraction CBCT volume was reconstructed by an inhouse software after acquiring cine-mode projection images during VMAT delivery. Subsequently, the margin between a clinical target volume and a planning target volume (PTV was obtained by applying the van Herk and variant formulas using the calculated localization errors. The resulting PTV margins were approximately 2 mm in lateral direction and 4 mm in craniocaudal and anteroposterior directions, which are consistent with the margin prescription employed in our facility.

  13. NI-78LABEL-FREE MULTIPHOTON MICROSCOPY: A NOVEL TOOL FOR THE IMAGING OF BRAIN TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckermann, Ortrud; Galli, Roberta; Geiger, Kathrin; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tissue composition caused by brain tumor growth involve a series of complex biochemical alterations which can be imaged on unstained native tissue using multiphoton microscopy: We used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging that resonantly excites the symmetric stretching vibration of CH2 groups at 2850 cm−1 and visualizes lipid content in combination with imaging of endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) to discern different types of tumors from normal tissue in unstained, native brain samples. Experimental brain tumors were induced in nude mice NMRI nu/nu (n = 25) by stereotactic implantation of glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (A375) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Label-free multiphoton microscopy of brain cryosections provided exhaustive information of the tumor morphochemistry. The tumor border was defined with cellular resolution by a strong reduction of CARS signal intensity to 61% (glioblastoma), 71% (melanoma) and 68% (breast cancer). This reduction of lipid content within the tumor was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Micrometastases infiltrating normal tissue (size 50 - 200 µm) were identified in glioblastoma and melanoma. Additionally, multiphoton microscopy proved a reduction of CARS signal intensity in all human glioblastoma samples analyzed (to 72%, n = 6). Additionally, relevant SHG and TPEF signals were detected in human primary and secondary brain tumor samples and enabled to image variations in tumor associated vasculature, fibrosis, necrosis and nuclear size and density. All primary or secondary brain tumors investigated were characterized by a lower intensity of the CARS signal, therefore offering a simple tool for objective tumor detection and delineation. The combination of techniques allows retrieving a quantity of information on native unstained tissue which is comparable to H&E staining. Therefore, label-free multiphoton microscopy has the potential to become a

  14. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  15. Comparing a phased combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method with other simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2015-01-01

    A phased combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method (PARISM) has been developed in order to be able to model both specular and diffuse reflections with angle-dependent and complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. It is of great interest to model both specular...... and diffuse reflections when simulating the acoustics of small rooms with non-diffuse sound fields, since scattering from walls add to the diffuseness in the room. This room type is often seen in class rooms and offices, as they are often small rectangular rooms with most of the absorption placed...... on the ceiling. Here, PARISM is used for comparisons with other simulation tools and measurements. An empty, rectangular room with a suspended absorbing ceiling is used for the comparisons. It was found that including the phase information in simulations increases the spatial standard deviation, even if only...

  16. MALDI TOF imaging mass spectrometry in clinical pathology: a valuable tool for cancer diagnostics (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Jörg; Kriegsmann, Mark; Casadonte, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an evolving technique in cancer diagnostics and combines the advantages of mass spectrometry (proteomics), detection of numerous molecules, and spatial resolution in histological tissue sections and cytological preparations. This method allows the detection of proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates or glycoconjugates and small molecules.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can also be investigated by IMS, thus, this method seems to be an ideal tool for cancer diagnostics and biomarker discovery. It may add information to the identification of tumor margins and tumor heterogeneity. The technique allows tumor typing, especially identification of the tumor of origin in metastatic tissue, as well as grading and may provide prognostic information. IMS is a valuable method for the identification of biomarkers and can complement histology, immunohistology and molecular pathology in various fields of histopathological diagnostics, especially with regard to identification and grading of tumors.

  17. Seeding optimization for instantaneous volumetric velocimetry. Application to a jet in crossflow

    CERN Document Server

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Every volumetric velocimetry measurements based on tracer (particles, bubbles, etc.) detection can be strongly influenced by the optical screening phenomenon. It has to be taken into account when the the statistical properties associated to the performances of the particle detection and tracking algorithms are significantly affected. It leads to a maximum concentration of particles in the images thus limiting the final spatial resolution of the instantaneous three-dimensional three-components (3D3C) velocity fields. A volumetric velocimetry system based on Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to show that above a critical visual concentration of particles in the images, the concentration and accuracy of the final instantaneous raw velocity vector field drop. The critical concentration depends on physical parameters as well as on the processing algorithms. Three distinct regimes are identified. In the first regime, the concentration is well adapted to volumetric velocimetry, the largest concent...

  18. Software development for dynamic position emission tomography: Dynamic image analysis (DIA) tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyeon, Do Yeong; Jung, Young Jin [Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Su [Dept. of Radilogical Science, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) is nuclear medical tests which is a combination of several compounds with a radioactive isotope that can be injected into body to quantitatively measure the metabolic rate (in the body). Especially, Phenomena that increase (sing) glucose metabolism in cancer tissue using the 18F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) is utilized widely in cancer diagnosis. And then, Numerous studies have been reported that incidence seems high availability even in the modern diagnosis of dementia and Parkinson's (disease) in brain disease. When using a dynamic PET image including the time information in the static information that is provided for the diagnosis many can increase the accuracy of diagnosis. For this reason, clinical researchers getting great attention but, it is the lack of tools to conduct research. And, it interfered complex mathematical algorithm and programming skills for activation of research. In this study, in order to easy to use and enable research dPET, we developed the software based graphic user interface(GUI). In the future, by many clinical researcher using DIA-Tool is expected to be of great help to dPET research.

  19. Neuron-Miner: An Advanced Tool for Morphological Search and Retrieval in Neuroscientific Image Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjeti, Sailesh; Mesbah, Sepideh; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Zhang, Shaoting; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2016-10-01

    The steadily growing amounts of digital neuroscientific data demands for a reliable, systematic, and computationally effective retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we present Neuron-Miner, which is a tool for fast and accurate reference-based retrieval within neuron image databases. The proposed algorithm is established upon hashing (search and retrieval) technique by employing multiple unsupervised random trees, collectively called as Hashing Forests (HF). The HF are trained to parse the neuromorphological space hierarchically and preserve the inherent neuron neighborhoods while encoding with compact binary codewords. We further introduce the inverse-coding formulation within HF to effectively mitigate pairwise neuron similarity comparisons, thus allowing scalability to massive databases with little additional time overhead. The proposed hashing tool has superior approximation of the true neuromorphological neighborhood with better retrieval and ranking performance in comparison to existing generalized hashing methods. This is exhaustively validated by quantifying the results over 31266 neuron reconstructions from Neuromorpho.org dataset curated from 147 different archives. We envisage that finding and ranking similar neurons through reference-based querying via Neuron Miner would assist neuroscientists in objectively understanding the relationship between neuronal structure and function for applications in comparative anatomy or diagnosis.

  20. A Current Review of the Meniscus Imaging: Proposition of a Useful Tool for Its Radiologic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Lefevre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this review was to present a synthesis of the current literature in order to provide a useful tool to clinician in radiologic analysis of the meniscus. All anatomical descriptions were clearly illustrated by MRI, arthroscopy, and/or drawings. The value of standard radiography is extremely limited for the assessment of meniscal injuries but may be indicated to obtain a differential diagnosis such as osteoarthritis. Ultrasound is rarely used as a diagnostic tool for meniscal pathologies and its accuracy is operator-dependent. CT arthrography with multiplanar reconstructions can detect meniscus tears that are not visible on MRI. This technique is also useful in case of MRI contraindications, in postoperative assessment of meniscal sutures and the condition of cartilage covering the articular surfaces. MRI is the most accurate and less invasive method for diagnosing meniscal lesions. MRI allows confirming and characterizing the meniscal lesion, the type, the extension, its association with a cyst, the meniscal extrusion, and assessing cartilage and subchondral bone. New 3D-MRI in three dimensions with isotropic resolution allows the creation of multiplanar reformatted images to obtain from an acquisition in one sectional plane reconstructions in other spatial planes. 3D MRI should further improve the diagnosis of meniscal tears.

  1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T as a Clinical Tool in Patients with Intracranial Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westen, D. van; Skagerberg, G.; Olsrud, J.; Fransson, P.; Larsson, E.M. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology and Neurosurgery

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T as a clinical tool in the preoperative evaluation of patients with intracranial tumors. High magnetic field strength such as 3T is of benefit for fMRI because signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity to susceptibility changes are field-strength-dependent. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with tumors close to eloquent sensorimotor or language areas were studied. Motor, sensory, and two language paradigms (word generation, rhyming) were used; their effectiveness was determined as the percentage of patients in whom the functional area of interest was activated. Activation maps were calculated and their quality rated as high, adequate, or insufficient. The influence of fMRI on the neurosurgical decision regarding operability, surgical approach, and extent of the resection, was assessed. Results: Paradigm effectiveness was 90% for motor and 95% for sensory stimulation, and varied from 79% to 95% for word generation and rhyming in combination. Ninety percent of the activation maps held high or adequate quality. fMRI proved useful: in the decision to operate (9 patients), in the surgical approach (13 patients), and in extent of the resection (12 patients). Conclusion: fMRI at 3T is a clinically applicable tool in the work-up of patients with intracranial tumors.

  2. Quantitative image analysis as a tool for Yarrowia lipolytica dimorphic growth evaluation in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A; Mesquita, D P; Amaral, A L; Ferreira, E C; Belo, I

    2016-01-10

    Yarrowia lipolytica, a yeast strain with a huge biotechnological potential, capable to produce metabolites such as γ-decalactone, citric acid, intracellular lipids and enzymes, possesses the ability to change its morphology in response to environmental conditions. In the present study, a quantitative image analysis (QIA) procedure was developed for the identification and quantification of Y. lipolytica W29 and MTLY40-2P strains dimorphic growth, cultivated in batch cultures on hydrophilic (glucose and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and hydrophobic (olive oil and castor oil) media. The morphological characterization of yeast cells by QIA techniques revealed that hydrophobic carbon sources, namely castor oil, should be preferred for both strains growth in the yeast single cell morphotype. On the other hand, hydrophilic sugars, namely glucose and GlcNAc caused a dimorphic transition growth towards the hyphae morphotype. Experiments for γ-decalactone production with MTLY40-2P strain in two distinct morphotypes (yeast single cells and hyphae cells) were also performed. The obtained results showed the adequacy of the proposed morphology monitoring tool in relation to each morphotype on the aroma production ability. The present work allowed establishing that QIA techniques can be a valuable tool for the identification of the best culture conditions for industrial processes implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Widefield fluorescence imaging as an auxiliary tool to select the biopsy site for actinic cheilitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, C.; Cosci, A.; Takahama, A.; Fontes, K. B. F. C.; Azevedo, R. S.

    2014-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) is considered a potentially malignant disorder that mainly affects the lower lip, and it is caused by prolonged sun exposure. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual inspection by a trained clinician, when suspected of dysplasia changes, a biopsy is required. The heteregenous characteristics of the AC, makes the choice of the biopsy site a difficult task. Fluorescence detection has been presented as a useful tool to to detect biochemical and morphological tissue features related to cancer diagnosis, but still its effectiveness to discriminate premalignant lesion is not completely defined. In this clinical study, 57 AC patients were investigated using widefield fluorescence imaging (WFI) to evaluate the efficacy of this technique as an auxiliary tool to biopsy site location. A handheld fluorescence system based on 400-450 nm LED illumination Distinct trained clinicians evaluate the patient either with the conventional examination or the WFI, and were blinded to the other evaluation. A biopsy site was chosen based on the clinical examination, and another site was chosen using the fluorescence visualization. A total of 114 punch biopsies were performed, and 93% of the tissue samples presented epithelial dysplasia. The majority of the sites that presented moderate or severe dysplasia were sites chosen by WFI, showing its efficiency to improve the diagnosis of AC.

  4. Influence of Cobb Angle and ISIS2 Surface Topography Volumetric Asymmetry on Scoliosis Research Society-22 Outcome Scores in Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul; Berryman, Fiona; Baker, De; Pynsent, Paul; Gardner, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Retrospective sequential patient series. To establish the relationship between the magnitude of the deformity in scoliosis and patients' perception of their condition, as measured with Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores. A total of 93 untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included retrospectively. The Cobb angle was measured from a plain radiograph, and volumetric asymmetry was measured by ISIS2 surface topography. The association between Scoliosis Research Society scores for function, pain, self-image, and mental health against Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry was investigated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Correlation of both Cobb angle and volumetric asymmetry with function and pain was weak (all self-image, was higher, although still moderate (-.37 for Cobb angle and -.44 for volumetric asymmetry). Both were statistically significant (Cobb angle, p = .0002; volumetric asymmetry; p = .00001). Cobb angle contributed 13.8% to the linear relationship with self-image, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 19.3%. For mental health, correlation was statistically significant with Cobb angle (p = .011) and volumetric asymmetry (p = .0005), but the correlation was low to moderate (-.26 and -.35, respectively). Cobb angle contributed 6.9% to the linear relationship with mental health, whereas volumetric asymmetry contributed 12.4%. Volumetric asymmetry correlates better with both mental health and self-image compared with Cobb angle, but the correlation was only moderate. This study suggests that a patient's own perception of self-image and mental health is multifactorial and not completely explained through present objective measurements of the size of the deformity. This helps to explain the difficulties in any objective analysis of a problem with multifactorial perception issues. Further study is required to investigate other physical aspects of the deformity that may have a role in how patients view themselves. Copyright

  5. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  6. Molecular markers and imaging tools to identify malignant potential in Barrett’s esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Bennett; Hiroshi; Mashimo

    2014-01-01

    Due to its rapidly rising incidence and high mortality, esophageal adenocarcinoma is a major public health concern, particularly in Western countries. The steps involved in the progression from its predisposing condition, gastroesophageal reflux disease, to its premalignant disorder, Barrett’s esophagus, and to cancer, are incompletely understood. Current screening and surveillance methods are limited by the lack of population-wide utility, incomplete sampling of standard biopsies, and subjectivity of evaluation. Advances in endoscopic ablation have raised the hope of effective therapy for eradication of high-risk Barrett’s lesions, but improvements are needed in determining when to apply this treatment and how to follow patients clinically. Researchers have evaluated numerous potential molecular biomarkers with the goal of detecting dysplasia, with varying degrees of success. The combination of biomarker panels with epidemiologic risk factors to yield clinical risk scoring systems is promising. New approaches to sample tissue may also be combined with these biomarkers for less invasive screening and sur-veillance. The development of novel endoscopic imaging tools in recent years has the potential to markedly improve detection of small foci of dysplasia in vivo. Current and future efforts will aim to determine the combination of markers and imaging modalities that will most effectively improve the rate of early detection of highrisk lesions in Barrett’s esophagus.

  7. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale: An Anatomically Defined and Image-Based Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Paul D; Rademaker, Alfred W; Leder, Steven B

    2015-10-01

    in relation to pharyngeal residue severity, and improving training and accuracy of FEES interpretation by students and clinicians. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale is a reliable, validated, anatomically defined, and image-based tool to determine residue location and severity based on FEES.

  8. Intravital two-photon imaging: a versatile tool for dissecting the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Taeko; Ishii, Masaru

    2011-03-01

    During the past decade, multi-photon or 'two-photon' excitation microscopy has launched a new era in the field of biological imaging. The near-infrared excitation laser for two-photon microscopy can penetrate thicker specimens, enabling the visualisation of living cell behaviour deep within tissues and organs without thin sectioning. The minimised photobleaching and toxicity enables the visualisation of live and intact specimens for extended periods. In this brief review, recent findings in intravital two-photon imaging for the physiology and pathology of the immune system are discussed. The immune system configures highly dynamic networks, where many cell types actively travel throughout the body and interact with each other in specific areas. Hence, real-time intravital imaging may be a powerful tool for dissecting the mechanisms of this dynamic system. The most unique characteristic of the immune system is its highly dynamic nature. A variety of cell types, such as lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are continuously circulating throughout the body, migrating through the peripheral tissues and interacting with each other in their respective niches. Conventional methodologies in immunology, such as flow cytometry, cell or tissue culture, biochemistry and histology, have brought tremendous achievement within this field, although the dynamics of immune cells in an entire animal remain less clear. Technological progress of fluorescence microscopy has enabled us to visualise the intact biological phenomenon that has been uninvestigated. Among the advancements, the recent emergence and prevalence of two-photon, excitation-based, laser microscopy has revolutionised the research field, such that the dynamic behaviour of cells deep inside living organs can be visualised and analysed.

  9. In vivo MRI volumetric measurement of prostate regression and growth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcioglu Orhan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse models for treatment of late-stage prostate cancer are valuable tools, but assessing the extent of growth of the prostate and particularly its regression due to therapeutic intervention or castration is difficult due to the location, small size and interdigitated anatomy of the prostate gland in situ. Temporal monitoring of mouse prostate regression requires multiple animals and examination of histological sections. Methods Initially, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed on normal year-old C57/BL6 mice. Individual mice were repeatedly imaged using inhalation anesthesia to establish the reproducibility of the method and to follow hormone manipulation of the prostate volume. Subsequently, MRI fat signal was suppressed using a chemical shift-selective (CHESS pulse to avoid signal contamination and enhance discrimination of the prostate. Results High field (7T MRI provides high resolution (117 × 117 μm in plane, highly reproducible images of the normal mouse prostate. Despite long imaging times, animals can be imaged repeatedly to establish reliability of volume measurements. Prostate volume declines following castration and subsequently returns to normal with androgen administration in the same animal. CHESS imaging allowed discrimination of both the margins of the prostate and the dorsal-lateral lobes of the prostate (DLP from the ventral lobes (VP. Castration results in a 40% reduction in the volume of the DLP and a 75% reduction in the volume of the VP. Conclusion MRI assessment of the volume of the mouse prostate is precise and reproducible. MRI improves volumetric determination of the extent of regression and monitoring of the same mouse over time during the course of treatment is possible. Since assessing groups of animals at each time point is avoided, this improves the accuracy of the measurement of any manipulation effect and reduces the number of animals required.

  10. PopulationProfiler: A Tool for Population Analysis and Visualization of Image-Based Cell Screening Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian J Matuszewski

    Full Text Available Image-based screening typically produces quantitative measurements of cell appearance. Large-scale screens involving tens of thousands of images, each containing hundreds of cells described by hundreds of measurements, result in overwhelming amounts of data. Reducing per-cell measurements to the averages across the image(s for each treatment leads to loss of potentially valuable information on population variability. We present PopulationProfiler-a new software tool that reduces per-cell measurements to population statistics. The software imports measurements from a simple text file, visualizes population distributions in a compact and comprehensive way, and can create gates for subpopulation classes based on control samples. We validate the tool by showing how PopulationProfiler can be used to analyze the effect of drugs that disturb the cell cycle, and compare the results to those obtained with flow cytometry.

  11. PopulationProfiler: A Tool for Population Analysis and Visualization of Image-Based Cell Screening Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Damian J; Wählby, Carolina; Puigvert, Jordi Carreras; Sintorn, Ida-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Image-based screening typically produces quantitative measurements of cell appearance. Large-scale screens involving tens of thousands of images, each containing hundreds of cells described by hundreds of measurements, result in overwhelming amounts of data. Reducing per-cell measurements to the averages across the image(s) for each treatment leads to loss of potentially valuable information on population variability. We present PopulationProfiler-a new software tool that reduces per-cell measurements to population statistics. The software imports measurements from a simple text file, visualizes population distributions in a compact and comprehensive way, and can create gates for subpopulation classes based on control samples. We validate the tool by showing how PopulationProfiler can be used to analyze the effect of drugs that disturb the cell cycle, and compare the results to those obtained with flow cytometry.

  12. Automatic brain matter segmentation of computed tomography images using a statistical model: A tool to gain working time!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertè, Francesco; Lamponi, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco S

    2015-10-01

    Brain computed tomography (CT) is useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of several neurological disorders due to its accuracy, reliability, safety and wide availability. In this field, a potentially interesting research topic is the automatic segmentation and recognition of medical regions of interest (ROIs). Herein, we propose a novel automated method, based on the use of the active appearance model (AAM) for the segmentation of brain matter in CT images to assist radiologists in the evaluation of the images. The method described, that was applied to 54 CT images coming from a sample of outpatients affected by cognitive impairment, enabled us to obtain the generation of a model overlapping with the original image with quite good precision. Since CT neuroimaging is in widespread use for detecting neurological disease, including neurodegenerative conditions, the development of automated tools enabling technicians and physicians to reduce working time and reach a more accurate diagnosis is needed.

  13. Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements of in vivo rodent brain imaging are hard to satisfy using traditional technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and two-photon microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool that can easily reach at high speeds and provide high resolution volumetric images with a relatively large field of view for rodent brain imaging. Here, we provide the overview of recent developments of functional OCT based imaging techniques for neuroscience applications on rodents. Moreover, a summary of OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) studies for stroke and traumatic brain injury cases on rodents are provided.

  14. Volumetric optical coherence microscopy enabled by aberrated optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Siyang; Adie, Steven G.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an interferometric imaging technique that enables high resolution, non-invasive imaging of 3D cell cultures and biological tissues. Volumetric imaging with OCM suffers a trade-off between high transverse resolution and poor depth-of-field resulting from defocus, optical aberrations, and reduced signal collection away from the focal plane. While defocus and aberrations can be compensated with computational methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) or computational adaptive optics (CAO), reduced signal collection must be physically addressed through optical hardware. Axial scanning of the focus is one approach, but comes at the cost of longer acquisition times, larger datasets, and greater image reconstruction times. Given the capabilities of CAO to compensate for general phase aberrations, we present an alternative method to address the signal collection problem without axial scanning by using intentionally aberrated optical hardware. We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic spectral domain (SD-)OCM imaging system to enable single-acquisition volumetric OCM in 3D cell culture over an extended depth range, compared to a non-aberrated SD-OCM system. The transverse resolution of the non-aberrated and astigmatic imaging systems after application of CAO were 2 um and 2.2 um, respectively. The depth-range of effective signal collection about the nominal focal plane was increased from 100 um in the non-aberrated system to over 300 um in the astigmatic system, extending the range over which useful data may be acquired in a single OCM dataset. We anticipate that this method will enable high-throughput cellular-resolution imaging of dynamic biological systems over extended volumes.

  15. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  16. VOLUMETRIC ERROR COMPENSATION IN FIVE-AXIS CNC MACHINING CENTER THROUGH KINEMATICS MODELING OF GEOMETRIC ERROR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooyan Vahidi Pashsaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of a five-axis CNC machine tool is affected by a vast number of error sources. This paper investigates volumetric error modeling and its compensation to the basis for creation of new tool path for improvement of work pieces accuracy. The volumetric error model of a five-axis machine tool with the configuration RTTTR (tilting head B-axis and rotary table in work piece side A΄ was set up taking into consideration rigid body kinematics and homogeneous transformation matrix, in which 43 error components are included. Volumetric error comprises 43 error components that can separately reduce geometrical and dimensional accuracy of work pieces. The machining accuracy of work piece is guaranteed due to the position of the cutting tool center point (TCP relative to the work piece. The cutting tool is deviated from its ideal position relative to the work piece and machining error is experienced. For compensation process detection of the present tool path and analysis of the RTTTR five-axis CNC machine tools geometrical error, translating current position of component to compensated positions using the Kinematics error model, converting newly created component to new tool paths using the compensation algorithms and finally editing old G-codes using G-code generator algorithm have been employed.

  17. Semi-automatic volumetrics system to parcellate ROI on neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Ichimiya, Tetsuya; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2002-05-01

    A template-based and semi-automatic volumetrics system--BrainVol is build to divide the any given patient brain to neo-cortical and sub-cortical regions. The standard region is given as standard ROI drawn on a standard brain volume. After normalization between the standard MR image and the patient MR image, the sub-cortical ROIs' boundary are refined based on gray matter. The neo-cortical ROIs are refined by sulcus information that is semi-automatically marked on the patient brain. Then the segmentation is applied to 4D PET image of same patient for calculation of TAC (Time Activity Curve) by co-registration between MR and PET.

  18. An open-source software tool for the generation of relaxation time maps in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Titus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In magnetic resonance (MR imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization. Results After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data. Conclusions MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as tools for the investigation of sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) teeth and eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scanning techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are useful tools in veterinary and human medicine. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques in the study of the anatomy of wild marine mammals as part of a necropsy. MRI and CT scans...

  20. Rapid Prototyping of Hyperspectral Image Analysis Algorithms for Improved Invasive Species Decision Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L. M.; Ball, J. E.; Evangilista, P.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Nonnative invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, causing loss of native plant diversity, species extinction, and impairment of wildlife habitats. As a result, over the past decade federal and state agencies and nongovernmental organizations have begun to work more closely together to address the management of invasive species. In 2005, approximately 500M dollars was budgeted by U.S. Federal Agencies for the management of invasive species. Despite extensive expenditures, most of the methods used to detect and quantify the distribution of these invaders are ad hoc, at best. Likewise, decisions on the type of management techniques to be used or evaluation of the success of these methods are typically non-systematic. More efficient methods to detect or predict the occurrence of these species, as well as the incorporation of this knowledge into decision support systems, are greatly needed. In this project, rapid prototyping capabilities (RPC) are utilized for an invasive species application. More precisely, our recently developed analysis techniques for hyperspectral imagery are being prototyped for inclusion in the national Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS). The current ecological forecasting tools in ISFS will be compared to our hyperspectral-based invasives prediction algorithms to determine if/how the newer algorithms enhance the performance of ISFS. The PIs have researched the use of remotely sensed multispectral and hyperspectral reflectance data for the detection of invasive vegetative species. As a result, the PI has designed, implemented, and benchmarked various target detection systems that utilize remotely sensed data. These systems have been designed to make decisions based on a variety of remotely sensed data, including high spectral/spatial resolution hyperspectral signatures (1000's of spectral bands, such as those measured using ASD handheld devices), moderate spectral/spatial resolution hyperspectral images (100's of spectral bands, such

  1. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  2. Fracture behavior of reinforced aluminum alloy matrix composites using thermal imaging tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdelidis, N. P.; Exarchos, D.; Vazquez, P.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Sfarra, S.; Maldague, X. P. V.; Matikas, T. E.

    2016-05-01

    In this work the influence of the microstructure at the vicinity of the interface on the fracture behavior of particulate-reinforced aluminum alloy matrix composites (Al/SiCp composites) is studied by using thermographic tools. In particular, infrared thermography was used to monitor the plane crack propagation behavior of the materials. The deformation of solid materials is almost always accompanied by heat release. When the material becomes deformed or is damaged and fractured, a part of the energy necessary to initiate and propagate the damage is transformed in an irreversible way into heat. The thermal camera detects the heat wave, generated by the thermo-mechanical coupling and the intrinsic dissipated energy during mechanical loading of the sample. By using an adapted detector, thermography records the two dimensional "temperature" field as it results from the infrared radiation emitted by the object. The principal advantage of infrared thermography is its noncontact, non-destructive character. This methodology is being applied to characterise the fracture behavior of the particulate composites. Infrared thermography is being used to monitor the plane crack propagation behavior of such materials. Furthermore, an innovative approach to use microscopic measurements using IR microscopic lenses was attempted, in order to enable smaller features (in the micro scale) to be imaged with accuracy and assurance.

  3. On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.

  4. On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vecchiato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG and magnetoencephalogram (MEG methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.

  5. Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Amigo, José Manuel; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-09-01

    In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.

  6. Automated DICOM metadata and volumetric anatomical information extraction for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichail, D.; Ploussi, A.; Kordolaimi, S.; Karavasilis, E.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Syrgiamiotis, V.; Efstathopoulos, E.

    2015-09-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry calculations based on simulation techniques have as a prerequisite the modeling of the modality system and the creation of voxelized phantoms. This procedure requires the knowledge of scanning parameters and patients’ information included in a DICOM file as well as image segmentation. However, the extraction of this information is complicated and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a simple graphical user interface (GUI) to (i) automatically extract metadata from every slice image of a DICOM file in a single query and (ii) interactively specify the regions of interest (ROI) without explicit access to the radiology information system. The user-friendly application developed in Matlab environment. The user can select a series of DICOM files and manage their text and graphical data. The metadata are automatically formatted and presented to the user as a Microsoft Excel file. The volumetric maps are formed by interactively specifying the ROIs and by assigning a specific value in every ROI. The result is stored in DICOM format, for data and trend analysis. The developed GUI is easy, fast and and constitutes a very useful tool for individualized dosimetry. One of the future goals is to incorporate a remote access to a PACS server functionality.

  7. Angiographic and volumetric effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors on angiomyolipomas in tuberous sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahul A Sheth; Adam S Feldman; Elahna Paul; Elizabeth A Thiele; T Gregory Walker

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the angiographic and volumetric effects of mammalian target of rapamycin(m TOR) inhibitors on angiomyolipomas(AMLs) in a case series of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.METHODS: All patients who underwent catheter angiography prior to and following m TOR inhibitor therapy(n = 3) were evaluated. All cross-sectional imaging studies were analyzed with three-dimensional volumetrics, and tumor volume curves for all three tissue compartments(soft tissue, vascular, and fat) were generated. Segmentation analysis tools were used to automatically create a region of interest(ROI) circumscribing the AML. On magnetic resonance images, the "fat only" map calculated from the in- and opposed-phase gradient recalled echo sequences was used to quantify fat volume within tumors. Tumor vascularity was measured by applying a thresholding toolwithin the ROI on post-contrast subtraction images. On computed tomography images, volume histogram analysis of Hounsfield unit was performed to quantify tumor tissue composition. The angiography procedures were also reviewed, and tumor vascularity based on pre-embolization angiography was characterized in a semi-quantitative manner. RESULTS: Patient 1 presented at the age of 15 with a 6.8 cm right lower pole AML and a 4.0 cm right upper pole AML. Embolization was performed of both tumors, and after a few years of size control, the tumors began to grow, and the patient was initiated on m TOR inhibitor therapy. There was an immediate reduction in the size of both lesions. The patient then underwent repeat embolization and discontinuation of m TOR inhibition, after which point there was a substantial regrowth in both tumors across all tissue compartments. Patient 2 presented at the age of 18 with a right renal AML. Following a brief period of tumor reduction after embolization, she was initiated on m TOR inhibitor therapy, with successful reduction in tumor size across all tissue compartments. As with patient 1, however

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as tools for the investigation of sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) teeth and eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2017-01-01

    Background: Scanning techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are useful tools in veterinary and human medicine. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques in the study of the anatomy of wild marine mammals as part of a necropsy. MRI and CT scan...... the usability of MRI and CT as tools for marine mammal research when samples need to remain intact or when a spatial (three dimensional) arrangement of features needs to be determined.......Background: Scanning techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are useful tools in veterinary and human medicine. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques in the study of the anatomy of wild marine mammals as part of a necropsy. MRI and CT scans...

  9. Area and volumetric density estimation in processed full-field digital mammograms for risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Cheddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. METHODS: The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol. The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. RESULTS: All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of risk and genetic association.

  10. Quantification of the volumetric benefit of image-guided radiotherapy (I.G.R.T.) in prostate cancer: Margins and presence probability map; Benefice volumetrique de la radiotherapie guidee par l'image dans les cancers prostatiques: marges et cartographies de probabilite de presence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoulat, G.; Crevoisier, R. de; Simon, A.; Louvel, G.; Manens, J.P.; Haigron, P. [Inserm, U642, 35 - Rennes (France); Rennes-1 Univ., 35 (France); Crevoisier, R. de; Louvel, G.; Manens, J.P.; Lafond, C. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To quantify the prostate and seminal vesicles (S.V.) anatomic variations in order to choose appropriate margins including intrapelvic anatomic variations. To quantify volumetric benefit of image-guided radiotherapy (I.G.R.T.). Patients and methods: Twenty patients, receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in the prostate, had a planning CT scan and eight weekly CT scans during treatment. Prostate and S.V. were manually contoured. Each weekly CT scan was registered to the planning CT scan according to three modalities: radiopaque skin marks, pelvis bone or prostate. For each patient, prostate and S.V. displacements were quantified. 3-dimensional maps of prostate and S.V. presence probability were established. Volumes including minimal presence probabilities were compared between the three modalities of registration. Result: For the prostate intrapelvic displacements, systematic and random variations and maximal displacements for the entire population were: 5 mm, 2.7 mm and 16.5 mm in anteroposterior axis; 2.7 mm, 2.4 mm and 11.4 mm in supero-inferior axis and 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm and 3.3 mm laterally. Margins according to van Herk recipe (to cover the prostate for 90% of the patients with the 95% isodose) were: 8 mm, 8.3 mm and 1.9 mm, respectively. The 100% prostate presence probability volumes correspond to 37%, 50% and 61% according to the registration modality. For the S.V., these volumes correspond to 8%, 14% and 18% of the S.V. volume. Conclusions: Without I.G.R.T., 5 mm prostate posterior margins are insufficient and should be at least 8 mm, to account for intrapelvic anatomic variations. Prostate registration almost doubles the 100% presence probability volume compared to skin registration. Deformation of S.V. will require either to increase dramatically margins (simple) or new planning (not realistic). (authors)

  11. IMAGE AS A TOOL OF DEVELOPMENT OF A SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP SYSTEM AND A SUPPLYING COMPETITIVENESS OF THE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Kovtsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main components of the university’s image as a tool of social partnership development. It focuses on the issues of forming a positive image of the university. The most preferable approaches to image formation are identified. It is proposed to consider the system of social partnership as a specific translator for opinions about the institution that transfers from partners and individuals, who are accepted for internal affairs of the university’s activities due to partner structures on a general public and consumer audience of high school. The author offers to improve the image of university developed of social partnership. The university’s activities for development of its brand which can be implemented by using the approaches described in the paper are considered. The article contains developed image-building mechanisms which make it possible to get bonuses for participation in the partnership structure by partners and which promote the competitiveness of the university.

  12. Image analysis as an adjunct to manual HER-2 immunohistochemical review: a diagnostic tool to standardize interpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dobson, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    AIMS: Accurate determination of HER-2 status is critical to identify patients for whom trastuzumab treatment will be of benefit. Although the recommended primary method of evaluation is immunohistochemistry, numerous reports of variability in interpretation have raised uncertainty about the reliability of results. Recent guidelines have suggested that image analysis could be an effective tool for achieving consistent interpretation, and this study aimed to assess whether this technology has potential as a diagnostic support tool. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across a cohort of 275 cases, image analysis could accurately classify HER-2 status, with 91% agreement between computer-aided classification and the pathology review. Assessment of the continuity of membranous immunoreactivity in addition to intensity of reactivity was critical to distinguish between negative and equivocal cases and enabled image analysis to report a lower referral rate of cases for confirmatory fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. An excellent concordance rate of 95% was observed between FISH and the automated review across 136 informative cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study has validated that image analysis can robustly and accurately evaluate HER-2 status in immunohistochemically stained tissue. Based on these findings, image analysis has great potential as a diagnostic support tool for pathologists and biomedical scientists, and may significantly improve the standardization of HER-2 testing by providing a quantitative reference method for interpretation.

  13. No-reference multiscale blur detection tool for content based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Stocker, Russell; Harrity, Kyle; Alford, Mark; Ferris, David; Blasch, Erik; Gorniak, Mark

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, digital cameras have been widely used for image capturing. These devices are equipped in cell phones, laptops, tablets, webcams, etc. Image quality is an important component of digital image analysis. To assess image quality for these mobile products, a standard image is required as a reference image. In this case, Root Mean Square Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio can be used to measure the quality of the images. However, these methods are not possible if there is no reference image. In our approach, a discrete-wavelet transformation is applied to the blurred image, which decomposes into the approximate image and three detail sub-images, namely horizontal, vertical, and diagonal images. We then focus on noise-measuring the detail images and blur-measuring the approximate image to assess the image quality. We then compute noise mean and noise ratio from the detail images, and blur mean and blur ratio from the approximate image. The Multi-scale Blur Detection (MBD) metric provides both an assessment of the noise and blur content. These values are weighted based on a linear regression against full-reference y values. From these statistics, we can compare to normal useful image statistics for image quality without needing a reference image. We then test the validity of our obtained weights by R2 analysis as well as using them to estimate image quality of an image with a known quality measure. The result shows that our method provides acceptable results for images containing low to mid noise levels and blur content.

  14. Use of image analysis tool for the development of light distribution pattern inside the photobioreactor for the algal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Sirasale, Anusha; Das, Debabrata

    2013-09-01

    Light is one of the important parameters for the growth of photosynthetic microorganisms. In algal photobioreactors, pigmentation of algal cells has additional shading effect which reduces light penetration. Information on the local light intensity inside the photobioreactor is helpful for its efficient designs. Image analysis is based on trichromatic theory and it is used as a tool in studying the light distribution. Digital images of the top view of the photobioreactor were taken and processed using image processing tool in the MATLAB software. This was used to estimate the light intensity distribution in the externally radiating stirred tank photobioreactor across the radial path length. In addition, the effect of light tubes arrangement was studied. This was to find out the effect of light distribution along the periphery of culture suspension. Modified Beer-Lambert's law was found to fit the generated light intensity profile at various cell concentrations and light intensity.

  15. Interference-free ultrasound imaging during HIFU therapy, using software tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram (Inventor); Held, Robert (Inventor); Sikdar, Siddhartha (Inventor); Managuli, Ravi (Inventor); Zderic, Vesna (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method for obtaining a composite interference-free ultrasound image when non-imaging ultrasound waves would otherwise interfere with ultrasound imaging. A conventional ultrasound imaging system is used to collect frames of ultrasound image data in the presence of non-imaging ultrasound waves, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). The frames are directed to a processor that analyzes the frames to identify portions of the frame that are interference-free. Interference-free portions of a plurality of different ultrasound image frames are combined to generate a single composite interference-free ultrasound image that is displayed to a user. In this approach, a frequency of the non-imaging ultrasound waves is offset relative to a frequency of the ultrasound imaging waves, such that the interference introduced by the non-imaging ultrasound waves appears in a different portion of the frames.

  16. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  17. Myocardial kinematics based on tagged MRI from volumetric NURBS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.

    2004-04-01

    We present current research in which left ventricular deformation is estimated from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using volumetric deformable models constructed from nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS). From a set of short and long axis images at end-diastole, the initial NURBS model is constructed by fitting two surfaces with the same parameterization to the set of epicardial and endocardial contours from which a volumetric model is created. Using normal displacements of the three sets of orthogonal tag planes as well as displacements of both tag line and contour/tag line intersection points, one can solve for the optimal homogeneous coordinates, in a least squares sense, of the control points of the NURBS model at a later time point using quadratic programming. After fitting to all time points of data, lofting the NURBS model at each time point creates a comprehensive 4-D NURBS model. From this model, we can extract 3-D myocardial displacement fields and corresponding strain maps, which are local measures of non-rigid deformation.

  18. Important nonurgent imaging findings: use of a hybrid digital and administrative support tool for facilitating clinician communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evan; Sanger, Joseph; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    A departmental tool that provides a digital/administrative solution for communication of important imaging findings was evaluated. The tool allows the radiologist to click a button to mark an examination for ordering physician follow-up with subsequent fax and confirmation. The tool's log was reviewed. Of 466 entries; 99.4% were successfully faxed with phone confirmation. Most common reasons for usage were lung nodule/mass (29.2%) and osseous fracture (12.4%). Subsequent clinical action was documented in 41.0% of entries. Our data show the reliability of the tool in assisting the communication of findings, as well as providing documentation of notification, with minimal workflow disruption.

  19. External validation of two tools for the clinical diagnosis of acute diverticulitis without imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewiet, J.J.S.; Andeweg, C.S.; Laurell, H.; Daniels, L.; Laméris, W.; Reitsma, J.B.; Hendriks, J.C.; Bleichrodt, R.; van Goor, H.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim External validation and comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of two predictive tools, the emergency department triad and the clinical scoring tool in diagnosing acute diverticulitis. Methods Two derivation datasets were used crosswise for external validation. In addition, both tools were valida

  20. Developing an ANSI standard for image quality tools for the testing of active millimeter wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Greca, Joseph; Yam, Kevin; Weatherall, James C.; Smith, Peter R.; Smith, Barry T.

    2017-05-01

    In 2016, the millimeter wave (MMW) imaging community initiated the formation of a standard for millimeter wave image quality metrics. This new standard, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.59, will apply to active MMW systems for security screening of humans. The Electromagnetic Signatures of Explosives Laboratory at the Transportation Security Laboratory is supporting the ANSI standards process via the creation of initial prototypes for round-robin testing with MMW imaging system manufacturers and experts. Results obtained for these prototypes will be used to inform the community and lead to consensus objective standards amongst stakeholders. Images collected with laboratory systems are presented along with results of preliminary image analysis. Future directions for object design, data collection and image processing are discussed.

  1. Initial application of a geometric QA tool for integrated MV and kV imaging systems on three image guided radiotherapy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weihua; Speiser, Michael; Medin, Paul; Papiez, Lech; Solberg, Timothy; Xing, Lei

    2011-05-01

    Several linacs with integrated kilovoltage (kV) imaging have been developed for delivery of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). High geometric accuracy and coincidence of kV imaging systems and megavoltage (MV) beam delivery are essential for successful image guidance. A geometric QA tool has been adapted for routine QA for evaluating and characterizing the geometric accuracy of kV and MV cone-beam imaging systems. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the application of methodology to routine QA across three IGRT-dedicated linac platforms. It has been applied to a Varian Trilogy (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), an Elekta SynergyS (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden), and a Brainlab Vero (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany). Both the Trilogy and SynergyS linacs are equipped with a retractable kV x-ray tube and a flat panel detector. The Vero utilizes a rotating, rigid ring structure integrating a MV x-ray head mounted on orthogonal gimbals, an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), two kV x-ray tubes, and two fixed flat panel detectors. This dual kV imaging system provides orthogonal radiographs, CBCT images, and real-time fluoroscopic monitoring. Two QA phantoms were built to suit different field sizes. Projection images of a QA phantom were acquired using MV and kV imaging systems at a series of gantry angles. Software developed for this study was used to analyze the projection images and calculate nine geometric parameters for each projection. The Trilogy was characterized five times over one year, while the SynergyS was characterized four times and the Vero once. Over 6500 individual projections were acquired and analyzed. Quantitative geometric parameters of both MV and kV imaging systems, as well as the isocenter consistency of the imaging systems, were successfully evaluated. A geometric tool has been successfully implemented for calibration and QA of integrated kV and MV across a variety of radiotherapy platforms. X-ray source angle deviations up to

  2. A sampler of useful computational tools for applied geometry, computer graphics, and image processing foundations for computer graphics, vision, and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Or, Daniel; Ju, Tao; Mitra, Niloy J; Shamir, Ariel; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Zhang, Hao (Richard)

    2015-01-01

    A Sampler of Useful Computational Tools for Applied Geometry, Computer Graphics, and Image Processing shows how to use a collection of mathematical techniques to solve important problems in applied mathematics and computer science areas. The book discusses fundamental tools in analytical geometry and linear algebra. It covers a wide range of topics, from matrix decomposition to curvature analysis and principal component analysis to dimensionality reduction.Written by a team of highly respected professors, the book can be used in a one-semester, intermediate-level course in computer science. It

  3. Left ventricular modelling: a quantitative functional assessment tool based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging