WorldWideScience

Sample records for volumetric gas content

  1. Postmortem volumetric CT data analysis of pulmonary air/gas content with regard to the cause of death for investigating terminal respiratory function in forensic autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Postmortem CT (PMCT) is useful to investigate air/gas distribution and content in body cavities and viscera. The present study investigated the procedure to estimate total lung air/gas content and aeration ratio as possible indices of terminal respiratory function, using three-dimensional (3-D) PMCT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases without putrefactive gas formation (within 3 days postmortem, n=75), and analyzed the volumetric data with regard to the cause of death. When 3-D bilateral lung images were reconstructed using an image analyzer, combined lung volume was larger in drowning (n=12) than in alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8) and sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10), and intermediate in other cases, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), fire fatalities due to burns (n=6) and carbon monoxide intoxication (n=7), fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=7), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=7). Air/gas content of the lung as detected using HU interval between -2000 and -400 ('effective' lung aeration areas) and between -2000 and -191 (total lung aeration areas) as well as the ratios to total lung volume ('effective' and total lung aeration ratios, respectively) was higher in mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, fatal burns and hypothermia (cold exposure) than in SCD, and was intermediate in other cases. 'Effective' and total lung aeration ratios may be useful for comparisons between specific causes of death to discriminate between hypothermia (cold exposure) and drug intoxication, and between SCD and other causes of death, respectively. These findings provide interesting insights into potential efficacy of PMCT data analyses of lung volume and CT density as well as lung air/gas content and aeration ratio with regard to the cause of death, as possible indicators of terminal respiratory function, as part of virtual autopsy of the viscera in situ.

  2. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  3. Volumetric water content measurement probes in earth-dam construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardanis Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two frequency domain reflectometry (FDR probes have been used. They were used on compacted soils both in the laboratory and in the field. Measurements in the laboratory were intended for calibration. The range of densities and types of materials where insertion of the probes can be achieved was investigated first. The effect of sporadic presence of coarser grains and density on these calibrations, once insertion could be achieved, were investigated second. Measurements on laboratory prepared samples with the same moisture content were different when the sample was kept in the mould from when it was extruded from it. Also both these measurements were different from that in a sample of the same density but significantly larger in diameter. It was found that measurements with these probes are affected by dilation exhibited by soil around the rods of the probes during insertion. Readings immediately after insertion of the sensors on samples extruded from their moulds were the ones closer to measured values. These readings combined with total volume and mass obtained from sand-cone tests during the construction of an earth-dam allowed fairly accurate estimation of the dry unit weight but not the gravimetric water content.

  4. Gas sorption and the consequent volumetric and permeability change of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenjuan

    Experimental and numerical investigations of gas sorption on coal, and the subsequent volumetric and permeability changes of the coal were conducted. The goals of the study were to investigate the magnitude of permeability change caused by gas sorption, and develop an algorithm to simulate numerically gas sorption and sorption-induced permeability change. The amount of gas sorption and the subsequent volumetric and permeability change of coal samples as a function of pore pressure and injection gas composition were measured in the laboratory. A constant effective confining pressure (difference between the confining pressure and pore pressure) was maintained in the process of the experiments; therefore, the role of effective stress on permeability was eliminated. Several gases, including pure CO2, pure N2, and binary mixtures of CO2 and N2 of various compositions were used as the injection gas. The coal sample was first allowed to adsorb an injection gas fully at a particular pressure. The total amount (moles) of adsorption was calculated based on a volumetric method. After adsorption equilibrium was reached, gas samples were taken from the equilibrium gaseous phase and analyzed afterwards. The composition of the gaseous phase prior to and after the adsorption was used to calculate the composition of the adsorbed phase based on material balance. Permeability of the sample was then measured by flowing the injection gas through the core at varying pressure gradient or varying flow rate, and an average permeability was obtained based on Darcy's law for compressible systems. The change of the total volume of the core was monitored and recorded in the whole process of the experiment. Volumetric strain was thereby calculated. Experimental results showed that the greater the pressure the greater the amount of adsorption for all tested gases. At the same pressure, the amount of adsorption was greater for CO2 than N2. For the binary mixtures, the greater the fraction of CO 2

  5. Development, Construction, and Operation of a Multisample Volumetric Apparatus for the Study of Gas Adsorption Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rui P. P. L.; Silva, Ricardo J. S.; Esteves, Isabel A. A. C.; Mota, Jose´ P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a simple volumetric adsorption apparatus is highlighted. The setup is inexpensive and provides a clear demonstration of gas phase adsorption concepts. The topic is suitable for undergraduate chemistry and chemical engineering students. Moreover, this unit can also provide quantitative data that can be used by young researchers…

  6. Water content influence on thermal and volumetric properties of wheat starch gelatinization under 10 MPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowska, Marta; Randzio, Stanislaw L

    2010-02-01

    A transitiometric in situ analysis of wheat starch aqueous suspensions heated over a temperature range from 285 K to 415 K under isobaric conditions of 10 MPa is presented. Measurements were performed at four selected water concentrations: 56.0%, 64.7%, 73.5%, and 82.4% weight/water. Thermal and volumetric properties and their water content dependencies have been determined for three successive starch phase transformations occurred during wheat starch gelatinization.

  7. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p......F value. Hereby, the Xw*-model implicitly assumes that a given particle size fraction creates an analogue pore size fraction and, also, is based on the validity of the well-known capillary law equation relating equivalent drained pore size to the soil-water matric potential. The Xw*-model was found...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...

  8. Selective-plane illumination microscopy for high-content volumetric biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorty, Ryan; Huang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Light-sheet microscopy, also named selective-plane illumination microscopy, enables optical sectioning with minimal light delivered to the sample. Therefore, it allows one to gather volumetric datasets of developing embryos and other light-sensitive samples over extended times. We have configured a light-sheet microscope that, unlike most previous designs, can image samples in formats compatible with high-content imaging. Our microscope can be used with multi-well plates or with microfluidic devices. In designing our optical system to accommodate these types of sample holders we encounter large optical aberrations. We counter these aberrations with both static optical components in the imaging path and with adaptive optics. Potential applications of this microscope include studying the development of a large number of embryos in parallel and over long times with subcellular resolution and doing high-throughput screens on organisms or cells where volumetric data is necessary.

  9. Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.

    2009-07-01

    Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.

  10. Determination of Tracer Arrival Times and Volumetric Contents of Clay and Mineral Fines Using Visible NearInfrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Møldrup, Per; Karup, Dan;

    to give rapid and accurate predictions of soil functional properties related to texture and organic matter, such as water retention and compaction. We evaluated visNIR spectroscopy as a rapid and indirect method for predicting selected BTC tracer mass arrival times (TMATs) and the volumetric contents...... and volumetric contents of clay and mineral fines were correlated to spectral data with partial least squares regression on a calibration set (133 samples) and then tested on a validation set (44 samples). We obtained accurate visNIR predictions of the 5% TMAT and volumetric contents of clay and mineral fines....... VisNIR predictions of later TMATs of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50% showed decreasing accuracy with increasing TMAT, which probably reflect decreasing correlation with soil texture....

  11. Coalbed gas content simulation test and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. [New Star Petroleum Company, Zhengzhou (China). North China Petroleum Bureau

    2002-10-01

    With a high-pressure canister and accurate thermoregulation system of IS-100 isotherm instrument and an electronic flow meter, a coalbed gas content simulation method is established. A control program is combined with it to control data acquisition. The method simulates the whole process of gas content measurement from coring to the completion of desorption. It enables the understanding of gas desorption regularities, and for obtaining the volume of gas loss at any one time. The study would be useful for comparing the various approaches of calculating gas loss volume. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H.; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg- 1, respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer

  13. Temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships in municipal solid waste for the interpretation of bulk electrical resistivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilawski, Tamara; Dumont, Gaël; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Landfills pose major environmental issues including long-term methane emissions, and local pollution of soil and aquifers but can also be seen as potential energy resources and mining opportunities. Water content in landfills determine whether solid fractions can be separated and recycled, and controls the existence and efficiency of natural or enhanced biodegradation. Geophysical techniques, such as electrical and electromagnetic methods have proven successful in the detection and qualitative investigation of sanitary landfills. However, their interpretation in terms of quantitative water content estimates makes it more challenging due to the influence of parameters such as temperature, compaction, waste composition or pore fluid. To improve the confidence given to bulk electrical resistivity data and to their interpretation, we established temperature and volumetric water content petrophysical relationships that we tested on field and laboratory electrical resistivity measurements. We carried out two laboratory experiments on leachates and waste samples from a landfill located in Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium. We determined a first relationship between temperature and electrical resistivity with pure and diluted leachates by progressively increasing the temperature from 5°C to 65°C, and then cooling down to 5°C. The second relationship was obtained by measuring electrical resistivity on waste samples of different volumetric water contents. First, we used the correlations obtained from the experiments to compare electrical resistivity measurements performed in a landfill borehole and on reworked waste samples excavated at different depths. Electrical resistivities were measured every 20cm with an electromagnetic logging device (EM39) while a temperature profile was acquired with optic fibres. Waste samples were excavated every 2m in the same borehole. We filled experimental columns with these samples and measured electrical resistivities at laboratory temperature

  14. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  15. Molecular gas content of H I monsters and implications to cold gas content evolution in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Cybulski, Ryan; Narayanan, G.; Erickson, N.

    2014-06-01

    We present 12CO (J = 1 → 0) observations of a sample of local galaxies (0.04 monsters'. The data were obtained using the redshift search receiver on the five college radio astronomy observatory (FCRAO) 14 m telescope. The sample consists of 20 H I-massive galaxies with MH I > 3 × 1010 M⊙ from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and 8 low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs) with a comparable MH I(>1.5 × 1010 M⊙). Our sample selection is purely based on the amount of neutral hydrogen, thereby providing a chance to study how atomic and molecular gas relate to each other in these H I-massive systems. We have detected CO in 15 out of 20 ALFALFA selected galaxies and 4 out of 8 LSBs with molecular gas mass MH2 of (1-11)× 109 M⊙. Their total cold gas masses of (2-7) × 1010 M⊙ make them some of the most gas-massive galaxies identified to date in the Local Universe. Observed trends associated with H I, H2, and stellar properties of the H I massive galaxies and the field comparison sample are analysed in the context of theoretical models of galaxy cold gas content and evolution, and the importance of total gas content and improved recipes for handling spatially differentiated behaviours of disc and halo gas are identified as potential areas of improvement for the modelling.

  16. Molecular Gas Content of HI Monsters and Implications to Cold Gas Content Evolution in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Cheoljong; Yun, Min S; Cybulski, Ryan; Narayanan, G; Erickson, N

    2014-01-01

    We present 12CO (J=1-0) observations of a sample of local galaxies (0.043e10Msun from the ALFALFA survey and 8 LSBs with a comparable M(HI) (>1.5e10Msun). Our sample selection is purely based on the amount of neutral hydrogen, thereby providing a chance to study how atomic and molecular gas relate to each other in these HI-massive systems. We have detected CO in 15 out of 20 ALFALFA selected galaxies and 4 out of 8 LSBs with molecular gas mass M(H2) of (1-11)e9Msun. Their total cold gas masses of (2-7e10Msun make them some of the most gas-massive galaxies identified to date in the Local Universe. Observed trends associated with HI, H2, and stellar properties of the HI massive galaxies and the field comparison sample are analyzed in the context of theoretical models of galaxy cold gas content and evolution, and the importance of total gas content and improved recipes for handling spatially differentiated behaviors of disk and halo gas are identified as potential areas of improvement for the modeling.

  17. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  18. Local overall volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients in gas-liquid-solid reversed flow jet loop bioreactor with a non-Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianping; Ping; Lin; Yunlin

    2000-07-01

    The local overall volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients at the specified point in a gas-liquid-solid three-phase reversed flow jet loop bioreactor (JLB) with a non-Newtonian fluid was experimentally investigated by a transient gassing-in method. The effects of liquid jet flow rate, gas jet flow rate, particle density, particle diameter, solids loading, nozzle diameter and CMC concentration on the local overall volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) profiles were discussed. It was observed that local overall K(L)a profiles in the three-phase reversed flow JLB with non-Newtonian fluid increased with the increase of gas jet flow rate, liquid jet flow rate, particle density and particle diameter, but decreased with the increase of the nozzle diameter and CMC concentration. The presence of solids at a low concentration increased the local overall K(L)a profiles, and the optimum of solids loading for a maximum profile of the local overall K(L)a was found to be 0.18x10(-3)m(3) corresponding to a solids volume fraction, varepsilon(S)=2.8%.

  19. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    . All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being normally distributed to having more preferential characteristics along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines...... (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curve (BTC), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability...

  20. Volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient in an external-loop airlift reactor with inserted membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Predrag S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the inserted membrane in the downcomer of an external-loop airlift reactor, the gas sparger type (single orifice and sinter plate and added alcohol (ethanol, n-butanol, or n-hexanol on the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa were studied. Due to the presence of the membrane in the downcomer, kLa did not change significantly; the differences were smaller than 10%. The highest values of the kLa were obtained using the sinter plate. It was found that the addition of small amounts of alcohol increased the mass transfer. Using our experimental results and the data of other authors, the feed-forward back propagation neural network for prediction of kLa in external-loop airlift reactors with alcohol solutions was proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172025

  1. Chemical Analysis Method for Carbon Bearing Refractory Products——Determination of Magnesium Oxide Content by CyDTA Volumetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    @@ GB/T 13246 - 91 1 Scope This standard specifies the method summary, reagents, apparatus, sampling, procedure, test results calculation and permissible tolerance of the determination of magnesium oxide by CyDTA volumetric method. This standard applies to the determination of magnesium oxide content in between 60% and 85% in magnesia-carbon bricks

  2. A METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF GAS CONTENT IN SLURRY PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Most commercial slurries in hydrotransport pipelines usually contain some gas which can considerably degrade the pump performance, but this small amount of gas content can not be measured accurately online or continually using conventional methods. Based on analysis of effects of gas on pressure wave speed in slurries, an investigation was carried out to validate the feasibility of the method to determine gas content in slurries using sound speed. Moreover, its practical measuring methods were also discussed. It was found that the non-invasive measurement of the sound level noise spectrum across the pipeline should be a promising online measuring method of the slurry gas content.

  3. Direct volumetric measurement of gas oversolubility in nanoliquids: beyond Henry's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; El-Chahal, Rayan; Rakotovao, Volainiana; Daniel, Cécile; Miachon, Sylvain; Dalmon, Jean-Alain

    2009-08-24

    The properties of condensed matter are strongly affected by confinement and size effects at the nanoscale. Herein, we measured by microvolumetry the increased solubility of H(2) in a series of solvents (CHCl(3), CCl(4), n-hexane, ethanol, and water) when confined in the cavities of mesoporous solids (gamma-alumina, silica, and MCM-41). Gas/liquid solubilities are enhanced by up to 15 times over the corresponding bulk values for nanoliquid sizes smaller than 15 nm as long as gas/liquid interfaces are mesoconfined in a porous network. Although Henry's law constant apparently no longer applies under these confinement, the concentration of dissolved H(2) still increases linearly with increasing pressure in the range 1-5 bar. We discuss the role and main implications of surface excess concentrations at mesoconfined gas/liquid interfaces in enhancing gas solubility.

  4. Effects of gas bubble production on heat transfer from a volumetrically heated liquid pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Geoffrey R.

    Aqueous solutions of uranium salts may provide a new supply chain to fill potential shortfalls in the availability of the most common radiopharmaceuticals currently in use worldwide, including Tc99m which is a decay product of Mo99. The fissioning of the uranium in these solutions creates Mo99 but also generates large amounts of hydrogen and oxygen from the radiolysis of the water. When the dissolved gases reach a critical concentration, bubbles will form in the solution. Bubbles in the solution affect both the fission power and the heat transfer out of the solution. As a result, for safety and production calculations, the effects of the bubbles on heat transfer must be understood. A high aspect ratio tank was constructed to simulate a section of an annulus with heat exchangers on the inner and outer steel walls to provide cooling. Temperature measurements via thermocouples inside the tank and along the outside of the steel walls allowed the calculation of overall and local heat transfer coefficients. Different air injection manifolds allowed the exploration of various bubble characteristics and patterns on heat transfer from the pool. The manifold type did not appear to have significant impact on the bubble size distributions in water. However, air injected into solutions of magnesium sulfate resulted in smaller bubble sizes and larger void fractions than those in water at the same injection rates. One dimensional calculations provide heat transfer coefficient values as functions of the superficial gas velocity in the pool.

  5. The gas content of peculiar galaxies counterrotators and polar rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni, D; García-Burillo, S; Rodríguez-Franco, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the global ISM content in a sample of 104 accreting galaxies, including counterrotators and polar rings, which spans the entire Hubble sequence. The molecular, atomic and hot gas content of accretors is compared to a newly compiled sample of normal galaxies. We present results of a small survey of the J=1--0 line of {12}CO with the 15m SEST telescope on a sample of 11 accretors (10 counterrotators and 1 polar ring). The SEST sample is enlarged with published data from 48 galaxies, for which observational evidence of counterrotation in the gas and/or the stars has been found. Furthermore, the available data on a sample of 46 polar ring galaxies has been compiled. It was found that the normalized content of cold gas (M_gas/L_B) in polar rings is ~1 order of magnitude higher than the reference value derived for normal galaxies. The inferred gas masses are sufficient to stabilize polar rings through self-gravity. In contrast, it was found that the cold gas content of counterrotators is close to...

  6. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  7. 容量法快速测定锰矿中二氧化硅含量%Determination of Silicon Dioxide Content in Manganese Ore by Volumetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慤; 邓军华; 王一凌; 王翠艳; 曲月华

    2012-01-01

    At present, fluoride potassium silicate Volumetric method analysis silica content in manganese ore has not reported, through experiments optimized the parameters of fluoride potassium silicate Volumetric method: melt-like way, sample weight, volume of acidified et. It can complete the rapid determination of silicon dioxide content in manganese ore. Measurement Results consistent with the certified value and the analysis to satisfy the GB/T 1509 - 2006 permission deviation request, The relative standard deviation of measurement results are less than 1 % .%目前利用氟硅酸钾容量法测定锰矿中二氧化硅含量还没有报道.采用硅氟酸钾容量法,通过称样量、融样方式、酸化体积等条件进行优化实验,实现了容量法快速测定锰矿中二氧化硅的含量.实验数据的相对标准偏差小于1%.测量值与认定值一致,测量结果满足GB/T 1509-2006《锰矿石 硅含量的测定 高氯酸脱水重量法》允许差的要求.

  8. Equilibrium water content measurements for acid gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, R.A.; Fitzpatrick, E.; Bernard, F.; Wan, H.H.; Lesage, K.L.; Davis, P.M.; Clark, P.D. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    An accurate understanding of acid gas and water equilibrium is needed in order to design safe acid gas injection facilities. This paper described a joint industry project conducted to measure the water content of acid gas mixtures under moderate pressures and temperatures. The study has accumulated over 160 data points. Techniques used to obtain the measurements have included visual dew point determination for liquid acid gas and hydrates; the equilibration of samples in stirred autoclaves; basic static equilibration cells; and an isolated floating piston with a micro-sampler used to inject gaseous and liquid acid gas phases. As a result of the project, a high pressure micro-sampling technique has been developed to pressure limits of 1000 bar. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. The neutral gas content of post-merger galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Rosenberg, Jessica L; Nair, Preethi; Simard, Luc; Torrey, Paul; Patton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the neutral hydrogen gas content of a sample of 93 post-merger galaxies are presented, from a combination of matches to the ALFALFA.40 data release and new Arecibo observations. By imposing completeness thresholds identical to that of the ALFALFA survey, and by compiling a mass-, redshift- and environment-matched control sample from the public ALFALFA.40 data release, we calculate gas fraction offsets (Delta f_gas) for the post-mergers, relative to the control sample. We find that the post-mergers have HI gas fractions that are consistent with undisturbed galaxies. However, due to the relative gas richness of the ALFALFA.40 sample, from which we draw our control sample, our measurements of gas fraction enhancements are likely to be conservative lower limits. Combined with comparable gas fraction measurements by Fertig et al. in a sample of galaxy pairs, who also determine gas fraction offsets consistent with zero, we conclude that there is no evidence for significant neutral gas consumption th...

  10. The gas content of peculiar galaxies: strongly interacting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casasola, V; Galletta, G

    2004-01-01

    A study of the gas content in 1038 interacting galaxies, essentially selected from Arp, Arp and Madore, Vorontsov-Velyaminov catalogues and some of the published literature, is presented here. The data on the interstellar medium have been extracted from a number of sources in the literature and compared with a sample of 1916 normal galaxies. The mean values for each of the different ISM tracers (FIR, 21 cm, CO lines, X-ray) have been estimated by means of survival analysis techniques, in order to take into account the presence of upper limits. From the data it appears that interacting galaxies have a higher gas content than normal ones. Galaxies classified as ellipticals have both a dust and gas content one order of magnitude higher than normal. Spirals have in most part a normal dust and HI content but an higher molecular gas mass. The X-ray luminosity also appears higher than that of normal galaxies of same morphological type, both including or excluding AGNs. We considered the alternative possibilities tha...

  11. Experimental investigation of the liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient for upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in rectangular microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Ji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The gas-liquid two-phase mass transfer process in microchannels is complicated due to the special dynamical characteristics. In this work, a novel method was explored to measure the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa. Pressure transducers were utilized to measure the pressure variation of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in three vertical rectangular microchannels and the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa was calculated through the Pressure-Volume-Temperature correlation of the gas phase. Carbon dioxide-water, carbon dioxide-ethanol and carbon dioxide-n-propanol were used as working fluids, respectively. The dimensions of the microchannels were 40 µm×240 µm (depth×width, 100 µm×800 µm and 100 µm×2000 µm, respectively. Results showed that the channel diameter and the capillary number influence kLa remarkably and that the maximum value of kLa occurs in the annular flow regime. A new correlation of kLa was proposed based on the Sherwood number, Schmidt number and the capillary number. The predicted values of kLa agreed well with the experimental data.

  12. Influence of fluid-mechanical characteristics of the system on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient and gas dispersion in three-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of gas bubbles and volumetric mass transfer coefficient, Kla, in a three phase system, with different types of solid particles at different operation conditions were studied in this paper. The ranges of superficial gas and liquid velocities used in this study were 0,03-0,09 m/s and 0-0,1 m/s, respectively. The three different types of solid particles were used as a bed in the column (glass dp=3 mm, dp=6 mm; ceramic dp=6 mm. The experiments were carried out in a 2D plexiglas column, 278 x 20,4 x 500 mm and in a cylindrical plexiglas column, with a diameter of 64 mm and a hight of 2000 mm. The Kla coefficient increased with gas and liquid velocities. Results showed that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient has a higher values in three phase system, with solid particles, compared with two phase system. The particles properties (diameter and density have a major impact on oxygen mass transfer in three phase systems.

  13. The hot gas content of fossil galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. W.; Pointecouteau, E.; Arnaud, M.; van der Burg, R. F. J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the properties of the hot gas in four fossil galaxy systems detected at high significance in the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations reveal overall temperatures of kT ~ 5-6 keV and yield hydrostatic masses M500,HE ≳ 3.5 × 1014M⊙, confirming their nature as bona fide massive clusters. We measure the thermodynamic properties of the hot gas in X-rays (out to beyond R500 in three cases) and derive their individual pressure profiles out to R ~ 2.5 R500 with the SZ data. We combine the X-ray and SZ data to measure hydrostatic mass profiles and to examine the hot gas content and its radial distribution. The average Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) concentration parameter, ⟨ c500 ⟩ = 3.2 ± 0.4, is the same as that of relaxed "normal" clusters. The gas mass fraction profiles exhibit striking variation in the inner regions, but converge to approximately the cosmic baryon fraction (corrected for depletion) at R500. Beyond R500 the gas mass fraction profiles again diverge, which we interpret as being due to a difference in gas clumping and/or a breakdown of hydrostatic equilibrium in the external regions. Our observations point to considerable radial variation in the hot gas content and in the gas clumping and/or hydrostatic equilibrium properties in these fossil clusters, at odds with the interpretation of their being old, evolved, and undisturbed. At least some fossil objects appear to be dynamically young.

  14. New method to determine gas content in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevshupa, R; Roman, E; Segovia, J L de [Institute of Material Science of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Konovalov, P [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, MT-11, 2-Baumanskaia 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: rnevshupa@icmm.csic.es

    2008-03-15

    A new method to determine gas content in solid materials based on the phenomenon of gas desorption induced by mechanical action, i.e. friction, indentation, etc., has been developed. Absorbed gases including hydrogen and helium can be analyzed using this method in both bulk or thin film materials. The sensitivity of the method for most gases is below 10 ppm of atomic concentration, while depth resolution is below 1 micrometer. The study of the effect of adsorption and readsorption of the desorbed molecules on the accuracy, sensitivity and the dynamic range of measurements is discussed. Experimental validation of the method has been done using normal and deuterated stainless steel samples.

  15. A coupled melt-freeze temperature index approach in a one-layer model to predict bulk volumetric liquid water content dynamics in snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzi, Francesco; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Hirashima, Hiroyuki; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water in snow rules runoff dynamics and wet snow avalanches release. Moreover, it affects snow viscosity and snow albedo. As a result, measuring and modeling liquid water dynamics in snow have important implications for many scientific applications. However, measurements are usually challenging, while modeling is difficult due to an overlap of mechanical, thermal and hydraulic processes. Here, we evaluate the use of a simple one-layer one-dimensional model to predict hourly time-series of bulk volumetric liquid water content in seasonal snow. The model considers both a simple temperature-index approach (melt only) and a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach that is able to reconstruct melt-freeze dynamics. Performance of this approach is evaluated at three sites in Japan. These sites (Nagaoka, Shinjo and Sapporo) present multi-year time-series of snow and meteorological data, vertical profiles of snow physical properties and snow melt lysimeters data. These data-sets are an interesting opportunity to test this application in different climatic conditions, as sites span a wide latitudinal range and are subjected to different snow conditions during the season. When melt-freeze dynamics are included in the model, results show that median absolute differences between observations and predictions of bulk volumetric liquid water content are consistently lower than 1 vol%. Moreover, the model is able to predict an observed dry condition of the snowpack in 80% of observed cases at a non-calibration site, where parameters from calibration sites are transferred. Overall, the analysis show that a coupled melt-freeze temperature-index approach may be a valid solution to predict average wetness conditions of a snow cover at local scale.

  16. The mechanism of the flowing ground water impacting on coalbed gas content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Shengfei; SONG Yan; TANG Xiuyi; FU Guoyou

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeological condition affects the coalbed gas storage dramatically. In an area of stronger hydrodynamics, the coal has a lower gas content, while a higher gas content exists in an area of weaker hydrodynamics. Obviously, the flowing groundwater is harmful to coalbed gas preservation. But few researches focus on the mechanism of how the flowing water diminishes the coalbed gas content.Based on the phenomenon that the flowing groundwater not only makes coalbed gas content lower, but also fractionates the carbon isotope, this research puts forward an idea that it is the water solution that diminishes the coalbed gas content,rather than the water-driven action or the gas dissipation through cap rocks. Only water-soluble action can both fractionate the carbon isotope and lessen the coalbed gas content,and it is an efficient way to take gas away and affect the gas content.

  17. The hot gas content of fossil galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, G W; Arnaud, M; van der Burg, R F J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the hot gas in four fossil galaxy systems detected at high significance in the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) survey. XMM-Newton observations reveal overall temperatures of kT ~ 5-6 keV and yield hydrostatic masses M500,HE > 3.5 x 10e14 Msun, confirming their nature as bona fide massive clusters. We measure the thermodynamic properties of the hot gas in X-rays (out to beyond R500 in three cases) and derive their individual pressure profiles out to R ~ 2.5 R500 with the SZ data. We combine the X-ray and SZ data to measure hydrostatic mass profiles and to examine the hot gas content and its radial distribution. The average Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) concentration parameter, c500 = 3.2 +/- 0.4, is the same as that of relaxed `normal' clusters. The gas mass fraction profiles exhibit striking variation in the inner regions, but converge to approximately the cosmic baryon fraction (corrected for depletion) at R500. Beyond R500 the gas mass fraction profiles again diverge, which we int...

  18. Stellar, Gas, and Dark Matter Content of Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 1010 M⊙, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  19. Stellar, gas and dark matter content of barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sodi, Bernardo Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of HI mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, this due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 10$^{10} M_{\\odot}$, at fixed stellar mass, the...

  20. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content ; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van; Sariowan, S.V.; Gehrels, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test si

  1. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  2. The RESOLVE Survey Atomic Gas Census and Environmental Influences on Galaxy Gas Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, David; Kannappan, Sheila; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Jonathan, Florez; Hall, Kirsten; Watson, Linda C.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Burchett, Joseph; Guynn, David; Baker, Ashley; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Norris, Mark A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Leroy, Adam K.; Pisano, Daniel J.; Wei, Lisa H.; Gonzalez, Roberto; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the >93% complete 21cm inventory for the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of ~1500 galaxies spanning diverse environments and probing baryonic masses down to ~109 M⊙. A key strength of the 21cm observational program is its fractional mass limited design, which yields an unbiased inventory of atomic gas mass, with either clean detections or strong upper limits group processes that deplete gas content are active well below the large group/cluster scale. In addition, at fixed halo mass both centrals and satellites in large-scale walls have systematically lower gas fractions than galaxies in filaments or voids, and this trend cannot be fully explained by differing stellar mass distributions within these large-scale environments. Lastly, we show that the abundance of gas-poor (gas-to-stellar mass ratio 1012 M⊙ groups than do more gas-rich but otherwise analogous low halo-mass centrals, suggesting that the gas-poor centrals have lost their gas in flyby interactions with the nearby groups. We discuss how the observed trends may be shaped by a number of physical processes such as gas stripping, starvation, and halo assembly bias. This project has been supported by NSF funding for the RESOLVE survey (AST-0955368), the GBT Student Observing Support program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion Fellowship.

  3. Changes in entrapped gas content and hydraulic conductivity with pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Maricris; Roy, James W; Smith, James E

    2013-01-01

    Water table fluctuations continuously introduce entrapped air bubbles into the otherwise saturated capillary fringe and groundwater zone, which reduces the effective (quasi-saturated) hydraulic conductivity, K(quasi), thus impacting groundwater flow, aquifer recharge and solute and contaminant transport. These entrapped gases will be susceptible to compression or expansion with changes in water pressure, as would be expected with water table (and barometric pressure) fluctuations. Here we undertake laboratory experiments using sand-packed columns to quantify the effect of water table changes of up to 250 cm on the entrapped gas content and the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity, and discuss our ability to account for these mechanisms in ground water models. Initial entrapped air contents ranged between 0.080 and 0.158, with a corresponding K(quasi) ranging between 2 and 6 times lower compared to the K(s) value. The application of 250 cm of water pressure caused an 18% to 26% reduction in the entrapped air content, resulting in an increase in K(quasi) by 1.16 to 1.57 times compared to its initial (0 cm water pressure) value. The change in entrapped air content measured at pressure step intervals of 50 cm, was essentially linear, and could be modeled according to the ideal gas law. Meanwhile, the changes in K(quasi) with compression-expansion of the bubbles because of pressure changes could be adequately captured with several current hydraulic conductivity models. © Ground Water 2012 and © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  4. The evolution of the dust and gas content in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Santini, P; Magnelli, B; Lutz, D; Lamastra, A; Causi, G Li; Eales, S; Andreani, P; Berta, S; Buat, V; Cooray, A; Cresci, G; Daddi, E; Farrah, D; Fontana, A; Franceschini, A; Genzel, R; Granato, G; Grazian, A; Floc'h, E Le; Magdis, G; Magliocchetti, M; Mannucci, F; Menci, N; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Popesso, P; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Rosario, D J; Salvato, M; Scott, D; Silva, L; Tacconi, L; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wuyts, S; Xu, K

    2013-01-01

    We use deep Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations in GOODSS, GOODSN and COSMOS to estimate the average dust mass (Mdust) of galaxies on a redshift-stellar mass (Mstar)-SFR grid. We study the scaling relations between Mdust, Mstar and SFR at z<=2.5. No clear evolution of Mdust is observed at fixed SFR and Mstar. We find a tight correlation between SFR and Mdust, likely a consequence of the Schmidt-Kennicutt (S-K) law. The Mstar-Mdust correlation observed by previous works flattens or sometimes disappears when fixing the SFR. Most of it likely derives from the combination of the Mdust-SFR and Mstar-SFR correlations. We then investigate the gas content as inferred by converting Mdust by assuming that the dust/gas ratio scales linearly with the gas metallicity. All galaxies in the sample follow, within uncertainties, the same SFR-Mgas relation (integrated S-K law), which broadly agrees with CO-based results for the bulk of the population, despite the completely different approaches. The majority of galaxies at ...

  5. The influence of the gas content of water and the flow velocity on cavitation erosion aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Bernd; Širok, Brane; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    A study of the influence of the gas content of water and the flow velocity on cavitation erosion aggressiveness was performed. A cavitation tunnel with a single hydrofoil was used for the experiments. While the cavitation number andthe mean flow velocity remained constant throughout the tests, the gas content of the water was changed in steps from low (approximately 1%) to high (4 %). The gas content of the water was adjusted with a bubble generator. In addition tests at a constant cavitation...

  6. Un nouveau moyen de mesure absolue du taux gazeux des mélanges gaz-liquides : le SMAC A New Absolute Measurement of the Volumetric Gas Ratio of Gas-Liquid Mixture: the Smac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Du graphe (P, V de la compression d'un mélange gaz-liquide, on peut tirer la valeur du taux volumique de gaz dans le mélange. La vérification théorique et expérimentale de ce principe ainsi que ses limites d'application comme moyen de mesure sont présentées. Ce résultat a été utilisé pour développer un système de mesure de l'aération de l'huile moteur, le SMAC (Système de Mesure d'Aération par Compressibilité. Des exemples d'application, tels que l'étude de la sensibilité de certaines huiles à l'aération, sont exposés. Oil aeration can be a real problem in engine oil circuit. The involved lubrication power decrease and thermic properties changes can damage the engine. Furthermore, the increased compressibility is very dangerous for hydraulic systems like valve lash adjusters. A first step to control this aeration is to be able to measure it. Gammametry is often used but this measurement needs a very precise calibration and is quite complicated and dangerous. A new absolute measurement has been discovered, based on the difference of compressibility between air and oil. It is absolute because the measurement principle is independant of the conditions, The system does not need a new calibration at each new environment. It is valid for any gas-liquid mixture. From the (P, V graph of a gas-liquid mixture compression, one can derive the gas-liquid volumetric ratio. The log-log graph (P/PO, 1-V/VO of a mixture sample pressurization always shows an inflexion point. The y value of this inflexion point (1-V/VO is equal to the volumetric gas ratio of the sample (before compression. This phenomenon is obvious on hydraulic curves (see Annexe 1. To check it, we have proceeded to a theoretical demonstration and an experimental verification. The theoretical demonstration of this principle concludes that the principle is verified as long as the ration P index 0 / alpha B is small. B is the oil bulk modulus, alpha is the volumetric gas ratio

  7. Uncertainty evaluation for determination of fluorine content by distillation-thorium nitrate volumetric method%蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定氟含量不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小霞

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty sources in determination of fluorine content of cryolite and aluminium fluoride by distillation-thorium nitrate volumetric method were analyzed.Evaluation for the uncertainty of each component was carried out by establishing the mathematic model,and the expanded uncertainty of fluorine content determination with distillation-thorium nitrate volumetric method was also calculated.Experimental principle:melt the sample with anhydrous sodium carbonate,separate fluoride through sulfuric acid-water vapor distillation,taking sodium alizarin sulfonate and methylene blue as indicators,using thorium nitrate standard solution to titrate fluorine content in the sample.Evaluation results indicated that,the expanded uncertainty of thorium nitrate volumetric method for the determination of fluorine content was 0.42%.%对蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定冰晶石及氟化铝中氟含量的不确定度来源进行分析,通过建立数学模型,评定各分量的不确定度,并计算蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定氟元素含量的扩展不确定度.实验原理:试样用无水碳酸钠熔融,经硫酸-水蒸气蒸馏分离氟后,以茜素磺酸钠和次甲基蓝作指示剂,用硝酸钍标准溶液滴定测定样品中氟含量.评定结果表明,蒸馏-硝酸钍容量法测定氟含量结果的扩展不确定度为0.42%.

  8. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong

    2000-01-01

    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  9. Evolution of the atomic and molecular gas content of galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, Gergö; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of atomic and molecular gas in galaxies in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include new modelling of the partitioning of cold gas in galactic discs into atomic, molecular, and ionized phases. We adopt two scenarios for the formation of molecules: one pressure base

  10. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  11. Estimating Liquid And Gas Contents In A Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T.; Van Buskirk, Paul; Weber, William; Froebel, Richard

    1991-01-01

    General approach to estimation of amounts of liquid and gas in tank based on measurements of pressure perturbations and temperatures and use of thermodynamic relationships among pressures, temperatures, and volumes. Although approach approximate and indirect, advantageous where such direct and precise methods as observation of stationary liquid/gas interface in gravitational field cannot be used. Used in presence or absence of gravitation or acceleration, and regardless of numbers, shapes, and movements of liquid/gas interfaces in tank. Also useful where liquid stationary but too hazardous to permit direct observation. Implemented in variety of ways, depending on type of liquid and conditions of operation and design of tank system.

  12. Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy K O; Beattie, Karen A; Bhargava, Aakash; Cheung, Marco; Webber, Colin E; Chettle, David R; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2015-10-01

    Conflicting evidence suggests that bone lead or blood lead may reduce areal bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about how lead at either compartment affects bone structure. This study examined postmenopausal women (N=38, mean age 76 ± 8, body mass index (BMI): 26.74 ± 4.26 kg/m(2)) within the Hamilton cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), measuring bone lead at 66% of the non-dominant leg and at the calcaneus using (109)Cadmium X-ray fluorescence. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters were obtained from peripheral quantitative computed tomography images (200 μm in-plane resolution, 2.3 ± 0.5mm slice thickness) of the same 66% site and of the distal 4% site of the tibia length. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and blood-to-bone lead partition coefficients (PBB, log ratio) were computed. Multivariable linear regression examined each of bone lead at the 66% tibia, calcaneus, blood lead and PBB as related to each of volumetric BMD and structural parameters, adjusting for age and BMI, diabetes or antiresorptive therapy. Regression coefficients were reported along with 95% confidence intervals. Higher amounts of bone lead at the tibia were associated with thinner distal tibia cortices (-0.972 (-1.882, -0.061) per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral) and integral volumetric BMD (-3.05 (-6.05, -0.05) per μg Pb/g of bone mineral). A higher PBB was associated with larger trabecular separation (0.115 (0.053, 0.178)), lower trabecular volumetric BMD (-26.83 (-50.37, -3.29)) and trabecular number (-0.08 (-0.14, -0.02)), per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral after adjusting for age and BMI, and remained significant while accounting for diabetes or use of antiresorptives. Total lead exposure activities related to bone lead at the calcaneus (8.29 (0.11, 16.48)) and remained significant after age and antiresorptives-adjustment. Lead accumulated in bone can have a mild insult on bone structure; but greater partitioning of lead

  13. The dust and gas content of the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, P J

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed MOCASSIN photoionization plus dust radiative transfer models for the Crab Nebula core-collapse supernova (CCSN) remnant, using either smooth or clumped mass distributions, in order to determine the chemical composition and masses of the nebular gas and dust. We computed models for several different geometries suggested for the nebular matter distribution but found that the observed gas and dust spectra are relatively insensitive to these geometries, being determined mainly by the spectrum of the pulsar wind nebula which ionizes and heats the nebula. Smooth distribution models are ruled out since they require 16-49 Msun of gas to fit the integrated optical nebular line fluxes, whereas our clumped models require 7.0 Msun of gas. neither of which can be matched by current CCSN yield predictions. A global gas-phase C/O ratio of 1.65 by number is derived, along with a He/H number ratio of 1.85, A carbonaceous dust composition is favoured by the observed gas-phase C/O ratio: amorphous carbon clu...

  14. Quantitative Prediction of Coalbed Gas Content Based on Seismic Multiple-Attribute Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfang Pan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of gas planar distribution is crucial to selection and development of new CBM exploration areas. Based on seismic attributes, well logging and testing data we found that seismic absorption attenuation, after eliminating the effects of burial depth, shows an evident correlation with CBM gas content; (positive structure curvature has a negative correlation with gas content; and density has a negative correlation with gas content. It is feasible to use the hydrocarbon index (P*G and pseudo-Poisson ratio attributes for detection of gas enrichment zones. Based on seismic multiple-attribute analyses, a multiple linear regression equation was established between the seismic attributes and gas content at the drilling wells. Application of this equation to the seismic attributes at locations other than the drilling wells yielded a quantitative prediction of planar gas distribution. Prediction calculations were performed for two different models, one using pre-stack inversion and the other one disregarding pre-stack inversion. A comparison of the results indicates that both models predicted a similar trend for gas content distribution, except that the model using pre-stack inversion yielded a prediction result with considerably higher precision than the other model.

  15. New method for prediction of shale gas content in continental shale formation using well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Zhe; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Shao, Yu; Liao, Wei; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    Shale needs to contain a sufficient amount of gas to make it viable for exploitation. The continental heterogeneous shale formation in the Yan-chang (YC) area is investigated by firstly measuring the shale gas content in a laboratory and then investigating use of a theoretical prediction model. Key factors controlling the shale gas content are determined, and a prediction model for free gas content is established according to the equation of gas state and a new petrophysical volume model. Application of the Langmuir volume constant and pressure constant obtained from results of adsorption isotherms is found to be limited because these constants are greatly affected by experimental temperature and pressures. Therefore, using measurements of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic theory, the influence of temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), and mineralogy on Langmuir volume constants and pressure constants are investigated in detail. A prediction model for the Langmuir pressure constant with a correction of temperatures is then established, and a prediction model for the Langmuir volume constant with correction of temperature, TOC, and quartz contents is also proposed. Using these corrected Langmuir constants, application of the Langmuir model determined using experimental adsorption isotherms is extrapolated to reservoir temperature, pressure, and lithological conditions, and a method for the prediction of shale gas content using well logs is established. Finally, this method is successfully applied to predict the shale gas content of the continental shale formation in the YC area, and practical application is shown to deliver good results with high precision.

  16. Volumetric gas monitoring through a DSA laser network for the estimation of the gas emission flux by surface sources: methods and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccoli, Fabrizio; Facheris, Luca; Lupo, Roberto; Berna, Tommaso

    2007-10-01

    A measurement approach for estimating the emission flux by a surface-distributed source, based on the use of IR laser measurements over optical links and atmospheric diffusion models is presented. An ad hoc disposition of the optical links close to the emission area allows to measure gas concentration over a closed surface corresponding to an air volume that covers the whole emission area. The real time concentration measurements over this closed surface, associated to suitable diffusion models, allow us to estimate the emission flux of the area under exam. The diffusion model to be applied strictly depends on the current atmospheric conditions, therefore it requires the knowledge of the main atmospheric parameters. In this paper we present some simulation results about a system for the surface flux monitoring assuming the faces of a parallelepiped the surfaces interested by laser measurements. The closed surface is therefore defined by 5 of its sides, while the 6th is the emission surface. We discuss some estimation results using diffusion models where the air diffusion and transportation phenomena are due mainly to the wind strength.

  17. [Quantitative analysis of content and spectrum of altered mineral in the oil and gas microseepage area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-qian; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xing; Ni, Guo-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    With the Yulin Prefecture in China as the research area and the mineral compositions and reflectance spectra of 119 samples collected in the research area as research data, the present paper analyzes the correlation between the carbonate content of surface altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and such charactersitic parameters of depth, width of its spectral absorption peak, establishes and evaluates a method for determining carbonate content, and proposes a new method for characterizing the degree of oil and gas microseepage by using the carbonate content. Research results show that this method is not only suitable for characterizing the oil and gas microseepage degree of carbonates, but also suitable for studying the oil and gas micro-seepage degree of other types of altered minerals. Therefore, the method can provide reference for studying oil and gas exploration technology by using spectral information of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  18. Evaluation of gas content of coalbed methane reservoirs with the aid of geophysical logging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuehai Fu; Yong Qin; Geoff G.X. Wang; Victor Rudolph [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral Resources and Geosciences

    2009-11-15

    The geophysical logging technology has been employed in connection with field and laboratory tests for coal reservoir evaluation in Huainan and Huaibei coalfields, China. The relationships between coalbed gas content of coal reservoir and characteristics of geophysical logs have been investigated by means of the combined analyses of experimental and geophysical logging data. Coalbed gas content of drilling core samples from coal seams was determined experimentally. The results, together with the log data obtained from geophysical logging technology, have been analyzed by using geological statistics, permitting correlation of the coalbed gas content to the log responses. The correlation developed in this study provides better understanding of the coal reservoir for coalbed methane exploration in given coalfields by an improved prediction of the coalbed gas content. 30 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The Cold Gas Content of Bulgeless Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, K; Calura, F; Brooks, A M; Mayer, L; Brook, C B; Stinson, G S; Thacker, R J; Few, C G; Cunnama, D; Wadsley, J

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen (HI) properties of a fully cosmological hydrodynamical dwarf galaxy, run with varying simulation parameters. As reported by Governato et al. (2010), the high resolution, high star formation density threshold version of this galaxy is the first simulation to result in the successful reproduction of a (dwarf) spiral galaxy without any associated stellar bulge. We have set out to compare in detail the HI distribution and kinematics of this simulated bulgeless disk with what is observed in a sample of nearby dwarfs. To do so, we extracted the radial gas density profiles, velocity dispersion (e.g., velocity ellipsoid, turbulence), and the power spectrum of structure within the cold interstellar medium from the simulations. The highest resolution dwarf, when using a high density star formation threshold comparable to densities of giant molecular clouds, possesses bulk characteristics consistent with those observed in nature, though the cold gas is not as radially exten...

  20. Calculation of gas content in coal seam influenced by in-situ stress grads and ground temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏图; 李时雨; 吴再生; 杨晓峰; 秦大亮; 杜云贵

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of coal-bed gas pressure in deep mine, and the coal-bed permeability (k) and the characteristic of adsorption parameter (b) changing with temperature, the author puts forward a new calculating method of gas content in coal seam influenced by in-situ stress grads and ground temperature. At the same time, the contrast of the measuring results of coal-bed gas pressure with the computing results of coal-bed gas pressure and gas content in coal seam in theory indicate that the computing method can well reflect the authenticity of gas content in coal seam,and will further perfect the computing method of gas content in coal seam in theory,and have important value in theory on analyzing gas content in coal seam and forecasting distribution law of gas content in coal seam in deep mine.

  1. Basic features of oil and gas content of the Dnieper-Donets Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dem' yanchuk, V.G.; Ponomareva, S.V.; Soldatenko, Y.I.

    1981-01-01

    North rim zone, central part of the basin, Priluskiy oil extracting region, southern rim zone, northern edge of the Donbas, northwest part of the basin are discussed. Brief characteristics of the oil and gas content of each of these regions are given. The basic oil reserves are concentrated in the Priluskiy region, the gas in the central part of the basin, in its southeast half adjoining the Donbass. Both the gas and the oil deposits are primarily arranged in depths up to 3,000 m, in places up to 4,000 m and more. In each region, the main oil and (or) gas reserves are associated with some one, less often two lithological-strategraphic complexes. In order to evaluate the outlook for oil and gas content in Dnieper-Donts Basin, one should take into consideration the distribution features of the oil and gas deposits both in a spatial respect, and over the section. This is especially important in selecting facilities for oil and gas deposit searches associated with zones of outcropping and variance, as well as for searching for deposits at great depths. In the Dnieper-Donets Basin where over a hundred oil and gas fields have currently been found, several local regions are isolated according to the nature of oil and gas content.

  2. Reducing gas content of coal deposits by means of bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska-Lipowa, A.A.; Kozlowski, B.

    1981-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of experiments carried out in Poland under laboratory conditions on efficiency of methane control using bacteria from Methanosarcina and Methanomonas groups. Malashenko and Whittenburry culture mediums were used. Bacteria growth in an atmosphere of air and methane (48.2%, 8.6% and 5.21%) was observed. Temperature ranged from 19 to 20 C. Investigations show that the bacteria are characterized by high oxidation activity. Depending on methane concentration in the air the bacteria consume from 75% to 100% of methane during biosynthesis. The bacteria reduce methane and oxygen content and increase carbon dioxide content in the air. Using bacteria methane concentration in the air was reduced from 48.2% to 12.3%, from 8.6% to 0.0% and from 5.21% to 0.01%. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

  3. Effect of Oxidizing Medium on Synthesis Gas Content at Solid Fuel Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid fuel gasification is promising technology in sphere of clean energy. The synthesis gas content for air-blown fixed bed gasification may be defined using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The minimization procedure was realized via steepest descent method. The feed consisted of steam, air and coal at standard conditions. The temperature and gas content were calculated at different ratios of coal/steam/air. It was found that optimal syngas content resulted at component ratio of 1.0/0.5/2.2 with the ambient temperature of 1300 K and syngas heating power of 7.7 kJ/m3.

  4. Study on Volumetric Moisture Content of Soil Shallow Landslide during Precipitation Process%降雨过程中土质浅层滑体体积含水量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤琴

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is one of the main inducing factors to landslide geological hazard, especially for the soil landslide. During the last rainfall process, the shallow part of the soil landslide will he saturated immediately and the temporary saturated zone is formed, which would lead the matric suction of the shallow landslide body reduction and slipping. While, the volumetric moisture content is the main index reflecting the variation of temporary saturated zone.Taking the participation-induced soil shallow landslide as an example in this paper, the temporary saturated zone of shallow landslide body was simulated by the Geo-slope software during 6d last rainfall. Meanwhile, the 4 points' volumetric moisture contents are analyzed from the back of the landslide to the front, which are near the slope surface and their depths are less than 5m, and the landslide stabilities are calculated during 6 days last rainfall. At last, the changing model of volumetric moisture content in soil landslide is put forward when the shallow sliding occurred during the continuous precipitation process.%降雨是滑坡地质灾害的主要诱发因素之一,尤其是对于土质滑坡,连续的降雨能够使得土质滑坡浅表层滑体迅速饱和形成暂态饱和区,从而导致浅表层土质滑体的基质吸力降低,引起浅层滑动,而反映土体中暂态饱和区变化的主要指标为士体体积含水量.该文选取某一降雨诱发型土体滑坡为例,采用Geo-slope软件模拟连续降雨6d条件下土质浅层滑体内的暂态饱和区变化情况,并分析由滑坡后缘至前缘4个靠近地表(深度小于5m)点的体积含水量变化趋势以及连续6d降雨过程中浅层滑体的稳定性变化趋势,提出了降雨人渗过程中土质滑坡发生浅层滑动的体积含水量变化模式.

  5. Evolution of the atomic and molecular gas content of galaxies in dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, G; Peeples, M S

    2014-01-01

    We present a semi-empirical model to infer the atomic and molecular hydrogen content of galaxies as a function of halo mass and time. Our model combines the SFR-halo mass-redshift relation (constrained by galaxy abundances) with inverted SFR-surface density relations to infer galaxy H I and H2 masses. We present gas scaling relations, gas fractions, and mass functions from z = 0 to z = 3 and the gas properties of galaxies as a function of their host halo masses. Predictions of our work include: 1) there is a ~ 0.2 dex decrease in the H I mass of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass since z = 1.5, whereas the H2 mass of galaxies decreases by > 1 dex over the same period. 2) galaxy cold gas fractions and H2 fractions decrease with increasing stellar mass and time. Galaxies with M* > 10^10 Msun are dominated by their stellar content at z < 1, whereas less-massive galaxies only reach these gas fractions at z = 0. We find the strongest evolution in relative gas content at z < 1.5. 3) the SFR to gas m...

  6. Study of the gas content in two-phase downflow in a sieve-plate column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utkin, V.A.; Chekhov, O.S.; Stepanov, A.M.

    1986-04-10

    This paper presents a thorough study of the gas content in two-phase downflow in a column sectioned by sieve plates. The air-water system was used in the experiments and the mass flow rates of the gas and liquid in the column were varied in the ranges of 0.5-10 and 200-900 kg m/sup -2/.sec/sup -1/, respectively. The gas content of the stream was determined by gamma radioscopy. A scintilalation counter was used as the gamma-radiation detector. Determination of the gas content over the height of the apparatus showed that the flow structure is formed immediately after the first plate and then remains constant. The influence of the viscosity of the liquid on the gas content of the stream was studied with the use of plates of 40.5% open cross section. Statistical analysis of the experimental data revealed the existence of two patterns of two-phase flow in the apparatus.

  7. Gas content of some thermal and thermal-mineral waters in Bosnia and Herzogovinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkovic, B. (Geoinzenjering, Sarajevo, Yugoslavia)

    Studies were made of the gas content of thermal waters from nine wells in Bosnia and Herzogovinia. The wells are located at Kulasi, Olovo, Laktasi, Fojnica, Slatina, Gornji, Ilidza near Sarajevo, and Ilidza near Banja Luka. All the waters were characterized by nitrogen and originate at fairly shallow depths. The gas contents of the waters, in terms of C, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, He, Ne, As, Kr, and Xe are reported. Due to their ease of recovery, these waters are extensively used in balneological applications.

  8. The interstellar medium in Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal galaxies - II. Multiphase gas content and ISM conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Cormier, Diane; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kuno, Nario; Young, Lisa; Bendo, George J.; Boquien, Médéric; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Wilson, Christine D.

    2017-03-01

    We make an inventory of the interstellar medium material in three low-metallicity dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group (NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205). Ancillary H I, CO, Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra, Hα and X-ray observations are combined to trace the atomic, cold and warm molecular, ionized and hot gas phases. We present new Nobeyama CO(1-0) observations and Herschel SPIRE FTS [C I] observations of NGC 205 to revise its molecular gas content. We derive total gas masses of Mg = 1.9-5.5 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 185 and Mg = 8.6-25.0 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 205. Non-detections combine to an upper limit on the gas mass of Mg ≤ 0.3-2.2 × 105 M⊙ for NGC 147. The observed gas reservoirs are significantly lower compared to the expected gas masses based on a simple closed-box model that accounts for the gas mass returned by planetary nebulae and supernovae. The gas-to-dust mass ratios GDR ∼ 37-107 and 48-139 are also considerably lower compared to the expected GDR ∼ 370 and 520 for the low metal abundances in NGC 185 (0.36 Z⊙) and NGC 205 (0.25 Z⊙), respectively. To simultaneously account for the gas deficiency and low gas-to-dust ratios, we require an efficient removal of a large gas fraction and a longer dust survival time (∼1.6 Gyr). We believe that efficient galactic winds (combined with heating of gas to sufficiently high temperatures in order for it to escape from the galaxy) and/or environmental interactions with neighbouring galaxies are responsible for the gas removal from NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205.

  9. Continuous determination of bath carbon content on 150 t BOF by off-gas analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Hu; Ping He; Mingxiang Tan; Liu Liu

    2003-01-01

    The first imported off-gas analysis system on 150 t BOF at Benxi Plates Co. Ltd. is presented and the continuous determination of bath carbon content has been studied. The comparison between the whole-course carbon integral model and the end-point carbon prediction model has been made. The results show that the regular change of CO, CO2 and N2 content in the off-gas during blowing plays an important role in judging the smelting end-point of converter; the cubic curve fitting model has a higher hit rate over 95% for the heats whose end-point carbon content is lower than 0.10% with a precision of ±0.02% and has a large error for the heats whose end-point carbon content is more than 0.15%.

  10. Sulfur recovery from low H{sub 2}S content acid gas using catalytic partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Dowling, N.I.; Huang, M.

    2010-01-15

    The poster presentation discussed a new strategy for recovering sulfur from low hydrogen-sulphide-content acid gas using catalytic partial oxidation. In a new technology for dealing with BTX-contaminated lean acid gas, a catalytic reactor replaces the burner-furnace stage to achieve BTX conversion greater than 95 percent and control the hydrogen sulfide/sulfur dioxide ratio. The product gas is then sent to the Claus catalytic converters. The best catalysts for this process are alumina-supported Co-Mo and y-alumina. This process was compared with SELECTOX, another process that deals with poor acid gas with BTX conversion better than 95 percent. Catalytic oxidation can deal with a higher BTX feed content than SELECTOX, but the running temperature is higher. Both processes produce acceptable sulfur quality. To improve this process, the quality of the sulfur produced and the lifetime of the catalyst need to be increased, and an economic way to increase the heat to reach the running temperature needs to be found. The partial oxidation (POX) of CH{sub 4} solves both of these problems. The catalytic POX of acid gas is combined with the POX of fuel gas in the pre-heating zone. This process has the advantage that the burner-furnace stage of the Claus process can be replaced by a stream containing H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2}=2; the reaction is performed at its adiabatic temperature requiring only a small amount of fuel gas; the presence of H{sub 2} and CO produced by the POX of fuel gas improves the quality of sulfur; the catalyst remains active for about 30 hours; and the process can tolerate high BTX content. 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Organic petrology and coalbed gas content, Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), northern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Warwick, P.D.; Breland, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) coal and carbonaceous shale samples collected from four coalbed methane test wells in northern Louisiana were characterized through an integrated analytical program. Organic petrographic analyses, gas desorption and adsorption isotherm measurements, and proximate-ultimate analyses were conducted to provide insight into conditions of peat deposition and the relationships between coal composition, rank, and coalbed gas storage characteristics. The results of petrographic analyses indicate that woody precursor materials were more abundant in stratigraphically higher coal zones in one of the CBM wells, consistent with progradation of a deltaic depositional system (Holly Springs delta complex) into the Gulf of Mexico during the Paleocene-Eocene. Comparison of petrographic analyses with gas desorption measurements suggests that there is not a direct relationship between coal type (sensu maceral composition) and coalbed gas storage. Moisture, as a function of coal rank (lignite-subbituminous A), exhibits an inverse relationship with measured gas content. This result may be due to higher moisture content competing for adsorption space with coalbed gas in shallower, lower rank samples. Shallower ( 600??m) coal samples containing less moisture range from under- to oversaturated with respect to their CH4 adsorption capacity.

  12. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. An Analytic Model for the Evolution of the Stellar, Gas, and Metal Content of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2011-01-01

    We present an analytic formalism that describes the evolution of the stellar, gas, and metal content of galaxies. It is based on the idea, inspired by hydrodynamic simulations, that galaxies live in a slowly-evolving equilibrium between inflow, outflow, and star formation. We argue that this formalism broadly captures the behavior of galaxy properties evolving in simulations. The resulting equilibrium equations for the star formation rate, gas fraction, and metallicity depend on three key free parameters that represent ejective feedback, preventive feedback, and re-accretion of ejected material. We schematically describe how these parameters are constrained by models and observations. Galaxies perturbed off the equilibrium relations owing to inflow stochasticity tend to be driven back towards equilibrium, such that deviations in star formation rate at a given mass are correlated with gas fraction and anti-correlated with metallicity. After an early gas accumulation epoch, quiescently star-forming galaxies are...

  14. Low sulfur content hot reducing gas production using calcium oxide desulfurization with water recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinman, J.; Mcgreal, J.E.

    1982-03-23

    A process and apparatus are claimed for producing a low sulfur content, hot reducing gas by desulfurizing hot reducing gas. This is done in the following manner; by contacting the sulfur-bearing hot reducing gas with a bed of a particulate calcium oxide desulfurizing agent to thereby produce a product gas stream and a byproduct calcium sulfide compositions recovering sulfur from the calcium sulfide composition by contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water at a temperature and corresponding pressure sufficient to maintain steam in the system and to thereby convert the sulfide to calcium hydroxide and hydrogen sulfide and to produce a liquid water stream containing sulfur; combining the sulfur containing water stream with a fresh water stream and recycling this water stream for contacting the calcium sulfide composition. Preferably water vapor produced in the contacting step is condensed and returned to the system in the final stage of contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water.

  15. The Effect of Structure and Star Formation on the Gas Content of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Toby; Cortese, Luca; Kilborn, Virginia; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the main HI-to-stellar mass ratio (gas fraction) scaling relations, taking advantage of the HI spectral stacking technique to understand the dependence of gas content on the structural and star formation properties of nearby galaxies. This work uses a volume-limited, multi-wavelength sample of ~25,000 galaxies, selected according to stellar mass (10^9 M_sol < M_* < 10^11.5 M_sol) and redshift (0.02 < z < 0.05) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and with HI data from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We bin according to multiple parameters of galaxies spanning the full gas-poor to -rich regime in order to disentangle the dominance of different components and processes in influencing gas content. For the first time, we show that the scaling relations of gas fraction with stellar mass and stellar surface density are primarily driven by a combination of the underlying galaxy bimodality in specific star formation rate and the integrated Kennicutt-Schmidt law. Finally, we produce tentative...

  16. Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Froyna, E.W.; Lovland, J.;

    2007-01-01

    New data for the equilibrium water content of nitrogen, methane and one natural gas mixture are presented. The new binary data and existing binary sets were compared to calculated values of dew point temperature using both the CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) EoS and the GERG-water EoS. CPA is purely...... predictive (i.e. all binary interaction parameters are set equal to 0), while GERG-water uses a temperature dependent interaction parameter fitted to published data. The GERG-water model is proposed as an ISO standard for determining the water content of natural gas. The data sets for nitrogen cover...... they have large scatter. The data sets that have been measured at low pressures extrapolate well towards the ideal equilibrium values. The two models show similar results, but differ at high pressure and/or temperature. CPA is shown to extrapolate well for methane-water to 1000 bar and 573 K, and our...

  17. Determination of Water Content of Water-soluble Paints by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾润南; 钦维民; 肖舸

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of water content of water-soluble paints by gas chromatography. The water in paints is extracted by dimethyl formamide (DMF) as a solvent.Isopropanol is used as an internal standard. The mixture is separated by low-speed centrifugation.Then a 1-uL sample of the supernatant from the prepared solution is injected into the gas chromatograph. The water content is determined by internal standard calibration curve. The rate of recovery of added standard of this method is more than 98%. Relative mean deviation is less than 3‰.The linearity of calibration curve is good and relativity coefficient is higher than 0.998.

  18. 磷钼酸铵容量法测定磷化液中的磷%Determination of Phosphorus Content in Phosphated Solution by Volumetric Method of Ammonium Phosphomolybdate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 金欢

    2012-01-01

    A volumetric method of ammonium phosphomolybdate for the determination of phosphorus content ( counted with zinc dihydrogen phosphate) in phosphated solution was reported in this paper. The reliability of this method was proved by comparing the standard phosphorus solution added into the basic solution with the noninterference standard phosphorus solution. The results show that this analytical method has a good accuracy and precision detected by F and t methods. The recovery ratio is 99. 0% ~ 100.0% ,and meets the requirements for analysis.%采用磷钼酸铵容量法测定磷化液中磷(以磷酸二氢锌计)的含量,通过在基础溶液中加入磷标准溶液,与不加入任何干扰物质的磷标准溶液作对比试验,验证分析方法的可靠性.实验结果得出:通过F、t检验法,分析方法的准确度和精密度都较好;回收率在99.0% ~ 100.0%之间,达到分析要求.

  19. Estimating Galactic gas content using different tracers: Compatibility of results, dark gas, and unidentified TeV sources

    CERN Document Server

    Pedaletti, Giovanna; Torres, Diego F; Natale, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A large fraction of Galactic very-high energy (VHE; E$\\gtrsim$100 GeV) $\\gamma$-ray sources is cataloged as unidentified. In this work we explore the possibility that these unidentified sources are located in ambients particularly rich in material content unaccounted by traditional tracers. In a scenario where the VHE emission is due to the interaction of the accelerated particles with a target mass, a large mass of untraced material could be substantially contributing to the VHE emission from these regions. Here, we use three tracers for the commonly explored components: intensity of the $^\\textrm{12}$CO(1$\\rightarrow$0) line to trace the molecular material, HI hyperfine transition at 21cm to trace atomic hydrogen, and dust emission to trace the total hydrogen content. We show that the estimates of material content from these three tracers are compatible if the uncertainty on the respective conversion factors is taken into account. No additional gas component is found in these regions. However, a simple mass...

  20. Control of hydrocarbon content of a reforming gas by using a hydrogenation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    To control of hydrocarbon content in waste pyrolysis-gasification and reforming processes, the use of a hydrogenation catalyst was examined in a test system with a model gas. To reduce the concentration of benzene in the reforming gas, benzene was hydrogenated with a nickel catalyst. The catalyst is usually used to convert gas-phase unsaturated hydrocarbons to saturated hydrocarbons, and the benzene was converted to cyclohexane at a temperature range of about 130 to 180 degrees C in the presence of steam. However, the conversion to methane occurred at about 250 to 300 degrees C. Methane seems to be a useful conversion compound because it does not cohere as a light tar. Sometimes the reforming gas needs to be cooled for use as generator fuel. In this case, it is possible to avoid the tar cohesion if the benzene in the gas is converted to methane at about 300 degrees C after the reforming. Reduction of the efficiency of conversion to methane was not observed over a 60h reaction period. The lower hydrocarbons (ethylene, ethane, and propylene) were also converted to methane at about 300 degrees C. Conversion of benzene was also possible when other hydrocarbons were present at high concentrations.

  1. Advances in gas content based on outburst control technology in Huainan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sheng; Yuan Liang; Xie Jun; Wang Yucang

    2014-01-01

    The sudden and violent nature of coal and gas outbursts continues to pose a serious threat to coal mine safety in China. One of the key issues is to predict the occurrence of outbursts. Current methods that are used for predicting the outbursts in China are considered to be inadequate, inappropriate or impractical in some seam conditions. In recent years, Huainan Mining Industry Group (Huainan) in China and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia have been jointly developing technology based on gas content in coal seams to predict the occurrence of outbursts in Hua-inan. Significant progresses in the technology development have been made, including the development of a more rapid and accurate system in determining gas content in coal seams, the invention of a sam-pling-while-drilling unit for fast and pointed coal sampling, and the coupling of DEM and LBM codes for advanced numerical simulation of outburst initiation and propagation. These advances are described in this paper.

  2. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....

  3. Rapid determination of moisture content in paper materials by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-04-22

    This paper describes a new method for the rapid determination of the moisture content in paper materials. The method is based on multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) at a temperature above the boiling point of water, from which an integrated water loss from the tested sample due to evaporation can be measured and from which the moisture content in the sample can be determined. The results show that the new method has a good precision (with the relative standard deviation <0.96%), high sensitivity (the limit of quantitation=0.005%) and good accuracy (the relative differences <1.4%). Therefore, the method is quite suitable for many uses in research and industrial applications.

  4. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  5. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-07-10

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  6. Experimental determination and prediction of the compressibility factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiang Bian; Zhimin Du; YongTang

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of different CO2 contents on gas compressibility factor (Z-factor),the JEFRI-PVT apparatus has been used to measure the Z-factor of dry natural gas with CO2 content range from 10.74 to 70.42 mol% at the temperature range from 301.2 to 407.3 K and pressure range from 7 to 44 MPa.The results show that Z-factor decreases with increasing CO2 content in natural gas at constant temperature and increases with increasing temperature for natural gas with the same CO2 content.In addition,the Z-factor of water-saturated natural gas with high CO2 content has been measured.A comparison of the Z-factor between natural gas with and without saturated water vapor indicates that the former shows a higher Z-factor than the latter.Furthermore,Peng-Robinson,Hall-Yarborough,and Soave-Benedict-WebbRubin equations of state (EoS) are used for the calculation of Z-factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor.The optimal binary interaction parameters (BIP) for PR EoS are presented.The measured Z-factor is compared with the calculated Z-factor based on three models,which shows that PR EoS combined with van der Waals mixing rule for gas without water and Huron-Vidal mixing rule for water-saturated gas,are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. MANAGING REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH LOCAL CONTENT REQUIREMENTS IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olegovna Semykina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the regional economic impact of mineral resource endowment and offers specific inputs to the debate on the local content requirement (LCR policy, gaining urgency in modern economic and political environment. The paper considers the intricacies related to greenfield investment projects in Russian oil and gas industry. Focusing on the experience of the Krasnoyarsk region, the paper examines the way national companies operate in the newly developing oil and gas provinces of Russia. The analysis of key economic indices shows that the existing approach does not allow having significant benefits from resource endowment in the region. The main idea is that the establishment of completely new industry has to affect regional economic development, budget revenues dynamics and employment to influence the related industries and services in the region. The conducted analysis let to form possible scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of regional economic development depending on the scale of LCR policy. The developed approach based on statistical modeling allows assessing both direct and indirect effects of LCR policy. The obtained results allow to conclude that the implementation of LCR policy leads to the growth of real income per capita and the job creation in the region. The development of equipment and services suppliers for oil and gas industry by ripple effects can boost socio-economic development and diversify regional economy. The paper also dwells on some pitfalls and risks accompanying LCR policy and considers crucial points of introducing this kind of policy for local and federal government.

  8. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of D-lactide content in lactide stereoisomeric mixture using gas chromatography-polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lidong; Bian, Xinchao; Chen, Zhiming; Xiang, Sheng; Liu, Yanlong; Sun, Bin; Li, Gao; Chen, Xuesi

    2017-03-01

    An analytical method has been proposed to quantify the D-lactide content in a lactide stereoisomeric mixture using combined gas chromatography and polarimetry (GC- polarimetry). As for a lactide stereoisomeric mixture, meso-lactide can be determined quantitatively using GC, but D- and L-lactides cannot be separated by the given GC system. The composition of a lactide stereoisomeric mixture is directly relative to its specific optical rotation. The specific optical rotations of neat L-lactide were obtained in different solutions, which were -266.3° and -298.8° in dichloromethane (DCM) and toluene solutions at 20°C, respectively. Therefore, for a lactide sample, the D-lactide content could be calculated based on the meso-lactide content obtained from GC and the specific optical rotations of the sample and neat L-lactide obtained from polarimetry. The effects of impurities and temperature on the test results were investigated, respectively. When the total content of impurities was not more than 1.0%, the absolute error for determining D-lactide content was less than 0.10% in DCM and toluene solutions. When the D-lactide content was calculated according to the specific optical rotation of neat L-lactide at 20°C, the absolute error caused by the variation in temperature of 20±15°C was not more than 0.2 and 0.7% in DCM and toluene solutions, respectively, and thus usually could be ignored in a DCM solution. When toluene was used as a solvent for the determination of D-lactide content, a temperature correction for specific optical rotations could be introduced and would ensure the accuracy of results. This method is applicable to the determination of D-lactide content in lactide stereoisomeric mixtures. The standard deviation (STDEV) of the measurements is less than 0.5%, indicating that the precision is suitable for this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination, by using GPR, of the volumetric water content in structures, sub-structures, foundations and soil - ongoing activities in Working Project 2.5 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Fabio; Slob, Evert

    2015-04-01

    This work will endeavour to review the current status of research activities carried out in Working Project 2.5 'Determination, by using GPR, of the volumetric water content in structures, sub-structures, foundations and soil' within the framework of Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). Overall, the Project includes 55 Participants from over 21 countries representing 33 Institutions. By considering the type of Institution, a percentage of 64% (35 units) comes from the academic world, while Research Centres and Companies include, respectively, the 27% (15 units) and 9% (5 units) of Institutions. Geographically speaking, Europe is the continent most represented with 18 out of 21 countries, followed by Africa (2 countries) and Asia (1 country). In more details and according to the Europe sub-regions classification provided by the United Nations, Southern Europe includes 39% of countries, Western Europe 27%, while Northern and Eastern Europe are equally present with 17% of countries each. Relying on the main purpose of Working Project 2.5, namely, the ground-penetrating radar-based evaluation of volumetric water content in structures, substructures , foundations, and soils, four main issues have been overall addressed over the first two years of activities. The first one, has been related to provide a comprehensive state of the art on the topic, due to the wide-ranging applications covered in the main disciplines of civil engineering, differently demanding. In this regard, two main publications reviewing the state of the art have been produced [1,2]. Secondly, discussions among Working Group Chairs and other Working Project Leaders have been undertaken and encouraged to avoid the risk of overlapping amongst similar topics from other Working

  11. Factors affecting the shale gas content and gas content testing methods%页岩含气量的影响因素分析及含气量测试方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游声刚; 郭茜; 耿小烬; 吴艳婷; 曾春林

    2015-01-01

    北美页岩气的商业开发 ,掀起了全球勘探页岩气的热情 ,我国页岩广泛分布 ,资源潜力巨大.页岩气主要以游离态和吸附态存在于富有机质页岩中 ,含气量研究是页岩气资源评价的重要参数.总结国内外页岩气勘探开发研究成果 ,认为页岩气含气量的影响因素主要有有机质丰度和成熟度、孔隙结构和孔隙体积、矿物含量、裂缝发育程度、地层温度和压力 ,它们对含气量的影响主要体现在 ,有机质丰度和含气量正相关 ,成熟度越高 ,含气性越好 ;微孔比例越大 ,吸附性能越好 ;黏土矿物控制吸附气含量 ;微裂缝发育有助于吸附气的解吸 ,裂缝规模发育过大将破坏泥页岩的封闭性 ,不利于气体的储存 ;吸附气随压力的增加而加大 ,温度升高 ,吸附气量将成倍下降.并分析了目前页岩气含气量的测试方法 ,对比总结了各种测试方法的利弊.%Commercial development of shale gas in North America ,setting off a global exploration enthusiasm of shale gas .Shale widely distributed in China ,our country have huge resource potential .Shale gas mainly save in organic-rich shale by the state of free and adsorbed ,Gas content is an important parameter of resource evaluation .Summarizing research of shale gas exploration and development account that factors controlling gas content of shale gas including total organic content ,organic maturity ,pore types and pore volume ,mineral composition and content ,fracture ,formation temperature and pressure ,their impact on gas content is mainly reflected in gas content has positive correlation with total organic matter ,the higher maturity the more gas ;The larger proportion of micropore ,the more adsorbed gas ;Clay minerals controlling adsorbed gas content ;Micro-fractures contribute to desorption of the adsorption gas and crack-scale is too large destructed the closed shale ,detrimental to gas storage;Adsorbed gas increases with

  12. The interstellar medium in Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal galaxies: II. Multi-phase gas content and ISM conditions

    CERN Document Server

    De Looze, Ilse; Cormier, Diane; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kuno, Nario; Young, Lisa; Bendo, George J; Boquien, Mederic; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Kennicutt, Robert C; Madden, Suzanne C; Smith, Matthew W L; Wilson, Christine D

    2016-01-01

    We make an inventory of the interstellar medium material in three low-metallicity dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group (NGC147, NGC185 and NGC205). Ancillary HI, CO, Spitzer IRS spectra, H{\\alpha} and X-ray observations are combined to trace the atomic, cold and warm molecular, ionised and hot gas phases. We present new Nobeyama CO(1-0) observations and Herschel SPIRE FTS [CI] observations of NGC205 to revise its molecular gas content. We derive total gas masses of M_gas = 1.9-5.5x10^5 Msun for NGC185 and M_gas = 8.6-25.0x10^5 Msun for NGC205. Non-detections combine to an upper limit on the gas mass of M_gas =< 0.3-2.2x10^5 Msun for NGC147. The observed gas reservoirs are significantly lower compared to the expected gas masses based on a simple closed-box model that accounts for the gas mass returned by planetary nebulae and supernovae. The gas-to-dust mass ratios GDR~37-107 and GDR~48-139 are also considerably lower compared to the expected GDR~370 and GDR~520 for the low metal abundances in NGC 1...

  13. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of adipate content of acetylated di-starch adipate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G A; Vanderbist, M J; Meert, F F

    1982-03-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method is described for rapid, quantitative determination of adipate content of acetylated di-starch adipate. The adipate group is very labile and, under mild alkaline conditions at ambient temperature, is easily hydrolyzed from the starch. Free adipic acid is formed by acidification of the solution with HCl, and then extracted with ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum distillation, and a silyl derivative of the adipic acid is formed. Glutaric acid internal standard is introduced into the original starch sample before hydrolysis. An aliquot of the silylated solution is injected into a gas chromatograph fitted with a column having silicone oil as the active phase. A flame ionization detector is also incorporated. Results correlate well the amount of adipylating reagent used. No adipic acid is detectable when a hydrolyzed, extracted sample of acetylated di-starch adipate is subjected to a second extraction. Recovery levels of adipic acid, from starches fortified with 100-500 ppm, are in the range of 97-102.5%.

  14. A fundamental relation between the metallicity, gas content, and stellar mass of local galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bothwell, M S; Kennicutt., R; Cresci, G; Mannucci, F; Marconi, A; Cicone, C

    2013-01-01

    Recent results have suggested that the well known mass-metallicity relation has a strong dependence on the star formation rate, to the extent that a three dimensional `fundamental metallicity relation' exists which links the three parameters with minimal scatter. In this work, we use a sample of 4253 local galaxies observed in atomic hydrogen from the ALFALFA survey to demonstrate, for the first time, that a similar fundamental relation (the HI-FMR) also exists between stellar mass, gas-phase metallicity, and HI mass. This latter relation is likely more fundamental, driving the relation between metallicity, SFR and mass. At intermediate masses, the behaviour of the gas fundamental metallicity relation is very similar to that expressed via the star formation rate. However, we find that the dependence of metallicity on HI content persists to the highest stellar masses, in contrast to the `saturation' of metallicity with SFR. It is interesting to note that the dispersion of the relation is very low at intermedia...

  15. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. M. Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energized water and bovine biofertilizer doses on the gas exchange and NPK contents in leaves of yellow bell pepper plants. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from June to November 2011. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme; the plots were composed of treatments with energized and non-energized water and the subplots of five doses of liquid biofertilizer (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL plant-1 week-1. The following variables were analyzed: transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and leaf contents of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Water energization did not allow significant increases in the analyzed variables. The use of biofertilizer as the only source of fertilization was sufficient to provide the nutrients N, P and K at appropriate levels for the bell pepper crop.

  16. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C.O.; Olea, R.A.; Goodman, G.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control.This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines.Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  17. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  18. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil......-water content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...... permeability whereas variations in CH4 oxidation rate and molecular coefficients had less influence. Fluxes appeared to be most sensitive to atmospheric pressure at intermediate distances from the landfill edge. Also overall CH4 fluxes out of the soil over longer periods (years) were largest during periods...

  19. Gas content of a two-phase layer containing gas and a melt of K/sub 2/O-V/sub 2/O/sub 8/ averaged by volume and its foam formation in a reaction-regeneration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazleev, M.P.; Chekhov, O.S.; Ermakov, E.A.

    1985-06-20

    This paper discusses the results of an investigation of the gas content averaged over the volume, hydrodynamic programs, and foaming in the K/sub 2/O-V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ melt plus gas system, which is used as a catalyst in several thermocatalytic processes. The experimental setup is described and a comparison of literature data on the gas content of different gas-liquid systems under comparable conditions is presented. The authors were able to determine the boundaries of the hydrodynamic modes in a bubbling reactor and derive equations for the calculation of the gas content. It was found that the gas content of the melt increased when V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ was reduced to V/sub 2/O/sub 4/ in the reaction portion of the reaction-regeneration cycle. Regeneration of the melt restores the value of gas content to its original level.

  20. The local content approach in activities of exploration and production of oil and gas; Conteudo local nas atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederice, Jose Carlos [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Conteudo Local; Macedo, Marcelo Mafra Borges de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo e Derivados

    2008-07-01

    Breaking the monopoly of PETROBRAS for the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas has occurred in Brazil in 1995 by the Constitutional Amendment No 9 followed by the promulgation of the Law 9.478 of 1997, the 'Law of Oil' and the creation of the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo - ANP, with powers to regulate, recruit and monitor the oil and natural gas industry. The new regulatory framework has established the award granted by the State, through bids organized by the ANP, of the oil and gas exploration and production activities. This new model has established that the offers to purchase blocks must be composed by the Signature Bonus, Minimum Exploration Program and percentages of Local Content for the stages of exploration and development of production. As a result of market opening and the completion of bids over these 10 years, there has been a significant expansion of investment in the industry, revealing that the demands of Local Content rightly acted as a strong mechanism inducing the participation of local industry supplier of goods and services. In practical terms, in 1997 the participation of the sector of oil and gas in the Brazilian GDP was approximately 2.5% and now comes to 10.5%, or each R$ 100.00 generated in the country, R$ 10.50 come from the sector of oil and gas. (author)

  1. Indirect Estimates of the Total Gas Content of SDSS-IV/MaNGA Galaxies from Optical Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonti, Christina A.; Pace, Zachary; Andrews, Brett; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; Martinsson, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Stark, David; Sanchez, Sebastian; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    To understand galaxy evolution it is critical to obtain a census of both the stellar and gaseous contents of galaxies. The SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will deliver exquisite stellar mass maps of ~10,000 nearby galaxies. However, radio surveys capable of providing matched resolution gas data for a large fraction of the MaNGA sample are a decade or more away. We are therefore exploring a new technique for obtaining maps of the total gas content directly from the MaNGA data. Following the method outlined in Brinchmann et al. 2013, we use the dust optical depth and the nebular metallicity measured from optical emission lines to estimate the total gas surface density in individual spaxels. We combine this with estimates of the stellar mass in each spaxel to produce spatially resolved estimates of the gas mass fraction. We compare trends in the global gas mass fraction with stellar mass and NUV-r color to those found in the literature. We explore how the radial gas mass fraction gradients of MaNGA galaxies correlate with other properties such as total stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SFR/M*), concentration, and environment.

  2. Evidence for feedback in action from the molecular gas content in the z ~ 1.6 outflowing QSO XID2028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, M.; Feruglio, C.; Cresci, G.; Mainieri, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Perna, M.; Santini, P.; Vito, F.; Marconi, A.; Merloni, A.; Lutz, D.; Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Maiolino, R.; Rosario, D.; Daddi, E.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Lusso, E.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Gas outflows are believed to play a pivotal role in shaping galaxies, as they regulate both star formation and black hole growth. Despite their ubiquitous presence, the origin and the acceleration mechanism of these powerful and extended winds is not yet understood. Direct observations of the cold gas component in objects with detected outflows at other wavelengths are needed to assess the impact of the outflow on the host galaxy interstellar medium (ISM). Methods: We observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer an obscured quasar at z ~ 1.5, XID2028, for which the presence of an ionized outflow has been unambiguously signalled by NIR spectroscopy. The detection of 12CO(3-2) emission in this source allows us to infer the molecular gas content and compare it to the ISM mass derived from the dust emission. We then analyzed the results in the context of recent insights on scaling relations, which describe the gas content of the overall population of star-forming galaxies at a similar redshifts. Results: The star formation efficiency (~100) and gas mass (Mgas = 2.1-9.5 × 1010 M⊙) inferred from the CO(3-2) line depend on the underlying assumptions on the excitation of the transition and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. However, the combination of this information and the ISM mass estimated from the dust mass suggests that the ISM/gas content of XID2028 is significantly lower than expected for its observed M⋆, sSFR and redshift, based on the most up-to-date calibrations (with gas fraction France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).A FITS file for the spectrum shown in Fig. 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A11

  3. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  4. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  5. Test Facility for Volumetric Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, M.; Dibowski, G.; Pfander, M.; Sack, J. P.; Schwarzbozl, P.; Ulmer, S.

    2006-07-01

    Long-time testing of volumetric absorber modules is an inevitable measure to gain the experience and reliability required for the commercialization of the open volumetric receiver technology. While solar tower test facilities are necessary for performance measurements of complete volumetric receivers, the long-term stability of individual components can be tested in less expensive test setups. For the qualification of the aging effects of operating cycles on single elements of new absorber materials and designs, a test facility was developed and constructed in the framework of the KOSMOSOL project. In order to provide the concentrated solar radiation level, the absorber test facility is integrated into a parabolic dish system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Several new designs of ceramic absorbers were developed and tested during the last months. (Author)

  6. A high volume, high throughput volumetric sorption analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Y. C.; Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.; Buckley, P.; Clement, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this talk we will present an overview of our new Hydrogen Test Fixture (HTF) constructed by the Midwest Research Institute for The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology to test activated carbon monoliths for hydrogen gas storage. The HTF is an automated, computer-controlled volumetric instrument for rapid screening and manipulation of monoliths under an inert atmosphere (to exclude degradation of carbon from exposure to oxygen). The HTF allows us to measure large quantity (up to 500 g) of sample in a 0.5 l test tank, making our results less sensitive to sample inhomogeneity. The HTF can measure isotherms at pressures ranging from 1 to 300 bar at room temperature. For comparison, other volumetric instruments such as Hiden Isochema's HTP-1 Volumetric Analyser can only measure carbon samples up to 150 mg at pressures up to 200 bar. Work supported by the US DOD Contract # N00164-08-C-GS37.

  7. Sewage sludge based producer gas of rich H{sub 2} content as a fuel for an IC engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwaja, Stanislaw; Cupial, Karol [Czestochowa Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The manuscript presents investigation on hydrogen rich gas combustion in an internal combustion (IC) engine. The gas is obtained from gasification process of sewage sludge which is by-product of waste water treatment in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Recently introduced EU regulations of environmental protection do not allow to use such sludge as a soil fertilizer or substance for landfilling the ground due to its biological toxicity. On another hand, this sludge contains organic content of approximately 45-55% and from this point of view the sludge looks as an attractive material for fuel production through its gasification. This technology, primarily applied for wood gasification, has been also successfully implemented for gasification of sludge. It was found that the producer gas obtained in this way is rich of hydrogen content even up to 25%. This is because of high water content in the sludge that provides favorable conditions for steam reforming resulting in increase of hydrogen in the products of gasification. The high hydrogen content in the producer gas can lead to improper combustion particularly when the combustion takes place in the internal combustion engine. That improper combustion might appear as combustion knock and it is the main problem for the engine in which hydrogen is used as a fuel [1]. Onset of the knock during combustion contributes to rapid increase in heat transfer to the piston crown causing the piston to be quickly overheated that leads to surface erosion and damages. Additionally, engine body vibration coming from the knock significantly shortens engine durability. Conclusions from this investigation provide good premises for combusting the sludge producer gas in the IC engine without any improper combustion anomalies, thus considers this gas as worthy fuel for a stationary engine driven a power generator. The presentation shows results of producer gas combustion in both the spark-ignited and the compression ignition engine with

  8. Local content: worldwide trends and the Brazilian experience in the oil and gas sector; Conteudo local: tendencias mundiais e a experiencia brasileira no setor de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa Junior, Oswaldo A.; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Associacao Brasileira dos Produtores Independentes de Petroleo e Gas - ABPIP, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandez y Fernandez, Eloi [Organizacao Nacional da Industria do Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years a trend on increasing requirements for local investments has been observed worldwide in the petroleum industry. Host countries expect to have increasing social and economical benefits from the development of the oil and gas industry. This expectation drives at a more comprehensive concept of local content to include commitment with social, industrial, and technological development. The Brazilian experience has shown a lot of emphasis on local industry development. Initiatives from governmental authorities and the private sector have been implemented to increase the local industry participation in the oil and gas projects. The current regulation focus on the full and fair opportunities for the local suppliers and the local content commitment established in the E and P concession agreements. A key issue on promoting local content initiatives is to assure that the competitiveness of the indigenous industry will be developed and preserved. The constraints on building up the local industry competitiveness will be addressed, focusing on the taxation overburden, lack of adequate local financing, and internal structural aspects affecting industrial productivity. In addition to this, the experiences on measuring local content for offshore construction and drilling are highlighted. Technology development and technical capability have been addressed by incentive programs for the O and G sector. Finally, the technology learning process and the regulatory requirements to invest in R and D programs conducted by Brazilian technological institutions are discussed. (author)

  9. Prediction of methanol content in natural gas with the GC-PR-CPA model

    OpenAIRE

    hajiw, martha; Chapoy, Antonin; Coquelet, Christophe; Lauermann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Produced reservoir fluids are principally composed of hydrocarbons but contain also impurities such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen. These fluids are saturated with the formation water at reservoir conditions. During production, transportation and processing ice and/or gas hydrates formation may occur. Gas hydrate and ice formation are a serious flow assurance and inherently security issues in natural gas production, processing and transport. Therefor...

  10. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  11. The Atlas3D project - XIX. The hot-gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    CERN Document Server

    Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star-formation history. Yet, it is still unclear what drives the precise amount of hot gas around these galaxies. By combining photometric and spectroscopic measurements for the early-type galaxies observed during the Atlas3D integral-field survey with measurements of their X-ray luminosity based on X-ray data of both low and high spatial resolution we conclude that the hot-gas content of early-type galaxies can depend on their dynamical structure. Specifically, whereas slow rotators generally have X-ray halos with luminosity L_X,gas and temperature T values that are in line with what is expected if the hot-gas emission is sustained by the thermalisaton of the kinetic energy carried by the stellar-mass loss material, fast rotators tend to display L_X,gas values that fall consistently below the prediction of this model, with similar T values that do not scale with the stellar kine...

  12. Low Temperature Particle Filtration of Wood Gas with Low Tar Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2002-01-01

    Baghouse filters and cartridge filters were tested online with wood gas from a two stage down draft gasifier. The gas contained soot and very low levels (10-30 mg/Nm³) of tar. Particle collection efficiencies were above 95%. Continuous operation with cheap self cleaning baghouse filters were tested...

  13. The mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with varied Al content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JinFeng; HAO Yue; ZHANG JinCheng; NI JinYu

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN hetero-structures changes significantly with AI content in the AlGaN barrier layer, while few mechanism analyses focus on it. Theoretical calculation and analysis of the 2DEG mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with varied Al content are carried out based on the recently reported experimental data. The 2DEG mobility is modeled analytically as the total effects of the scattering mechanisms including acoustic deformation-potential, piezoelectric, polar optic phonon, alloy disorder, interface roughness, dislocation and remote modulation doping scattering. We show that the increase of the 2DEG density, caused by the ascension of the Al content in the barrier layer, is a dominant factor that leads to the changes of the individual scat-tering processes. The change of the 2DEG mobility with Al content are mainly de-termined by the interface roughness scattering and the alloy disorder scattering at 77 K, and the polar optic phonon scattering and the interface roughness scattering at the room temperature. The calculated function of the interface roughness pa-rameters on the Al content shows that the stress caused AlGaN/GaN interface degradation at higher Al content is an important factor in the limitation of the in-terface roughness scattering on the 2DEG mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with high Al content.

  14. The influence of aerosol size and organic carbon content on gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenberg, J.H.; Baker, J.E. [University of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.

    2002-07-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Paths) were measured on size segregated airborne particulate matter and in the gas phase during 12h periods in urban Chicago and over southern Lake Michigan during July 1994 and January 1995 as part of the atmospheric exchange over lakes and oceans (AEOLOS) project. In the 19 paired gas phase and size segregated particle samples, partition coefficients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure, (p{sub l}{sup 0}) within an aerosol size class. However, partition coefficients differ systematically according to particle size and aerosol organic carbon content. Approximately 68% of the observed variability in measured PAH partition coefficients is explained by a three dimensional multiple linear regression that includes vapor pressure of the compound of interest, aerosol particle aerodynamic equivalent diameter, aerosol organic carbon content and interaction terms. However, addition of both particle size and the fraction organic carbon terms, while statistically significant, appear to be of minimal importance in improving our ability to model gas/particle partitioning in the atmosphere. The influence of either particle size or fraction organic carbon is nearly as large as the calculated random error in partition coefficients, and suggests that an important factor in predicting gas/particle partitioning has not yet been incorporated in the current model. [author].

  15. RESEARCH OF THE GAS ENGENE FUELS WISH DIFFENT CONTENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Лисовал, А. А.; Нижник, М. Е.; Свистун, Ю. А.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the results of experimental research while alternative gas fuels simulating. The research carried out on the installation of 30 kW electrical power. Test was taken on 8-cylinder gas combustion engine with a cylinder bore of 100 mm and 88 mm stroke, 8.5 compression ratio.The controller for dosing the amount of gas-air mixture was installed on the engine.  Controller was designed based on the firm knots HEINZMANN.The aim of the research was to measure in-cylinder pressure ...

  16. Effect of consolidation pressure on volumetric composition and stiffness of unidirectional flax fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmood, S.; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Unidirectional flax/polyethylene terephthalate composites are manufactured by filament winding, followed by compression moulding with low and high consolidation pressure, and with variable flax fibre content. The experimental data of volumetric composition and tensile stiffness are analysed with ...

  17. Intestinal gas content and distribution in health and in patients with functional gut symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bendezú, Álvaro; Barba, Elisabeth; Burri, Emanuel; Cisternas, Daniel; Malagelada Prats, Carolina; Segui, Santi; Accarino Garaventa, Anna María; Quiroga, Sergi; Monclús Lahoya, Eva; Navazo Álvaro, Isabel; Malagelada Benapres, Juan Ramon; Azpiroz Vidaur, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background: The precise relation of intestinal gas to symptoms, particularly abdominal bloating and distension remains incompletely elucidated. Our aim was to define the normal values of intestinal gas volume and distribution and to identify abnormalities in relation to functional-type symptoms. Methods:Abdominal computed tomography scans were evaluated in healthy subjects (n = 37) and in patients in three conditions: basal (when they were feeling well; n = 88), during an episode of abdomi...

  18. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Nedenskov, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH4) emission fro...... drainage pipes placed in permeable gravel layers in the bottom of empty cells was likely....... the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation...... was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH4 (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO2) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH4 (27%) and nitrogen (N2) (71%), containing no CO2...

  19. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and the Gas Laws: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sande, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been described as an assemblage of the most powerful analogies, demonstrations, examples and illustrations that make content knowledge understandable to students, together with an understanding of the preconceptions and alternate conceptions that students bring with them to the classroom (Shulman, 1986). In…

  20. Basic criteria for evaluating the outlook of oil and gas content in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glogoczowski, J.J.; Karpinski, T.; Kozikowski, H.; Lenk, T.; Mitura, F.; Olewicz, Z.R.

    1978-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive analysis of geological-geophysical and geochemical data obtained in oil and gas regions of Poland (Ciscarpathian trough, suboverthrust zone, Cissudetskiy monocline), concepts are pinpointed on the question of conditions of the origin of hydrocarbons and their migration in the formation of oil and gas deposits. The importance is stressed of clarifying questions of genesis and accumulation of hydrocarbons for selection of trends for prospecting for oil and gas in the country and the main role is noted for geochemical studies used to clarify the history of transformation of the organic matter, starting from the moment of its burial, tracing its evolution in the process of diagenesis and catagenesis, as well as migration and accumulation of the formed hydrocarbons.

  1. Soil features and indoor radon concentration prediction: radon in soil gas, pedology, permeability and 226Ra content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, E; Rocha, Z; Santos, T O; Rios, F J; Oliveira, A H

    2015-11-01

    This work aims at relating some physicochemical features of soils and their use as a tool for prediction of indoor radon concentrations of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brazil. The measurements of soil gas radon concentrations were performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The (226)Ra content analysis was performed by gamma spectrometry (high pure germanium) and permeabilities were performed by using the RADON-JOK permeameter. The GEORP indicator and soil radon index (RI) were also calculated. Approximately 53 % of the Perferric Red Latosols measurement site could be classified as 'high risk' (Swedish criteria). The Litholic Neosols presented the lowest radon concentration mean in soil gas. The Perferric Red Latosols presented significantly high radon concentration mean in soil gas (60.6 ± 8.7 kBq m(-3)), high indoor radon concentration, high RI, (226)Ra content and GEORP. The preliminary results may indicate an influence of iron formations present very close to the Perferric Red Latosols in the retention of uranium minerals.

  2. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  3. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards.

  4. Microscale characterisation of stochastically reconstructed carbon fiber-based Gas Diffusion Layers; effects of anisotropy and resin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiotis, Andreas G.; Kainourgiakis, Michael E.; Charalambopoulou, Georgia C.; Stubos, Athanassios K.

    2016-07-01

    A novel process-based methodology is proposed for the stochastic reconstruction and accurate characterisation of Carbon fiber-based matrices, which are commonly used as Gas Diffusion Layers in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. The modeling approach is efficiently complementing standard methods used for the description of the anisotropic deposition of carbon fibers, with a rigorous model simulating the spatial distribution of the graphitized resin that is typically used to enhance the structural properties and thermal/electrical conductivities of the composite Gas Diffusion Layer materials. The model uses as input typical pore and continuum scale properties (average porosity, fiber diameter, resin content and anisotropy) of such composites, which are obtained from X-ray computed microtomography measurements on commercially available carbon papers. This information is then used for the digital reconstruction of realistic composite fibrous matrices. By solving the corresponding conservation equations at the microscale in the obtained digital domains, their effective transport properties, such as Darcy permeabilities, effective diffusivities, thermal/electrical conductivities and void tortuosity, are determined focusing primarily on the effects of medium anisotropy and resin content. The calculated properties are matching very well with those of Toray carbon papers for reasonable values of the model parameters that control the anisotropy of the fibrous skeleton and the materials resin content.

  5. SENSITIVE LIMITS ON THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF CLUSTER COOLING FLOWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCNAMARA, BR; JAFFE, W

    1994-01-01

    We have searched for molecular gas toward six cluster cooling flows in the CO(2-1) line using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The sample includes clusters with estimated total cooling rates Of m(CF) approximately 10-600M. yr-1, at redshifts between z approximately 0.01-0.06. None were detected ei

  6. The molecular gas content of the advanced S+E merger NGC 4441 - Evidence for an extended decoupled nuclear disc?

    CERN Document Server

    Juette, E; Hüttemeister, S

    2009-01-01

    Mergers between a spiral and an elliptical (S+E mergers) are poorly studied so far despite the importance for galaxy evolution. NGC4441 is a nearby candidate for an advanced remnant of such a merger, showing typical tidal structures like an optical tail and two shells as well as two HI tails. The study of the molecular gas content gives clues on the impact of the recent merger event on the star formation. Simulations of S+E mergers predict contradictory scenarios concerning the strength and the extent of an induced starburst. Thus, observations of the amount and the distribution of the molecular gas, the raw material of star formation, are needed to understand the influence of the merger on the star formation history. 12CO and 13CO (1-0) and (2-1) observations were obtained using the Onsala Space Observatory 20m and IRAM 30m telescope as well as the Plateau de Bure interferometer. These data allow us to carry out a basic analysis of the molecular gas properties such as estimates of the molecular gas mass, its...

  7. On the neutral gas content of nine new Milky Way satellite galaxy candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Westmeier, T; Calabretta, M; Jurek, R; Koribalski, B S; Meyer, M; Popping, A; Wong, O I

    2015-01-01

    We use a new, improved version of the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey to search for HI emission from nine new, ultra-faint Milky Way satellite galaxy candidates recently discovered in data from the Dark Energy Survey. None of the candidates is detected in HI, implying upper limits for their HI masses of typically several hundred to a few thousand solar masses. The resulting upper limits on M_HI / L_V and M_HI / M_star suggest that at least some of the new galaxy candidates are HI deficient. This finding is consistent with the general HI deficiency of satellite galaxies located within the Milky Way's virial radius and supports the hypothesis that gas is being removed from satellites by tidal and ram-pressure forces during perigalactic passages. In addition, some of the objects may be embedded in, and interacting with, the extended neutral and ionised gas filaments of the Magellanic Stream.

  8. Noble gas contents of shergottites and implications for the Martian origin of SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Johnson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three meteorites belonging to the rare group of SNC achondrites, which may have originated in the planet Mars, have been subjected to noble gas isotopic concentration measurements. The elemental and isotopic ratios obtained are unlike those for any other noble gas components except those obtained in analyses of the Martian atmosphere by Viking spacecraft. It is hypothesized that the Kr and Xe gases represent a portion of the Martian atmosphere which was shock-implanted in the case of Elephant Moraine A79001, and that they constitute direct evidence of a Martian origin for the shergottite meteorites. If the SNC meteorites were ejected from Mars at the shergottite shock age of about 180 My ago, they must have been objects more than 6 m in diameter which experienced at least three space collisions to initiate cosmic ray exposure.

  9. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT IN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Using star formation histories derived from optically resolved stellar populations in 19 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we measure the stellar mass surface densities of stars newly formed in the bursts. By assuming a star formation efficiency (SFE), we then calculate the inferred gas surface densities present at the onset of the starbursts. Assuming an SFE of 1%, as is often assumed in normal star-forming galaxies, and assuming that the gas was purely atomic, translates to very high H I surface densities ({approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}), which are much higher than have been observed in dwarf galaxies. This implies either higher values of SFE in these dwarf starburst galaxies or the presence of significant amounts of H{sub 2} in dwarfs (or both). Raising the assumed SFEs to 10% or greater (in line with observations of more massive starbursts associated with merging galaxies), still results in H I surface densities higher than observed in 10 galaxies. Thus, these observations appear to require that a significant fraction of the gas in these dwarf starbursts galaxies was in the molecular form at the onset of the bursts. Our results imply molecular gas column densities in the range 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} for the sample. In the galaxies where CO observations have been made, these densities correspond to values of the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor (X{sub CO}) in the range >(3-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, or up to 40 Multiplication-Sign greater than Galactic X{sub CO} values.

  10. Constraining the dark matter content of NGC 1291 using hydrodynamic gas response simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fragkoudi, F; Bosma, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a pilot study on the nearby massive barred galaxy NGC 1291, in which we use dynamical modelling to constrain the disc mass-to-light ratio (M/L), thus breaking the degeneracy between the baryonic and dark matter in its central regions. We use the gas, specifically the morphology of the dust lanes on the leading side of the bar, as a tracer of the underlying gravitational potential. We run a large number of hydrodynamic gas response simulations, in potentials obtained directly from near-infrared images of the galaxy, which have three free parameters: the M/L, the bar pattern speed and the height function. We explore the three-dimensional parameter space, by comparing the morphology of the shocks created in the gas response simulations with those of the observed dust lanes, and find the best-fitting models; these suggest that the M/L of NGC 1291 agrees with that predicted by stellar population synthesis models in the near-infrared ($\\approx$0.6\\,$M_{\\odot}/L_{\\odot}$), which leads to a borderline maxi...

  11. Simulating extremely metal-poor gas and DLA metal content at redshift z=7

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto; Mueller, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We present the first theoretical study of metals in damped Ly-alpha (DLA) systems at redshift z=7. The features of cold, primordial gas are studied by means of N-body, hydro, chemistry simulations, including atomic and molecular non-equilibrium chemistry, cooling, star formation for population III and population II-I regimes, stellar evolution, cosmic metal spreading according to proper yields (for He, C, O, Si, Fe, Mg, S, etc.) and lifetimes, and feedback effects. Theoretical expectations are then compared to recently available constraints from DLA observations. We find that DLA galaxies at z=7 account for 10 per cent of the whole galaxy population and for most of the metal-poor galaxies at these epochs. About 7 per cent of these DLA galaxies contain purely pristine material and 34 per cent of them consist of very weakly polluted gas, being, therefore, suitable candidate s as population III sites. The remaining 59 per cent are enriched above ~10^{-4} Zsun. Additionally, DLA candidates appear to have: gas mas...

  12. Evolution of the atomic and molecular gas content of galaxies in dark matter haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, Gergö; Behroozi, Peter S.; Peeples, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a semi-empirical model to infer the atomic and molecular hydrogen content of galaxies as a function of halo mass and time. Our model combines the star formation rate (SFR)-halo mass-redshift relation (constrained by galaxy abundances) with inverted SFR-surface density relations to infer g

  13. Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, P.; Eriksson, G.; Neuschuelz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    appears to be reasonable. The latter assumption has consequently been extended to the formation of dioxins from the off-gas. Making use of the calculated data for 700 deg C, it was found that for dioxins to form in the amounts observed in practice, three further assumptions must be made: The formation of solid carbon must be suppressed, the oxygen partial pressure must be set to very low values and the C/H ratio must be >2, which implies that a large part of the hydrogen present does not take part in the reaction. With these assumptions, the calculated dioxin concentrations are of the same order of magnitude as the measured values. Furthermore, the different dioxins appear with closely similar partial pressures. This is also in accordance with observation. The calculated TE concentrations increase along the length of the sinter strand in a similar manner to the observed values. Beyond Stage 10, the simulation reads to a further strong increase which is not found in reality. In the calculation, the oxygen and chlorine concentrations as well as the C/H ratio are kept constant along the length of the strand. What varies is the carbon content as given in the sum of CO{sub 2} + CO. It thus appears that the Cl/C ratio, which increases with strand length, strongly enhances the formation of dioxins. General conclusions which may be drawn from the present calculations with regard to restricting possible formation of dioxins are: increase the content of hydrogen-containing species in the system; decrease the chlorine content in the gas phase and if possible, avoid local extremely reducing conditions in the system. (author) 12 refs.

  14. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  15. Determination of CO2 in Rock Minerals by Pyrolysis Gas Volumetric Method%热分解一气体容量法测定岩石矿物中CO2的最佳分析方案的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹; 刘敏

    2016-01-01

    CO2 is constant test project in rock minerals. In this paper, the pyrolysis gas volumetric method for determining CO2 in rock minerals was discussed. The method has been successfully used in determination of CO2 in Faku silica fume by CS—T1 iron and steel sulfur carbon joint instrument made in Tianjin and high temperature tube furnace made in Shenyang.%CO2是岩石矿物的常测项目。讨论的热分解一气体容量法是测定CO2的最佳方案选择,是在对法库硅灰石中CO2的测定中,应用天津产CS—T1型钢铁硫碳联合测定仪和沈阳产高温管式炉配套,经试验确定的。

  16. On the gas content of transitional disks: a VLT/X-Shooter study of accretion and winds

    CERN Document Server

    Manara, C F; Natta, A; Rosotti, G; Benisty, M; Ercolano, B; Ricci, L

    2014-01-01

    Transitional disks (TDs) are thought to be a late evolutionary stage of protoplanetary disks with dust depleted inner regions. The mechanism responsible for this depletion is still under debate. To constrain the models it is mandatory to have a good understanding of the properties of the gas content of the inner disk. Using X-Shooter broad band -UV to NIR- medium resolution spectroscopy we derive the stellar, accretion, and wind properties of a sample of 22 TDs. The analysis of these properties allows us to put strong constraints on the gas content in a region very close to the star (<0.2 AU) which is not accessible with any other observational technique. We fit the spectra with a self-consistent procedure to derive simultaneously SpT,Av,and mass accretion rates (Macc) of the targets. From forbidden emission lines we derive the wind properties of the targets. Comparing our findings to values for cTTs, we find that Macc and wind properties of 80% of the TDs in our sample, which is strongly biased towards st...

  17. Physical drivers of galaxies' cold-gas content: exploring environmental and evolutionary effects with Dark Sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brown, Toby

    2017-10-01

    We combine the latest spectrally stacked data of 21-cm emission from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey with an updated version of the Dark Sage semi-analytic model to investigate the relative contributions of secular and environmental astrophysical processes on shaping the H I fractions and quiescence of galaxies in the local Universe. We calibrate the model to match the observed mean H I fraction of all galaxies as a function of stellar mass. Without consideration of stellar feedback, disc instabilities and active galactic nuclei, we show how the slope and normalization of this relation would change significantly. We find Dark Sage can reproduce the relative impact that halo mass is observed to have on satellites' H I fractions and quiescent fraction. However, the model satellites are systematically gas-poor. We discuss how this could be affected by satellite-central cross-contamination from the group-finding algorithm applied to the observed galaxies, but that it is not the full story. From our results, we suggest the anticorrelation between satellites' H I fractions and host halo mass, seen at fixed stellar mass and fixed specific star formation rate, can be attributed almost entirely to ram-pressure stripping of cold gas. Meanwhile, stripping of hot gas from around the satellites drives the correlation of quiescent fraction with halo mass at fixed stellar mass. Further detail in the modelling of galaxy discs' centres is required to solidify this result, however. We contextualize our results with those from other semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations.

  18. Experimental Study of High Moisture Content Gas Flow Across a Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. M. Christopher; GUO Liang(郭亮)

    2003-01-01

    The Nusselt number for cross flow of a mixture of air and vapor over a cylinder was measured at moderate Reynolds numbers (3000-7000) for temperatures from 300℃ to 700℃ and for vapor mass fractions of 0.18-0.35. Results are also presented for a set of three cylinders aligned perpendicular to the flow for the same range of conditions. The effect of the vapor concentration and temperature on the convection coefficients was investigated to develop a modified Zhukauskas correlation. The results show that the Nusselt number increases as the moisture content increases and that the increase is more than could be accounted for by typical models for the property variations of mixtures. The exponent of the vapor concentration term in the modified correlation is 0.145 for the entire data set indicating the importance of the property variation due to the moisture content.

  19. Determination of Nutrient Contents and Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (ECECECEC was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV, and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME, and net energy lactation (NEL were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum.

  20. Observational Constraints on the Molecular Gas Content in Nearby Starburst Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Cannon, John M; Holtzman, Jon; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    Using star formation histories derived from optically resolved stellar populations in nineteen nearby starburst dwarf galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we measure the stellar mass surface densities of stars newly formed in the bursts. By assuming a star formation efficiency (SFE), we then calculate the inferred gas surface densities present at the onset of the starbursts. Assuming a SFE of 1%, as is often assumed in normal star-forming galaxies, and assuming that the gas was purely atomic, translates to very high HI surface densities (~10^2-10^3 Msun pc^-2), which are much higher than have been observed in dwarf galaxies. This implies either higher values of SFE in these dwarf starburst galaxies or the presence of significant amounts of H_2 in dwarfs (or both). Raising the assumed SFEs to 10% or greater (in line with observations of more massive starbursts associated with merging galaxies), still results in HI surface densities higher than observed in 10 galaxies. Thus, these observations app...

  1. Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey II: The Molecular Gas Content and Properties of a Subset of SPOGs

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Appleton, Philip N; Cales, Sabrina L; Kewley, Lisa J; Lacy, Mark; Medling, Anne M; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A; Urry, C Meg

    2016-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) observations of objects within the Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey taken with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30m single dish and the Combined Array for Research for Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) interferometer. Shocked Poststarburst Galaxies (SPOGs) represent a transitioning population of galaxies, with deep Balmer absorption (Hdelta>5A), consistent with an intermediate-age (A-star) stellar population, and ionized gas line ratios inconsistent with pure star formation. The CO(1-0) subsample was selected from SPOGs detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with 22um flux detected at a signal-to-noise (S/N)>3. Of the 52 objects observed in CO(1-0), 47 are detected with S/N>3. A large fraction (37-46%) of our CO-SPOG sample were visually classified as morphologically disrupted. The H2 masses detected were between 10^(8.7-10.8) Msuns, consistent with the gas masses found in normal galaxies, though approximately an order of magnitude larger than the range seen i...

  2. Contribution of multiple inert gas elimination technique to pulmonary medicine. 1. Principles and information content of the multiple inert gas elimination technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J.; Wagner, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    This introductory review summarises four different aspects of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Firstly, the historical background that facilitated, in the mid 1970s, the development of the MIGET as a tool to obtain more information about the entire spectrum of VA/Q distribution in the lung by measuring the exchange of six gases of different solubility in trace concentrations. Its principle is based on the observation that the retention (or excretion) of any gas is dependent on the solubility (lambda) of that gas and the VA/Q distribution. A second major aspect is the analysis of the information content and limitations of the technique. During the last 15 years a substantial amount of clinical research using the MIGET has been generated by several groups around the world. The technique has been shown to be adequate in understanding the mechanisms of hypoxaemia in different forms of pulmonary disease and the effects of therapeutic interventions, but also in separately determining the quantitative role of each extrapulmonary factor on systemic arterial PO2 when they change between two conditions of MIGET measurement. This information will be extensively reviewed in the forthcoming articles of this series. Next, the different modalities of the MIGET, practical considerations involved in the measurements and the guidelines for quality control have been indicated. Finally, a section has been devoted to the analysis of available data in healthy subjects under different conditions. The lack of systematic information on the VA/Q distributions of older healthy subjects is emphasised, since it will be required to fully understand the changes brought about by diseases that affect the older population. PMID:8091330

  3. Linking particle and pore-size distribution parameters to soil gas transport properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of soil gas diffusivity (Dp/Do, the ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (ka) from basic texture and pore characteristics will be highly valuable for modeling soil gas transport and emission and their field-scale variations. From......, respectively) and the Campbell water retention parameter b were used to characterize particle and pore size distributions, respectively. Campbell b yielded a wide interval (4.6–26.2) and was highly correlated with α, β, and volumetric clay content. Both Dp/Do and ka followed simple power-law functions (PLFs...... also well (but relatively more weakly) correlated with the basic soil characteristics, again with the best correlations to volumetric clay content and b. As a first attempt at developing a simple Dp/Do model useful at the field scale, we extended the classical Buckingham Dp/Do model (εa2) by a scaling...

  4. Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey. II. The Molecular Gas Content and Properties of a Subset of SPOGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lisenfeld, Ute; Lanz, Lauranne; Appleton, Philip N.; Ardila, Felipe; Cales, Sabrina L.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Medling, Anne M.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2016-08-01

    We present CO(1-0) observations of objects within the Shocked POststarburst Galaxy Survey taken with the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m single dish and the Combined Array for Research for Millimeter Astronomy interferometer. Shocked poststarburst galaxies (SPOGs) represent a transitioning population of galaxies, with deep Balmer absorption ({{EW}}{{H}δ }\\gt 5 {\\mathring{{A}}} ), consistent with an intermediate-age (A-star) stellar population, and ionized gas line ratios inconsistent with pure star formation. The CO(1-0) subsample was selected from SPOGs detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with 22 μm flux detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3. Of the 52 objects observed in CO(1-0), 47 are detected with S/N > 3. A large fraction (37%-46% ± 7%) of our CO-SPOG sample were visually classified as morphologically disrupted. The H2 masses detected were between {10}8.7-10.8 {M}⊙ , consistent with the gas masses found in normal galaxies, though approximately an order of magnitude larger than the range seen in poststarburst galaxies. When comparing the 22 μm and CO(1-0) fluxes, SPOGs diverge from the normal star-forming relation, having 22 μm fluxes in excess of the relation by a factor of ={4.91}-0.39+0.42, suggestive of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Na i D characteristics of CO-SPOGs show that it is likely that many of these objects host interstellar winds. Objects with large Na i D enhancements also tend to emit in the radio, suggesting possible AGN driving of neutral winds.

  5. EVALUATION OF DISPERSED PARTICLE CONTENT IN EXHAUST GAS OF DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of an atmosphere due to hazardous substances emissions deteriorates ecological environment in the world. Exhaust gases of diesel engines are considered as one of the main environmental pollutants. At the moment it is not possible to determine rate and limits of threshold level of air pollution which do not affect human health. The paper considers current issues pertaining to regulation and control over dispersed particles. The most convenient measuring methods for investigations are those which provide the opportunity to obtain immediate results. However, from the legislative point of view, a gravimetric investigation method is a legitimate one which requires compliance with certain procedures of adjustments and calculations. The method presupposes availability of complicated system for sample dilution and its adjustment must include temperature and kinetic parameters of the measured flow. In order to ensure measuring accuracy and results reproducibility filter loading should be in a regulated range and dilution parameters should be chosen according to not only engine type but also according to its emissions rate. Methods for evaluation of a hot exhaust gas sample is characterized by higher response and the results correlate with indices of combustion efficiency. However, such approach does not account for a number of processes that take place during gas cooling in the environment. Therefore, in this case, measuring results are to be evaluated within certain boundary conditions with respect to the object of investigations. Difficulty in achievement of modern ecologocal standards is substantiated by complicated fractional composition and multiple stage process in formation of hazardous components. The paper presents calculated dependences between particles and smokiness and contains a comparative analysis. Methods for measurement and investigations of dispersed particles have analyzed on the basis of the results obtainesd during engine

  6. The Molecular Gas Contents of z=1.62 cluster galaxies and their Last Gasp of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Gregory; Walter, Fabian; Hodge, Jacqueline; Papovich, Casey J.; Tran, Kim-Vy; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Willmar, Christopher; Saintonge, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    I will present JVLA CO imaging in the 1-0 transition of a z=1.62 galaxy cluster located in the UKIDSS/UDS and covered by the 3D-HST data. These are the deepest existing data in CO(1-0), corresponding to nearly 100 hours of JVLA observations, and are giving us the powerful ability to study the molecular gas contents of massive cluster galaxies when they were in the last throes of their star formation. The 3D-HST data are crucial to this endeavor as they 1) give us accurate redshifts with which to confirm membership, 2) give us the ability to reject cluster interlopers, and 3) serve as a strong redshift prior to search for weak CO lines. We securely detect two cluster members in CO(1-0) at the expected frequency given the grism redshifts. This nearly doubles the number of published CO(1-0) detections of normal star-forming galaxies at high redshift. These two galaxies are massive, with log(Mstar~11) and extremely gas rich (Mgas/Mbaryon~0.6-0.7). One hosts a non-energetically important x-ray AGN and the other is an edge-on star-forming disk. Despite their very large gas reservoirs they are forming stars at a sedate pace for their stellar mass and lie on or below the main star formation sequence. Coupling with rest-frame optical size measurements from CANDELS we are able to measure the star formation rate and molecular gas surface densities and find that these two galaxies are at the very low end of star formation efficiency for high redshift star forming galaxies. Our molecular gas masses are unusually robust as we use the CO(1-0) line, which has minimal excitation corrections compared to higher CO transitions. I will comment on the implications of this interesting finding for understanding the truncation of gas accretion onto distant cluster galaxies, the end of star formation in the massive cluster galaxy population, and the biases in existing CO surveys that target galaxies based primarily on their star formation rates.

  7. A novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquids by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Li-Ping; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Hui-Chao; Barnes, Donald G

    2014-09-05

    This work demonstrates a novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquid (polymer-enriched) samples. The method is based multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) on a headspace vial at a temperature above boiling point of water. Thus, the trend of water loss from the tested liquid due to evaporation can be followed. With the limited MHE-GC testing (e.g., 5 extractions) and a one-point calibration procedure (i.e., recording the weight difference before and after analysis), the total amount of water in the sample can be determined, from which the total solid contents in the liquid can be calculated. A number of black liquors were analyzed by the new method which yielded results that closely matched those of the reference method; i.e., the results of these two methods differed by no more than 2.3%. Compared with the reference method, the MHE-GC method is much simpler and more practical. Therefore, it is suitable for the rapid determination of the solid content in many polymer-containing liquid samples.

  8. Degradation products of different water content sevoflurane in carbon dioxide absorbents by gas chromatogpy-mass spectromerty analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; LI Yi-cong; ZHANG Yi-nan; LIU Shu-jie; ZHOU Yan-mei; WANG Chang-song; GONG Yu-lei; LI En-you

    2011-01-01

    Background Sevoflurane is currently used as a volatile inhalation anesthetic with many clinical advantages. A representative degradation product,compound A,was quantitatively measured to investigate whether there are different reactions between two kinds of water content sevoflurane formulations with different carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents.Methods A closed-circle breathe bag with the Dr(a)ger Fabius GS anesthesia apparatus was used as an artificial rubber lung. The experiments were grouped according to different sevoflurane formulations:group A:higher-water sevoflurane (Ultane);group B:lower-water sevoflurane (Sevoness). During the experiment,CO2 (200 ml/min) was continually perfused to keep the end-tidal pressure of CO2 (PETCO2)at 35-45 mmHg. The artificial ventilation was set to 6 L/min,and the breathing rate at 12 breaths/min. The circuit was operated with constant fresh gas flow rate (1 L/min) and the sevoflurane concentration was kept at 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for 240 minutes. At 0,10,20,30,60,90,120,180 and 240 minutes,gas was collected from the Y-piece. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)was used to quantify the major degradation product,compound A,with different water content sevoflurane. PETCO2 and sevoflurane concentration,and the temperature of the canister were continuously monitored during the experiment.Results There were no significant differences in PETCO2 and sevoflurane concentrations between the two groups.Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus produced the highest concentrations of compound A compared with other sodalimes,and Sevoness in Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus generated more compound A than Ultane (P <0.05). There were significant differences in the peak and average compound A concentrations between Ultane and Sevoness with Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus (P <0.05),while the compound A concentration produced by Sodasorb grase and sofonolime in the two groups showed no significant difference (P >0.05). In the same group,the peak and

  9. Analysis of the relationship between the volumetric soil moisture content and the NDVI from high resolution multi-spectral images for definition of vineyard management zones to improve irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.; Ramos, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    As suggested by previous research in the field of precision viticulture, intra-field yield variability is dependent on the variation of soil properties, and in particular the soil moisture content. Since the mapping in detail of this soil property for precision viticulture applications is highly costly, the objective of the present research is to analyse its relationship with the normalised difference vegetation index from high resolution satellite images to the use it in the definition of vineyard zonal management. The final aim is to improve irrigation in commercial vineyard blocks for better management of inputs and to deliver a more homogeneous fruit to the winery. The study was carried out in a vineyard block located in Raimat (NE Spain, Costers del Segre Designation of Origin). This is a semi-arid area with continental Mediterranean climate and a total annual precipitation between 300-400 mm. The vineyard block (4.5 ha) is planted with Syrah vines in a 3x2 m pattern. The vines are irrigated by means of drips under a partial root drying schedule. Initially, the irrigation sectors had a quadrangular distribution, with a size of about 1 ha each. Yield is highly variable within the block, presenting a coefficient of variation of 24.9%. For the measurement of the soil moisture content a regular sampling grid of 30 x 40 m was defined. This represents a sample density of 8 samples ha-1. At the nodes of the grid, TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer) probe tubes were permanently installed up to the 80 cm or up to reaching a contrasting layer. Multi-temporal measures were taken at different depths (each 20 cm) between November 2006 and December 2007. For each date, a map of the variability of the profile soil moisture content was interpolated by means of geostatistical analysis: from the measured values at the grid points the experimental variograms were computed and modelled and global block kriging (10 m squared blocks) undertaken with a grid spacing of 3 m x 3 m. On the

  10. Probing the gas content of radio galaxies through HI absorption stacking

    CERN Document Server

    Gereb, K; Oosterloo, T

    2014-01-01

    Using the WSRT, we carried out shallow HI absorption observations of a flux-selected (S > 50 mJy) sample of 93 radio AGN with available SDSS redshifts between 0.02 < z < 0.23. We study the gas properties of radio AGN down to fluxes not systematically explored before using, for the first time, stacking of extragalactic HI absorption. Despite the shallow observations, we obtained a direct detection rate of ~29%, comparable with deeper studies. Detections are found at every flux level, showing that HI absorption detections are not biased toward brighter sources. The stacks of detections and non-detections reveal a clear dichotomy in the presence of HI, with the 27 detections showing an average peak {\\tau} = 0.02, while the 66 non-detections remain undetected with an upper limit {\\tau} < 0.002. Separating the sample into compact and extended AGN increases the detection rate, {\\tau}, and FWHM for the compact sample. The dichotomy for the stacked profiles of detections and non-detections still holds betwee...

  11. Determination of ethanol content in medicated syrups by static headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzar, Elźbieta; Wodnicka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Liquid drug preparations are the most convenient for pediatric patients. Unfortunately, these formulations very often contain ethanol, which may have an impact on children development. Moreover, medicines containing alcohol may cause undesirable interactions in conjunction with other drugs. This work reports complete validated method for the quantitation of ethanol in commercial medicated syrups. For determination of ethanol headspace gas chromatography and different methods of quantitative analysis were used. The analyzed samples of commercial medicated syrups available on the home marked contained from 3.37 to 8.65% (v/v) of ethanol. The estimated theoretical values of blood ethanol concentration for children after single recommended dose ingestion were at least twice lower than 0.125 g/mL. The process of validation showed that the applied GC method is selective, sensitive, linear and precise. The use of internal standard makes it accurate. The developed method could be considered as an analytical tool for the quality control of various liquid drug preparations.

  12. Probing the gas content of radio galaxies through H I absorption stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2014-09-01

    Using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, we carried out shallow H i absorption observations of a flux-selected (S1.4 GHz > 50 mJy) sample of 93 radio active galactic nuclei (AGN), which have available SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) redshifts between 0.02 reinforces the idea that young radio AGN are embedded in a medium that is rich in atomic gas. Part of our motivation is to probe for the presence of faint H i outflows at low optical depth using stacking. However, the stacked profiles do not reveal any significant blueshifted wing. We are currently collecting more data to investigate the presence of outflows. The results presented in this paper are particularly relevant for future surveys in two ways. The lack of bias toward bright sources is encouraging for the search for H i in sources with even lower radio fluxes planned by such surveys. The results also represent a reference point when searching for H i absorption at higher redshifts.

  13. The Dynamics and Cold Gas Content of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privon, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the most luminous galaxies in the local universe are understood to be the product of mergers and interactions between disk galaxies. These encounters trigger enhanced star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes; the bulk of which is hidden behind significant extinction from dust. Dynamical simulations matched to individual systems can provide great insight into the merger-driven activity by placing objects on a dynamically-determined merger timeline and by enabling follow-up hydrodynamic simulations which can be used to compare simulations directly with observations. New dynamical models will be presented for luminous infrared galaxies drawn from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG survey, along with a dynamically-motivated merger stage classification system; these are facilitating a detailed comparison of simulated and observed properties of star formation. New observations of the cold ISM in these systems will also be shown,investigating the influence of AGN activity on tracers of high density (> 10^5 cm^-3) molecular gas.

  14. VALES - III. The calibration between the dust continuum and interstellar gas content of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. M.; Ibar, E.; Villanueva, V.; Aravena, M.; Baes, M.; Bourne, N.; Cooray, A.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Ivison, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Lara-López, M. A.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Smith, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; van der Werf, P.; Viaene, S.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2017-06-01

    We present the calibration between the dust continuum luminosity and interstellar gas content obtained from the Valparaíso ALMA Line Emission Survey (VALES) sample of 67 main-sequence star-forming galaxies at 0.02 Assembly survey. Adopting αCO = 6.5 (K km s-1 pc2)-1, the average ratio of L_{ν _{850}}/MH2 = (6.4 ± 1.4)× 1019 erg s-1 Hz-1 M_{⊙}^{-1}, in excellent agreement with literature values. We obtain a linear fit of log _{10} ({M}_{H2}/{M_{⊙}}) = (0.92± 0.02) log _{10} (L_{ν _{850}}/{erg s^{-1} Hz^{-1}})-(17.31± 0.59). We provide relations between L_{ν _{850}}, MH2 and MISM when combining the VALES and literature samples, and adopting a Galactic αCO value.

  15. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  16. The Molecular Gas Content of z<0.1 Radio Galaxies: Linking the AGN Accretion Mode to Host Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V

    2011-01-01

    One of the main achievements in modern cosmology is the so-called `unified model', which successfully describes most classes of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within a single physical scheme. However, there is a particular class of radio-luminous AGN that presently cannot be explained within this framework -- the `low-excitation' radio AGN (LERAGN). Recently, a scenario has been put forward which predicts that LERAGN, and their regular `high-excitation' radio AGN (HERAGN) counterparts represent different (red sequence vs. green valley) phases of galaxy evolution. These different evolutionary states are also expected to be reflected in their host galaxy properties, in particular their cold gas content. To test this, here we present CO(1-0) observations toward a sample of 11 of these systems conducted with CARMA. Combining our observations with literature data, we derive molecular gas masses (or upper limits) for a complete, representative, sample of 21 z<0.1 radio AGN. Our results yield that HERAGN on average...

  17. Development of Criteria for Flashback Propensity in Jet Flames for High Hydrogen Content and Natural Gas Type Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantari, Alireza [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sullivan-Lewis, Elliot [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); McDonell, Vincent [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when hydrogen is used as the fuel. In fact, flashback is a key operability issue associated with low emission combustion of high hydrogen content fuels. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Hence, design tools to predict flashback propensity are of interest. Such a design tool has been developed based on the data gathered by experimental study to predict boundary layer flashback using non-dimensional parameters. The flashback propensity of a premixed jet flame has been studied experimentally. Boundary layer flashback has been investigated under turbulent flow conditions at elevated pressures and temperatures (i.e. 3 atm to 8 atm and 300 K to 500 K). The data presented in this study are for hydrogen fuel at various Reynolds numbers, which are representative of practical gas turbine premixer conditions and are significantly higher than results currently available in the literature. Three burner heads constructed of different materials (stainless steel, copper, and zirconia ceramic) were used to evaluate the effect of tip temperature, a parameter found previously to be an important factor in triggering flashback. This study characterizes flashback systematically by developing a comprehensive non-dimensional model which takes into account all effective parameters in boundary layer flashback propensity. The model was optimized for new data and captures the behavior of the new results well. Further, comparison of the model with the single existing study of high pressure jet flame flashback also indicates good agreement. The model developed using the high pressure test rig is able to predict flashback tendencies for a commercial gas turbine engine and can thus serve as a

  18. EVOLUTION IN THE H I GAS CONTENT OF GALAXY GROUPS: PRE-PROCESSING AND MASS ASSEMBLY IN THE CURRENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Kelley M. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Wilcots, Eric M., E-mail: hess@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen (H I) content and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent dark matter halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey α.40 data release allows us, for the first time, to study the H I properties of over 740 galaxy groups in the volume of sky common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and ALFALFA surveys. We assigned ALFALFA H I detections a group membership based on an existing magnitude/volume-limited SDSS Data Release 7 group/cluster catalog. Additionally, we assigned group ''proximity' membership to H I detected objects whose optical counterpart falls below the limiting optical magnitude—thereby not contributing substantially to the estimate of the group stellar mass, but significantly to the total group H I mass. We find that only 25% of the H I detected galaxies reside in groups or clusters, in contrast to approximately half of all optically detected galaxies. Further, we plot the relative positions of optical and H I detections in groups as a function of parent dark matter halo mass to reveal strong evidence that H I is being processed in galaxies as a result of the group environment: as optical membership increases, groups become increasingly deficient of H I rich galaxies at their center and the H I distribution of galaxies in the most massive groups starts to resemble the distribution observed in comparatively more extreme cluster environments. We find that the lowest H I mass objects lose their gas first as they are processed in the group environment, and it is evident that the infall of gas rich objects is important to the continuing growth of large scale structure at the present epoch, replenishing the neutral gas supply of groups. Finally, we compare our results to those of cosmological simulations and find that current models cannot simultaneously predict the H I selected halo occupation distribution for both low and high mass halos.

  19. [Effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in Eucalyptus plantations with different soil organic carbon content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Da; Zhang, Kai; Su, Dan; Lu, Fei; Wan, Wu-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Zheng, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen deposition on soil greenhouse gases fluxes has been well studied, while little has been piloted about the effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes and its discrepancy with different soil organic carbon content. In our study, we conducted field control experiment in a young Eucalyptus plantation in Southeast China. We compared the effects of 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (Control: 0 kg · hm(-2); Low N: 84.2 kg · hm(-2); Medium N: 166.8 kg · hm(-2); High N: 333.7 kg · hm(-2)) on soil GHGs fluxes from 2 sites (LC and HC) with significantly different soil organic carbon (SOC) content (P Fertilization had significant priming effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes. One month after fertilization, both CO2 and N2O had the flux peak and decreased gradually, and the difference among the treatments disappeared at the end of the growing season. However, fertilization had no significant effect on CH4 oxidation between the 2 sites. (2) Fertilization and SOC were two crucial factors that had significant effects on CO2 and N2O emission. Fertilization had a significant positive effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes (P 0.05). The CO2 and N2O emission fluxes were significantly higher in HC than those in LC (P Fertilization and SOC had great interactive effect on CO2 and N2O emission (P fertilization on soil GHGs fluxes were not only in connection with the intensify of nitrogen, but also closely tied to the SOC content. When we assess the effects of nitrogen on soil GHGs fluxes, the difference induced by SOC should not be ignored.

  20. On the Uncertain Future of the Volumetric 3D Display Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.

    2017-06-01

    Volumetric displays permit electronically processed images to be depicted within a transparent physical volume and enable a range of cues to depth to be inherently associated with image content. Further, images can be viewed directly by multiple simultaneous observers who are able to change vantage positions in a natural way. On the basis of research to date, we assume that the technologies needed to implement useful volumetric displays able to support translucent image formation are available. Consequently, in this paper we review aspects of the volumetric paradigm and identify important issues which have, to date, precluded their successful commercialization. Potentially advantageous characteristics are outlined and demonstrate that significant research is still needed in order to overcome barriers which continue to hamper the effective exploitation of this display modality. Given the recent resurgence of interest in developing commercially viable general purpose volumetric systems, this discussion is of particular relevance.

  1. The effects of dimensional mould sizes on volumetric shrinkage strain of lateritic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engbonye SANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional influences of specimen size on the volumetric shrinkage strain values of a lateritic soil for waste containment system have not been researched upon. Therefore, this paper presents the result of a laboratory study on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS of lateritic soil at three different dimensional sizes of mould (split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL, West African standard (WAS and British standard heavy (BSH respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2% to +6% optimum moisture content (OMC. At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS suggested by Tay et al., (2001. Based on the VSS values obtained if the CBR mould can be used to model site condition it is recommended for use to simulate site condition for Volumetric shrinkage strain for all molding water content and compactive effort.

  2. Radon-222 content of natural gas samples from Upper and Middle Devonian sandstone and shale reservoirs in Pennsylvania—preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Samples of natural gas were collected as part of a study of formation water chemistry in oil and gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin. Nineteen samples (plus two duplicates) were collected from 11 wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sandstones and the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania. The samples were collected from valves located between the wellhead and the gas-water separator. Analyses of the radon content of the gas indicated 222Rn (radon-222) activities ranging from 1 to 79 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) with an overall median of 37 pCi/L. The radon activities of the Upper Devonian sandstone samples overlap to a large degree with the activities of the Marcellus Shale samples.

  3. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  4. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  6. 富氧燃煤锅炉烟气再循环方式选择与水分平衡计算%Mode Selection of Flue Gas Recirculation and Balance Calculation of Water Vapor Content for Oxy-Coal Combustion Boilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎维平; 董静兰; 马凯

    2011-01-01

    Taking the 300 MW oxy-coal combustion boiler as an object of study,the water vapor content in flue gas and the auxiliary power consumption were calculated and compared,at different modes of secondary flue gas recirculation,with the flue gas dehydrated by DCC method or dehydrated and desulphurized by FGD+DCC process.Results show that when the flue gas is merely dehydrated by DCC,if dehydration is not applied in the secondary flue gas recirculation,the volumetric fraction of water vapor in flue gas from oxy-coal combustion system will be 10%-15% higher than that from air combustion;if dehydration is applied in the secondary flue gas recirculation,the former one will be 3% higher than the latter one.Whereas in a FGD+DCC arrangement,when both desulphurization and dehydration are applied in the secondary flue gas recirculation,the water vapor content in flue gas will be slightly higher than that only DCC is used and no dehydration is adopted in the secondary flue gas recirculation.At a recirculating water temperature of 30 ℃,the volumetric fraction of water vapor at DCC outlet is about 4.28%.The total power consumption of fan reaches the minimum under single DCC condition at the mode of dry flue gas recirculation.%在不同的二次烟气再循环方式下,以300 MW富氧燃烧锅炉机组为例,对分别采用直接接触式冷却器(DCC)进行烟气脱水和湿式脱硫(FGD)与DCC串联进行烟气脱硫及脱水的富氧燃烧系统详细计算并比较了烟气中水蒸气体积分数的变化,并计算和比较了各种布置方式下的风机功耗.结果表明:单独采用DCC脱水情况下,锅炉烟气水蒸气体积分数比空气燃烧方式下高10%-15%;二次循环烟气脱水时,锅炉烟气中的水蒸气含量比空气燃烧方式下高约3%;FGD与DCC串联布置时的锅炉流通烟气水蒸气含量略高于采用单独DCC时二次循环烟气脱水的水蒸气含量;电厂循环水温度为30℃时,DCC出口烟气理

  7. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  8. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  9. The ATLAS3D project - XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet, sin

  10. The ATLAS(3D) project : XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet, sin

  11. 高含CO2气井产能计算新方法%A new method of productivity prediction for high CO2-content gas wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严谨; 刘传喜

    2011-01-01

    Productivity of gas wells in Songnan volcanic gas reservoir is difficult to predict as high CO2 content has great influences on PVT of natural gas, resulting in large difference between the measured and predicted productivity. Based on laboratory experiments, this paper studied the effects of temperature, pressure and CO2 content on PVT of gas with high CO2 content and established the relational expressions of gas viscosity and Z-facto to pressure for gas with different CO2 contents. A new prediction model considering PVT variations of gas with high CO2 content was built based on gas percolation theory. The case study results indicate that the productivity reduces with the CO2 content increasing; the effect of Μz factor changes on productivity prediction should be considered when CO2 content is above 20 %; and the impacts of CO2 content on productivity lowers to a level that can be neglect in late production period. The new method is accurate and practical for the high CO2-content gas reservoirs.%松南火山岩气藏高含CO2,这种气体的存在对天然气的高压物性产生很大影响,使得气井产能预测与实际相差较大.在高含CO2气体高压物性分析(PVT)实验的基础上,研究了温度、压力和CO2含量对天然气高压物性参数的影响规律,建立了不同CO2含量下天然气粘度和偏差因子与压力的相关关系,并结合气体渗流理论建立了考虑高含CO2天然气高压物性变化的产能预测新模型.实例计算表明:①气井产能随着CO2含量的增高而降低;②当CO2含量大于20%时,气井产能评价必须考虑μΖ值(天然气粘度与偏差因子的乘积)变化的影响;③开发中后期可以忽略CO2含量对气井产能的影响.新的产能计算方法能反映CO2含量对产能计算的影响,精确度更高,对于高含CO2天然气田的产能评价和生产制度的制定具有重要的指导意义.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  13. Effects of nitrogen and hydrogen in argon shielding gas on bead profile, delta-ferrite and nitrogen contents of the pulsed GTAW welds of AISI 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyanit, Ekkarut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Pathaumthani (Thailand). Failure Analysis and Surface Technology Lab; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkom University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering,; Phakpeetinan, Panyasak; Chianpairot, Amnuysak

    2016-08-01

    The general effects of 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol.-% nitrogen and 1, 5 and 10 vol.-% hydrogen in argon shielding gas on weld bead profile (depth/width ratio: D/W) and the δ-ferrite content of AISI 316L pulsed GTAW welds were investigated. The limits for imperfections for the quality levels of welds were based on ISO 5817 B. The plates with a thickness of 6 mm were welded at the flat position and the bead on plate. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the D/W ratio. Excessive hydrogen addition to argon shielding gas will result in incompletely filled groove and excessive penetration of weld. Increasing welding speed decreases the weld-metal volume and the D/W ratios. Nitrogen addition to argon shielding gas has no effect on the D/W ratio. The addition of a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to argon shielding gas on the D/W ratio does not show any interaction between them. An effect on the D/W ratio can be exclusively observed as a function of hydrogen content. Increasing hydrogen content in argon shielding gas increases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. Increasing either nitrogen content in shielding gas or welding speed decreases the δ-ferrite content of weld metal. The nitrogen addition increases the weld metal nitrogen content, however, the hydrogen addition leads to a decrease of weld metal nitrogen content.

  14. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  15. Construction of a dispositive with adsorption to determine the natural gas humidity contents; Desenvolvimento de um dispositivo com adsorcao para determinacao do teor de umidade do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Geraldine A.S.; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Medeiros, Gilsom G. de; Dantas Neto, Afonso A.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Cavalcanti Neto, Avelino Q. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The natural gas is an energy resource with many applications. Researches have been developed to improve its quality and for specification of its components in accordance with ANP standards. The presence of pollutants (CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) demands that the gas suffers previous treatment, before being submitted to the separation process. The water in the gas provokes the hydrates formation and this can cause serious operation problems. The gases received in the collecting stations contains water at approximately 600 ppmv. According to the ANP standard 104/2002, the gas must present in its composition 125 ppmv of water to be sell. The search for humidity analyzers for gases with accuracy motivated this work. The construction of a device based on ASTM D - 4178/82 (revised in 1999), had the objective to create a calibrate for humidity analyzers, based on patterns of amount of known water. The dosage of water is made by adsorption with molecular sieve type 4A-513, 4-8 mesh and 8-12 mesh. The developed device will allow calibration rehearsals, experiments of adsorption in function of the temperature, flow, adsorbent, as well as the most necessary knowledge of the of water amount in the process. (author)

  16. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated as a fun...... is increased. Altogether, the model is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for a quantitative analysis of the effect of process conditions. Based on the presented findings and considerations, examples of future work are mentioned for the further improvement of the model.......The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...

  17. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.

  18. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  19. Oil and gas generation potential of different age sediments of the transcarpathian depression according to TOC content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Андрійович Локтєв

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of views on genesis of natural gases in the depths of Transcarpathian depression is given in the article. Besides another aspect that is mentioned is definition of potential source rocks of oil and gas within the depression by the analysis of the cores on TOC amount and oil and gas generation potential of Miocene thicknesses of sediments as well as preneogene basement

  20. Transient Simulation Of A Solar-Hybrid Tower Power Plant With Open Volumetric Receiver At The Location Barstow

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this work the transient simulations of four hybrid solar tower power plant concepts with open-volumetric receiver technology for a location in Barstow-Daggett, USA, are presented. The open-volumetric receiver uses ambient air as heat transfer fluid and the hybridization is realized with a gas turbine. The Rankine cycle is heated by solar-heated air and/or by the gas turbine’s flue gases. The plant can be operated in solar-only, hybrid parallel or combined cycle-only mode as well a...

  1. Sampling and TDR probe insertion in the determination of the volumetric soil water content Procedimentos de amostragem e do modo de inserção no solo de sondas TDR na determinação da umidade volumétrica do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric soil water content (theta can be evaluated in the field by direct or indirect methods. Among the direct, the gravimetric method is regarded as highly reliable and thus often preferred. Its main disadvantages are that sampling and laboratory procedures are labor intensive, and that the method is destructive, which makes resampling of a same point impossible. Recently, the time domain reflectometry (TDR technique has become a widely used indirect, non-destructive method to evaluate theta. In this study, evaluations of the apparent dielectric number of soils (epsilon and samplings for the gravimetrical determination of the volumetric soil water content (thetaGrav were carried out at four sites of a Xanthic Ferralsol in Manaus - Brazil. With the obtained epsilon values, theta was estimated using empirical equations (thetaTDR, and compared with thetaGrav derived from disturbed and undisturbed samples. The main objective of this study was the comparison of thetaTDR estimates of horizontally as well as vertically inserted probes with the thetaGrav values determined by disturbed and undisturbed samples. Results showed that thetaTDR estimates of vertically inserted probes and the average of horizontally measured layers were only slightly and insignificantly different. However, significant differences were found between the thetaTDR estimates of different equations and between disturbed and undisturbed samples in the thetaGrav determinations. The use of the theoretical Knight et al. model, which permits an evaluation of the soil volume assessed by TDR probes, is also discussed. It was concluded that the TDR technique, when properly calibrated, permits in situ, nondestructive measurements of q in Xanthic Ferralsols of similar accuracy as the gravimetric method.A umidade volumétrica do solo (teta no campo pode ser avaliada por métodos diretos e indiretos. Dentre os métodos diretos, o gravimétrico é considerado altamente confiável e, conseq

  2. Gas flow measurement using laminar flow elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, J. [Meriam Instrument, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An instrument that measures gas volumetric flow rate using a capillary tube laminar-flow principle is described. Irs construction, operation, accuracy, and rangeability are presented. Discussion includes integrating the differential-pressure-producing flowmeter with appropriate temperature find pressure devices to produce a digital flowmeter system capable of measuring volumetric and mass flow rates. Typical applications are described.

  3. Improving reservoir volumetric estimations in petroleum resource assessment using discovery process models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhuoheng; Osadetz Kirk G.

    2009-01-01

    The reservoir volumetric approach represents a widely accepted, but flawed method of petroleum play resource calculation.In this paper, we propose a combination of techniques that can improve the applicability and quality of the resource estimation.These techniques include: 1) the use of the Multivariate Discovery Process model (MDP) to derive unbiased distribution parameters of reservoir volumetric variables and to reveal correlations among the variables; 2) the use of the Geo-anchored method to estimate simultaneously the number of oil and gas pools in the same play; and 3) the cross-validation of assessment results from different methods.These techniques are illustrated by using an example of crude oil and natural gas resource assessment of the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Archipelago.The example shows that when direct volumetric measurements of the untested prospects are not available, the MDP model can help derive unbiased estimates of the distribution parameters by using information from the discovered oil and gas accumulations.It also shows that an estimation of the number of oil and gas accumulations and associated size ranges from a discovery process model can provide an alternative and efficient approach when inadequate geological data hinder the estimation.Cross-examination of assessment results derived using different methods allows one to focus on and analyze the causes for the major differences, thus providing a more reliable assessment outcome.

  4. The Molecular Gas Contents Of Z=1.6 (Proto)-Cluster Galaxies And Their Last Gasp Of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Gregory

    2017-06-01

    In this talk I present two related topics. First, I discuss the constraints on the quenching efficiency and the age in stellar populations that we derive from deep HST G102 and G141 grism observations in a z=1.62 proto-cluster galaxy. We use the grism data to establish unambiguous membership for passive and star-forming galaxies and to measure the strength of the 4000-Angstrom break strength. We find a strongly mass-dependent passive fraction that is in excess of the field at the highest stellar masses. However, the strength of D4000 for passive galaxies is independent of mass and we interpret this as a lack of strong trends of stellar age with mass. We discuss possible explanations for our observations that there is no stellar age trend although more massive galaxies clearly quench more efficiently than lower mass galaxies. We then discuss the molecular gas properties in a set of 4 clusters at z=1.6. We find that most galaxies have gas fractions that are elevated with respect to the field for galaxies at similar redshift, stellar mass, and star formation rate. However, there is a significant cluster-to-cluster dispersion with galaxies in one cluster having molecular gas properties indistinguishable from the field. There is also some suggestion that the most quenched clusters have the lowest gas fractions but this requires more cluster molecular gas data to confirm this tentative picture.

  5. Molecular gas content in strongly-lensed z~1.5-3 star-forming galaxies with low IR luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Schaerer, D; Combes, F; Egami, E; Swinbank, A M; Richard, J; Sklias, P; Rawle, T D; Rex, M; Kneib, J -P; Boone, F; Blain, A

    2014-01-01

    To extend the molecular gas measurements to typical star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with SFR 1. The combined sample of CO-detected SFGs at z>1 shows a large spread in star formation efficiency (SFE), such that SFE extend beyond the low values of local spirals and overlap the distribution of z>1 sub-mm galaxies. We find that the spread in SFE (or equivalently in molecular gas depletion timescale) is due to primarily the specific star formation rate, but also stellar mass and redshift. Correlations of SFE with the offset from the main-sequence and the compactness of the starburst are less clear. The increase of the molecular gas depletion timescale with M* now revealed by low M* SFGs at z>1 is opposed to the admitted constant molecular gas depletion timescale and the linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We confirm an increase of the molecular gas fraction (fgas) from z~0.2 to z~1.2, followed by a quasi non-evolution toward higher redshifts. At each redshift fgas shows a large dispersion due to the dependence of fgas...

  6. Effects of void size and gas content on electrical breakdown in lightweight, mechanically compliant, void-filled dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. A.; Lagasse, R. R.; Russick, E. M.; Schroeder, J. L.

    2002-03-01

    Dielectric potting materials (encapsulants) are used to prevent air breakdown in high-voltage electrical devices. We report breakdown strengths in void-filled encapsulants, stressed with unipolar voltage pulses of the order of 10 μs duration. High strengths, on the order of 100 kV mm-1, are measured under these test conditions. The materials studied include low-density open celled gel-derived foams with cell sizes of 4 μm or less, closed celled CO2-blown polystyrene and urethane foams, and epoxies containing 48 vol % of hollow glass microballoon (GMB) fillers. These last specimens varied the void gas (N2 or SO2) and also the void diameters (tens to hundreds of μm). Our measurements are thought to be directly sensitive to the rate of field-induced ionization events in the void gas; however, the breakdown strengths of the materials tested appeared to vary in direct proportion with the conventional Paschen-law gas-discharge inception threshold, the electric stress at which gas-ionization avalanches become possible. The GMB-epoxy specimens displayed this type of dependence of breakdown strength on the void-gas density and void size, but the measurements were an order of magnitude above the conventional predictions. Small-celled foams also showed increased breakdown strengths with decreased cell size, although their irregular void geometry prevented a direct comparison with the more uniformly structured microballoon-filled encapsulants. The experimental observations are consistent with a breakdown mechanism in which the discharge of a few voids can launch a full breakdown in the composite material.

  7. Two-dimensional gas chromatography and trilinear partial least squares for the quantitative analysis of aromatic and naphthene content in naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazen, B J; Johnson, K J; Weber, A; Synovec, R E

    2001-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of naphtha samples is demonstrated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) and chemometrics. This work is aimed at providing a GC system for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of complex process streams for process monitoring and control. The high-speed GC x GC analysis of naphtha is accomplished through short GC columns, high carrier gas velocities, and partial chromatographic peak resolution followed by multivariate quantitative analysis. Six min GC x GC separations are analyzed with trilinear partial least squares (tri-PLS) to predict the aromatic and naphthene (cycloalkanes) content of naphtha samples. The 6-min GC x GC separation time is over 16 times faster than a single-GC-column standard method in which a single-column separation resolves the aromatic and naphthene compounds in naphtha and predicts the aromatic and naphthene percent concentrations through addition of the resolved signals. Acceptable quantitative precision is provided by GC x GC/tri-PLS.

  8. Design of breath gas alcohol content detector remote monitoring system%呼出气体酒精含量远程监测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋; 李宁; 张崇军; 郑建利; 刘金峰

    2015-01-01

    设计了一种呼出气体酒精含量远程监测系统,该系统将手持式智能终端与呼出气体酒精含量检测仪通过蓝牙进行连接,引入正负压检测吹气、根据设备编号和身份信息核实被测试者身份、比对被测试者脸部图像与预置信息是否一致等采样防作弊设计以保证数据采集的可靠性,结合后台服务器的数据处理,实现了对被测试者呼出气体酒精含量的有效远程监测。实践证明,该系统操作简单、数据准确,对控制驾驶员饮酒行为、防止二次犯罪的发生有积极作用。%A breath gas alcohol content remote monitoring system was designed.The system connected hand-held intelligent terminal and breath gas alcohol content detector through the bluetooth,introduced preset sampling anti-cheating designs such as positive pressure and negative pressure blowing detection, verified subjects identity according to equipment number and identity information,and compared subjects'facial image with preset information to ensure the reliability of data collection.Combined with the data pro-cessing of backend server,the subjects'breath gas alcohol content remote monitoring was effectively real-ized.Practice proved that the system was simple in operation and accurate in data and it had a positive effect on controlling the driver's drinking behavior and preventing secondary crime.

  9. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E. [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); Keeser, D. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innenstadtkliniken Medical Centre, Munich (Germany)

    2014-10-16

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  11. X-ray visualisation and dissolved gas quantification: multiphase flow research and development at NEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Andrew R.W.; Corlett, Anne E.

    1997-07-01

    NEL is actively investigating new techniques for the measurement of multiphase flows. This paper describes two such investigations, an X-ray system to visualise three-phase flows and a manometric/volumetric system to quantify the dissolved gas content of oil/gas flows. The X-ray system was used in both horizontal and vertical flows, covering slug, annular and bubble flow regimes. Also covered were stratified (horizontal only) and churn (vertical only) flows. The system was able to provide visualisation of features not visible in flows with low water cut (due to poor light transmission through oil) and therefore increased the understanding of three-phase flow behaviour. Quantifying the amount of dissolved gas within a hydrocarbon oil is of importance to the oil industry due to the problems associated with the artificial decrease in density of a gas filled oil and the effects of gas breakout. The present study found that the gas uptake by the oil was highly dependent on the following factors; volumetric gas fraction, line pressure and liquid flowrate. The underlying water cut of the oil also appeared to have an effect. (author)

  12. A CO survey in planet-forming disks: Characterizing the gas content in the epoch of planet formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, A. S.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Dent, W. F. R.; Phillips, N. [Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355 Santiago (Chile); Montesinos, B. [Department of Astrophysics, Centre for Astrobiology (CAB, CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Casassus, S.; Garay, G.; Mardones, D.; Pérez, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Dougados, C.; Ménard, F. [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, France (UMI 3386) (France); Eiroa, C. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Hughes, A. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Palau, Aina [Institut de Ciéncies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciéncies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Torrelles, J. M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Wilner, D., E-mail: ahales@alma.cl [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We carried out a {sup 12}CO(3-2) survey of 52 southern stars with a wide range of IR excesses (L {sub IR}/L {sub *}) using the single-dish telescopes APEX and ASTE. The main aims were (1) to characterize the evolution of molecular gas in circumstellar disks using L {sub IR}/L {sub *} values as a proxy of disk dust evolution, and (2) to identify new gas-rich disk systems suitable for detailed study with ALMA. About 60% of the sample (31 systems) have L {sub IR}/L {sub *} > 0.01, typical of T Tauri or Herbig AeBe stars, and the rest (21 systems) have L {sub IR}/L {sub *} < 0.01, typical of debris disks. We detect CO(3-2) emission from 20 systems, and 18 (90%) of these have L {sub IR}/L {sub *} > 0.01. However, the spectra of only four of the newly detected systems appear free of contamination from background or foreground emission from molecular clouds. These include the early-type stars HD 104237 (A4/5V, 116 pc) and HD 98922 (A2 III, 507 pc, as determined in this work), where our observations reveal the presence of CO-rich circumstellar disks for the first time. Of the other detected sources, many could harbor gaseous circumstellar disks, but our data are inconclusive. For these two newly discovered gas-rich disks, we present radiative transfer models that simultaneously reproduce their spectral energy distributions and the {sup 12}CO(3-2) line profiles. For both of these systems, the data are fit well by geometrically flat disks, placing them in the small class of non-flaring disks with significant molecular gas reservoirs.

  13. INFLUENCE OF THE GAS-DENSITY ON THE GAS ENTRAINMENT RATE AND GAS HOLD-UP IN LOOP-VENTURI REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CRAMERS, PHMR; VANDIERENDONCK, LL; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a loop-venturi reactor were investigated using a downflow liquid jet ejector. Both the gas entrainment rate of the ejector and the gas hold-up in the main holding vessel were shown to be influenced by the gas density. The amount of volumetrically entrained gas as well as the gas

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE GAS-DENSITY ON THE GAS ENTRAINMENT RATE AND GAS HOLD-UP IN LOOP-VENTURI REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CRAMERS, PHMR; VANDIERENDONCK, LL; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a loop-venturi reactor were investigated using a downflow liquid jet ejector. Both the gas entrainment rate of the ejector and the gas hold-up in the main holding vessel were shown to be influenced by the gas density. The amount of volumetrically entrained gas as well as the gas

  15. 高含硫化氢天然气气侵时的溢流特性%Overflow behaviors of natural gas kick well.with high content of H2S gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝江; 宋荣荣; 王志远

    2012-01-01

    以四川某高含H2S气体的气井井身结构及钻井工况为基础,针对高含H2S气井溢流时的特点,考虑H2S在水中的溶解度,建立溢流期间环空各相流体的质量和动量守恒方程,并用有限差分法对方程进行求解.结果表明:H2S在井底的溶解度远大于CH4的,在距井口约360 m开始大量析出;H2S的含量越高,气体在上升过程中密度变化越大,气体开始剧烈膨胀的位置越接近井口;井底侵入气体量相同的情况下,H2S的含量越高,气体的膨胀倍数越大,泥浆池增量也越大,同时,刚开始气侵时H2S含量越高气相的体积分数越小,而到达井口后H2S的含量越高气相的体积分数越大,导致溢流检测的难度和井控的危险程度增加;高含H2S气井溢流时井底压力的下降值、泥浆池增量、关井套压小于纯烃类的,不能反映真实的气侵程度,而且随着时间的增加情况会更严重;高含H2S气侵时压井过程中套压值与纯烃类的相差不大,因此可以在井口施加一定的压力,抑制H2S气体的膨胀,减缓井喷事故的发生.%Based on hole structure and drilling behavior of a gas well which has a high content of H2S gas in Sichuan, the conservation of mass equations and momentum equations were established considering overflow characteristics of high content of H2 S gas kick and H2 S solubility in water. And the equations were computed by using finite difference approach. The results show that the solubility of H2S is greater than that of CH4 at bottom hole, and H2S begins to separate at about 360 m a-way from wellhead. With the content of H2S increasing, the density change range increases during the gas going up, and the position of the gas dramatic expansion is close to the wellhead. When the gas kick volume is same at the bottom, the higher content of H2S, the greater gas expansion factor and pit gain, at the same time, the smaller gas volume fraction at the beginning , but greater when they

  16. Preliminary performance analysis of a transverse flow spectrally selective two-slab packed bed volumetric receiver

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Roos_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2694 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Roos_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 21st SolarPACES... International Conference (SolarPACES 2015), 13-16 October 2015 Preliminary Performance Analysis of a Transverse Flow Spectrally Selective Two-slab Packed Bed Volumetric Receiver Thomas H. Roos1, a) and Thomas M. Harms2, b) 1Aeronautical Systems...

  17. Isotopic evidence of TSR origin for natural gas bearing high H2S contents within the Feixianguan Formation of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guangyou; ZHANG Shuichang; LIANG Yingbo; DAI Jinxing; LI Jian

    2005-01-01

    The northeastern area of Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, is the area with the maximal reserve of natural gas containing higher hydrogen sulphide (H2S) that has been found among the petroliferous basins of China, with the proven and controlled gas reserve of more than 200 billion cubic meters. These gas pools, with higher H2S contents averaging 9%, some 17%, are mainly distributed on structural belts of Dukouhe, Tieshanpo, Luojiazhai, Puguang, etc., while the oolitic-shoal dolomite of the Triassic Feixianguan Fm. (T1f) is the reservoir. Although many scholars regard the plentiful accumulation of H2S within the deep carbonate reservoir as the result of Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction (TSR), however, the process of TSR as well as its residual geological and geochemical evidence is still not quite clear. Based on the carbon isotopic analysis of carbonate strata and secondary calcite, etc., together with the analysis of sulfur isotopes within H2S, sulphur, gypsum, iron pyrites, etc., as well as other aspects including the natural gas composition, carbon isotopes of hydrocarbons reservoir petrology, etc., it has been proved that the above natural gas is a product of TSR. The H2S, sulphur and calcite result from the participation of TSR reactions by hydrocarbon gas. During the process for hydrocarbons being consumed due to TSR, the carbons within the hydrocarbon gas participate in the reactions and finally are transferred into the secondary calcite, and become the carbon source of secondary calcite, consequently causing the carbon isotopes of the secondary calcite to be lower (-18.2‰). As for both the intermediate product of TSR, i.e. sulfur, and its final products, i.e. H2S and iron pyrites, their sulfur elements are all sourced from the sulfate within the Feixianguan Fm. During the fractional processes of sulfur isotopes, the bond energy leads to the 32S being released firstly, and the earlier it is released, the lower δ34S values for the generated sulphide (H2S

  18. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucie Barto(n)ová; Bohumír (C)ech; Lucie Ruppenthalová; Vendula Majvelderová; Dagmar Juchelková; Zdeněk Klika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S,CI,Br,As,Se,Cu,Ni,Zn,Ga,Ge,Rb,and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone.The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements.Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959),Cl (0.957),Cu (0.916),Se (0.898),Ni (0.866),As (0.861),Zn (0.742),Ge (0.717),and Ga (0.588) content.The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  19. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonová, Lucie; Cech, Bohumír; Ruppenthalová, Lucie; Majvelderová, Vendula; Juchelková, Dagmar; Klika, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S, Cl, Br, As, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Rb, and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone. The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements. Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959), Cl (0.957), Cu (0.916), Se (0.898), Ni (0.866), As (0.861), Zn (0.742), Ge (0.717), and Ga (0.588) content. The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  20. The cosmic-ray and gas content of the Cygnus region as measured in gamma rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The Cygnus region hosts a giant molecular-cloud complex which actively forms massive stars. Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and radiation fields make it shine at gamma-ray energies. Several gamma-ray pulsars and other energetic sources are seen in this direction. In this paper we analyse the gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV in order to probe the gas and cosmic-ray content over the scale of the whole Cygnus complex. The signal from bright pulsars is largely reduced by selecting photons in their off-pulse phase intervals. We compare the diffuse gamma-ray emission with interstellar gas maps derived from radio/mm-wave lines and visual extinction data, and a global model of the region, including other pulsars and gamma-ray sources, is sought. The integral HI emissivity and its spectral energy distribution are both consistent within the systematics with LAT measurements in the interstellar space near the solar system. The ave...

  1. A CO survey in planet-forming disks: characterizing the gas content in the epoch of planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, A S; Montesinos, B; Casassus, S; Dent, W F R; Dougados, C; Eiroa, C; Hughes, A M; Garay, G; Mardones, D; Ménard, F; Palau, Aina; Pérez, S; Phillips, N; Torrelles, J M; Wilner, D

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a 12CO(3-2) survey of 52 southern stars with a wide range of IR excesses (LIR/L*) using the single dish telescopes APEX and ASTE. The main aims were (1) to characterize the evolution of molecular gas in circumstellar disks using LIR/L* values as a proxy of disk dust evolution, and (2) to identify new gas-rich disk systems suitable for detailed study with ALMA. About 60% of the sample (31 systems) have LIR/L* > 0.01 typical of T-Tauri or Herbig AeBe stars, and the rest (21 systems) have LIR/L* 0.01. However, the spectra of only four of the newly detected systems appear free of contamination from background or foreground emission from molecular clouds. These include the early-type stars HD 104237 (A4/5V, 116 pc) and HD 98922 (A2 III, 507 pc, as determined in this work), where our observations reveal the presence of CO-rich circumstellar disks for the first time. Of the other detected sources, many could harbor gaseous circumstellar disks, but our data are inconclusive. For these two newly discov...

  2. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  3. Molecular Gas Content of an Extremely Star-forming Herschel Observed Lensed Dusty Galaxy at z=2.685

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha R.; H-ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of combined deep near-infrared, far infrared and millimeter observations of an extremely star forming lensed dusty star-forming galaxy (DSFG) identified from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The high redshift DSFG is gravitationally lensed by a massive WISE identified cluster at z~1 (spectroscopically confirmed with Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS) producing multiply lensed images and arcs observed in the optical. The DSFG is spectroscopically confirmed at z=2.685 from CO(1-0) observations by GBT and separately from CO(3-2) observations by CARMA. We use the combined spectroscopic and imaging observations to construct a detailed lens model of the background DSFG which allowed us to study the sources plane properties of the target. Multi-band data from Keck/NIRC2, HST/WFC3 and Herschel yields star formation rate and stellar mass well above the main sequence. Observations of the dust continuum by the Sub-millimeter Array yields an observed total ISM mass of 6.5E+11 M* which is responsible for the intense observed star formation rates. Comparing the measured SFR with molecular gas measurements from CO(1-0) observations reveals that this system has relatively short gas depletion time scale which is consistent with the starburst phase observed in high redshift sub-millimeter galaxies.

  4. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  5. A SUBDIVISION SCHEME FOR VOLUMETRIC MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GhulamMustafa; LiuXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed. The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models. The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joy's. This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes of nonmanifold topology.

  6. IMITATION OF STANDARD VOLUMETRIC ACTIVITY METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhukouski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific character of problems in the field of ionizing radiation spectroscopy, the R&D and making process of standard volumetric activity metal samples (standard samples for calibration and verification of spectrometric equipment is not only expensive, but also requires the use of highly qualified experts and a unique specific equipment. Theoretical and experimental studies performed have shown the possibility to use imitators as a set of alternating point sources of gamma radiation and metal plates and their use along with standard volumetric activity metal samples for calibration of scintillation-based detectors used in radiation control in metallurgy. Response functions or instrumental spectra of such spectrometer to radionuclides like 137Cs, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co, 54Mn, 232Th, 226Ra, 65Zn, 125Sb+125mTe, 106Ru+106Rh, 94Nb, 110mAg, 233U, 234U, 235U and 238U are required for calibration in a given measurement geometry. Standard samples in the form of a probe made of melt metal of a certain diameter and height are used in such measurements. However, the production of reference materials is costly and even problematic for such radionuclides as 94Nb, 125Sb+125mTe, 234U, 235U  etc. A recognized solution to solve this problem is to use the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Instrumental experimental and theoretical spectra obtained by using standard samples and their imitators show a high compliance between experimental spectra of real samples and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models, between spectra of real samples and the ones of their imitators and finally, between experimental spectra of real sample imitators and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models. They also have shown the adequacy and consistency of the approach in using a combination of metal scattering layers and reference point gamma-ray sources instead of standard volumetric activity metal samples. As for using several reference point gamma-ray sources

  7. Magnetic volumetric hologram memory with magnetic garnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2014-06-30

    Holographic memory is a promising next-generation optical memory that has a higher recording density and a higher transfer rate than other types of memory. In holographic memory, magnetic garnet films can serve as rewritable holographic memory media by use of magneto-optical effect. We have now demonstrated that a magnetic hologram can be recorded volumetrically in a ferromagnetic garnet film and that the signal image can be reconstructed from it for the first time. In addition, multiplicity of the magnetic hologram was also confirmed; the image could be reconstructed from a spot overlapped by other spots.

  8. Neutrino production from photo-hadronic interactions of the gamma flux from Active Galactic Nuclei with their gas content

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga-Velazquez, J C

    2013-01-01

    The diffuse neutrino flux from FRI and BL Lac type galaxies generated from interactions of their own gamma radiation with the gas and dust at the sources is reported. This neutrino-production channel has not been studied in detail up to now. The calculations are based on individual estimations of the neutrino flux in two nearby AGN's: Centaurus A and M87, assuming the validity of the AGN unification model. The predictions for Centaurus A and M87 involved the parameterization of the measured gamma-ray luminosities and the modeling of the material of the galaxies both based on observations performed by several detectors. No hadronic origin for the TeV photons is assumed. The results show that, although the corresponding neutrino flux ($E^{2} \\Phi_{\

  9. Landfill gas generation and emission at danish waste disposal sites receiving waste with a low organic waste content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    two models are multi-phase models, which defines waste fractions into traditional MSW and low-organic waste categories, respectively. Both the LandGEM and the IPCC model estimated significantly larger methane (CH4) generation in comparison to the Afvalzorg model. The Afvalzorg model could better show...... the influence of not only the total disposed waste amount, but also various waste categories, and was found more suitable to estimate LFG generation from landfills receiving low-organic waste. Four major waste categories currently being disposed at Danish landfills (mixed bulky, shredder, dewatered sludge...... results. The LFG generation from four Danish landfills was estimated by the Afvalzorg model using the experimentally based BMP and k values and compared to whole landfill emission rates measured by applying a tracer gas dispersion method. The results showed that the revised modelled LFG generation rates...

  10. Effects of ZrO2 Content on Structure and Performance of Cu/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts for Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cu/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts for water-gas shift (WGS) reaction were prepared with co-precipitation method, and the influence of ZrO2 content on the catalytic structure and properties was investigated by the techniques of N2 physical adsorption analysis, XRD and H2-TPR. The results indicate that the BET surface areas of the catalysts are increased in varying degrees due to the presence of ZrO2. With increasing ZrO2 content, the pore size distribution is centered on 1.9 nm. ZrO2can efficiently restrain the growth of Cu crystal particles. The appropriate amount of ZrO2 in the Cu/CeO2 catalysts can help the catalyst keep better copper dispersion in the WGS reaction, which can lead to both higher catalytic activity and better thermal stability. When ZrO2 content is 10% (atom fraction), Cu/CeO2-ZrO2 catalyst reaches a CO conversion rate of 73.7 % at the reaction temperature of 200 ℃.

  11. Determination of Vegetable Wax Content in Candles by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法测定蜡烛中植物蜡的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦芳

    2013-01-01

      采用高温气相色谱技术,建立了植物蜡制品中植物蜡含量的检测方法。植物蜡与石蜡的混合物经层析用中性氧化铝洗脱得到的石蜡可直接运用内标百分比法测定其含量,从而得到植物蜡的含量。结果表明,该方法的相对标准偏差为2.20%,样品回收率为97.53%。%  The determination method of vegetable wax content by high temperature gas chromatograph technology was established. The mixture of paraffin and vegetable wax was eluted by neutral aluminum oxide, and then the content of paraffin was determined by ISTD directly, thus the content of vegetable wax was obtained. The results show that, RSD is 2.20%,and the recycling rate is 97.53%.

  12. 浅析屯兰煤矿煤层瓦斯含量及其影响因素%Brief Discussion on Content and Influencing Factor of Gas Content in Coal Seam of Tunlan Colliery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊芳

    2011-01-01

    The important precondition of effectively preventing potential safety concerns. In this paper, the author analyzed content and regularities of distribution of gas content in coal seam from aspects of burial depth of coal seam, metamorphic grade, surrounding rock condition, geologic structure and groundwater, which provide important technical data for coal mine safety.%掌握煤矿煤层的瓦斯含量与分布规律及其影响因素,是有效防治煤矿安全生产的重要前提。从煤层埋藏深度、煤的变质程度、围岩条件、地质构造、地下水的活动等方面,分析了煤层瓦斯含量及其分布规律,为煤矿安全防治工作提供了重要的技术指标。

  13. 烟气含氧量软测量方法研究%Research on the Soft Sensing Methods of Oxygen Content in Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 张彬文

    2016-01-01

    For solving some problems in detection process of the oxygen content in flue gas, the main factors influencing measurement of Zirconia analyzer are analyzed. Soft measurement technology provides a new measuring method for Oxygen content in flue gas. The common seen modeling methods for soft sensing of oxygen content in flue gas are given, and the key technologies including selection and processing of secondary variables, selection and processing of samples, calibration of dominant variable, and model updating and correction, etc. , are analyzed emphatically. The analysis shows that although the soft sensing model offers higher accuracy and higher dynamic response speed, some of the problems in direct measurement still cannot be resolved, such as big error, time lagging and so on. Because of hardware measurement is used as a reference of soft measurement model, the aspects of hardware should be firstly considered in improving measurement precision and speed accordingly.%针对火电厂烟气含氧量测量过程中存在的一些问题,分析了氧化锆氧分析器运行中的主要影响因素。软测量技术为烟气含氧量提供了新的测量手段。给出了常见的烟气含氧量软测量建模方法,并且重点分析了软测量建模过程中辅助变量的选取与处理、样本的选择与处理、主导变量的校准以及模型的更新校正等关键技术。分析表明,尽管软测量模型具有较高的精度和动态响应速度,但是现有的研究并不能完全解决直接测量结果误差大、滞后等问题。由于软测量模型以硬件测量作为参考,因此应首先考虑从硬件方面提升测量的精准度和响应速度。

  14. VALES I: the molecular gas content in star-forming dusty H-ATLAS galaxies up to z = 0.35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, V.; Ibar, E.; Hughes, T. M.; Lara-López, M. A.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Aravena, M.; Baes, M.; Bourne, N.; Cassata, P.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Maddox, S. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Molina, J.; Riechers, D.; Sansom, A. E.; Smith, M. W. L.; Rodighiero, G.; Valiante, E.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-10-01

    We present an extragalactic survey using observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to characterize galaxy populations up to z = 0.35: the Valparaíso ALMA Line Emission Survey (VALES). We use ALMA Band-3 CO(1-0) observations to study the molecular gas content in a sample of 67 dusty normal star-forming galaxies selected from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). We have spectrally detected 49 galaxies at >5σ significance and 12 others are seen at low significance in stacked spectra. CO luminosities are in the range of (0.03-1.31) × 1010 K km s-1 pc2, equivalent to log ({M}_{gas}/M_{⊙}) =8.9 - 10.9 assuming an αCO = 4.6 (K km s-1 pc2)-1, which perfectly complements the parameter space previously explored with local and high-z normal galaxies. We compute the optical to CO size ratio for 21 galaxies resolved by ALMA at ˜3.5 arcsec resolution (6.5 kpc), finding that the molecular gas is on average ˜ 0.6 times more compact than the stellar component. We obtain a global Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, given by log [Σ _SFR/(M_{⊙} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2})] =(1.26 ± 0.02) × log [Σ _{{M}_{H2}}/(M_{⊙} pc^{-2})] - (3.6 ± 0.2). We find a significant fraction of galaxies lying at `intermediate efficiencies' between a long-standing mode of star formation activity and a starburst, specially at LIR = 1011-12 L⊙. Combining our observations with data taken from the literature, we propose that star formation efficiencies can be parametrized by log [{SFR/{M}_{H_2}}] = 0.19 × {(log {L_{IR}} - 11.45)}-8.26- 0.41 × arctan [-4.84 (log {{L}_{IR}}-11.45) ]. Within the redshift range we explore (z < 0.35), we identify a rapid increase of the gas content as a function of redshift.

  15. Effect of Shading on Gas Exchange of Cotton Leaves Under Conditions of Different Soil Water Contents1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Effect of different shading levels (no-shading, 80% shading, and 40% shading) on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves were investigated under onditions of different soil water contents in summer midday. All cotton leaves exhibited similar basic responses to shading, including decreased netphotosynthetic rates, a tendency to decrease in transpiration rates, and increased stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration. The leaf conductance of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants increased by 28% and 16.7% compared with no-shaded plants at high water, respectively, but the net photosynthetic rates of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants declined by 50% and 14.73%, respectively. Results showed that combined effect of soil moisture and shading on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves was very remarkable.

  16. Volumetric capnography for the evaluation of chronic airways diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronez L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Liliani de Fátima Veronez,1 Monica Corso Pereira,2 Silvia Maria Doria da Silva,2 Luisa Affi Barcaui,2 Eduardo Mello De Capitani,2 Marcos Mello Moreira,2 Ilma Aparecida Paschoalz2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Votuporanga (Educational Foundation of Votuporanga, Votuporanga, 2Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, BrazilBackground: Obstructive lung diseases of different etiologies present with progressive peripheral airway involvement. The peripheral airways, known as the silent lung zone, are not adequately evaluated with conventional function tests. The principle of gas washout has been used to detect pulmonary ventilation inhomogeneity and to estimate the location of the underlying disease process. Volumetric capnography (VC analyzes the pattern of CO2 elimination as a function of expired volume.Objective: To measure normalized phase 3 slopes with VC in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCB and in bronchitic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in order to compare the slopes obtained for the groups.Methods: NCB and severe COPD were enrolled sequentially from an outpatient clinic (Hospital of the State University of Campinas. A control group was established for the NCB group, paired by sex and age. All subjects performed spirometry, VC, and the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT. Two comparisons were made: NCB group versus its control group, and NCB group versus COPD group. The project was approved by the ethical committee of the institution. Statistical tests used were Wilcoxon or Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered to be a statistically significant difference.Results: Concerning the NCB group (N=20 versus the control group (N=20, significant differences were found in body mass index and in several functional variables (spirometric, VC, 6MWT with worse results observed in the NCB group. In the comparison between

  17. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rodríguez-Alloza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability.

  18. Structural features and outlook for oil and gas content of the subsaline complexes in the South Emba region of the Caspian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, V.M.; Sagingaliyev, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the conducted studies, the subsaline Dokungurskiy section is divided into three seismic-stratigraphic complexes whose boundaries are controlled by the marking levels P/sub 1/, P/sub 2/, P/sub 3/ and F: preupper Devonian, upper Devonian-lower Carboniferous and middle Carboniferous lower Permian. Regions of dispersal of complexes and boundaries of the carbonate terrigenous masses in their composition are isolated. Brief lithological-facial and seismic-geological characteristics of the isolated complexes are presented. Features of change in their thicknesses are examined. The outlook for oil and gas content of the Dokungurskiy deposits is evaluated both by section and in the plain. The known conditionality of the estimates and the recommendations following from them because of insufficient degree of study of the region is stressed.

  19. DECIPHERING THE IONIZED GAS CONTENT IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX G75.78+0.34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kurtz, Stan; Lizano, Susana [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Palau, Aina [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Dpt d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Shepherd, Debra [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Franco, Jose [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garay, Guido, E-mail: asanchez@arcetri.astro.it [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-04-01

    We present subarcsecond observations toward the massive star-forming region G75.78+0.34. We used the Very Large Array to study the centimeter continuum and H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 3}OH maser emission, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Submillimeter Array to study the millimeter continuum and recombination lines (H40{alpha} and H30{alpha}). We found radio continuum emission at all wavelengths, coming from three components: (1) a cometary ultracompact (UC) H II region with an electron density {approx}3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, excited by a B0 type star, and with no associated dust emission; (2) an almost unresolved UCH II region (EAST), located {approx}6'' to the east of the cometary UCH II region, with an electron density {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and associated with a compact dust clump detected at millimeter and mid-infrared wavelengths; and (3) a compact source (CORE), located {approx}2'' to the southwest of the cometary arc, with a flux density increasing with frequency, and embedded in a dust condensation of 30 M{sub Sun }. The CORE source is resolved into two compact and unresolved sources which can be well fit by two homogeneous hypercompact H II regions each one photoionized by a B0.5 zero-age main sequence star, or by free-free radiation from shock-ionized gas resulting from the interaction of a jet/outflow system with the surrounding environment. The spatial distribution and kinematics of water masers close to the CORE-N and S sources, together with excess emission at 4.5 {mu}m and the detected dust emission, suggest that the CORE source is a massive protostar driving a jet/outflow.

  20. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  1. Evolution in the H I Gas Content of Galaxy Groups: Pre-Processing and Mass Assembly in the Current Epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Kelley M

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen (HI) content and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent dark matter halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey alpha.40 data release allows us, for the first time, to study the HI properties of over 740 galaxy groups in the volume of sky common to the SDSS and ALFALFA surveys. We assigned ALFALFA HI detections a group membership based on an existing magnitude/volume-limited SDSS DR7 group/cluster catalog. Additionally, we assigned group "proximity" membership to HI detected objects whose optical counterpart falls below the limiting optical magnitude--thereby not contributing substantially to the estimate of the group stellar mass, but significantly to the total group HI mass. We find that only 25% of the HI detected galaxies reside in groups or clusters, in contrast to approximately half of all optically detected galaxies. Further, we plot the relative positions of optical and HI detections in groups as a function of parent dark matt...

  2. Direct Measuring Methods of Water Vapor Content and Air Velocity at High Temperature using ZrO2-MgO Gas Chemisorption Type Ceramic Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Shiba, Tooru; Hyodo, Tsutomu

    The control of humidity or air velocity as well as temperature is imperative for industrial process equipment such as air conditioners, dryers. At present, much about humidity sensors has been reported, and recently, ceramic sensors have been used with improved results. However, the effective operating temperature of these sensors for a direct measurement of the humidity is about 423 K at the highest. From the various ceramic sensors so far investigated, the authors selected composite ceramics ZrO2-MgO with porous structure and n-type semiconductor for humidity sensing at high temperature. This is because, when the working temperature of the ceramic sensor is between 673 and 973K, the sensor detects the presence of water vapor and gas velocity by the variations in the electronic condition caused by the reversible of the water vapor. From the test, the sensor that use a single sensing ceramic element can detect directly both the water vapor content in a mixed gas of air and superheated vapor in the temperature range 373-773 K and the air velocity(O.5-4m/s) in the range 373-573K.

  3. The GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey. VIII. Final Data Release -- The Effect of Group Environment on the Gas Content of Massive Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Catinella, Barbara; Cortese, Luca; Fabello, Silvia; Hummels, Cameron B; Moran, Sean M; Lemonias, Jenna J; Cooper, Andrew P; Wu, Ronin; Heckman, Timothy M; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We present the final data release from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (GASS), a large Arecibo program that measured the HI properties for an unbiased sample of ~800 galaxies with stellar masses greater than 10^10 Msun and redshifts 0.025gas content of massive galaxies at fixed stellar mass. The environment is characterized in terms of dark matter halo mass, obtained by cross-matching our sample with the SDSS group catalog of Yang et al. Our analysis provides, for the first time, clear statistical evidence that massive galaxies located in halos with masses of 10^13-10^14 Msun have at least 0.4 dex less HI than objects in lower density environments. The process responsible for the suppression of gas in group galaxies most likely drives the observed quenching of the star formation in these systems. Our findings strongly support the importance of the group env...

  4. CO-dark molecular gas at high redshift: very large H2 content and high pressure in a low-metallicity damped Lyman alpha system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashev, S. A.; Noterdaeme, P.; Rahmani, H.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of an H2-rich, extremely strong intervening damped Ly α absorption system (DLA) at zabs = 2.786 towards the quasar J 0843+0221, observed with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The total column density of molecular (resp. atomic) hydrogen is log N(H2) = 21.21 ± 0.02 (resp. log N(H i) = 21.82 ± 0.11), making it to be the first case in quasar absorption line studies with H2 column density as high as what is seen in 13CO-selected clouds in the Milky Way. We find that this system has one of the lowest metallicity detected among H2-bearing DLAs, with [Zn/H] = -1.52^{+0.08}_{-0.10}. This can be the reason for the marked differences compared to systems with similar H2 column densities in the local Universe: (i) the kinetic temperature, T ∼ 120 K, derived from the J = 0, 1 H2 rotational levels is at least twice higher than expected; (ii) there is little dust extinction with AV 2 × 1023 cm-2/(km s-1 K), in the very low metallicity gas. Low CO and high H2 contents indicate that this system represents 'CO-dark/faint' gas. We investigate the physical conditions in the H2-bearing gas using the fine-structure levels of C i, C ii, Si ii and the rotational levels of HD and H2. We find the number density to be about n ∼ 260-380 cm-3, implying a high thermal pressure of 3-5 × 104 cm-3 K. We further identify a trend of increasing pressure with increasing total hydrogen column density. This independently supports the suggestion that extremely strong DLAs (with log N(H) ∼22) probe high-z galaxies at low impact parameters.

  5. Disentangling volumetric and hydrational properties of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshin, Vladimir P; Medvedev, Nikolai N; Smolin, Nikolai; Geiger, Alfons; Winter, Roland

    2015-02-05

    We used molecular dynamics simulations of a typical monomeric protein, SNase, in combination with Voronoi-Delaunay tessellation to study and analyze the temperature dependence of the apparent volume, Vapp, of the solute. We show that the void volume, VB, created in the boundary region between solute and solvent, determines the temperature dependence of Vapp to a major extent. The less pronounced but still significant temperature dependence of the molecular volume of the solute, VM, is essentially the result of the expansivity of its internal voids, as the van der Waals contribution to VM is practically independent of temperature. Results for polypeptides of different chemical nature feature a similar temperature behavior, suggesting that the boundary/hydration contribution seems to be a universal part of the temperature dependence of Vapp. The results presented here shine new light on the discussion surrounding the physical basis for understanding and decomposing the volumetric properties of proteins and biomolecules in general.

  6. All Photons Imaging Through Volumetric Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satat, Guy; Heshmat, Barmak; Raviv, Dan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Imaging through thick highly scattering media (sample thickness ≫ mean free path) can realize broad applications in biomedical and industrial imaging as well as remote sensing. Here we propose a computational “All Photons Imaging” (API) framework that utilizes time-resolved measurement for imaging through thick volumetric scattering by using both early arrived (non-scattered) and diffused photons. As opposed to other methods which aim to lock on specific photons (coherent, ballistic, acoustically modulated, etc.), this framework aims to use all of the optical signal. Compared to conventional early photon measurements for imaging through a 15 mm tissue phantom, our method shows a two fold improvement in spatial resolution (4db increase in Peak SNR). This all optical, calibration-free framework enables widefield imaging through thick turbid media, and opens new avenues in non-invasive testing, analysis, and diagnosis. PMID:27683065

  7. A Technique for Volumetric CSG Based on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique for volumetric CSG is presented. The technique requires the input volumes to correspond to solids which fulfill a voxelization suitability criterion. Assume the CSG operation is union. The volumetric union of two such volumes is defined in terms of the voxelization...

  8. Geology and oil and gas content of the carbonate Paleozoic of the lower Volga region and the south Emba region. Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' karbonatnogo paleozoya Nizhnego Povolozh'ya i Yuzhno-Embinskogo rayona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhal' kova, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Materials are generalized and analyzed from regional and detailed geological-geophysical, paleogeographical, aerospace-geological and geological-geochemical studies conducted by the institute which made it possible to pinpoint stratigraphy, lithology, tectonics, features of formation and oil and gas content of carbonate rocks of the Paleozoic as a promising object for prospecting and exploration. Characteristics are presented of potentially oil and gas zones. An evaluation is made of the resolution and information content of the prospecting gas-metric, gas-biochemical and remote methods of detecting submerged traps and reservoirs of different genetic type. The possibility of using structural drilling and geological-mathematical methods for predicting submerged structures is indicated.

  9. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  10. 7 CFR 2900.4 - Natural gas requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural gas requirements. 2900.4 Section 2900.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.4 Natural gas requirements. For purposes of Section 401(c), NGPA, the natural gas requirements...

  11. Diagnosis and evaluation of volumetric capnography for pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction in patients with pulmonary disease%呼出气CO2容积曲线对肺部疾病换气功能障碍的诊断与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明华; 韩克斯; 王辉

    2008-01-01

    注失调间接指标.③Vm50-75/VT%≥10%和dC/dV3≥1.3%/L用于评价肺气肿有较高敏感度和特异度.%Objective To evaluate the diagnostic and clinical value of volumetric capnography(VCap)for pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction in patients with pulmonary disease. Methods VCap was performedon all patients with pulmonary disease, including 287 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)patients,251 asthma patients, 45 interstitial lung diseases(ILD) patients and 94 control subjects. Mainvariables: maximum CO2 concentration(CO2 max), the slope of phase3 (dC/dV3), volume between 25% and50 % of CO2 max (Vm25-50), volume between 50% and 75% of CO2 max (Vm50-75), Vm25-50/VT, Vm50-75/VT.Results (1)Four variables of Vcap exhibited statistical differences (P<0.01) between three disease groups(ILD,asthma,COPD) and control group; (2) Vm50-75/VT and dC/dV2 had no statistical differences betweenlight asthma and light COPD, but showed statistical differences (P<0.01) between moderate, severeasthma and COPD, and had no statistical differences between COPD(emphysema) and asthma combiningwith emphysema; (3) Vm50-75/VT and dC/dV3 had high sensitivity (98.3%, 96.50%) and specificity (91.4 %,86.1%) in estimating COPD(emphysema). Conclusions (1)The values and pattern of VCap are obviouslyabnormal,which can be used for diagnosing pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction of patients with COPD.dC/dV3 (≥1.3%) has a prominent rise in COPD patients and relates to the severity of COPD, showing anunequal pulmonary gas distributing;(2)Vm50-75/VT and Vm25-50/VT are less affected by physiological factorsand expired volume, Vm25-50/VT (≥7%), Vm50-75/VT≥10%) indirectly reflects alveolar dead spaceincreasing and unequal ventilation-perfusion ratio commendably; (3)VCap is simple, rapid, non-invasive, andsecure and can be repeated well.

  12. A volumetric ablation model of EPDM considering complex physicochemical process in porous structure of char layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Xiao-Jing, Yu; Jian-Ming, Ma; Yi-Wen, Guan; Jiang, Li; Qiang, Li; Sa, Yang

    2017-06-01

    A volumetric ablation model for EPDM (ethylene- propylene-diene monomer) is established in this paper. This model considers the complex physicochemical process in the porous structure of a char layer. An ablation physics model based on a porous structure of a char layer and another model of heterogeneous volumetric ablation char layer physics are then built. In the model, porosity is used to describe the porous structure of a char layer. Gas diffusion and chemical reactions are introduced to the entire porous structure. Through detailed formation analysis, the causes of the compact or loose structure in the char layer and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction between pyrolysis gas and char layer skeleton are introduced. The Arrhenius formula is adopted to determine the methods for calculating carbon deposition rate C which is the consumption rate caused by thermochemical reactions in the char layer, and porosity evolution. The critical porosity value is used as a criterion for char layer porous structure failure under gas flow and particle erosion. This critical porosity value is obtained by fitting experimental parameters and surface porosity of the char layer. Linear ablation and mass ablation rates are confirmed with the critical porosity value. Results of linear ablation and mass ablation rate calculations generally coincide with experimental results, suggesting that the ablation analysis proposed in this paper can accurately reflect practical situations and that the physics and mathematics models built are accurate and reasonable.

  13. Correlation dependence of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of metallic aluminum on its heat capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodryakov, V. Yu.; Bykov, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The correlation between the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient β( T) and the heat capacity C( T) of aluminum is considered in detail. It is shown that a clear correlation is observed in a significantly wider temperature range, up to the melting temperature of the metal, along with the low-temperature range where it is linear. The significant deviation of dependence β( C) from the low-temperature linear behavior is observed up to the point where the heat capacity achieves the classical Dulong-Petit limit of 3 R ( R is the universal gas constant).

  14. Maxwell's Law Based Models for Liquid and Gas Phase Diffusivities in Variably-Saturated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2012-01-01

    particles (clay and organic matter), FINESvol. The resulting LIquid and GAs diffusivity and tortuosity (LIGA) models were tested against D-s,D-g and D-s,D-l data for differently-textured soils and performed well against the measured data across soil types. A sensitivity analysis using the new Maxwell's Law......The gas diffusion coefficient (D-s,D-g) and solute diffusion coefficient (D-s,D-l) and their dependencies on fluid content (kappa) (equal to soil-air content theta for D-s,D-g and soil-water content epsilon for D-s,D-l) are controlling factors for gas and solute transport in variably saturated......-s,D-l). Different percolation threshold terms adopted from recent studies for gas (D-s,D-g) and solute (D-s,D-l) diffusion were applied. For gas diffusion, epsilon(th) was a function of bulk density (total porosity), while for solute diffusion theta(th) was best described by volumetric content of finer soil...

  15. 天然气汞含量作为煤型气和油型气判识指标的探讨%Discussion of Natural Gas Mercury Content as an Identification Index of Coal Type Gas and Oil Type Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中喜; 李剑; 严启团; 垢艳侠; 王淑英; 葛守国; 王春怡

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas mercury content used as an important identification index of coal type gas and oil type as has been generally accepted. But in the practice,it was used not so much. The reason lies in the inaccur-ance illustrating of the index. Before discussing this index,it is necessary to clarify the formation mechanism of mercury in natural gas. The paper did some statistics and analysis of mercury content of coal in different coal production area of America and China, and also gas production ratio of coal with different coal rank. It was suggested that coal can supply enough mercury to form high mercury content natural gas. But lots of mercury content detection data shows that not all coal type gas has high mercury content. To illustrate this phenomenon,the paper carried out coal adsorption and thermal desorption experiment. It shows that coal can't release but adsorb mercury at low temperature,mercury can be released enormously only at high temperature. So the source rock type and the formation temperature together determine the natural gas mercury content. More than 500 gas well's mercury content data shows that when the natural gas has more than 30 000ng/m3 mercury content,it can be generally judged as coal type gas,when mercury content is between 10 000-30 000ng/m3 ,it is much possible to be coal type gas and it is easy to get an reasonable conclusion. Otherwise,the mercury content in natural gas can only be used as an auxiliary identification parameter when it varied from 5 000 to 10 000ng/m3 or even more lower.%天然气汞含量作为判识煤型气和油型气的一项重要指标已经被很多学者所接受,但在勘探实践中应用的并不多,究其原因是对该指标的认识还不够深入.探讨该指标的前提是搞清天然气中汞的形成机制,通过对美国和中国不同产煤区煤中汞含量和不同煤阶下煤的产气率进行统计分析,认为煤系有机质具备形成高含汞天然气的物质基础.但很多检测数据

  16. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieneke, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contents in house and car dust of Portugal by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Kalachova, K; Pulkrabova, J; Fernandes, J O; Oliveira, M B P P; Alves, A; Hajslova, J

    2010-03-01

    Dust is the repository of various compounds including flame retardants. In this study an analytical method based on PLE extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was selected for the analysis of 16 PBDEs congeners in house and car dust samples collected in Portugal. The analytical performance of the method was validated using standard reference material (SRM); values from 90% to 109% and from 2% to 11% were obtained for recovery and precision, respectively. The PBDE congeners distribution in whole and sieved fractions of the dust samples, as well as influence of the source on the levels of these contaminants, were obtained. The wide range of PBDEs contents found in the dust samples indicates heterogeneous levels of contamination in these matrices. The clearest feature of the results obtained was that Deca-BDE was the main PBDE in both house and car dust samples. The total PBDEs measured in house dust (ranging from 34 to 1928 ng g(-1)) was lower than those found in car dust (ranging from 193 to 22955 ng g(-1)). However, house dust provides a major contribution to human exposure due to the time spent there, much higher than in cars. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of aldehydes content in epoxy propane by gas chromatography%环氧丙烷中醛含量的气相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希林; 王丽; 周永佐

    2013-01-01

    采用气相色谱法测定环氧丙烷中乙醛、丙醛的质量分数,测定结果的相对标准偏差均小于10%,方法的回收率范围为(100±5)%,检测限低至1×10-6,证明该方法能快速、简便、准确地测定环氧丙烷中乙醛、丙醛的含量。%The mass fraction of acetaldehyde and propylaldehyde in epoxy propane was determined by gas chromatography .The relative standard deviation was less than 10%, the recovery was in the range of (100 ±5) per cent, and the detection limit was as low as 1 ×10 -6 .This method was proved to be able to rapidly , simply and accurately determine the content of acetaldehyde and propylaldehyde in epoxy propane .

  19. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  20. Hyperspectral image classification based on volumetric texture and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Sheng, Yehua; Du, Peijun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Kui

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach using volumetric texture and reduced-spectral features is presented for hyperspectral image classification. Using this approach, the volumetric textural features were extracted by volumetric gray-level co-occurrence matrices (VGLCM). The spectral features were extracted by minimum estimated abundance covariance (MEAC) and linear prediction (LP)-based band selection, and a semi-supervised k-means (SKM) clustering method with deleting the worst cluster (SKMd) bandclustering algorithms. Moreover, four feature combination schemes were designed for hyperspectral image classification by using spectral and textural features. It has been proven that the proposed method using VGLCM outperforms the gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) method, and the experimental results indicate that the combination of spectral information with volumetric textural features leads to an improved classification performance in hyperspectral imagery.

  1. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter reading systems based on ... damage and also provides the ability to control and manage consumption. ... existing infrastructure of the telecommunications is used in data transmission.

  2. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Hans

    1933-01-01

    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  3. Serial volumetric registration of pulmonary CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Silvestre; Silva, Augusto; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2008-03-01

    Detailed morphological analysis of pulmonary structures and tissue, provided by modern CT scanners, is of utmost importance as in the case of oncological applications both for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In this case, a patient may go through several tomographic studies throughout a period of time originating volumetric sets of image data that must be appropriately registered in order to track suspicious radiological findings. The structures or regions of interest may change their position or shape in CT exams acquired at different moments, due to postural, physiologic or pathologic changes, so, the exams should be registered before any follow-up information can be extracted. Postural mismatching throughout time is practically impossible to avoid being particularly evident when imaging is performed at the limiting spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a method for intra-patient registration of pulmonary CT studies, to assist in the management of the oncological pathology. Our method takes advantage of prior segmentation work. In the first step, the pulmonary segmentation is performed where trachea and main bronchi are identified. Then, the registration method proceeds with a longitudinal alignment based on morphological features of the lungs, such as the position of the carina, the pulmonary areas, the centers of mass and the pulmonary trans-axial principal axis. The final step corresponds to the trans-axial registration of the corresponding pulmonary masked regions. This is accomplished by a pairwise sectional registration process driven by an iterative search of the affine transformation parameters leading to optimal similarity metrics. Results with several cases of intra-patient, intra-modality registration, up to 7 time points, show that this method provides accurate registration which is needed for quantitative tracking of lesions and the development of image fusion strategies that may effectively assist the follow-up process.

  4. Volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of endovenous laser treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas F.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Schaur, Peter; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is one of the most common medical conditions with reported prevalence estimates as high as 30% in the adult population. Although conservative management with compression therapy may improve the symptoms associated with CVI, healing often demands invasive procedures. Besides established surgical methods like vein stripping or bypassing, endovenous laser therapy (ELT) emerged as a promising novel treatment option during the last 15 years offering multiple advantages such as less pain and faster recovery. Much of the treatment success hereby depends on monitoring of the treatment progression using clinical imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound. The latter however do not provide sufficient contrast, spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging capacity which is necessary for accurate online lesion assessment during treatment. As a consequence, incidence of recanalization, lack of vessel occlusion and collateral damage remains highly variable among patients. In this study, we examined the capacity of volumetric optoacoustic tomography (VOT) for real-time monitoring of ELT using an ex-vivo ox foot model. ELT was performed on subcutaneous veins while optoacoustic signals were acquired and reconstructed in real-time and at a spatial resolution in the order of 200μm. VOT images showed spatio-temporal maps of the lesion progression, characteristics of the vessel wall, and position of the ablation fiber's tip during the pull back. It was also possible to correlate the images with the temperature elevation measured in the area adjacent to the ablation spot. We conclude that VOT is a promising tool for providing online feedback during endovenous laser therapy.

  5. Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, James L. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a specific type of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in which the gantry speed, multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, and dose rate vary continuously during delivery. A treatment planning system for VMAT is presented. Methods: Arc control points are created uniformly throughout one or more arcs. An iterative least-squares algorithm is used to generate a fluence profile at every control point. The control points are then grouped and all of the control points in a given group are used to approximate the fluence profiles. A direct-aperture optimization is then used to improve the solution, taking into account the allowed range of leaf motion of the MLC. Dose is calculated using a fast convolution algorithm and the motion between control points is approximated by 100 interpolated dose calculation points. The method has been applied to five cases, consisting of lung, rectum, prostate and seminal vesicles, prostate and pelvic lymph nodes, and head and neck. The resulting plans have been compared with segmental (step-and-shoot) IMRT and delivered and verified on an Elekta Synergy to ensure practicality. Results: For the lung, prostate and seminal vesicles, and rectum cases, VMAT provides a plan of similar quality to segmental IMRT but with faster delivery by up to a factor of 4. For the prostate and pelvic nodes and head-and-neck cases, the critical structure doses are reduced with VMAT, both of these cases having a longer delivery time than IMRT. The plans in general verify successfully, although the agreement between planned and measured doses is not very close for the more complex cases, particularly the head-and-neck case. Conclusions: Depending upon the emphasis in the treatment planning, VMAT provides treatment plans which are higher in quality and/or faster to deliver than IMRT. The scheme described has been successfully introduced into clinical use.

  6. Visualization and volumetric structures from MR images of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Robertson, D.

    1994-03-01

    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  7. Soft bilateral filtering volumetric shadows using cube shadow maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatam H.; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal; Kolivand, Hoshang

    2017-01-01

    Volumetric shadows often increase the realism of rendered scenes in computer graphics. Typical volumetric shadows techniques do not provide a smooth transition effect in real-time with conservation on crispness of boundaries. This research presents a new technique for generating high quality volumetric shadows by sampling and interpolation. Contrary to conventional ray marching method, which requires extensive time, this proposed technique adopts downsampling in calculating ray marching. Furthermore, light scattering is computed in High Dynamic Range buffer to generate tone mapping. The bilateral interpolation is used along a view rays to smooth transition of volumetric shadows with respect to preserving-edges. In addition, this technique applied a cube shadow map to create multiple shadows. The contribution of this technique isreducing the number of sample points in evaluating light scattering and then introducing bilateral interpolation to improve volumetric shadows. This contribution is done by removing the inherent deficiencies significantly in shadow maps. This technique allows obtaining soft marvelous volumetric shadows, having a good performance and high quality, which show its potential for interactive applications. PMID:28632740

  8. The greenhouse gas balance of a drained fen peatland is mainly controlled by land-use rather than soil organic carbon content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Eickenscheidt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drained organic soils are considered as hotspots for greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Particularly arable lands and intensively used grasslands have been regarded as the main producers of carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O. However, GHG balances of former peatlands and associated organic soils not considered as peatland according to the definition of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC have not been investigated so far. Therefore, our study addressed the question to what extent the soil organic carbon (SOC content affects the GHG release of drained organic soils under two different land-use types (arable land and intensively used grassland. Both land-use types were established on a mollic Gleysol (named Cmedium as well as on a sapric Histosol (named Chigh. The two soil types significantly differed in their SOC contents in the topsoil (Cmedium: 9.4–10.9% SOC; Chigh: 16.1–17.2% SOC. We determined GHG fluxes (CO2, N2O and methane (CH4 over a period of 2 years. The daily and annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE of CO2 was determined with the closed dynamic chamber technique and by modeling the ecosystem respiration (RECO and the gross primary production (GPP. N2O and CH4 were determined by the close chamber technique. Estimated NEE of CO2 significantly differed between the two land-use types with lower NEE values (−6 to 1707 g CO2–C m−2 yr−1 at the arable sites and higher values (1354 to 1823 g CO2–C m−2 yr−1 at the grassland sites. No effect on NEE was found regarding the SOC content. Significantly higher annual N2O exchange rates were observed at the arable sites (0.23–0.86 g N m−2 yr−1 compared to the grassland sites (0.12–0.31 g N m−2 yr−1. Furthermore, N2O fluxes from the Chigh sites significantly exceeded those of the Cmedium sites. CH4 fluxes were found to be close to zero at all plots. Estimated global warming potential, calculated for a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100 revealed a very high

  9. Partial conversion of hydrocarbons to syngas and hydrogen in volumetric radiation burners as a prospective way to enhance the performance characteristics of power engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Shmelev, V. M.; Shapovalova, O. V.; Rakhmetov, A. N.; Strekova, L. N.

    2013-03-01

    New type of syngas generator based on the partial conversion of natural gas (methane) or heavier hydrocarbons in volumetric permeable matrix burners in the conditions of locked infrared (IR) radiation is suggested as a high-productive, adaptable, and rather simple way of syngas and hydrogen production for various low-scale applications including enhancing the performance characteristics of power engines.

  10. Influence of soil organic C content on the greenhouse gas emission potential after application of biogas residues or cattle slurry - Results from a pot experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Gawan

    2017-04-01

    Influence of soil organic C content on the greenhouse gas emission potential after application of biogas residues or cattle slurry - Results from a pot experiment Gawan Heintze1,2, Tim Eickenscheidt1, Urs Schmidthalter2 and Matthias Drösler1 1University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Chair of Vegetation Ecology, Weihenstephaner Berg 4, 85354 Freising, Germany 2Technische Universität München, Chair of Plant Nutrition, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany The European Union Renewable Energy Directive, which sets a binding target of a final energy consumption of 20% from renewable sources by 2020, has markedly promoted the increase of biogas plants, particularly in Germany. As a consequence, a large amount of biogas residue remains as a by-product of the fermentative process. These residues are now widely used instead of mineral fertilizers or animal slurries to maintain soil fertility and productivity. However, to date, the effect of the application of biogas residue on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, compared to that of other organic fertilizers, is contradictory in literature, not having been completely understood. It is often stated that GHG fluxes are closely related to the quality of the raw material, particularly the type of soil to which the digestates are applied. This study addresses the questions (a) to what extent are the applications of biogas digestate and cattle slurry different in terms of their GHG emission (CO2, CH4 and N2O) potential, and (b) how do different soil organic carbon contents (SOCs) influence the rate of GHG exchange. We hypothesize that, i) cattle slurry application enhances the CO2 and N2O fluxes compared to the biogas digestate due to the overall higher C and N input, and ii) that with increasing SOC and N content, higher emissions of CO2 and N2O can be expected. The study was conducted as a pot experiment. Biogas digestate and cattle slurry were applied to and incorporated into three different soil types with

  11. Influence of cobalt and manganese content on the dehydrogenation capacity and kinetics of air-exposed LaNi{sub 5+x}-type alloys in solid gas and electrochemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekelboom, E.; Cuevas, F.; Percheron-Guegan, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares CNRS, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Knosp, B. [SAFT, 111 bd. Alfred Daney, 33074 Bordeaux (France)

    2007-07-10

    The effect of cobalt and manganese content on the dehydrogenation properties of air-exposed MmB{sub 5+x}-type (Mm = mischmetal; B = Ni, Al, Co and Mn) alloys was investigated both in solid gas and electrochemical reactions. The cobalt and manganese content were varied separately while keeping constant the plateau pressure of the hydrides. The increase of the cobalt content leads to a decrease of the hydrogen capacity whereas the manganese content has no much effect. In solid gas reactions, the kinetics were found to be limited by the hydrogen diffusion through the surface oxidation layer. As for the electrochemistry, the kinetics are limited by a corrosion layer formed in alkaline medium. The desorption rates for both processes increase as the cobalt or manganese content decreases. This is thought to be due to an enhancement of the hydrogen diffusivity through the oxidation layer. As a result, a low cobalt or manganese content in MmB{sub 5+x} alloys is found to be beneficial for the hydrogen desorption kinetics in both processes. (author)

  12. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Determination of the Content of Sodium in Soy Sauce by Gas Chromatography%酱油中甜蜜素应用气相色谱法的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清清

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the content of sodium in soy sauce was measured by gas chromatography, the results showed that the average recovery rate of sweet element was higher, and the accuracy of gas chromatography was also high.%本文利用气相色谱法对酱油中的甜蜜素含量进行了测量,结果表明:利用气相色谱分析,甜蜜素的平均回收率比较高,而且气相色谱法的精准度也很高。

  14. Improved volumetric imaging in tomosynthesis using combined multiaxial sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Jacob A; Wiant, David B; Best, Ryan C M; Bennett, Marcus C; Munley, Michael T; King, June D; McKee, Mahta M; Baydush, Alan H

    2010-09-03

    This study explores the volumetric reconstruction fidelity attainable using tomosynthesis with a kV imaging system which has a unique ability to rotate isocentrically and with multiple degrees of mechanical freedom. More specifically, we seek to investigate volumetric reconstructions by combining multiple limited-angle rotational image acquisition sweeps. By comparing these reconstructed images with those of a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of the reconstructions. In surgical situations, the described tomosynthesis-based system could provide high-quality volumetric imaging without requiring patient motion, even with rotational limitations present. Projections were acquired using the Digital Integrated Brachytherapy Unit, or IBU-D. A phantom was used which contained several spherical objects of varying contrast. Using image projections acquired during isocentric sweeps around the phantom, reconstructions were performed by filtered backprojection. For each image acquisition sweep configuration, a contrasting sphere is analyzed using two metrics and compared to a gold standard CBCT reconstruction. Since the intersection of a reconstructed sphere and an imaging plane is ideally a circle with an eccentricity of zero, the first metric presented compares the effective eccentricity of intersections of reconstructed volumes and imaging planes. As another metric of volumetric reconstruction fidelity, the volume of one of the contrasting spheres was determined using manual contouring. By comparing these manually delineated volumes with a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of reconstructions. The configuration which yielded the highest overall volumetric reconstruction fidelity, as determined by effective eccentricities and volumetric contouring, consisted of two orthogonally-offset 60° L-arm sweeps and a single C-arm sweep which shared a pivot point with one the L-arm sweeps. When compared to a similar configuration that

  15. Aspects of volumetric efficiency measurement for reciprocating engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric efficiency significantly influences engine output. Both design and dimensions of an intake and exhaust system have large impact on volumetric efficiency. Experimental equipment for measuring of airflow through the engine, which is placed in the intake system, may affect the results of measurements and distort the real picture of the impact of individual structural factors. This paper deals with the problems of experimental determination of intake airflow using orifice plates and the influence of orifice plate diameter on the results of the measurements. The problems of airflow measurements through a multi-process Otto/Diesel engine were analyzed. An original method for determining volumetric efficiency was developed based on in-cylinder pressure measurement during motored operation, and appropriate calibration of the experimental procedure was performed. Good correlation between the results of application of the original method for determination of volumetric efficiency and the results of theoretical model used in research of influence of the intake pipe length on volumetric efficiency was determined. [Acknowledgments. The paper is the result of the research within the project TR 35041 financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia

  16. Repeatability of Blood Gas Parameters, Pco2 Gap, and Pco2 Gap to Arterial-to-Venous Oxygen Content Difference in Critically Ill Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallat, Jihad; Lazkani, Ali; Lemyze, Malcolm; Pepy, Florent; Meddour, Mehdi; Gasan, Gaëlle; Temime, Johanna; Vangrunderbeeck, Nicolas; Tronchon, Laurent; Thevenin, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the repeatability of blood gas (BG) parameters and their derived variables such as the central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide tension difference (▵Pco2) and the ratio of ▵Pco2 over the central arteriovenous oxygen content difference (▵Pco2/C(a-cv)O2) and to determine the smallest detectable changes in individual patients. A total of 192 patients with arterial and central venous catheters were included prospectively. Two subsequent arterial and central venous blood samples were collected immediately one after the other and analyzed using the same point-of-care BG analyzer. The samples were analyzed for arterial and venous BG parameters, ▵Pco2, and ▵Pco2/C(a-cv)O2 ratio. Repeatability was expressed as the smallest detectable difference (SDD) and the least significant change (LSC). A change in value of these parameters exceeding the SDD or the LSC should be regarded as real. The SDDs for arterial carbon dioxide tension, arterial oxygen saturation, central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), and ▵Pco2 were small: ±2.06 mm Hg, ±1.23%, 2.92%, and ±1.98 mm Hg, respectively, whereas the SDDs for arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) and ▵Pco2/C(a-cv)O2 were high: ±9.09 mm Hg and ±0.57 mm Hg/mL, respectively. The LSCs (%) for these variables were 5.06, 1.27, 4.44, 32.4, 9.51, and 38.5, respectively. The repeatability of all these variables was good except for Pao2 and ▵Pco2/C(a-cv)O2 ratio for which we observed an important inherent variability. Expressed as SDD, a ScvO2 change value of at least ±3% should be considered as true. The clinician must be aware that an apparent change in these variables in an individual patient might represent only an inherent variation. PMID:25621691

  17. 气相色谱法检测湿巾中丙二醇的含量%Determination of propylene glycol content in wet wipes by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成霈; 杨悦; 靳尧

    2016-01-01

    称取一定量湿巾样品加乙醇超声提取后,离心过滤,采用气相色谱法检测湿巾中的丙二醇含量,外标法定量。结果表明:该法在2.50~200.00 mg/L质量浓度范围内线性关系良好,1,2-丙二醇的相关系数为0.9989,检测限为1.50 mg/L,RSDA =2.32%,加标回收率为92.10%~97.20%;1,3-丙二醇的相关系数为0.9994,检测限为2.00 mg/L, RSDA =3.15%,加标回收率为93.40%~97.25%。该方法前处理简便快捷,精密度、准确度、稳定性好,检测结果准确可靠。%A weighted sample of wet wipe was extracted by ethanol under assistance of ultrasonic wave,and the extract was filtered via centrifugation. Then the filtrate was detected by gas chromatography to determine the content of propylene glycol in wet wipes. The quantification was identified with external standard method. Results showed that the method exhibits good linearity in the mass concentration range of 2.50-200.00 mg/L. For 1,2-propylene glycol,the correlation coefficient is 0.998 9,detection limit is 1.50 mg/L,RSDA=2.32%, and spiked recovery is 92.10% -97.20%. For 1,3-propylene glycol,the correlation coefficient is 0.999 4, detection limit is 2.00 mg/L,RSDA=3.15%,and spiked recovery is 93.40% -97.25%.

  18. Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2012.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Pierre-Alain; Moulin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on AOAC First Action Method 2012.13 "Determination of Labeled Fatty Acids Content in Milk Products and Infant Formula by Capillary Gas Chromatography," which is based on an initial International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-International Dairy Federation (IDF) New Work Item that has been moved forward to ISO 16958:2015|IDF 231:2015 in November 2015. It was decided to merge the two activities after the agreement signed between ISO and AOAC in June 2012 to develop common standards and to avoid duplicate work. The collaborative study was performed after having provided highly satisfactory single-laboratory validation results [Golay, P.A., & Dong, Y. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 1679-1696] that exceeded the performance criteria defined in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR(®)) 2012.011 (September 29, 2012) on 12 products selected by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula (SPIFAN). After a qualification period of 1 month, 18 laboratories participated in the fatty acids analysis of 12 different samples in duplicate. Six samples were selected to meet AOAC SPIFAN requirements (i.e., infant formula and adult nutritionals in powder and liquid formats), and the other Six samples were selected to meet ISO-IDF requirements (i.e., dairy products such as milk powder, liquid milk, cream, butter, infant formula with milk, and cheese). The fatty acids were analyzed directly in all samples without preliminary fat extraction, except in one sample (cheese). Powdered samples were analyzed after dissolution (i.e., reconstitution) in water, whereas liquid samples (or extracted fat) were analyzed directly. After addition of the internal standards solution [C11:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and C13:0 triacylglycerols (TAG)] to the samples, fatty acids attached to lipids were transformed into FAMEs by direct transesterification using methanolic sodium methoxide. FAMEs were separated using highly polar capillary GLC and were

  19. 开停真空泵控制变压吸附产品气中 CO2含量总结%CO2 Content Control in PSA Production Gas by Starting-Stopping the Vacuum Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志忠

    2014-01-01

    After the flash steam PSA device was put into operation ,to control the CO2 content in the production gas ,tried adjusting the vacuum degree by starting‐stopping the vacuum pump .%介绍闪蒸气变压吸附装置投用后,尝试采用开停真空泵、调整真空度的办法,控制产品气中CO2含量的情况。

  20. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality.

  1. 燃料气中氢气含量对螺杆压缩机振动的影响%Effect of Hydrogen Content in the Flare Gas of the Screw Compressor Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸蜀滨

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the reason of flare gas screw compressor vibration exceed the standard , after eliminating the mechanical reasons , starting from the angle of process , the compressor vibration value , flare gas composition of data acquisition and analysis , the influence of change of hydrogen content in the flare gas for screw compressor vibration was found out , which was increased with the increase of hydrogen content in the flare gas the value of screw compressor vibration.%通过分析燃料气螺杆压缩机振动超标的原因,在排除了机械原因后,从工艺角度入手,对压缩机振动值、燃料气组分进行数据采集、分析,找出燃料气中氢气含量的变化对螺杆压缩机振动的影响,并得出了螺杆压缩机振动值随燃料气中氢气含量的增加而增大的结论。

  2. The Cool ISM in Elliptical Galaxies. II. Gas Content in the Volume - Limited Sample and Results from the Combined Elliptical and Lenticular Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Gary A; Young, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    We report new observations of atomic and molecular gas in a volume limited sample of elliptical galaxies. Combining the elliptical sample with an earlier and similar lenticular one, we show that cool gas detection rates are very similar among low luminosity E and SO galaxies but are much higher among luminous S0s. Using the combined sample we revisit the correlation between cool gas mass and blue luminosity which emerged from our lenticular survey, finding strong support for previous claims that the molecular gas in ellipticals and lenticulars has different origins. Unexpectedly, however, and contrary to earlier claims, the same is not true for atomic gas. We speculate that both the AGN feedback and merger paradigms might offer explanations for differences in detection rates, and might also point towards an understanding of why the two gas phases could follow different evolutionary paths in Es and S0s. Finally we present a new and puzzling discovery concerning the global mix of atomic and molecular gas in ear...

  3. Multiple sparse volumetric priors for distributed EEG source reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobbe, Gregor; van Mierlo, Pieter; De Vos, Maarten; Mijović, Bogdan; Hallez, Hans; Van Huffel, Sabine; López, José David; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2014-10-15

    We revisit the multiple sparse priors (MSP) algorithm implemented in the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM) for distributed EEG source reconstruction (Friston et al., 2008). In the present implementation, multiple cortical patches are introduced as source priors based on a dipole source space restricted to a cortical surface mesh. In this note, we present a technique to construct volumetric cortical regions to introduce as source priors by restricting the dipole source space to a segmented gray matter layer and using a region growing approach. This extension allows to reconstruct brain structures besides the cortical surface and facilitates the use of more realistic volumetric head models including more layers, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), compared to the standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models. We illustrated the technique with ERP data and anatomical MR images in 12 subjects. Based on the segmented gray matter for each of the subjects, cortical regions were created and introduced as source priors for MSP-inversion assuming two types of head models. The standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models and extended 4-layered head models including CSF. We compared these models with the current implementation by assessing the free energy corresponding with each of the reconstructions using Bayesian model selection for group studies. Strong evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP approach compared to the MSP approach based on cortical patches for both types of head models. Overall, the strongest evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP reconstructions based on the extended head models including CSF. These results were verified by comparing the reconstructed activity. The use of volumetric cortical regions as source priors is a useful complement to the present implementation as it allows to introduce more complex head models and volumetric source priors in future studies.

  4. Study of the total gas content of geothermal fluids for two new 25 MW plants in Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico; Estudio del contenido de gas en fluidos geotermicos para la instalacion de dos unidades de 25 MW en el campo de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Estrada Serrano, Raul; Lopez Romero, Oscar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    The total gas content of wells in Los Humeros geothermal fields is generally similar to the other Mexican geothermal fields. Using data of all the wells feeding the generation units, corrected to a pressure of 8 bar, we calculated an average gas content of 3.67 wt%, a figure that drops to 2.92 wt% if data corresponding to wells located at the southern sector of the fields where there is a relatively high total gas content are excluded ( H-1, H-12, and H-39). In well H-1, the maximum total gas content of the field is measured under well head conditions (14.41 wt% base). This value is very high compared with the minimum value in the field measured in well H-16 (1.38 wt%). These percentage changes considerably for wells with low discharge enthalpy when they are calculated under the operating pressures of the generations units. In well H-1 (1296 J/g), the total gas content falls to (7.1 wt%), in wells H-12 and H-39, also in the southern sector of the field, the total gas content falls to 6.76 wt%, and in well H-39 to 13.7 wt%. Even so, these gas contents are too high for a condensation unit, making it necessary to take precautions before the plant is built. We expect that the new wells drilled to support the installation of two 25-megawatt units will have a 2.74 wt% gas content. If it is necessary to increase the production of steam, this could come from some of the nearest wells in the southern sector. Thus the total gas content used in the calculations could reach 3.2 wt% to give a margin allowing the units to work efficiently. Calculating the enthalpy discharge and the water flow from a well by the gas content, we found differences in relation to the results during the development of the wells. This suggests that it will be difficult to match the gas content estimated by balance from the individual wells with the measurements at the entrance of the units. [Spanish] En general, el contenido de gas total de los pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, esta

  5. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  6. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jeremiah D. [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45504 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  7. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  8. A Design Strategy for Volumetric Efficiency Improvement in a Multi-cylinder Stationary Diesel Engine and its Validity under Transient Engine Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Seenikannan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to improve engine performance of volumetric efficiency of a multi cylinder diesel engine. A computer simulation model is used to compare volumetric efficiency with instantaneous values. A baseline engine model is first correlated with measured volumetric efficiency data to establish confidence in the engine model’s predictions. A derivative of the baseline model with exhaust manifold, is then subjected to a transient expedition simulating typical, in-service, maximum rates of engine speed change. Instantaneous volumetric efficiency, calculated over discrete engine cycles forming the sequence, is then compared with its steady speed equivalent at the corresponding speed. It is shown that the engine volumetric efficiency responds almost quasi-steadily under transient operation thus justifying the assumption of correlation between steady speed and transient data. The computer model is used to demonstrate the basic gas dynamic phenomena graphically. The paper provides a good example of the application of computer simulation techniques in providing answers to real engineering questions. In particular, the value of a comprehensive analysis of fundamental physical phenomena characterizing engine mass flow is demonstrated.

  9. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT AND SCALING RELATIONS IN z {approx} 1-3 MASSIVE, MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neri, R.; Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Davis, M.; Newman, S. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Naab, T. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Omont, A., E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [IAP, CNRS and Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2013-05-01

    We present PHIBSS, the IRAM Plateau de Bure high-z blue sequence CO 3-2 survey of the molecular gas properties in massive, main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) near the cosmic star formation peak. PHIBSS provides 52 CO detections in two redshift slices at z {approx} 1.2 and 2.2, with log(M{sub *}(M{sub Sun })) {>=} 10.4 and log(SFR(M{sub Sun }/yr)) {>=} 1.5. Including a correction for the incomplete coverage of the M{sub *} -SFR plane, and adopting a ''Galactic'' value for the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor, we infer average gas fractions of {approx}0.33 at z {approx} 1.2 and {approx}0.47 at z {approx} 2.2. Gas fractions drop with stellar mass, in agreement with cosmological simulations including strong star formation feedback. Most of the z {approx} 1-3 SFGs are rotationally supported turbulent disks. The sizes of CO and UV/optical emission are comparable. The molecular-gas-star-formation relation for the z = 1-3 SFGs is near-linear, with a {approx}0.7 Gyr gas depletion timescale; changes in depletion time are only a secondary effect. Since this timescale is much less than the Hubble time in all SFGs between z {approx} 0 and 2, fresh gas must be supplied with a fairly high duty cycle over several billion years. At given z and M{sub *}, gas fractions correlate strongly with the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The variation of sSFR between z {approx} 0 and 3 is mainly controlled by the fraction of baryonic mass that resides in cold gas.

  10. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  11. Space-Time Transfinite Interpolation of Volumetric Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mathieu; Fryazinov, Oleg; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a novel technique based on extension of a general mathematical method of transfinite interpolation to solve an actual problem in the context of a heterogeneous volume modelling area. It deals with time-dependent changes to the volumetric material properties (material density, colour, and others) as a transformation of the volumetric material distributions in space-time accompanying geometric shape transformations such as metamorphosis. The main idea is to represent the geometry of both objects by scalar fields with distance properties, to establish in a higher-dimensional space a time gap during which the geometric transformation takes place, and to use these scalar fields to apply the new space-time transfinite interpolation to volumetric material attributes within this time gap. The proposed solution is analytical in its nature, does not require heavy numerical computations and can be used in real-time applications. Applications of this technique also include texturing and displacement mapping of time-variant surfaces, and parametric design of volumetric microstructures.

  12. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm;

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...

  13. Automatic segmentation of pulmonary segments from volumetric chest CT scans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikxoort, E.M. van; Hoop, B. de; Vorst, S. van de; Prokop, M.; Ginneken, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Automated extraction of pulmonary anatomy provides a foundation for computerized analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. A completely automatic method is presented to segment the lungs, lobes and pulmonary segments from volumetric CT chest scans. The method starts with lung segmenta

  14. Volumetric T-spline Construction Using Boolean Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    15213, USA 2 Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA 3 Department of Civil and...and S. Yau. Volumetric harmonic map. Communications in Information and Systems, 3(3):191–202, 2003. 12. C.A.R. Guerra . Simultaneous untangling and

  15. Volumetric motion quantification by 3D tissue phase mapped CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Anja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was the quantification of myocardial motion from 3D tissue phase mapped (TPM CMR. Recent work on myocardial motion quantification by TPM has been focussed on multi-slice 2D acquisitions thus excluding motion information from large regions of the left ventricle. Volumetric motion assessment appears an important next step towards the understanding of the volumetric myocardial motion and hence may further improve diagnosis and treatments in patients with myocardial motion abnormalities. Methods Volumetric motion quantification of the complete left ventricle was performed in 12 healthy volunteers and two patients applying a black-blood 3D TPM sequence. The resulting motion field was analysed regarding motion pattern differences between apical and basal locations as well as for asynchronous motion pattern between different myocardial segments in one or more slices. Motion quantification included velocity, torsion, rotation angle and strain derived parameters. Results All investigated motion quantification parameters could be calculated from the 3D-TPM data. Parameters quantifying hypokinetic or asynchronous motion demonstrated differences between motion impaired and healthy myocardium. Conclusions 3D-TPM enables the gapless volumetric quantification of motion abnormalities of the left ventricle, which can be applied in future application as additional information to provide a more detailed analysis of the left ventricular function.

  16. Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography-based microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-04-01

    Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-rate volumetric OCT-based microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame rate of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video rate up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.

  17. COLD GASS, an IRAM legacy survey of molecular gas in massive galaxies: I. Relations between H2, HI, stellar content and structural properties

    CERN Document Server

    Saintonge, Amelie; Kramer, Carsten; Tacconi, Linda J; Buchbender, Christof; Catinella, Barbara; Fabello, Silvia; Gracia-Carpio, Javier; Wang, Jing; Cortese, Luca; Fu, Jian; Genzel, Reinhard; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Guo, Qi; Haynes, Martha P; Heckman, Timothy M; Krumholz, Mark R; Lemonias, Jenna; Li, Cheng; Moran, Sean; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Schiminovich, David; Schuster, Karl; Sievers, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    We are conducting COLD GASS, a legacy survey for molecular gas in nearby galaxies. Using the IRAM 30m telescope, we measure the CO(1-0) line in a sample of ~350 nearby (D=100-200 Mpc), massive galaxies (log(M*/Msun)>10.0). The sample is selected purely according to stellar mass, and therefore provides an unbiased view of molecular gas in these systems. By combining the IRAM data with SDSS photometry and spectroscopy, GALEX imaging and high-quality Arecibo HI data, we investigate the partition of condensed baryons between stars, atomic gas and molecular gas in 0.1-10L* galaxies. In this paper, we present CO luminosities and molecular hydrogen masses for the first 222 galaxies. The overall CO detection rate is 54%, but our survey also uncovers the existence of sharp thresholds in galaxy structural parameters such as stellar mass surface density and concentration index, below which all galaxies have a measurable cold gas component but above which the detection rate of the CO line drops suddenly. The mean molecul...

  18. Analysis of Changing Swarm Rate using Volumetric Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, T.; Ogata, Y.; Kimura, K.; Maeda, K.; Kobayashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Near the eastern coast of Izu peninsula is an active submarine volcanic region in Japan, where magma intrusions have been observed many times. The forecast of earthquake swarm activities and eruptions are serious concern particularly in nearby hot spring resort areas. It is well known that temporal durations of the swarm activities have been correlated with early volumetric strain changes at a certain observation station of about 20 km distance apart. Therefore the Earthquake Research Committee (2010) investigated some empirical statistical relations to predict sizes of the swarm activity. Here we looked at the background seismicity rate changes during these swarm periods using the non-stationary ETAS model (Kumazawa and Ogata, 2013, 2014), and have found the followings. The modified volumetric strain data, by removing the effect of earth tides, precipitation and coseismic jumps, have significantly higher cross-correlations to the estimated background rates of the ETAS model than to the swarm rate-changes. Specifically, the background seismicity rate synchronizes clearer to the strain change by the lags around a half day. These relations suggest an enhanced prediction of earthquakes in this region using volumetric strain measurements. Hence we propose an extended ETAS model where the background rate is modulated by the volumetric strain data. We have also found that the response function to the strain data can be well approximated by an exponential functions with the same decay rate, but that their intersects are inversely proportional to the distances between the volumetric strain-meter and the onset location of the swarm. Our numerical results by the same proposed model show consistent outcomes for the various major swarms in this region.

  19. Fine temporal control of the medium gas content and acidity and on-chip generation of series of oxygen concentrations for cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinkovsky, Mark; Gutierrez, Edgar; Levchenko, Andre; Groisman, Alex

    2009-04-21

    We describe the design, operation, and applications of two microfluidic devices that generate series of concentrations of oxygen, [O(2)], by on-chip gas mixing. Both devices are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and have two layers of channels, the flow layer and the gas layer. By using in-situ measurements of [O(2)] with an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye, we show that gas diffusion through PDMS leads to equilibration of [O(2)] in an aqueous solution in the flow layer with [O(2)] in a gas injected into the gas layer on a time scale of approximately 1 sec. Injection of carbon dioxide into the gas layer causes the pH in the flow layer to drop within approximately 0.5 sec. Gas-mixing channel networks of both devices generate series of 9 gas mixtures with different [O(2)] from two gases fed to the inlets, thus creating regions with 9 different [O(2)] in the flow layer. The first device generates nitrogen-oxygen mixtures with [O(2)] varying linearly between 0 and 100%. The second device generates nitrogen-air mixtures with [O(2)] varying exponentially between 0 and 20.9%. The flow layers of the devices are designed for culturing bacteria in semi-permeable microchambers, and the second device is used to measure growth curves of E. coli colonies at 9 different [O(2)] in a single experiment. The cell division rates at [O(2)] of 0, 0.2, and 0.5% are found to be significantly different, further validating the capacity of the device to set [O(2)] in the flow layer with high precision and resolution. The degree of control of [O(2)] achieved in the devices and the robustness with respect to oxygen consumption due to respiration would be difficult to match in a traditional large-scale culture. The proposed devices and technology can be used in research on bacteria and yeast under microaerobic conditions and on mammalian cells under hypoxia.

  20. A Review of the Utilisation of Natural Gas with High Carbon Dioxide Content as Automotive Fuel in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opatola Rasheed Adewale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The persistent consumption of fossil fuels by modern transportation tends toward feared depletion in crude oil and infliction of health risks on human beings and the environment due to the noxious emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. This work examines the prospects of fuel modification in improving engine performance by utilising compressed natural gas (CNG mixed with varying proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2 as fuel in Diesel engines. The extent to which the addition of CO2 to CNG could help simulate the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR as employed in modern engine technology will be established.

  1. Study of Formation and Propagation of Streamers in SF6 and Its Gas Mixtures with Low Content of SF6 Using a One-Dimensional Fluid Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付亮; 汪沨; 王国利; W. PFEIFFER; 何荣涛

    2012-01-01

    Using a hybrid Monte Carlo Collision/Fluid model, the formation and propagation of streamers in SF6 and its gas mixtures are simulated. The simulation is based on an accurate numerical solution of Poisson's equation in conjunction with the continuity fluid equation for electrons, negative ions, and positive ions. The factors that influence the formation and propagation of streamers are investigated. The electron density, positive and negative ion density, and electric field in the discharge channel are also presented, which are very important in understanding the phenomena of streamers and in assessing the insulation strength of the gas mixture.

  2. 利用扩展Tao-Mason状态方程预测天然气混合物容积特性(p-V-T)%Prediction of Volumetric Properties (p-v-T) of Natural Gas Mixtures Using Extended Tao-Mason Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajir Karimi; Fakhri Yousefi; Mohammad Mehdi Papari

    2011-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical-based equation of state (EOS) for pure substances, the Tao-Mason equation of state, is successfully extended to prediction of the (p-v-T) properties of fourteen natural gas mixtures at temperatures from 225 K to 483 K and pressures up to 60.5 MPa. This work shows that the Tao-Mason equation of state for multicomponent natural gas is predictable with minimal input information, namely critical temperature, critical pressure, and the Pitzer acentric factor. The calculated results agree well with the experimental data. From a total of 963 data of density and 330 data of compressibility factor for natural gases examined in this work, the average absolute deviations (AAD) are 1.704% and 1.344%, respectively. The present EOS is further assessed through the comparisons with Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state. For the all of mixtures Tao-Mason (TM) EOS outperforms the PR EOS.

  3. Utilization of high CO2 content formation gas for steam and electricity generation; Aprovechamiento del gas de formacion con alto contenido de CO2 para generacion de vapor y electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagomez, Paul; Lamino, Marcelo; Jacome, Jose; Pastor, Santiago [EcuadorTLC, Quito (Ecuador). Grupo PETROBRAS

    2008-07-01

    Ecuador TLC SA, as part of the PETROBRAS Group, respecting its mission to act safe, cost-effectiveness, social and environmental responsibility, currently operates an oil production project in the Ecuatorian Amazon, known as Block 18. In Block 18, the process of gas burning is response for launch approximately 10 MMSCF of the gas associated with 77% CO2 in the environment. For this reason it was built a centralized power generation plants (PGE), of 17.38 MW, taking advantage of the gas with 77% CO2 from boilers to burn it, using it as a source of heat in a combined cycle steam turbines, generating electricity. This project is environmentally efficient with reduced emissions of CO2 and as reducing fuel costs to zero. The results of CO2 reduction is a corporate goal of PETROBRAS and this project will contribute to reducing CO2 emissions by approximately 400,000 Ton over the life of the project.

  4. Analysis of sex pheromone gland content of individual Symmetrischema tangolias by means of direct gland introduction into a two-dimensional gas chromatograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griepink, F.C.; Drijfhout, F.P.; Beek, van T.A.; Visser, H.J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The amounts and ratios of the four constituents of the sex pheromone gland of the moth Symmetrischema tangolias were measured during a 24-hr dark–light cycle. A new approach was followed that involved the direct introduction of sex pheromone glands into the liner of a two-dimensional gas chromatogra

  5. Explaining the Noble Gas Content of the Planets: Theoretical Models for Argon-Trapping by Amorphous Ices in the Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C. B.; Ciesla, F.

    2014-12-01

    The composition of planets in the modern solar system can be traced to the chemistry and physics of the solar nebula, the diffuse disk of gas and dust that surrounded the young sun immediately after its formation. Materials such as the noble gases were too volatile to be chemically incorporated by planetary embryos. Instead, it is likely that they were trapped physically and transported to the inner planets by migrating comets and planetesimals. One trapping mechanism under consideration is the capture of noble gas atoms in amorphous ices on the surface of cold grains. We created a simple numerical model to explore this mechanism, using argon as a representative volatile gas. We have demonstrated that our model reproduces experimental trapping efficiencies (ratio of the volatile atoms to water molecules in the deposited ice) when we constrain the binding energy of our representative volatile to 3500-5500K and the sticking efficiency of volatile atoms to 0.004x gas phase water pressure. Binding energy and sticking efficiency are poorly understood for most volatile substances, but this study finds that they are among the most critical when predicting the trapping of volatiles in the physical world. Constraining these parameters under nebular conditions will allow us to evaluate how much argon could have been trapped in nebular ices and ultimately assess the role of amorphous ice trapping in the origin of planetary volatiles.

  6. Drift velocity studies at a time projection chamber for various water contents in the gas mixture; Driftgeschwindigkeitsstudien an einer Zeit-Projektions-Kammer (TPC) bei unterschiedlichen Wassergehalten des Kammergases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoever, F.W.

    2007-03-15

    For the answer of different open questions in high energy physics the construction of a linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a c. m. energy of up to one TeV is prepared. With this is connected a comprehensive development on detectors, which must satisfy the requirements of the planned experiments. For the track chamber a TPC is considered. Hereby it deals with a gas-based concept, which has already been proved in past experiments and which is at time further developed by means of test chambers. The composition of the gas mixtureplays hereby an important role. Impurities of the gas mixture, especially by oxygen and water from the ambient air are a fact, which occurs every time in the development phase and can scarcely be avoided. From this arose the motivation to study directly the effects of this impurities. The object of the present thesis are correlations between drift velocity and water content in the chamber gas of a TPC.

  7. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  8. Radium content of oil- and gas-field produced waters in the northern Appalachian Basin (USA)—Summary and discussion of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; Engle, M.A.; Kirby, C.S.; Kraemer, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radium activity data for waters co-produced with oil and gas in New York and Pennsylvania have been compiled from publicly available sources and are presented together with new data for six wells, including one time series. When available, total dissolved solids (TDS), and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities also were compiled. Data from the 1990s and earlier are from sandstone and limestone oil/gas reservoirs of Cambrian-Mississippian age; however, the recent data are almost exclusively from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus Shale represents a vast resource of natural gas the size and significance of which have only recently been recognized. Exploitation of the Marcellus involves hydraulic fracturing of the shale to release tightly held gas. Analyses of the water produced with the gas commonly show elevated levels of salinity and radium. Similarities and differences in radium data from reservoirs of different ages and lithologies are discussed. The range of radium activities for samples from the Marcellus Shale (less than detection to 18,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L)) overlaps the range for non-Marcellus reservoirs (less than detection to 6,700 pCi/L), and the median values are 2,460 pCi/L and 734 pCi/L, respectively. A positive correlation between the logs of TDS and radium activity can be demonstrated for the entire dataset, and controlling for this TDS dependence, Marcellus shale produced water samples contain statistically more radium than non-Marcellus samples. The radium isotopic ratio, Ra-228/Ra-226, in samples from the Marcellus Shale is generally less than 0.3, distinctly lower than the median values from other reservoirs. This ratio may serve as an indicator of the provenance or reservoir source of radium in samples of uncertain origin.

  9. 气相色谱法测定液氧中乙炔含量的试验研究%Experimental Study on the Measurement of the Content of Acetylene in Liquid Oxygen with Gas Chromatographic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The space division workshop of oxygen generation plant in a company adopts gas chromatographic method to determine the content of acetylene in liquid oxygen instead of the original visual colorimetric method, and through the comparison of the experimental data, the accuracy of gas chromatographic method analysis is raised substantially, which guarantees safety in production.%  某公司制氧厂空分车间原来采用目视比色法测定液氧中乙炔的含量,存在工艺复杂,消耗试剂多,误差大等缺点。采用气相色谱法代替原来的目视比色法,经试验数据对比,气相色谱法分析准确度大幅度提高,有效的保障了安全生产。

  10. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  11. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients

  12. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients

  13. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  14. A Lab Experiment to Introduce Gas/Liquid Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsecaa, I. M. A.; Almeida, J. P. B.; Fachada, H. C.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of a volumetric apparatus for gas/liquid solubility measurements is proposed. The procedure familiarizes undergraduate students with the experimental study of the solubility of a gas in a liquid and contributes to the understanding of this important phase equilibrium concept. The experimental results report the determination…

  15. Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa

  16. MASS-TRANSFER IN GAS-LIQUID SLURRY REACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEENACKERS, AACM; VANSWAAIJ, WPM

    1993-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas-liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (k(L

  17. Simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with experimentally measured volumetric initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kevin; Sewell, Everest; Krivets, Vitaliy; Greenough, Jeffrey; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) are measured in three dimensions in the University of Arizona Vertical Shock Tube using a moving magnet galvanometer system. The resulting volumetric data is used as initial conditions for the simulation of the RMI using ARES at Lawrence-Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The heavy gas is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and the light gas is air. The perturbations are generated by harmonically oscillating the gasses vertically using two loudspeakers mounted to the shock tube which cause Faraday resonance, producing a random short wavelength perturbation on the interface. Planar Mie scattering is used to illuminate the flow field through the addition of propylene glycol particles seeded in the heavy gas. An M=1.2 shock impulsively accelerates the interface, initiating instability growth. Images of the initial condition and instability growth are captured at a rate of 6 kHz using high speed cameras. Comparisons between experimental and simulation results, mixing diagnostics, and mixing zone growth are presented.

  18. Planck Intermediate Results. XI: The gas content of dark matter halos: the Sunyaev-Zeldovich-stellar mass relation for locally brightest galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    gas, and that this gas must be less concentrated than the dark matter in such halos in order to remain consistent with X-ray observations. At the high-mass end, the measured SZ signal is 20% lower than found from observations of X-ray clusters, a difference consistent with Malmquist bias effects......We present the scaling relation between Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and stellar mass for almost 260,000 locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). These are predominantly the central galaxies of their dark matter halos. We calibrate the stellar-to-halo...... indication of signal at even lower stellar mass. We derive the scaling relation between SZ signal and halo mass by assigning halo properties from our mock catalogues to the real LBGs and simulating the Planck observation process. This relation shows no evidence for deviation from a power law over a halo mass...

  19. THE STELLAR, MOLECULAR GAS, AND DUST CONTENT OF THE HOST GALAXIES OF TWO z {approx} 2.8 DUST-OBSCURED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Martinez-Sansigre, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Ridgway, S. E. [NOAO, Colina El Pino s/n, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Sajina, A. [Tuffs University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    We present optical through radio observations of the host galaxies of two dust-obscured, luminous quasars selected in the mid-infrared, at z = 2.62 and z = 2.99, including a search for CO emission. Our limits on the CO luminosities are consistent with these objects having masses of molecular gas {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, several times less than those of luminous submillimeter-detected galaxies at comparable redshifts. Their near-infrared spectral energy distributions, however, imply that these galaxies have high stellar masses ({approx}10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }). The relatively small reservoirs of molecular gas and low dust masses are consistent with them being relatively mature systems at high-z.

  20. On Coalbed Methane Industrial Components and Gas Content Calculation Model in Heshun Area%和顺地区煤层气工业组分与含气量计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张作清

    2013-01-01

    以和顺地区煤层工业分析实验和现场煤层气含气量测试为基础,利用煤层灰分、固定碳、挥发分、水分等四元工业组分的内在关系,分别建立煤心密度与灰分的线性关系、灰分与挥发分的线性关系、灰分与固定碳的线性关系,得出和顺地区煤层四元工业组分的测井计算模型.经过扩径校正,对确定的深侧向电阻率、自然伽马、补偿密度、补偿声波时差等4条对含气量敏感的测井曲线进行单相关分析,引入复合参数P计算煤层气含量,显著提高了煤层气含量的计算精度,取得了预期的地质效果.%Based on the coalbed industrial composition analysis and coalbed methane field test of Heshun district, this paper builds new models of the coalbed four industrial composition with density log by means of their inner relationship. For improving coalbed gas content model, we first make correction on borehole enlargement, then build and analyze the relations among gas content and conventional logs such as density, neutron, gamma ray, and etc. Last, put forward a new combined model (composite parameter P) to calculate the coalbed methane content. This new model significantly improves coalbed methane content calculation accuracy, and achieves expected geological consistency.

  1. Analysis of residual crosslinking agent content in UV cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide hydrogels for dermatological application by gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Shet Hui Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acrylates have been widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceutical polymers. The quantitation of residual acrylate monomers is vital as they are strong irritants and allergens, but after polymerization, are relatively inert, causing no irritation and allergies. Poly(ethylene oxide (PEO hydrogels were prepared using pentaerythritol tetra-acrylate (PETRA as UV crosslinking agent. A simple, accurate, and robust quantitation method was developed based on gas chromatographic techniques (GC, which is suitable for routine analysis of residual PETRA monomers in these hydrogels. Unreacted PETRA was initially identified using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The quantitation of analyte was performed and validated using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC–FID. A linear relationship was obtained over the range of 0.0002%–0.0450% (m/m with a correlation coefficient (r2 greater than 0.99. The recovery (>90%, intra-day precision (%RSD <0.67, inter-day precision (%RSD <2.5%, and robustness (%RSD <1.62% of the method were within the acceptable values. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.0001% (m/m and 0.0002% (m/m, respectively. This assay provides a simple and quick way of screening for residual acrylate monomer in hydrogels.

  2. Pulse sequence for dynamic volumetric imaging of hyperpolarized metabolic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles H.; Chen, Albert P.; Lustig, Michael; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Lupo, Janine; Xu, Duan; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Pauly, John M.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization and dissolution of a 13C-labeled substrate enables the dynamic imaging of cellular metabolism. Spectroscopic information is typically acquired, making the acquisition of dynamic volumetric data a challenge. To enable rapid volumetric imaging, a spectral-spatial excitation pulse was designed to excite a single line of the carbon spectrum. With only a single resonance present in the signal, an echo-planar readout trajectory could be used to resolve spatial information, giving full volume coverage of 32 × 32 × 16 voxels every 3.5 s. This high frame rate was used to measure the different lactate dynamics in different tissues in a normal rat model and a mouse model of prostate cancer.

  3. Nonrigid registration of volumetric images using ranked order statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Cao, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Non-rigid image registration techniques using intensity based similarity measures are widely used in medical imaging applications. Due to high computational complexities of these techniques, particularly for volumetric images, finding appropriate registration methods to both reduce the computation...... burden and increase the registration accuracy has become an intensive area of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find...... the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme to target those areas and reduce the registration computation time. A unique advantage of the proposed method is its ability to identify the point of diminishing returns and stop the registration process. Our experiments...

  4. Volumetric characterization of delamination fields via angle longitudinal wave ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, John; Wallentine, Sarah; Welter, John; Dierken, Josiah; Aldrin, John

    2017-02-01

    The volumetric characterization of delaminations necessarily precedes rigorous composite damage progression modeling. Yet, inspection of composite structures for subsurface damage remains largely focused on detection, resulting in a capability gap. In response to this need, angle longitudinal wave ultrasound was employed to characterize a composite surrogate containing a simulated three-dimensional delamination field with distinct regions of occluded features (shadow regions). Simple analytical models of the specimen were developed to guide subsequent experimentation through identification of optimal scanning parameters. The ensuing experiments provided visual evidence of the complete delamination field, including indications of features within the shadow regions. The results of this study demonstrate proof-of-principle for the use of angle longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection for volumetric characterization of three-dimensional delamination fields. Furthermore, the techniques developed herein form the foundation of succeeding efforts to characterize impact delaminations within inhomogeneous laminar materials such as polymer matrix composites.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Image Segmentation and its Volumetric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul R. Ambalkar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Image processing techniques make it possible to extract meaningful information from medical images. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been widely applied in biological research and diagnostics because of its excellent soft tissue contrast, non-invasive character, high spatial resolution and easy slice selection at any orientation. The MRI-based brain volumetric is concerned with the analysis of volumes and shapes of the structural components of the human brain. It also provides a criterion, by which we recognize the presence of degenerative diseases and characterize their rates of progression to make the diagnosis and treatments as a easy task. In this paper we have proposed an automated method for volumetric measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and used Self Organized Map (SOM clustering method for their segmentations. We have used the MRI data set of 61 slices of 256×256 pixels in DICOM standard format

  6. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  7. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2015-01-01

    . This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° x 90° field-of-view was achieved. Data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 x 32 elements 2-D phased array......Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...... transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak- temporal...

  8. COMPARISON OF VOLUMETRIC REGISTRATION ALGORITHMS FOR TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Julio; Joshi, Anand A.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear registration of brain MRI scans is often used to quantify morphological differences associated with disease or genetic factors. Recently, surface-guided fully 3D volumetric registrations have been developed that combine intensity-guided volume registrations with cortical surface constraints. In this paper, we compare one such algorithm to two popular high-dimensional volumetric registration methods: large-deformation viscous fluid registration, formulated in a Riemannian framework, and the diffeomorphic “Demons” algorithm. We performed an objective morphometric comparison, by using a large MRI dataset from 340 young adult twin subjects to examine 3D patterns of correlations in anatomical volumes. Surface-constrained volume registration gave greater effect sizes for detecting morphometric associations near the cortex, while the other two approaches gave greater effects sizes subcortically. These findings suggest novel ways to combine the advantages of multiple methods in the future. PMID:26925198

  9. Discrete element modeling modeling of fault mechanics and permeability evolution for gas production and storage: Effect of shale content and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Hoedeman, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of clay in fault zones has a dramatic effect on both fault mechanics and permeability. Quantification of this effect relies on small scale laboratory experiments or indirect observations from hydrocarbon fields, for which systematic variation of clay content, clay distribution, and defo

  10. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  11. Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid Ion-Gels with High "Free" Ionic Liquid Content: Platform Membrane Materials for CO2/Light Gas Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Matthew G; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D

    2016-04-19

    The recycling or sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the waste gas of fossil-fuel power plants is widely acknowledged as one of the most realistic strategies for delaying or avoiding the severest environmental, economic, political, and social consequences that will result from global climate change and ocean acidification. For context, in 2013 coal and natural gas power plants accounted for roughly 31% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. Recycling or sequestering this CO2 would reduce U.S. emissions by ca. 1800 million metric tons-easily meeting the U.S.'s currently stated CO2 reduction targets of ca. 17% relative to 2005 levels by 2020. This situation is similar for many developed and developing nations, many of which officially target a 20% reduction relative to 1990 baseline levels by 2020. To make CO2 recycling or sequestration processes technologically and economically viable, the CO2 must first be separated from the rest of the waste gas mixture-which is comprised mostly of nitrogen gas and water (ca. 85%). Of the many potential separation technologies available, membrane technology is particularly attractive due to its low energy operating cost, low maintenance, smaller equipment footprint, and relatively facile retrofit integration with existing power plant designs. From a techno-economic standpoint, the separation of CO2 from flue gas requires membranes that can process extremely high amounts of CO2 over a short time period, a property defined as the membrane "permeance". In contrast, the membrane's CO2/N2 selectivity has only a minor effect on the overall cost of some separation processes once a threshold permeability selectivity of ca. 20 is reached. Given the above criteria, the critical properties when developing membrane materials for postcombustion CO2 separation are CO2 permeability (i.e., the rate of CO2 transport normalized to the material thickness), a reasonable CO2/N2 selectivity (≥20), and the ability to be processed into defect-free thin

  12. Using surface heave to estimate reservoir volumetric strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanayakkara, A.S.; Wong, R.C.K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed numerical tool for estimating reservoir volumetric strain distribution using surface vertical displacements and solving an inverse problem. Waterflooding, steam injection, carbon dioxide sequestration and aquifer storage recovery are among the subsurface injection operations that are responsible for reservoir dilations which propagate to the surrounding formations and extend to the surface resulting in surface heaves. Global positioning systems and surface tiltmeters are often used to measure the characteristics of these surface heaves and to derive valuable information regarding reservoir deformation and flow characteristics. In this study, Tikhonov regularization techniques were adopted to solve the ill-posed inversion problem commonly found in standard inversion techniques such as Gaussian elimination and least squares methods. Reservoir permeability was then estimated by inverting the volumetric strain distribution. Results of the newly developed numerical tool were compared with results from fully-coupled finite element simulation of fluid injection problems. The reservoir volumetric strain distribution was successfully estimated along with an approximate value for reservoir permeability.

  13. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  14. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale. PMID:28059149

  15. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haoyu; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve spatially multiplexed discrete and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  16. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-06

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  17. Accelerated Gas Carburizing (URX Gas Carburizing)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshikazu Shimosato; Mamoru Kamitani; Hiroyuki Nakatsu

    2004-01-01

    URX gas carburizing is an accelerated gas carburizing method with 50% CO + 50% H2 gas which comes from CH4 gas + CO2 gas. By using this gas composition, the carburizing reaction rate increases to the maximum and the controllability of carbon potential improves. A carbon mass flow rate is the product of the carburizing reaction rate multiplied by the difference of carbon percent between carbon potential of the gas and the carbon content of the surface of treated steel parts. We have obtained excellent results from the experimental tests at our laboratory as mentioned bellow. 1)Carburizing time can be shortened by 40% for 0.5 - 0.9 mm effective case depth. 2) Uniform carburizing case depth 3) Less internal oxidation with the same case depth. We have already developed the new roller hearth type continuous carburizing furnace and the new URX gas generator.

  18. Safety Management of Oil and Gas Drilling of High Sulfur Content in Northeastern Sichuan Region%川东北地区高含硫油气井钻井安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹汉杰; 李和焱

    2012-01-01

    Eastern Sichuan regions ate based on producing natural gas, which exist in the characteristics, such as high pressure, high sulfur content and deep gas layer burying, coupled with great difficulty of well control technology of oil drilling, which is called the most construction risk in China's onshore oil and gas drilling. Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless, poisonous and strongly acidic gases, once leaking caused by out of control for blowout, it will result in incalculable losses.%川东地区主要以产天然气为主,普遍存在的高压、高含硫、气层埋藏深的特点,石油钻井井控技术工作的难度之大,堪称中国陆上油气钻井施工风险之最.硫化氢是一种无色、剧毒、强酸性气体,一旦出现井喷失控硫化氢泄露,将造成不可估量的损失.

  19. Predicting Soil-Water Characteristics from Volumetric Contents of Pore-Size Analogue Particle Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus;

    F value. Hereby, the Xw*-model implicitly assumes that a given particle size fraction creates an analogue pore size fraction and, also, is based on the validity of the well-known capillary law equation relating equivalent drained pore size to the soil-water matric potential. The Xw*-model was found...

  20. 气相色谱法检测中密度聚乙烯的杂质含量及反应物组成%Determination of Impurity Content and Reactant Composition of Medium-Density Polyethylene by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰

    2012-01-01

    采用气相色谱法检测中密度聚乙烯的杂质含量及反应物组成.利用氢火焰离子化检测器、未改性的γ-Al2O3不锈钢色谱柱(Φ3 mm×3 m)在程序升温的条件下检测反应釜内气体杂质,用归一化法定量;利用角鲨烷改性的γ-Al2O3不锈钢色谱柱(Φ3 mm×3 m)检测实际参与反应的乙烯、丙烯含量,用外标法定量.结果表明,该方法具有分离效果好、分析速度快、定量准确的优点.%Determination of impurity content and reactant composition of medium-denisity polyethylene by gas chromatography(GC) was studied in the paper. Gas impurity content was determined by unmodified y-A12O3 stainless steel column(Φ3 mm×3 m) with hydrogen flame ionization detector under programmed temperature rising condition,and quantified by normalized method. Ethylene and propylene contents were determined by squalane modified γ-Al2O3 stainless steel column(Φ3 mm×3 m),and quantified by external standard method. Results indicated that the method had good separation effect,fast analysis,and accurate quantification.

  1. Discussion on the applicability of mercury content in natural gases as an identification index of coal-type gas and oil-type gas%天然气汞含量作为煤型气与油型气判识指标的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中喜; 李剑; 严启团; 王淑英; 葛守国; 王春怡

    2013-01-01

    Although the mercury content in natural gases used as an identification index of coal-type gas and oil-type gas has been accepted by many gas geochemists, it is not used so much in practical exploration. The reason is probably that the index is not clearly understood. In order to clarify the applicability of this index, firstly, we discussed the genetic mechanism of mercury in natural gases. Through examining the mercury content in coal and the gas production ratio of coal, and conducting a thermal releasing mercury experiment on crumble coal, we concluded that mercury in natural gases comes mainly from source rocks, especially coal, only the formation temperature reaches to a certain value, can mercury in source rocks begin to be released enormously by the force of heat, and migrate into a gas pool with generated gas and accumulate there. Therefore, the mercury content in gases is determined both by the source rock type and formation temperature. Secondly, we measured the mercury content of gas samples collected from more than 500 gas wells in 8 giant basins of China, and performed the carbon isotopic measurement of alkane-gas from some wells. The statistical analysis of these data showed that the gas can be generally judged as a coal-type gas when the mercury content in the gas is more than 30μg/m3; it is more likely to be a coal-type gas when its mercury content ranges between 10~30μg/m3; and it should be pointed out that an reasonable conclusion can be drawn only by combining this measurement value with other geological data. However, the mercury content in natural gases can be used only as an auxiliary identification parameter when it varies between 5~10μg/ m3 or even much lower.%虽然天然气汞含量作为判识煤型气和油型气的一项重要指标已经被很多学者所接受,但在勘探实践中应用的并不多,究其原因还是对该指标的认识不够深入.为探讨该指标的适用性,笔者对天然气中汞的成因机制进行探

  2. Volumetric apparatus for hydrogen adsorption and diffusion measurements: sources of systematic error and impact of their experimental resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policicchio, Alfonso; Maccallini, Enrico; Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N; Cataldi, Ugo; Abate, Salvatore; Desiderio, Giovanni; Agostino, Raffaele Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The development of a volumetric apparatus (also known as a Sieverts' apparatus) for accurate and reliable hydrogen adsorption measurement is shown. The instrument minimizes the sources of systematic errors which are mainly due to inner volume calibration, stability and uniformity of the temperatures, precise evaluation of the skeletal volume of the measured samples, and thermodynamical properties of the gas species. A series of hardware and software solutions were designed and introduced in the apparatus, which we will indicate as f-PcT, in order to deal with these aspects. The results are represented in terms of an accurate evaluation of the equilibrium and dynamical characteristics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption on two well-known porous media. The contribution of each experimental solution to the error propagation of the adsorbed moles is assessed. The developed volumetric apparatus for gas storage capacity measurements allows an accurate evaluation over a 4 order-of-magnitude pressure range (from 1 kPa to 8 MPa) and in temperatures ranging between 77 K and 470 K. The acquired results are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature.

  3. The real-time determination of net water transport coefficient based on measurement of water content in the outlet gas in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guangli; Shibata, Kenji; Yamazaki, Yohtaro [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Abuliti, Abudula [North Japan New Energy Research Center, Hirosaki University, Aomori (Japan)

    2010-08-01

    A numerical approach is developed to determine the real-time Net Water Transport Coefficient (NWTC) based on the experimental water vapor pressure for the cathode and anode outlet obtained by the optical humidity sensors with Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). The results show that there are sharp vibrations for NWTC in the process of start-up and shut-down. And the time needed for the water transport balance increases with the increase in the current. The balanced NWTC ranges from -0.2 to 0.2, and it increases with the increase in the operation current in the present research. In the view of flooding prevention, it is reasonable to humidify the anode inlet gas with the lower temperature than that of cathode side by decreasing the osmotic-drag water from anode to cathode. (author)

  4. A new headspace gas chromatographic method for the determination of methanol content in paper materials used for food and drink packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Tian, Ying-Xin; Jin, Hui-Jun; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2013-10-02

    This study reports on a method for determination of methanol in paper products by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The method is based on the hydrolysis of the pulp or paper matrix, using a phosphoric acid solution (42.5%) as the medium at 120 °C in 5 h (excluding air contact) in order to release matrix-entrapped methanol, which is then determined by HS-GC. Data show that, under the given conditions of hydrolysis, no methanol was formed from the methoxyl groups in the material. Reproducibility tests of the method generated a relative standard deviation of paper-related materials. The method can play an important role in addressing food safety concerns that may be raised regarding the use of paper materials in food and beverage packaging.

  5. 巧克力样品中反式脂肪酸含量的测定%Determination of Trans Fatty Acids Content in Chocolate by Using Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 杨保刚; 符昌雨

    2014-01-01

    采用气相色谱内标法,对20个巧克力样品中的反式脂肪酸含量进行测定分析。试验结果表明,以代可可脂为主要原料的巧克力样品中,反式脂肪酸含量范围在未检出至4.96%之间。以可可脂为主要原料的巧克力样品中,反式脂肪酸含量范围在未检出至0.844%之间。所测定的巧克力样品中反式脂肪酸以反十八碳一烯酸为主。%The contents of trans fatty acids ( TFA) in twenty samples of chocolate were determined by gas chromatography internal standard method in the present study .The esults showed that the samples with cocoa butter replace as the main raw material TFA content was ND ~4.96%,while the samples with cocoa butter as the main raw material ,the TFA content was ND~0 .844%.The trans C18:1 was the most in TFA in chocolate we tested .

  6. Volumetric CT-images improve testing of radiological image interpretation skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J., E-mail: C.J.Ravesloot@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Schaaf, Marieke F. van der, E-mail: M.F.vanderSchaaf@uu.nl [Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, Jan P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Cate, Olle Th.J. ten, E-mail: T.J.tenCate@umcutrecht.nl [Center for Research and Development of Education at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Gijp, Anouk van der, E-mail: A.vanderGijp-2@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P., E-mail: C.Mol@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Vincken, Koen L., E-mail: K.Vincken@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Rationale and objectives: Current radiology practice increasingly involves interpretation of volumetric data sets. In contrast, most radiology tests still contain only 2D images. We introduced a new testing tool that allows for stack viewing of volumetric images in our undergraduate radiology program. We hypothesized that tests with volumetric CT-images enhance test quality, in comparison with traditional completely 2D image-based tests, because they might better reflect required skills for clinical practice. Materials and methods: Two groups of medical students (n = 139; n = 143), trained with 2D and volumetric CT-images, took a digital radiology test in two versions (A and B), each containing both 2D and volumetric CT-image questions. In a questionnaire, they were asked to comment on the representativeness for clinical practice, difficulty and user-friendliness of the test questions and testing program. Students’ test scores and reliabilities, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 2D and volumetric CT-image tests were compared. Results: Estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) were higher for volumetric CT-image scores (version A: .51 and version B: .54), than for 2D CT-image scores (version A: .24 and version B: .37). Participants found volumetric CT-image tests more representative of clinical practice, and considered them to be less difficult than volumetric CT-image questions. However, in one version (A), volumetric CT-image scores (M 80.9, SD 14.8) were significantly lower than 2D CT-image scores (M 88.4, SD 10.4) (p < .001). The volumetric CT-image testing program was considered user-friendly. Conclusion: This study shows that volumetric image questions can be successfully integrated in students’ radiology testing. Results suggests that the inclusion of volumetric CT-images might improve the quality of radiology tests by positively impacting perceived representativeness for clinical practice and increasing reliability of the test.

  7. Breach of clause of local content by the concessionaire: sanctions imposed by the ANP (Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustives); Descumprimento da clausula de conteudo local por parte do concessionario: sancoes impostas pela ANP (Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Cintia Bezerra de Melo Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito], email: cintianunes@gmail.com

    2009-08-15

    The hydrocarbon exploration in the country follows the dictates expressly provided in the Constitution: it is a monopoly of the Union, can carry out the activities of the sector be undertaken by state enterprises or private, domestic or foreign. They explore oil and natural gas within the boundaries of the blocks awarded to them by means of a concession contract signed with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Natural Gas e Biocombustives (hereafter ANP) after the bidding procedure, which is also done through this federal agency. The activity is then performed by the companies under their own risk, automatically acquiring the ownership of the hydrocarbons produced in accordance with Article 26 of the Petroleum Law (Federal Law No. 9.478/1997). The tenders held by the ANP have three criteria for judging the deal: Signature Bonus (amount to be paid by the bidder to the Union), the Minimum Exploration Program (business plan) and Local Content (planned spending on goods and services of domestic industry ). After the evaluation of bids, the winning bidder is required to sign the concession contract, containing the contents of the proposal submitted. Thus, the failure of the proposal released by the winning bidder when the stage of the contract is not merely a breach of expectation, but true noncompliance with contract terms. Whereas this agreement is governed by public law, such an act of the concessionaire would incur serious consequences, which will be object of this work, focusing on the provision of local content.

  8. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    purity of electrolytically refined silver obtained volumetrically, according to Volhard, was 99.49%. The results suggest that the purity of electrolytically refined silver was higher than 99%. After all of these determinations, the purity of electrolytically refined silver was examined by atomic absorption spectrometry and the results confirmed that the purity of electrolytically refined silver was 99.99%. Electrolytically refined silver contained other metals: Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and the contents of these metals were: 1.15 ppm; 0.75 ppm; 0.65 ppm; 1.82 ppm; < 0.07 ppm and < 0.01 ppm, respectively.

  9. Personalized heterogeneous deformable model for fast volumetric registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weixin; Liao, Xiangyun; Wang, Qiong; Heng, Pheng Ann

    2017-02-20

    Biomechanical deformable volumetric registration can help improve safety of surgical interventions by ensuring the operations are extremely precise. However, this technique has been limited by the accuracy and the computational efficiency of patient-specific modeling. This study presents a tissue-tissue coupling strategy based on penalty method to model the heterogeneous behavior of deformable body, and estimate the personalized tissue-tissue coupling parameters in a data-driven way. Moreover, considering that the computational efficiency of biomechanical model is highly dependent on the mechanical resolution, a practical coarse-to-fine scheme is proposed to increase runtime efficiency. Particularly, a detail enrichment database is established in an offline fashion to represent the mapping relationship between the deformation results of high-resolution hexahedral mesh extracted from the raw medical data and a newly constructed low-resolution hexahedral mesh. At runtime, the mechanical behavior of human organ under interactions is simulated with this low-resolution hexahedral mesh, then the microstructures are synthesized in virtue of the detail enrichment database. The proposed method is validated by volumetric registration in an abdominal phantom compression experiments. Our personalized heterogeneous deformable model can well describe the coupling effects between different tissues of the phantom. Compared with high-resolution heterogeneous deformable model, the low-resolution deformable model with our detail enrichment database can achieve 9.4× faster, and the average target registration error is 3.42 mm, which demonstrates that the proposed method shows better volumetric registration performance than state-of-the-art. Our framework can well balance the precision and efficiency, and has great potential to be adopted in the practical augmented reality image-guided robotic systems.

  10. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  11. Volumetric hemispheric ratio as a useful tool in personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Wagner, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Weber, Bernd; Quesada, Carlos M

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the link between volumetric hemispheric ratios (VHRs) and personality measures in N=267 healthy participants using Eysenck's Personality Inventory-Revised (EPQ-R) and the BIS/BAS scales. A robust association between extraversion and VHRs was observed for gray matter in males but not females. Higher gray matter volume in the left than in the right hemisphere was associated with higher extraversion in males. The results are discussed in the context of positive emotionality and laterality of the human brain.

  12. AN ATTRIBUTION OF CAVITATION RESONANCE: VOLUMETRIC OSCILLATIONS OF CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Zhi-gang; LI Sheng-cai; LIU Shu-hong; LI Shuang; CHEN Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to further verify the proposed theory of cavitation resonance, as well as to proceed the investigations into microscopic level, a series of studies are being carried out on the Warwick venturi. The analysis of the oscillation characteristics of the cavitation resonance has conclusively verified the macro-mechanism proposed through previous studies on other cavitating flows by the authors. The initial observations using high-speed photographic approach have revealed a new attribution of cavitation resonance. That is, the volumetric oscillation of cavitation cloud is associated with the cavitation resonance, which is a collective behaviour of the bubbles in the cloud.

  13. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  14. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Alberto; Panduro, Marco A.; Del Rio Bocio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction. PMID:24701150

  15. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  16. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  17. Gas Emissivity of a Modified Cellulose Mix at the Temperature of 900°C

    OpenAIRE

    Zawieja Z.; Sawicki J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study of gas emissivity and the volumetric gas flow rate from a patented modified cellulose mix used in production of disposable sand casting moulds. The modified cellulose mix with such additives as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite and microspheres was used as the study material. The results for gas emissivity and the gas flow rate for the modified cellulose mix were compared with the gas emissivity of the commercial material used in gating systems...

  18. Uranium and organic matters: use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography, carbon, hydrogen, and uranium contents to characterize the organic matter from sandstone-type deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Joel S.

    1979-01-01

    Organic matter seems to play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones in the western United States. Organic materials associated with ore from the Texas coastal plain, Tertiary basins of Wyoming, Grants mineral belt of New Mexico, and the Uravan mineral belt of Utah and Colorado vary widely in physical appearance and chemical composition. Partial characterization of organic materials is achieved by chemical analyses to determine atomic hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratios and by gas chromatographic analyses to determine the molecular fragments evolved during stepwise pyrolysis. From the pyrolysis experiments the organic materials can be classified and grouped: (a) lignites from Texas and Wyoming and (b) hydrogen poor materials, from Grants and Uravan mineral belts and Wyoming; (c) naphthalene-containing materials from Grants mineral belt and Wyoming; and (d) complex and aromatic materials from Uravan, Grants and Wyoming. The organic materials analyzed have atomic H/C ratios that range from approximately 0.3 to at least 1.5. The samples with higher H/C ratios yield pyrolysis products that contain as many as 30 carbon atoms per molecule. Samples with low H/C ratios are commonly more uraniferous and yield mostly methane and low-molecular-weight gases during pyrolysis.

  19. Monitoring the benzene contents in soft drinks using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a survey of the situation on the belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Christof; Detavernier, Christ'l; Van Bocxlaer, Jan F; Vermeylen, Rudi; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2008-06-25

    Whenever benzoic acid is combined with ascorbic acid in acidic beverages such as soft drinks, benzene can be formed. To determine the current situation on the Belgian market, a headspace gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was developed, which needs little to no sample preparation. This method was then used to analyze 134 soft drinks sampled on the Belgian market by the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain. Thirty-three percent of the samples contained no detectable benzene, whereas the majority of the samples (47%) contained trace amounts below the limit of quantification of the method (0.3 microg L (-1)). Ten samples were above the European limit for benzene in drinking water of 1 microg L (-1), and one sample had a concentration of 10.98 microg L (-1), thereby exceeding the action limit for benzene in soft drinks of 10 microg L (-1) discussed at the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health of the European Commission. Statistical analyses revealed that besides benzoic acid, ascorbic acid, and acidity regulators, the packing may also play an important role in benzene formation.

  20. Floating volumetric image formation using a dihedral corner reflector array device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Noboru; Maeda, Yuki; Yamamoto, Siori; Mukai, Takaaki; Maekawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A volumetric display system using an optical imaging device consisting of numerous dihedral corner reflectors placed perpendicular to the surface of a metal plate is proposed. Image formation by the dihedral corner reflector array (DCRA) is free from distortion and focal length. In the proposed volumetric display system, a two-dimensional real image is moved by a mirror scanner to scan a three-dimensional (3D) space. Cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed in accordance with the position of the image plane. A volumetric image is observed as a stack of the cross-sectional images. The use of the DCRA brings compact system configuration and volumetric real image generation with very low distortion. An experimental volumetric display system including a DCRA, a galvanometer mirror, and a digital micro-mirror device was constructed to verify the proposed method. A volumetric image consisting of 1024×768×400 voxels was formed by the experimental system.

  1. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  2. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua

    2001-06-01

    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  3. Myocardial kinematics based on tagged MRI from volumetric NURBS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.

    2004-04-01

    We present current research in which left ventricular deformation is estimated from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using volumetric deformable models constructed from nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS). From a set of short and long axis images at end-diastole, the initial NURBS model is constructed by fitting two surfaces with the same parameterization to the set of epicardial and endocardial contours from which a volumetric model is created. Using normal displacements of the three sets of orthogonal tag planes as well as displacements of both tag line and contour/tag line intersection points, one can solve for the optimal homogeneous coordinates, in a least squares sense, of the control points of the NURBS model at a later time point using quadratic programming. After fitting to all time points of data, lofting the NURBS model at each time point creates a comprehensive 4-D NURBS model. From this model, we can extract 3-D myocardial displacement fields and corresponding strain maps, which are local measures of non-rigid deformation.

  4. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Johanna O P; Holland, Katharina; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Mann, Ritse M; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-02-01

    To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density categories. Of all the examinations, 21.6% were categorized as density category 1 ('almost entirely fatty') and 41.5, 28.9, and 8.0% as category 2-4 ('extremely dense'), respectively. We identified 667 screen-detected and 234 interval cancers. Interval cancer rates were 0.7, 1.9, 2.9, and 4.4‰ and false positive rates were 11.2, 15.1, 18.2, and 23.8‰ for categories 1-4, respectively (both p-trend density categories: 85.7, 77.6, 69.5, and 61.0% for categories 1-4, respectively (p-trend density, automatically measured on digital mammograms, impacts screening performance measures along the same patterns as established with ACR breast density categories. Since measuring breast density fully automatically has much higher reproducibility than visual assessment, this automatic method could help with implementing density-based supplemental screening.

  5. Volumetric properties of human islet amyloid polypeptide in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovchenko, I; Andrews, M N; Oleinikova, A

    2010-04-28

    The volumetric properties of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in water were studied in a wide temperature range by computer simulations. The intrinsic density rho(p) and the intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient alpha(p) of hIAPP were evaluated by taking into account the difference between the volumetric properties of hydration and bulk water. The density of hydration water rho(h) was found to decrease almost linearly with temperature upon heating and its thermal expansion coefficient was found to be notably higher than that of bulk water. The peptide surface exposed to water is more hydrophobic and its rho(h) is smaller in conformation with a larger number of intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The two hIAPP peptides studied (with and without disulfide bridge) show negative alpha(p), which is close to zero at 250 K and decreases to approximately -1.5 x 10(-3) K(-1) upon heating to 450 K. The analysis of various structural properties of peptides shows a correlation between the intrinsic peptide volumes and the number of intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The obtained negative values of alpha(p) can be attributed to the shrinkage of the inner voids of the peptides upon heating.

  6. Volumetric verification of multiaxis machine tool using laser tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Sergio; Samper, David; Santolaria, Jorge; Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space.

  7. The Volumetric Rate of Superluminous Supernovae at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Prajs, S; Smith, M; Levan, A; Karpenka, N V; Edwards, T D P; Walker, C R; Wolf, W M; Balland, C; Carlberg, R; Howell, A; Lidman, C; Pain, R; Pritchet, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z~1, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically-identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et.al. (2010) and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91 (+76/-36) SNe/Yr/Gpc^3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z=1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2 (+1.8/-0.9) x10^-4 of the volumetric core collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formati...

  8. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Multi-residue methods for the determination of over four hundred pesticides in solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices by tandem mass spectrometry coupled with gas and liquid chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Ilyasova, Gulzhakhan; Kaczynski, Piotr; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Mojsak, Patrycja; Szabunko, Julia

    2016-05-01

    For the first time three methods: matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD), original and modified QuEChERS, with and without clean up step were studied in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of various classes of pesticides from solid and liquid high sucrose content matrices. Determinations over four hundred pesticides were performed by gas and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/LC/MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring. The proposed methods were validated on sugar beets and their technological product beet molasses. In general, the recoveries obtained for the original QuEChERS and MSPD method were lower (gas and liquid chromatography. The most compounds showed signal enhancement and it was compensated by using matrix-matched calibration and modified QuEChERS characterized lower matrix effects. The confirmation of suitability citrate QuEChERS optimized method was to use for routine testing of several dozen samples determination and residue of epoxiconazole and tebuconazole (both at 0.01mgkg(-1)) in the samples of beet molasses and cyfluthrin (0.06mgkg(-1)) in sugar beet were found.

  10. Researching of electro tar precipitator used in biomass gas's cleaning and allowed highest oxygen content in the gas%电捕焦油器用于生物质燃气净化及燃气允许最高氧含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭东彦; 伊晓路; 闫桂焕; 肖琪

    2012-01-01

    焦油清除是生物质气化技术的难点问题,用电捕焦油器除焦是解决焦油问题的根本途径.通过试验,验证了电捕焦油器应用于生物质燃气的效果;计算了典型生物质燃气的爆炸极限;提出了氧含量以1.5%为报警极限,最高允许氧含量不超过2%;建议修改相关标准,为电捕焦油器在生物质燃气领域的应用提供理论依据.%Tar precipitator is always a difficult technology in biomass gasification. It's the ultimate approach using electro tar precipitator to solve this problem. Through tests, it has verified the effect of electro tar precipitator in biomass gasification. The explosive limit of the typical gas has been calculated and it has been proposed the alarming limit is 1.5% oxygen content and the highest oxygen content allowed in the gas is 2%. Suggestion has been put forward to verify the concern standards to promote the use of the electro tar precipitator in biomass gasification.

  11. Determination of the Content of Acrolein, Acetic Acid and Acrylic Acid in Tail Gas from Acrylic Acid Production of Propylene Oxidation by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法测定丙烯氧化生产丙烯酸尾气中丙烯醛、乙酸、丙烯酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科杰

    2013-01-01

    采用毛细管气相色谱法测定丙烯氧化生产丙烯酸尾气中丙烯醛、乙酸、丙烯酸的含量,色谱柱为FFAP(30 m×0.53 mm,1μm),检测器为FID,用外标法进行定量,尾气样品中丙烯醛、乙酸、丙烯酸的检出限分别为0.025,0.033,0.031 mg/m3,测定结果的相对偏差为0.97%~2.63%(n=5),加标回收率为98.29%~103.60%。%The content of acrolein, acetic acid and acrylic acid in tail gas from acrylic acid produection of propylene oxidation was determined by capillary gas chronmatography with FFAP column (30 m×0.53 mm,1 µm), FID as the detector and external standard as the quantitative method. The detection limits of 3 components in tail gas were 0.025, 0.033 and 0.031 mg/m3, respectively. The relative standard deviation was 0.97%-2.63%(n=5), and the recoveries were 98.29%-103.60%.

  12. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, George; Peter, Oriola F. O.; Osinubi, Kolawole J.

    2016-03-01

    Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or `Intermediate' energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  13. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL content was prepared by molding water contents of −2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL and West African Standard (WAS or ‘Intermediate’ energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  14. Rapid mapping of volumetric machine errors using distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulewich, D.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to maping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) models the relationship between volumetric error and the current state of the machine, (2) acquiring error data based on distance measurements throughout the work volume; and (3)fitting the error model using the nonlinear equation for the distance. The error model is formulated from the kinematic relationship among the six degrees of freedom of error an each moving axis. Expressing each parametric error as function of position each is combined to predict the error between the functional point and workpiece, also as a function of position. A series of distances between several fixed base locations and various functional points in the work volume is measured using a Laser Ball Bar (LBB). Each measured distance is a non-linear function dependent on the commanded location of the machine, the machine error, and the location of the base locations. Using the error model, the non-linear equation is solved producing a fit for the error model Also note that, given approximate distances between each pair of base locations, the exact base locations in the machine coordinate system determined during the non-linear filling procedure. Furthermore, with the use of 2048 more than three base locations, bias error in the measuring instrument can be removed The volumetric errors of three-axis commercial machining center have been mapped using this procedure. In this study, only errors associated with the nominal position of the machine were considered Other errors such as thermally induced and load induced errors were not considered although the mathematical model has the ability to account for these errors. Due to the proprietary nature of the projects we are

  15. 高H2S高CO2高Cl-天然气压力容器设计%Design of pressure vessel for natural gas with high H 2 S,CO2 and Cl- contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文广; 张毅; 张波

    2014-01-01

    The basic designing practices of pressure vessels for natural gas field with high H2S ,CO2 and Cl- contents were introduced .Meanwhile ,handling of problems appeared during manufacture and inspection process ,as well as basic situations of the pressure vessels after put into production were explained .These measures ensured the safety of the pressure vessels and the successful start-up of the devices to produce qualified natural gas ,condensate oil and corre-sponding affiliated products .All of above made a breakthrough in the large gas field development both at home and abroad ,and the unit was successfully commissioned abroad .The practices and processing suggestions in the approaches also provided new safe and convenient ways to imple-ment in the development of similar gas field abroad ,and provided references in design and con-struction for similar units .%介绍了三高气田(高H2 S、高CO2、高Cl-)压力容器设计的基本作法,同时对制造检验过程中出现问题的处理和试运投产的基本情况作了说明,确保了压力容器的安全,装置一次投运成功,最终生产出合格的天然气、凝析油、相应附属产品。该压力容器突破了国内外大型气田的开发,在国外一次投产成功,为今后国外三高气田的开发走出了一条安全可靠、便利实施的新路,这些作法和处理意见为同行们今后的设计、施工提供了参考。

  16. The gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in the gas-liquid Multi-stage Agitated Contactor (MAC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M; Bouma, M.J; VanderWerf, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Data on the volumetric liquid-side gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient, k(L)a, in a Multi-stage Agitated Contractor (MAC) are reported for three gas-liquid systems (air-water, helium-n-octane, and air-Monoethylene Glycol (MEG)). k(L)a (s(-1)) was determined using a dynamic method with moderately so

  17. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  18. Optimization approaches to volumetric modulated arc therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C DK-8000 (Denmark); Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Bokrantz, Rasmus [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm SE-111 34 (Sweden); Chen, Danny [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Men, Chunhua [Department of Research, Elekta, Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043 (United States); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Papp, Dávid [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Romeijn, Edwin [H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Salari, Ehsan [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has found widespread clinical application in recent years. A large number of treatment planning studies have evaluated the potential for VMAT for different disease sites based on the currently available commercial implementations of VMAT planning. In contrast, literature on the underlying mathematical optimization methods used in treatment planning is scarce. VMAT planning represents a challenging large scale optimization problem. In contrast to fluence map optimization in intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for static beams, VMAT planning represents a nonconvex optimization problem. In this paper, the authors review the state-of-the-art in VMAT planning from an algorithmic perspective. Different approaches to VMAT optimization, including arc sequencing methods, extensions of direct aperture optimization, and direct optimization of leaf trajectories are reviewed. Their advantages and limitations are outlined and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  19. Volumetric properties of water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changfei; He, Wei; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-12-23

    The densities of AOT/isooctane micelles and water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions with the molar ratios R of water to AOT being 2, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, and 40 were measured at 303.15 K. The apparent specific volumes of AOT and the quasi-component water/AOT at various concentrations were calculated and used to estimate the volumetric properties of AOT and water in the droplets and in the continuous oil phase, to discuss the interaction between the droplets, and to determine the critical micelle concentration and the critical microemulsion concentrations. A thermodynamic model was proposed to analysis the stability boundary of the microemulsion droplets, which confirms the maximum value of R being about 65 for the stable AOT/water/isooctane microemulsion droplets.

  20. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  1. In-line hologram segmentation for volumetric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzó, László; Göröcs, Zoltán; Fehér, András; Tőkés, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    We propose a fast, noniterative method to segment an in-line hologram of a volumetric sample into in-line subholograms according to its constituent objects. In contrast to the phase retrieval or twin image elimination algorithms, we do not aim or require to reconstruct the complex wave field of all the objects, which would be a more complex task, but only provide a good estimate about the contribution of the particular objects to the original hologram quickly. The introduced hologram segmentation algorithm exploits the special inner structure of the in-line holograms and applies only the estimated supports and reconstruction distances of the corresponding objects as parameters. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated and analyzed experimentally both on synthetic and measured holograms. We discussed how the proposed algorithm can be efficiently applied for object reconstruction and phase retrieval tasks.

  2. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Restoration by Structural Fat Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi C.; Consorti, Giuseppe; Elia, Giovanni; Galié, Manlio; Tieghi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The use of adipose tissue transfer for correction of maxillofacial defects was reported for the first time at the end of the 19th century. Structural fat grafting (SFG) was introduced as a way to improve facial esthetics and in recent years has evolved into applications in craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Several techniques have been proposed for harvesting and grafting the fat. However, owing to the damage of many adipocytes during these maneuvers, the results have not been satisfactory and have required several fat injection procedures for small corrections. The author's (L.C.) overview the application of SFG in the management of volumetric deficit in the craniomaxillofacial in patients treated with a long-term follow-up. PMID:24624259

  3. Semi-automatic volumetrics system to parcellate ROI on neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Ichimiya, Tetsuya; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2002-05-01

    A template-based and semi-automatic volumetrics system--BrainVol is build to divide the any given patient brain to neo-cortical and sub-cortical regions. The standard region is given as standard ROI drawn on a standard brain volume. After normalization between the standard MR image and the patient MR image, the sub-cortical ROIs' boundary are refined based on gray matter. The neo-cortical ROIs are refined by sulcus information that is semi-automatically marked on the patient brain. Then the segmentation is applied to 4D PET image of same patient for calculation of TAC (Time Activity Curve) by co-registration between MR and PET.

  4. Out-of-core clustering of volumetric datasets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRANBERG Carl J.; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for dividing and clustering large volumetric scalar out-of-core datasets. This work is based on the Ordered Cluster Binary Tree (OCBT) structure created using a top-down or divisive clustering method. The OCBT structure allows fast and efficient sub volume queries to be made in combination with level of detail (LOD) queries of the tree. The initial partitioning of the large out-of-core dataset is done by using non-axis aligned planes calculated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A hybrid OCBT structure is also proposed where an in-core cluster binary tree is combined with a large out-of-core file.

  5. Volumetric Survey Speed: A Figure of Merit for Transient Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Time-domain surveys can exchange sky coverage for revisit frequency, complicating the comparison of their relative capabilities. By using different revisit intervals, a specific camera may execute surveys optimized for discovery of different classes of transient objects. We propose a new figure of merit, the instantaneous volumetric survey speed, for evaluating transient surveys. This metric defines the trade between cadence interval and snapshot survey volume and so provides a natural means of comparing survey capability. The related metric of areal survey speed imposes a constraint on the range of possible revisit times: we show that many modern time-domain surveys are limited by the amount of fresh sky available each night. We introduce the concept of "spectroscopic accessibility" and discuss its importance for transient science goals requiring followup observing. We present an extension of the control time algorithm for cases where multiple consecutive detections are required. Finally, we explore how surv...

  6. Synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon monoliths with incorporated metal-organic frameworks for enhancing volumetric based CO₂ capture capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dan; Lei, Cheng; Hao, Guang-Ping; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2012-11-01

    This work aims to optimize the structural features of hierarchical porous carbon monolith (HCM) by incorporating the advantages of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (Cu₃(BTC)₂) to maximize the volumetric based CO₂ capture capability (CO₂ capacity in cm³ per cm³ adsorbent), which is seriously required for the practical application of CO₂ capture. The monolithic HCM was used as a matrix, in which Cu₃(BTC)₂ was in situ synthesized, to form HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites by a step-by-step impregnation and crystallization method. The resulted HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites, which retain the monolithic shape and exhibit unique hybrid structure features of both HCM and Cu₃(BTC)₂, show high CO₂ uptake of 22.7 cm³ cm⁻³ on a volumetric basis. This value is nearly as twice as the uptake of original HCM. The dynamic gas separation measurement of HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂, using 16% (v/v) CO₂ in N₂ as feedstock, illustrates that CO₂ can be easily separated from N₂ under the ambient conditions and achieves a high separation factor for CO₂ over N₂, ranging from 67 to 100, reflecting a strongly competitive CO₂ adsorption by the composite. A facile CO₂ release can be realized by purging an argon flow through the fixed-bed adsorber at 25 °C, indicating the good regeneration ability.

  7. Volumetric optical coherence microscopy enabled by aberrated optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Siyang; Adie, Steven G.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an interferometric imaging technique that enables high resolution, non-invasive imaging of 3D cell cultures and biological tissues. Volumetric imaging with OCM suffers a trade-off between high transverse resolution and poor depth-of-field resulting from defocus, optical aberrations, and reduced signal collection away from the focal plane. While defocus and aberrations can be compensated with computational methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) or computational adaptive optics (CAO), reduced signal collection must be physically addressed through optical hardware. Axial scanning of the focus is one approach, but comes at the cost of longer acquisition times, larger datasets, and greater image reconstruction times. Given the capabilities of CAO to compensate for general phase aberrations, we present an alternative method to address the signal collection problem without axial scanning by using intentionally aberrated optical hardware. We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic spectral domain (SD-)OCM imaging system to enable single-acquisition volumetric OCM in 3D cell culture over an extended depth range, compared to a non-aberrated SD-OCM system. The transverse resolution of the non-aberrated and astigmatic imaging systems after application of CAO were 2 um and 2.2 um, respectively. The depth-range of effective signal collection about the nominal focal plane was increased from 100 um in the non-aberrated system to over 300 um in the astigmatic system, extending the range over which useful data may be acquired in a single OCM dataset. We anticipate that this method will enable high-throughput cellular-resolution imaging of dynamic biological systems over extended volumes.

  8. Marginal Space Deep Learning: Efficient Architecture for Volumetric Image Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesu, Florin C; Krubasik, Edward; Georgescu, Bogdan; Singh, Vivek; Yefeng Zheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2016-05-01

    Robust and fast solutions for anatomical object detection and segmentation support the entire clinical workflow from diagnosis, patient stratification, therapy planning, intervention and follow-up. Current state-of-the-art techniques for parsing volumetric medical image data are typically based on machine learning methods that exploit large annotated image databases. Two main challenges need to be addressed, these are the efficiency in scanning high-dimensional parametric spaces and the need for representative image features which require significant efforts of manual engineering. We propose a pipeline for object detection and segmentation in the context of volumetric image parsing, solving a two-step learning problem: anatomical pose estimation and boundary delineation. For this task we introduce Marginal Space Deep Learning (MSDL), a novel framework exploiting both the strengths of efficient object parametrization in hierarchical marginal spaces and the automated feature design of Deep Learning (DL) network architectures. In the 3D context, the application of deep learning systems is limited by the very high complexity of the parametrization. More specifically 9 parameters are necessary to describe a restricted affine transformation in 3D, resulting in a prohibitive amount of billions of scanning hypotheses. The mechanism of marginal space learning provides excellent run-time performance by learning classifiers in clustered, high-probability regions in spaces of gradually increasing dimensionality. To further increase computational efficiency and robustness, in our system we learn sparse adaptive data sampling patterns that automatically capture the structure of the input. Given the object localization, we propose a DL-based active shape model to estimate the non-rigid object boundary. Experimental results are presented on the aortic valve in ultrasound using an extensive dataset of 2891 volumes from 869 patients, showing significant improvements of up to 45

  9. The volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae at z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Levan, A.; Karpenka, N. V.; Edwards, T. D. P.; Walker, C. R.; Wolf, W. M.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R.; Howell, D. A.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z ˜ 1.0, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et al. and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91^{+76}_{-36} SNe yr-1 Gpc-3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z = 1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2^{+1.8}_{-0.9}× 10^{-4} of the volumetric core-collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formation history. We also estimate the rate of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts based on the events discovered by the Swift satellite, and show that it is comparable to the rate of SLSNe, providing further evidence of a possible connection between these two classes of events. We also examine the host galaxies of the SLSNe discovered in SNLS, and find them to be consistent with the stellar-mass distribution of other published samples of SLSNe.

  10. Volumetric analysis of corticocancellous bones using CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Linde, Astrid von; Rosenberger, Ralf; Blauth, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Glodny, Bernhard; Niederwanger, Christian [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology I, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    To present a method for an automated volumetric analysis of corticocancellous bones such as the superior pubic ramus using CT data and to assess the reliability of this method. Computed tomography scans of a consecutive series of 250 patients were analyzed. A Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholding-based reconstruction technique (''Vessel Tracking,'' GE Healthcare) was used. A contiguous space of cancellous bone with similar HU values between the starting and end points was automatically identified as the region of interest. The identification was based upon the density gradient to the adjacent cortical bone. The starting point was defined as the middle of the parasymphyseal corticocancellous transition zone on the axial slice showing the parasymphyseal superior pubic ramus in its maximum anteroposterior width. The end point was defined as the middle of the periarticular corticocancellous transition zone on the axial slice showing the quadrilateral plate as a thin cortical plate. The following parameters were automatically obtained on both sides: length of the center line, volume of the superior pubic ramus between the starting point and end point, minimum, maximum and mean diameter perpendicular to the center line, and mean cross-sectional area perpendicular to the center line. An automated analysis without manual adjustments was successful in 207 patients (82.8%). The center line showed a significantly greater length in female patients (67.6 mm vs 65.0 mm). The volume was greater in male patients (21.8 cm{sup 3} vs 19.4 cm{sup 3}). The intersite reliability was high with a mean difference between the left and right sides of between 0.1% (cross-sectional area) and 2.3% (volume). The method presented allows for an automated volumetric analysis of a corticocancellous bone using CT data. The method is intended to provide preoperative information for the use of intramedullary devices in fracture fixation and percutaneous cement augmentation techniques

  11. An Analysis Methodology for Stochastic Characteristic of Volumetric Error in Multiaxis CNC Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches about error modeling and analysis of machine tool few consider the probability characteristics of the geometric error and volumetric error systematically. However, the individual geometric error measured at different points is variational and stochastic, and therefore the resultant volumetric error is aslo stochastic and uncertain. In order to address the stochastic characteristic of the volumetric error for multiaxis machine tool, a new probability analysis mathematical model of volumetric error is proposed in this paper. According to multibody system theory, a mean value analysis model for volumetric error is established with consideration of geometric errors. The probability characteristics of geometric errors are obtained by statistical analysis to the measured sample data. Based on probability statistics and stochastic process theory, the variance analysis model of volumetric error is established in matrix, which can avoid the complex mathematics operations during the direct differential. A four-axis horizontal machining center is selected as an illustration example. The analysis results can reveal the stochastic characteristic of volumetric error and are also helpful to make full use of the best workspace to reduce the random uncertainty of the volumetric error and improve the machining accuracy.

  12. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, C.J.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, JPJ

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional imag

  13. A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Elimination Measurements Between a Portable Indirect Calorimeter and Volumetric Capnography Monitor: An In Vitro Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Martinez, Enid E; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2016-03-01

    Gas exchange measurements for carbon dioxide elimination (V̇CO2 ) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2 ) have been used to derive resting energy expenditure and guide energy prescription. Volumetric capnography is used in intensive care units and provides V̇CO2 measurements that could be used for titrating respiratory and nutritional support. We have recently suggested that measuring V̇CO2 may be sufficient to obtain a reasonable estimate of energy expenditure. However, data describing the accuracy of gas exchange measurement devices are limited. We used an in vitro simulation model to test the accuracy of gas exchange measurements by 2 devices: the CCM Express indirect calorimeter and the NM3, a volumetric capnography monitor. A Huszczuk gas injection system combined with a high-fidelity lung simulator was used to simulate V̇O2 and V̇CO2 values in the pediatric and adult range. Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between the measured and simulated values across a range of tidal volumes and gas exchange values. Additionally, agreement between the 2 devices was examined. During the adult simulation with the CCM Express, the mean bias (95% CI) for V̇CO2 values was -12.6% (-16.4 to -8.8%) and -17.5% (-19.9 to -15.1%) for V̇O2 values. For the pediatric simulation with the CCM Express, mean bias for V̇O2 was -14.7% (-16.4 to -13.0%) and V̇CO2 was -10.9% (-13.5 to -8.3%). For the adult and pediatric simulations with the NM3, the bias for V̇CO2 was -8.2% (-15.7 to -0.7%) and -8.3% (-19.4 to -2.8%), respectively. Between the 2 devices, the mean bias was -4.4% (-10.2 to 1.3%) and -2.3% (-11.4 to 6.8%) for the adult and pediatric V̇CO2 simulations, respectively. Currently available portable gas exchange monitors demonstrated acceptable agreement with reference V̇O2 and V̇CO2 values in an in vitro simulation. The devices demonstrated good agreement with each other. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. 气相色谱法分析不同产地辣木叶中植物甾醇的含量%Content determination of phytosterol in Moringa oleifera leaves from different areas by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 赵志红; 李小佳; 朱慧

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To study the content difference of campesterol, β-sitosterin, and stigmasterol in Moringa oleifera leaves from Xishuangbanna, Shaoguan, Angola, India and Yunnan. Methods After saponification by 50%potassium hydroxide, the free phytosterol of samples were extracted by diethyl ether:hexane(1:1,V:V), and the solvent were evaporated to dryness before silanization using N,N-Dimethylformamide(DMF), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and trimethyl-chlorosilane (TMCS)(8:2:1,V:V:V). The content of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterin in Moringa oleifera leaves from various areas were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Results The content ofβ-sitosterin were around 20 mg/100 g in Moringa oleifera leaves from Shaoguan, 40 mg/100 g in that from Xishuangbanna and 30 mg/100 g in those from Angola, India and Yunnan. The content of campesterol were around 5~7 mg/100 g in Moringa oleifera leaves from Shaoguan, 8 mg/100 g in that from India and larger than 10 mg/100 g in those from Xishuangbanna, Angola and Yunnan. The content of stigmasterol were 2~12 mg/100 g in Moringa oleifera leaves from different areas. Conclusion The content of campesterol and β-sitosterin of Moringa oleifera leaves from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, Angola and India are remarkably higher than those from Shaoguan. The content of stigmasterol has no obvious regional differences.%目的:研究西双版纳、韶关、安哥拉、印度和云南辣木叶中菜油甾醇、β谷甾醇和豆甾醇的含量差异。方法样品经50%氢氧化钾皂化后,用乙醚:正己烷(1:1,V:V)萃取游离甾醇并将溶剂蒸干,用 N,N-二甲基甲酰胺:六甲基二硅氨烷:三甲基氯硅烷(8:2:1,V:V:V)将游离甾醇硅烷化,然后进行气相色谱分析,并分析各地辣木叶中菜油甾醇、豆甾醇和β谷甾醇含量。结果β谷甾醇在韶关辣木叶中含量为20 mg/100 g左右,在西双版纳辣木叶中含量为40 mg/100 g,在安哥拉、印度和

  15. 气相色谱法分析不同产地辣木叶中植物甾醇的含量%Content determination of phytosterol inMoringa oleifera leaves from different areas by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬; 赵志红; 李小佳; 朱慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the content difference of campesterol,β-sitosterin, and stigmasterol inMoringa oleifera leaves from Xishuangbanna, Shaoguan, Angola, India and Yunnan.Methods After saponification by 50% potassium hydroxide, the free phytosterol of samples were extracted by diethyl ether:hexane(1:1,V:V), and the solvent were evaporated to dryness before silanization usingN,N-Dimethylformamide(DMF), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and trimethyl-chlorosilane (TMCS)(8:2:1,V:V:V). The content of campesterol, stigmasterol andβ-sitosterin in Moringa oleifera leaves from various areas were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC).Results The content ofβ-sitosterin were around 20 mg/100 g inMoringa oleifera leaves from Shaoguan, 40 mg/100 g in that from Xishuangbanna and 30 mg/100 g in those from Angola, India and Yunnan. The content of campesterol were around 5~7 mg/100 g inMoringa oleifera leaves from Shaoguan, 8 mg/100 g in that from India and larger than 10 mg/100 g in those from Xishuangbanna, Angola and Yunnan. The content of stigmasterol were 2~12 mg/100 g inMoringa oleifera leaves from different areas.Conclusion The content of campesterol andβ-sitosterin ofMoringa oleifera leaves from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, Angola and India are remarkably higher than those from Shaoguan. The content of stigmasterol has no obvious regional differences.%目的:研究西双版纳、韶关、安哥拉、印度和云南辣木叶中菜油甾醇、β谷甾醇和豆甾醇的含量差异。方法样品经50%氢氧化钾皂化后,用乙醚:正己烷(1:1,V:V)萃取游离甾醇并将溶剂蒸干,用 N,N-二甲基甲酰胺:六甲基二硅氨烷:三甲基氯硅烷(8:2:1,V:V:V)将游离甾醇硅烷化,然后进行气相色谱分析,并分析各地辣木叶中菜油甾醇、豆甾醇和β谷甾醇含量。结果β谷甾醇在韶关辣木叶中含量为20 mg/100 g左右,在西双版纳辣木叶中含量为40 mg/100 g,在安哥拉、印度和云南辣木叶中含量为30 mg/100 g左

  16. Performance of an Otto cycle motor with natural gas direct injection; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto com injecao direta de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga

    1997-07-01

    A Otto cycle engine with natural gas direct injection, during the inlet stroke, was submitted to runs with full power in a Foucaut dynamometer. The results obtained show a increase in the volumetric efficiency of the engine with natural gas direct injection when compared with natural gas injection applied in the inlet manifold, upstream of the throttle butterfly. In the conversion to natural gas direct injection, the technical characteristics were not changed. A kit for natural gas direct injection, with electronic management was located on the cylinder head of the test engine. Maintaining the pressure constant in the natural gas fuel line, using a reduction valve, the mass of fuel injected into the cylinder was regulated, varying the opening time of the solenoid valve fuel injector. Engine performance data is compared, emphasizing the factors that contribute to this increase in relative volumetric efficiency. Modifications are made to maximize the power of the engine with natural gas direct injection. (author)

  17. High Volumetric Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Scrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Thangavel, Ranjith; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Chandra Das, Nayan; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-07-12

    The low volumetric energy density of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrodes limits its application in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices that require high-performance energy storage capacities in small volumes. The volumetric energy density of rGO-based electrode materials is very low due to their low packing density. A supercapacitor with enhanced packing density and high volumetric energy density is fabricated using doped rGO scrolls (GFNSs) as the electrode material. The restacking of rGO sheets is successfully controlled through synthesizing the doped scroll structures while increasing the packing density. The fabricated cell exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 49.66 Wh/L with excellent cycling stability (>10 000 cycles). This unique design strategy for the electrode material has significant potential for the future supercapacitors with high volumetric energy densities.

  18. Global segmentation and curvature analysis of volumetric data sets using trivariate B-spline functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldea, Octavian; Elber, Gershon; Rivlin, Ehud

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a method to globally segment volumetric images into regions that contain convex or concave (elliptic) iso-surfaces, planar or cylindrical (parabolic) iso-surfaces, and volumetric regions with saddle-like (hyperbolic) iso-surfaces, regardless of the value of the iso-surface level. The proposed scheme relies on a novel approach to globally compute, bound, and analyze the Gaussian and mean curvatures of an entire volumetric data set, using a trivariate B-spline volumetric representation. This scheme derives a new differential scalar field for a given volumetric scalar field, which could easily be adapted to other differential properties. Moreover, this scheme can set the basis for more precise and accurate segmentation of data sets targeting the identification of primitive parts. Since the proposed scheme employs piecewise continuous functions, it is precise and insensitive to aliasing.

  19. The duct selective volumetric receiver: potential for different selectivity strategies and stability issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Casals, X. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas-ICAI, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fluidos y Calor; Ajona, J.I. [Departamento de Energia Solar, Viessemann, Poligono Industrial San Marcos, Getafe (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Recently much theoretical and experimental work has been conducted on volumetric receivers. However, not much attention has been paid to the possibilities of using different selectivity mechanisms to minimize radiation thermal losses, which are the main ones at high operating temperature. In this paper we present a duct volumetric receiver model and its results, which allow the evaluation of different selectivity strategies such as: conventional {epsilon}/{alpha}, geometry, frontal absorption and diffuse/specular reflection. We propose a new concept of selective volumetric receivers based on a solar-specular/infrared-diffuse radiative behaviour and evaluate its potential for efficiency improvement. In recent work on volumetric receivers based on simplified models, it has been concluded that the duct volumetric receiver is inherently unstable when working with high solar flux. We didn't find any unstable receiver behaviour even at very high solar fluxes, and conclude that a substantial potential for efficiency improvement exists if selectivity mechanisms are properly combined. (author)

  20. Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Nankivil, Derek; Shen, Liangbo; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Viet, Du Tran; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Current-generation software for rendering volumetric OCT data sets based on ray casting results in volume visualizations with indistinct tissue features and sub-optimal depth perception. Recent developments in hand-held and microscope-integrated intrasurgical OCT designed for real-time volumetric imaging motivate development of rendering algorithms which are both visually appealing and fast enough to support real time rendering, potentially from multiple viewpoints for stereoscopic visualization. We report on an enhanced, real time, integrated volumetric rendering pipeline which incorporates high performance volumetric median and Gaussian filtering, boundary and feature enhancement, depth encoding, and lighting into a ray casting volume rendering model. We demonstrate this improved model implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware for real-time volumetric rendering of OCT data during tissue phantom and live human surgical imaging. We show that this rendering produces enhanced 3D visualizations of pathology and intraoperative maneuvers compared to standard ray casting.

  1. Direct initiation of gaseous detonation via radiative heating of microparticles volumetrically suspended in the gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new conceptual approach for direct detonation initiation in the gaseous mixtures seeded with micro particles via the radiative heating from the external energy source. The basic mechanisms of energy absorption, ignition and detonation formation are analyzed numerically on the example of hydrogen-oxygen mixture. Obtained data is very promising and allows us to formulate conditions for the source power to ignite detonation in certain system geometry.

  2. 鄂尔多斯盆地东缘上古生界页岩特征及含气量%Characteristics and Calculation Method for Gas Content of Upper Paleozoic Shales in the Eastern Margin of Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭少斌; 赵可英

    2016-01-01

    Shale sequences are well developed in the Carboniferous-Permian transition facies,Ordos Basin. Researchers have done many studies on shales in upper Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin. With few drilling data,however,not enough researches have been carried out on the eastern margin of the basin. In order to clarify the characteristic and gas bearing of shales in the eastern margin of the basin,according to the characteristic of sedimentary,geochemistry,lithology,physical property and the experiments of isothermal adsorption and nuclear magnetic resonance of samples from Taitou,the shales were analyzed. It is found that Taiyuan formation has the best condition for shale gas formation which is 25 meters thick,abundant in organic matter,and is in the stage of producing gaseous hydrocarbon,the shale is of high content of non swellable clay minerals and equally distributed crack/micro fractures. We also offer the calculation formula of gas adsorption using parameters of depth and content of organic carbon and improve the calculation accuracy of free volume through calculating effective porosity. It has been verified that the calculation of air content conforms to the actual situation,and the method is simple and practical by relevant data from Well Y88 in Ordos Basin.%鄂尔多斯盆地上古生界石炭二叠系海陆过渡相泥页岩发育,前人对盆地内上古生界泥页岩已做了多项研究,而盆地东缘钻井资料较少,研究程度较低。为了弄清盆地东缘泥页岩的特征及含气性,通过野外实测剖面台头剖面的沉积、地化、岩性、物性等参数并结合等温吸附、核磁共振实验结果,对盆地东缘泥页岩进行分析。研究认为:盆地东缘上古生界以太原组发育的泥页岩最佳,厚度25 m左右,有机质丰度较高,处于产气态烃阶段,泥页岩中非膨胀性黏土含量较高,裂缝/微裂缝发育程度较均匀;同时提出了应用深度和有机碳含量计算吸附气

  3. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, Cécile J; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2015-05-01

    In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional images. This study aimed to investigate and compare knowledge and skills used for interpretation of volumetric versus 2D images. Twenty radiology clerks were asked to think out loud while reading four or five volumetric computed tomography (CT) images in stack mode and four or five 2D CT images. Cases were presented in a digital testing program allowing stack viewing of volumetric data sets and changing views and window settings. Thoughts verbalized by the participants were registered and coded by a framework of knowledge and skills concerning three components: perception, analysis, and synthesis. The components were subdivided into 16 discrete knowledge and skill elements. A within-subject analysis was performed to compare cognitive processes during volumetric image readings versus 2D cross-sectional image readings. Most utterances contained knowledge and skills concerning perception (46%). A smaller part involved synthesis (31%) and analysis (23%). More utterances regarded perception in volumetric image interpretation than in 2D image interpretation (Median 48% vs 35%; z = -3.9; P Cognitive processes in volumetric and 2D cross-sectional image interpretation differ substantially. Volumetric image interpretation draws predominantly on perceptual processes, whereas 2D image interpretation is mainly characterized by synthesis. The results encourage the use of volumetric images for teaching and testing perceptual skills. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yawalkar, Archis A.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Volumetric gas—liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) data available in the literature for larger tanks (T = 0.39 m to 2.7 m) have been analyzed on the basis of relative dispersion parameter, N/Ncd. It was observed that at a given superficial gas velocity (VG), kLa values were approximately the same

  5. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  6. Oxygen and nitrogen co-doped porous carbon nanosheets derived from Perilla frutescens for high volumetric performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Liu, Yijiang; Chen, Hongbiao; Yang, Mei; Li, Huaming

    2017-02-01

    Biomass-derived O/N-co-doped porous carbons have become the most competitive electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their renewability and sustainability. We herein present a simple approach to fabricate O/N-co-doped porous carbon nanosheets by the direct pyrolysis of Perilla frutescens (PF) leaves. Under optimum pyrolysis temperature (700 °C), the PF leaf-derived carbon nanosheets (PFC-700) having O, N contents of 18.76 at.% and 1.70 at.%, respectively, exhibit a hierarchical pore structure with a moderate BET surface area (655 m2 g-1) and a relatively low pore volume (0.44 cm3 g-1). Such O/N-co-doped porous carbon nanosheets display both high gravimetric capacitance (270 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and high volumetric capacitance (287 F cm-3 at 0.5 A g-1). In addition, the PFC-700-based symmetric supercapacitor offers a high volumetric energy density (14.8 Wh L-1 at 490 W L-1) as well as a high stability (about 96.1% of capacitance retention after 10000 cycles at 2 A g-1).

  7. DETERMINATION OF RAT CEREBRAL CORTEX FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND CON-TENT BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY%气相色谱法分析大鼠大脑皮质脂肪酸组成及含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石如玲; 张煜; 杨磊; 杨志军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To determine cerebral cortex fatty acid composition and content of rats. [Methods] Iipids were extracted from the cerebral cortex with methanol/dichloromethane and were methylesterified using methanol/acetyl chloride. Fatty acid methyl esters were then assayed by gas chromatography. [Results] Qualitative analysis results showed that there were 16 kinds of fatty acids in rat cerebral cortex, with major fatty acids as C18 : 0, followed by C16 : 0, C18 : 1, C20 : 4 and C22 6. The ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in rat cerebral cortex was 1.22 : 1. [Conclusion] This study provided data on fatty acid composition and content of rat cerebral cortex, which laid the foundation for exploring the relation* ship between fatty acids and brain function.%[目的]对大鼠大脑皮质脂肪酸组成及含量进行分析测定.[方法]采用甲醇-二氯甲烷提取脑皮质总脂,用甲醇/乙酰氯法进行脂肪酸甲酯化,利用气相色谱法对脂肪酸组成及含量进行测定.[结果]定性分析结果表明大鼠脑皮质脂肪酸至少有16种,含量占优势的脂肪酸为C18:0、C16:0、C18:1、C20:4、C22:6;饱和与不饱和脂肪酸之比为1.22:1.[结论]该实验确定了大鼠大脑皮质脂肪酸的组成及含量,为进一步研究脂肪酸与脑功能打下了基础.

  8. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  9. 激光在线分析系统在煤气氧含量检测中的应用%Application of laser on-line analyzing system in measurement of oxygen content in gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏爱国

    2013-01-01

    利用LGA-4130分析仪对电捕焦油器后煤气中的氧含量进行在线检测,并通过DCS控制系统设置含氧量的上限值对电捕焦油器实行连锁停机,确保电捕焦油器连续安全运行。对该系统进行分析后,在肯定其技术优点的同时指出其缺陷,并提出了改进建议。%Oxygen analyzer LGA-4130 is used for on-line measurement of oxygen content in gas after electro-static tar precipitator ( ETP ) and for interlock shutdown of the ETP in case of reaching the HH limit of the oxygen value preset on DCS aiming at a safe and stable running of the ETP .The ad-vantages and disadvantages of this analyzing system are studied in this paper ,suggestions for improve-ment are also given .

  10. 探讨液氮洗原料气中氮气含量的高限值%DISCUSSION ON UPPER-LIMIT VALUE OF N2-CONTENT IN FEED-GAS FOR LIQUID-NITROGEN WASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 尹俊杰

    2012-01-01

    应用Aspen Plus流程模拟软件,采用RK-Aspen热力学模型,完成对原液氮洗工艺流程的模拟,并与原设计值相比较,从而验证所选模型的合理性。然后运用此模型对多组工况进行模拟分析,得出液氮洗工艺原料气中氮气含量的高限值。%A simulation of original liquid-nitrogen wash process in a chemical enterprise with Aspen Plus software and RK-Aspen thermodynamic model has been completed and through the comparison with the designed value to verify the rationality of the model so selected. Afterwards, the model is applied to proceed simulation analysis at several groups of work condition and the upper-limit value of nitrogen content in feed gas for liquid nitrogen wash is resulted in.

  11. Volumetric Spectroscopic Imaging of Glioblastoma Multiforme Radiation Treatment Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N. Andres [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Maudsley, Andrew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Gupta, Rakesh K. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Ishkanian, Fazilat; Huang, Kris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Walker, Gail R. [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core Resource, Sylvester Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Padgett, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Roy, Bhaswati [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Panoff, Joseph; Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Stoyanova, Radka, E-mail: RStoyanova@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) are used almost exclusively in radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), despite their well-recognized limitations. MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can identify biochemical patterns associated with normal brain and tumor, predominantly by observation of choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) distributions. In this study, volumetric 3-dimensional MRSI was used to map these compounds over a wide region of the brain and to evaluate metabolite-defined treatment targets (metabolic tumor volumes [MTV]). Methods and Materials: Volumetric MRSI with effective voxel size of ∼1.0 mL and standard clinical MR images were obtained from 19 GBM patients. Gross tumor volumes and edema were manually outlined, and clinical target volumes (CTVs) receiving 46 and 60 Gy were defined (CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}, respectively). MTV{sub Cho} and MTV{sub NAA} were constructed based on volumes with high Cho and low NAA relative to values estimated from normal-appearing tissue. Results: The MRSI coverage of the brain was between 70% and 76%. The MTV{sub NAA} were almost entirely contained within the edema, and the correlation between the 2 volumes was significant (r=0.68, P=.001). In contrast, a considerable fraction of MTV{sub Cho} was outside of the edema (median, 33%) and for some patients it was also outside of the CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}. These untreated volumes were greater than 10% for 7 patients (37%) in the study, and on average more than one-third (34.3%) of the MTV{sub Cho} for these patients were outside of CTV{sub 60}. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of whole-brain MRSI for radiation therapy planning of GBM and revealed that areas of metabolically active tumor are not covered by standard RT volumes. The described integration of MTV into the RT system will pave the way to future clinical trials investigating outcomes in patients treated based on

  12. Widespread Volumetric Brain Changes following Tooth Loss in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Friedel, Miriam; Lerch, Jason P.; Moayedi, Massieh; Davis, Karen D.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Tooth loss is associated with altered sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions. These changes vary highly in the population and are accompanied by structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating these functions. It is unclear to what extent this variability in behavior and function is caused by genetic and/or environmental determinants and which brain regions undergo structural plasticity that mediates these changes. Thus, the overall goal of our research program is to identify genetic variants that control structural and functional plasticity following tooth loss. As a step toward this goal, here our aim was to determine whether structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is sensitive to detect quantifiable volumetric differences in the brains of mice of different genetic background receiving tooth extraction or sham operation. We used 67 adult female mice of 7 strains, comprising the A/J (A) and C57BL/6J (B) strains and a randomly selected sample of 5 of the 23 AXB-BXA strains (AXB1, AXB4, AXB24, BXA14, BXA24) that were produced from the A and B parental mice by recombinations and inbreeding. This panel of 25 inbred strains of genetically diverse inbred strains of mice is used for mapping chromosomal intervals throughout the genome that harbor candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variance of any trait under study. Under general anesthesia, 39 mice received extraction of 3 right maxillary molar teeth and 28 mice received sham operation. On post-extraction day 21, post-mortem whole-brain high-resolution sMRI was used to quantify the volume of 160 brain regions. Compared to sham operation, tooth extraction was associated with a significantly reduced regional and voxel-wise volumes of cortical brain regions involved in processing somatosensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions, and increased volumes in subcortical sensorimotor and temporal limbic forebrain regions including the amygdala. Additionally, comparison of the 10 BXA14

  13. Hepatosplenic volumetric assessment at MDCT for staging liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Malecki, Kyle; Hunt, Oliver F; Beaumont, Claire; Kloke, John; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Lubner, Meghan G

    2017-07-01

    To investigate hepatosplenic volumetry at MDCT for non-invasive prediction of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatosplenic volume analysis in 624 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 311 M/313 F) at MDCT was performed using dedicated software and compared against pathological fibrosis stage (F0 = 374; F1 = 48; F2 = 40; F3 = 65; F4 = 97). The liver segmental volume ratio (LSVR) was defined by Couinaud segments I-III over segments IV-VIII. All pre-cirrhotic fibrosis stages (METAVIR F1-F3) were based on liver biopsy within 1 year of MDCT. LSVR and total splenic volumes increased with stage of fibrosis, with mean(±SD) values of: F0: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 215.1 ± 88.5 mm(3); F1: 0.25 ± 0.08 and 294.8 ± 153.4 mm(3); F2: 0.331 ± 0.12 and 291.6 ± 197.1 mm(3); F3: 0.39 ± 0.15 and 509.6 ± 402.6 mm(3); F4: 0.56 ± 0.30 and 790.7 ± 450.3 mm(3), respectively. Total hepatic volumes showed poor discrimination (F0: 1674 ± 320 mm(3); F4: 1631 ± 691 mm(3)). For discriminating advanced fibrosis (≥F3), the ROC AUC values for LSVR, total liver volume, splenic volume and LSVR/spleen combined were 0.863, 0.506, 0.890 and 0.947, respectively. Relative changes in segmental liver volumes and total splenic volume allow for non-invasive staging of hepatic fibrosis, whereas total liver volume is a poor predictor. Unlike liver biopsy or elastography, these CT volumetric biomarkers can be obtained retrospectively on routine scans obtained for other indications. • Regional changes in hepatic volume (LSVR) correlate well with degree of fibrosis. • Total liver volume is a very poor predictor of underlying fibrosis. • Total splenic volume is associated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis. • Hepatosplenic volume assessment is comparable to elastography for staging fibrosis. • Unlike elastography, volumetric analysis can be performed retrospectively.

  14. Volumetric and MGMT parameters in glioblastoma patients: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliadis Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study several tumor-related volumes were assessed by means of a computer-based application and a survival analysis was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre- and postoperative volumetric data in patients harboring glioblastomas. In addition, MGMT (O6-methylguanine methyltransferase related parameters were compared with those of volumetry in order to observe possible relevance of this molecule in tumor development. Methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GBM who underwent radiotherapy with concomitant adjuvant temozolomide. For the purpose of volumetry T1 and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR sequences were used, acquired both pre- and postoperatively (pre-radiochemotherapy. The volumes measured on preoperative MR images were necrosis, enhancing tumor and edema (including the tumor and on postoperative ones, net-enhancing tumor. Age, sex, performance status (PS and type of operation were also included in the multivariate analysis. MGMT was assessed for promoter methylation with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, for RNA expression with real time PCR, and for protein expression with immunohistochemistry in a total of 44 cases with available histologic material. Results In the multivariate analysis a negative impact was shown for pre-radiochemotherapy net-enhancing tumor on the overall survival (OS (p = 0.023 and for preoperative necrosis on progression-free survival (PFS (p = 0.030. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis confirmed the importance of PS in PFS and OS of patients. MGMT promoter methylation was observed in 13/23 (43.5% evaluable tumors; complete methylation was observed in 3/13 methylated tumors only. High rate of MGMT protein positivity (> 20% positive neoplastic nuclei was inversely associated with pre-operative tumor necrosis (p = 0.021. Conclusions Our findings implicate that volumetric parameters may have a significant role in

  15. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLUMETRIC STRAINS IN POROUS MATERIALS IN TERMS OF WATER FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differential analysis of volumetric strain (DAVS. The method allows measurements of volumetric deformations of capillary-porous materials caused by water-ice phase change. The VSE indicator (volumetric strain effect, which under certain conditions can be interpreted as the minimum degree of phase change of water contained in the material pores, is proposed. The test results (DAVS for three materials with diversified microstructure: clinker brick, calcium-silicate brick and Portland cement mortar were compared with the test results for pore characteristics obtained with the mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  17. Is there a role for the use of volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois, A H; Kardachi, B; Bartold, P M

    2012-03-01

    Volumetric computed cone beam tomography offers a number of significant advantages over conventional intraoral and extraoral panoramic radiography, as well as computed tomography. To date, periodontal diagnosis has relied heavily on the assessment of both intraoral radiographs and extraoral panoramic radiographs. With emerging technology in radiology there has been considerable interest in the role that volumetric cone beam computed tomography might play in periodontal diagnostics. This narrative reviews the current evidence and considers whether there is a role for volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics.

  18. Performance of the Volumetric Diffusive Respirator at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-18

    altitude include changes in the movement of gas through fixed orifices altering accuracy in ventilator settings as well as the measurement of flow and...control system relies on the movement of gas through known restrictions and changes in pressure on opposing sides of a diaphragm. Airway pressure... orifice restrictor is placed in line to dampen the pressures in an attempt to display the estimated tracheal pressure. This requires the clinician to

  19. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  20. Volumetric Analysis of Regional Cerebral Development in Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Ment, Laura R.; Vohr, Betty; Pajot, Sarah K.; Schneider, Karen C.; Katz, Karol H.; Ebbitt, Timothy B.; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is frequently associated with both neuropathologic and cognitive sequelae. This study examined cortical lobe, subcortical, and lateral ventricle development in association with perinatal variables and cognitive outcome. High-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and quantified using advanced image processing techniques. Seventy-three preterm and 33 term control children ages 7.3-11.4 years were included in the study. Results indicated disproportionately enlarged parietal and frontal gray matter, occipital horn, and ventricular body, as well as reduced temporal and subcortical gray volumes in preterm children compared with control subjects. Birth weight was negatively correlated with parietal and frontal gray, as well as occipital horn volumes. Intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with reduced subcortical gray matter. Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was negatively correlated with subcortical gray matter volumes but not with white matter volumes. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of cognitive function in the preterm group. Preterm birth appears to be associated with disorganized cortical development, possibly involving disrupted synaptic pruning and neural migration. Lower birth weight and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage may increase the risk for neuroanatomic abnormality. PMID:15519112

  1. Volumetric microscale particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianqi; Aramideh, Soroush; Ardekani, Arezoo M.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2016-11-01

    The steady-state flow through refractive-index-matched glass bead microchannels is measured using microscopic particle tracking velocimetry (μPTV). A novel technique is developed to volumetrically reconstruct particles from oversampled two-dimensional microscopic images of fluorescent particles. Fast oversampling of the quasi-steady-state flow field in the lateral direction is realized by a nano-positioning piezo stage synchronized with a fast CMOS camera. Experiments at different Reynolds numbers are carried out for flows through a series of both monodispersed and bidispersed glass bead microchannels with various porosities. The obtained velocity fields at pore-scale (on the order of 10 μm) are compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS) conducted in the exact same geometries reconstructed from micro-CT scans of the glass bead microchannels. The developed experimental method would serve as a new approach for exploring the flow physics at pore-scale in porous media, and also provide benchmark measurements for validation of numerical simulations.

  2. Buoyancy Driven Mixing with Continuous Volumetric Energy Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtor, Adam J.; Jebrail, Farzaneh F.; Dennisen, Nicholas A.; Andrews, Malcolm J.; Gore, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    An experiment involving a miscible fluid pair is presented which transitioned from a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) stable to RT unstable configuration through continuous volumetric energy deposition (VED) by microwave radiation. Initially a light, low microwave absorbing fluid rested above a heavier, more absorbing fluid. The alignment of the density gradient with gravity made the system stable, and the Atwood number (At) for the initial setup was approximately -0.12. Exposing the fluid pair to microwave radiation preferentially heated the bottom fluid, and caused its density to drop due to thermal expansion. As heating of the bottom fluid continued, the At varied from negative to positive, and after the system passed through the neutral stability point, At = 0, buoyancy driven mixing ensued. Continuous VED caused the At to continue increasing and further drive the mixing process. Successful VED mixing required careful design of the fluid pair used in the experiment. Therefore, fluid selection is discussed, along with challenges and limitations of data collection using the experimental microwave facility. Experimental and model predictions of the neutral stability point, and onset of buoyancy driven mixing, are compared, and differences with classical, constant At RT driven turbulence are discussed.

  3. FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Bahr, Detlef; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Oltmann, Klaas; Oltmann, Krischan; Guill, Christian; Rieper, Elisabeth; Ardey, Goetz

    2002-05-01

    The FELIX 3D display belongs to the class of volumetric displays using the swept volume technique. It is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications, which can be easily imported and interactively transformed in real-time by the FELIX control software. The images are drawn on a spinning screen by acousto-optic, galvanometric or polygon mirror deflection units with integrated lasers and a color mixer. The modular design of the display enables the user to operate with several equal or different projection units in parallel and to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose. The FELIX 3D display is a compact, light, extensible and easy to transport system. It mainly consists of inexpensive standard, off-the-shelf components for an easy implementation. This setup makes it a powerful and flexible tool to keep track with the rapid technological progress of today. Potential applications include imaging in the fields of entertainment, air traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design as well as scientific data visualization.

  4. Toward a Philosophy and Theory of Volumetric Nonthermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal processes for food preservation have been under intensive investigation for about the past quarter century, with varying degrees of success. We focus this discussion on two volumetrically acting nonthermal processes, high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF), with emphasis on scientific understanding of each, and the research questions that need to be addressed for each to be more successful in the future. We discuss the character or "philosophy" of food preservation, with a question about the nature of the kill step(s), and the sensing challenges that need to be addressed. For HPP, key questions and needs center around whether its nonthermal effectiveness can be increased by increased pressures or pulsing, the theoretical treatment of rates of reaction as influenced by pressure, the assumption of uniform pressure distribution, and the need for (and difficulties involved in) in-situ measurement. For PEF, the questions include the rationale for pulsing, difficulties involved in continuous flow treatment chambers, the difference between electroporation theory and experimental observations, and the difficulties involved in in-situ measurement and monitoring of electric field distribution.

  5. Optical artefact characterization and correction in volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Hui, Cheukkai; Archambault, Louis; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to characterize the optical artefacts affecting measurement accuracy in a volumetric liquid scintillator detector, and (2) to develop methods to correct for these artefacts. The optical artefacts addressed were photon scattering, refraction, camera perspective, vignetting, lens distortion, the lens point spread function, stray radiation, and noise in the camera. These artefacts were evaluated by theoretical and experimental means, and specific correction strategies were developed for each artefact. The effectiveness of the correction methods was evaluated by comparing raw and corrected images of the scintillation light from proton pencil beams against validated Monte Carlo calculations. Blurring due to the lens and refraction at the scintillator tank-air interface were found to have the largest effect on the measured light distribution, and lens aberrations and vignetting were important primarily at the image edges. Photon scatter in the scintillator was not found to be a significant source of artefacts. The correction methods effectively mitigated the artefacts, increasing the average gamma analysis pass rate from 66% to 98% for gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement. We conclude that optical artefacts cause clinically meaningful errors in the measured light distribution, and we have demonstrated effective strategies for correcting these optical artefacts.

  6. An MRI-based semiautomated volumetric quantification of hip osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizos, K.N.; Siafakas, M.S.; Karachalios, T.S. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Univ. of Thessalia, Larissa (Greece); Fotiadis, D.I. [Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Soucacos, P.N. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    Objective: To objectively and precisely define the spatial distribution of osteonecrosis and to investigate the influence of various factors including etiology. Design: A volumetric method is presented to describe the size and spatial distribution of necrotic lesions of the femoral head, using MRI scans. The technique is based on the definition of an equivalent sphere model for the femoral head. Patients: The gender, age, number of hips involved, disease duration, pain intensity, limping disability and etiology were correlated with the distribution of the pathologic bone. Seventy-nine patients with 122 hips affected by osteonecrosis were evaluated. Results: The lesion size ranged from 7% to 73% of the sphere equivalent. The lateral octants presented considerable variability, ranging from wide lateral lesions extending beyond the lip of the acetabulum, to narrow medial lesions, leaving a lateral supporting pillar of intact bone. Patients with sickle cell disease and steroid administration presented the largest lesions. The extent of the posterior superior medial octant involvement correlated with the symptom intensity, a younger age and male gender. Conclusion: The methodology presented here has proven a reliable and straightforward imaging tool for precise assessment of necrotic lesions. It also enables us to target accurately the drilling and grafting procedures. (orig.)

  7. Illustration-inspired depth enhanced volumetric medical visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svakhine, Nikolai A; Ebert, David S; Andrews, William M

    2009-01-01

    Volume illustration can be used to provide insight into source data from CT/MRI scanners in much the same way as medical illustration depicts the important details of anatomical structures. As such, proven techniques used in medical illustration should be transferable to volume illustration, providing scientists with new tools to visualize their data. In recent years, a number of techniques have been developed to enhance the rendering pipeline and create illustrative effects similar to the ones found in medical textbooks and surgery manuals. Such effects usually highlight important features of the subject while subjugating its context and providing depth cues for correct perception. Inspired by traditional visual and line-drawing techniques found in medical illustration, we have developed a collection of fast algorithms for more effective emphasis/de-emphasis of data as well as conveyance of spatial relationships. Our techniques utilize effective outlining techniques and selective depth enhancement to provide perceptual cues of object importance as well as spatial relationships in volumetric datasets. Moreover, we have used illustration principles to effectively combine and adapt basic techniques so that they work together to provide consistent visual information and a uniform style.

  8. Connectivity network measures predict volumetric atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Talia M; Jahanshad, Neda; Toga, Arthur W; Bernstein, Matt A; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cortical atrophy and disrupted anatomic connectivity, and leads to abnormal interactions between neural systems. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and graph theory can be used to evaluate major brain networks and detect signs of a breakdown in network connectivity. In a longitudinal study using both DWI and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we assessed baseline white-matter connectivity patterns in 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mean age 71.8 ± 7.5 years, 18 males and 12 females) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Using both standard MRI-based cortical parcellations and whole-brain tractography, we computed baseline connectivity maps from which we calculated global "small-world" architecture measures, including mean clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. We evaluated whether these baseline network measures predicted future volumetric brain atrophy in MCI subjects, who are at risk for developing AD, as determined by 3-dimensional Jacobian "expansion factor maps" between baseline and 6-month follow-up anatomic scans. This study suggests that DWI-based network measures may be a novel predictor of AD progression.

  9. Femoral head osteonecrosis: Volumetric MRI assessment and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassounas, Athanasios E. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, GR 711 10 (Greece); Fotiadis, Dimitrios I. [Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Ioannina and Biomedical Research Institute-FORTH, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Malizos, Konstantinos N. [Orthopaedic Department, Medical School, University of Thessalia, GR 412 22 Larissa (Greece)]. E-mail: kmalizos@otenet.gr

    2007-07-15

    Effective treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis (FHON) requires early diagnosis and accurate assessment of the disease severity. The ability to predict in the early stages the risk of collapse is important for selecting a joint salvage procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts in relation to preoperative MR imaging volumetry. We studied 58 patients (87 hips) with FHON. A semi-automated octant-based lesion measurement method, previously described, was performed on the T1-w MR images. The mean time of postoperative follow-up was 7.8 years. Sixty-three hips were successful and 24 failed and converted to total hip arthroplasty within a period of 2-4 years after the initial operation. The rate of failures for hips of male patients was higher than in female patients. The mean lesion size was 28% of the sphere equivalent of the femoral head, 24 {+-} 12% for the successful hips and 37 {+-} 9% for the failed (p < 0.001). The most affected octants were antero-supero-medial (58 {+-} 26%) and postero-supero-medial (54 {+-} 31%). All but postero-infero-medial and postero-infero-lateral octants, showed statistically significant differences in the lesion size between patients with successful and failed hips. In conclusion, the volumetric analysis of preoperative MRI provides useful information with regard to a successful outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts.

  10. Three-dimensional volumetric quantification of fat loss following cryolipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibyan, Lilit; Sipprell, William H; Jalian, H Ray; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew; Anderson, R Rox

    2014-02-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive and well-tolerated treatment for reduction of localized subcutaneous fat. Although several studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this procedure, volumetric fat reduction from this treatment has not been quantified. This prospective study investigated the change in volume of fat after cryolipolysis treatment using three-dimensional (3D) photography. A prospective study of subjects treated with cryolipolysis on the flank (love handle) was performed at Massachusetts General Hospital. Volume measurements were performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra three-dimensional camera and software to evaluate the amount of post procedure volume change. Clinical outcomes were assessed with caliper measurements, subject surveys, and blinded physician assessment of photographs. Eleven subjects were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to one flank. The untreated flank served as an internal control. The follow-up time after treatment was 2 months. The mean amount of calculated absolute fat volume loss using 3D photography from baseline to 2 months follow-up visit was 56.2 ± 25.6 from the treatment site and 16.6 ± 17.6 cc from the control (P fat removal methodology that on average leads to 39.6 cc of fat loss of the treated flank at 2 months after a single treatment cycle. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D

    2015-04-30

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual hull reconstruction, resulting in a first 3D approximation of the target, followed by a region-of-interest estimation, tasked with identifying features of interest, which in turn are used to locally refine the voxel grid and extract a higher-resolution surface representation for those regions. This approach is illustrated for the reconstruction of avatars for use in tele-immersion environments, where head and hand regions are of higher interest. To allow reproducability and direct comparison a publicly available data set for human visual hull reconstruction is used. This paper shows that region-of-interest reconstruction of the target is faster and visually comparable to higher resolution focused visual hull reconstructions. This approach reduces the amount of data generated through the reconstruction, allowing faster post processing, as rendering or networking of the surface voxels. Reconstruction speeds support smooth interactions between the avatar and the virtual environment, while the improved resolution of its facial region and hands creates a higher-degree of immersion and potentially impacts the perception of body language, facial expressions and eye-to-eye contact. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  13. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  14. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  15. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  16. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: Second annual report, September 30, 1986-September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1988-04-01

    It is widely known that heterogeneities in oil reservoirs occurring as a result of permeability variations in the rock can have a detrimental effect on an oil recovery process; preferential diversion of injected displacement fluid occurs through the high-permeability zones, leaving the lower-permeability zones at a high residual oil content at a time when it is no longer economically viable to continue the oil recovery process. A novel oil recovery process is described which aims to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of oil recovery. High-permeability zones are partially or completely plugged off by using the chromatographic and phase behavior of surfactants and their mixtures and the preferential invasion of high-permeability areas by low-viscosity injected fluids. The plugging will divert flow into regions of higher oil saturation. 85 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  18. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  19. Mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of short fiber-reinforced resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of a short fiber-reinforced resin composite (SFRC) were investigated in this study and compared to both a bulk fill resin composite (BFRC) and conventional glass/ceramic-filled resin composite (CGRC). Fracture toughness, flexural properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of the SFRC, BFRC and CGRC were measured. SFRC had significantly higher fracture toughness than BFRCs and CGRCs. The flexural properties of SFRC were comparable with BFRCs and CGRCs. SFRC showed significantly lower volumetric shrinkage than the other tested resin composites. The depth of cure of the SFRC was similar to BFRCs and higher than CGRCs. The data from this laboratory investigation suggests that SFRC exhibits improvements in fracture toughness, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure when compared with CGRC, but depth of cure of SFRC was similar to BFRC.

  20. Review of prospects and challenges of eye tracking in volumetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venjakob, Antje C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    While eye tracking research in conventional radiography has flourished over the past decades, the number of eye tracking studies that looked at multislice images lags behind. A possible reason for the lack of studies in this area might be that the eye tracking methodology used in the context of conventional radiography cannot be applied one-on-one to volumetric imaging material. Challenges associated with eye tracking in volumetric imaging are particularly associated with the selection of stimulus material, the detection of events in the eye tracking data, the calculation of meaningful eye tracking parameters, and the reporting of abnormalities. However, all of these challenges can be addressed in the design of the experiment. If this is done, eye tracking studies using volumetric imaging material offer almost unlimited opportunity for perception research and are highly relevant as the number of volumetric images that are acquired and interpreted is rising.

  1. Gas chromatograohy detemination of menthol crystal temperature sensitivity markedly effective component content%GC法测定薄荷脑温敏性滴丸有效成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 施璐; 易灿玲; 叶晓川; 刘焱文; 熊国玺

    2013-01-01

    Objectve To establish determination method of the content of menthol in dropping temperature sensitiuty polyethylene glycol in the dropping of menthol content determination method.Methods:HP-innowax capillary column(30m × 0.25mm × 0.25mm) and FID detector; Temperature programmed,injection port temperature of 220℃; Detecor temperature of 250℃; The carrier gas is nitrogen,3.0 mL/min; Split ratio for 50∶1 ; Sample quantity 1 μL.Results:Menthol in 0.09-0.9mg range has a good linear relationship.The accuracy test results of menthol RSD(n =5) is 0.73%,reproducible test results of menthol RSD(n =5) is 1.15%,stability test results of menthol RSD was 0.68%,menthol recovery was 99.1%.Conclusion:This method is simple,rapid,accurate,and can be used for the quality control of temperature sensitive dropping.%目的 建立温敏性滴九中薄荷脑的含量测定方法.方法 采用HP-innowax毛细管柱(30m×0.25mm×0.25mm)和FID检测器;程序升温,进样口温度为220℃;检测器温度为250℃;载气为氮气,3.0mL/min;分流比为50∶1;进样量1μL.结果 薄荷脑在0.09-0.9mg范围内具有良好的线性关系.精密度试验结果薄荷脑的RSD(n=5)为0.73%,重现性试验结果薄荷脑的RSD(n =5)为1.15%,稳定性试验结果薄荷脑的RSD为0.68%,薄荷脑回收率为99.1%.结论 本法简便、快速、准确,可用于温敏性滴丸的质量控制.

  2. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated are therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgia, Nicolini; Antonella, Fogliata; Alessandro, Clivio; Eugenio, Vanetti; Luca, Cozzi

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated are therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (0) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, Dv = 98% [%]= 92.5 +/- 0.9 and 68.5 +/- 3

  3. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated arc therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (O) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, DV = 98% [%] = 92.5 ± 0

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Determination of ferrous iron in rock and mineral samples by three volumetric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saikkonen, R.J.; Rautiainen, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrous iron was determined by three volumetric methods in 13 in-house reference rock samples and in 31 international geological reference samples. The methods used were Amonette & Scott' s oxidimetric method, Wilson's oxidimetric method and Pratt's method. The results for FeO by these volumetric methods in 13 in-house rock samples were compared to the results obtained in other analytical laboratories in Finland. The results for FeO in the international samples were compared with published da...

  6. FEMUR SHAPE RECOVERY FROM VOLUMETRIC IMAGES USING 3-D DEFORMABLE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new scheme for femur shape recovery from volumetric images using deformable models was proposed. First, prior 3-D deformable femur models are created as templates using point distribution models technology. Second, active contour models are employed to segment the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric images of the tibial and femoral joints and the deformable models are initialized based on the segmentation results. Finally, the objective function is minimized to give the optimal results constraining the surface of shapes.

  7. Understanding Volumetric and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption Trade-off in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Wang, Timothy C; García-Holley, Paula; Sawelewa, Ruth M; Argueta, Edwin; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K

    2017-04-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials that are promising for adsorption-based, on-board storage of hydrogen in fuel-cell vehicles. Volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen capacities are the key factors that determine the size and weight of the MOF-filled tank required to store a certain amount of hydrogen for reasonable driving range. Therefore, they must be optimized so the tank is neither too large nor too heavy. Because the goals of maximizing MOF volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen adsorption loadings individually are incompatible, an in-depth understanding of the trade-off between MOF volumetric and gravimetric loadings is necessary to achieve the best compromise between these properties. Here we study, both experimentally and computationally, the trade-off between volumetric and gravimetric cryo-adsorbed hydrogen deliverable capacity by taking an isoreticular series of highly stable zirconium MOFs, NU-1101, NU-1102, and NU-1103 as a case study. These MOFs were studied under recently proposed operating conditions: 77 K/100 bar →160 K/5 bar. We found the difference between highest and lowest measured deliverable capacity in the MOF series to be ca. 40% gravimetrically, but only ca. 10% volumetrically. From our molecular simulation results, we found hydrogen "monolayer" adsorption to be proportional to the surface area, whereas hydrogen "pore filling" adsorption is proportional to the pore volume. Thus, we found that the higher variability in gravimetric deliverable capacity in contrast to the volumetric capacity, occurs due to the proportional relation between gravimetric surface area and pore volume in the NU-110x series in contrast to the inverse relation between volumetric surface area and void fraction. Additionally, we find better correlations with geometric surface areas than with BET areas. NU-1101 presents the highest measured volumetric performance with 46.6 g/L (9.1 wt %), whereas NU-1103 presents the highest gravimetric one

  8. Optimization of volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Katharina; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mann, Ritse M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-05-07

    Fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density can be estimated in unprocessed mammograms using a physics-based method, which relies on an internal reference value representing the projection of fat only. However, pixels representing fat only may not be present in dense breasts, causing an underestimation of density measurements. In this work, we investigate alternative approaches for obtaining a tissue reference value to improve density estimations, particularly in dense breasts. Two of three investigated reference values (F1, F2) are percentiles of the pixel value distribution in the breast interior (the contact area of breast and compression paddle). F1 is determined in a small breast interior, which minimizes the risk that peripheral pixels are included in the measurement at the cost of increasing the chance that no proper reference can be found. F2 is obtained using a larger breast interior. The new approach which is developed for very dense breasts does not require the presence of a fatty tissue region. As reference region we select the densest region in the mammogram and assume that this represents a projection of entirely dense tissue embedded between the subcutaneous fatty tissue layers. By measuring the thickness of the fat layers a reference (F3) can be computed. To obtain accurate breast density estimates irrespective of breast composition we investigated a combination of the results of the three reference values. We collected 202 pairs of MRI's and digital mammograms from 119 women. We compared the percent dense volume estimates based on both modalities and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients. With the references F1-F3 we found respectively a correlation of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Best results were obtained with the combination of the density estimations ([Formula: see text]). Results show that better volumetric density estimates can be obtained with the hybrid method, in particular for dense

  9. Semiautomatic segmentation of liver metastases on volumetric CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jiayong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, 101 Yingkou Road, Yang Pu District, Shanghai 200093 (China); Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: bz2166@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and quantification of liver metastases on CT images are critical to surgery/radiation treatment planning and therapy response assessment. To date, there are no reliable methods to perform such segmentation automatically. In this work, the authors present a method for semiautomatic delineation of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced volumetric CT images. Methods: The first step is to manually place a seed region-of-interest (ROI) in the lesion on an image. This ROI will (1) serve as an internal marker and (2) assist in automatically identifying an external marker. With these two markers, lesion contour on the image can be accurately delineated using traditional watershed transformation. Density information will then be extracted from the segmented 2D lesion and help determine the 3D connected object that is a candidate of the lesion volume. The authors have developed a robust strategy to automatically determine internal and external markers for marker-controlled watershed segmentation. By manually placing a seed region-of-interest in the lesion to be delineated on a reference image, the method can automatically determine dual threshold values to approximately separate the lesion from its surrounding structures and refine the thresholds from the segmented lesion for the accurate segmentation of the lesion volume. This method was applied to 69 liver metastases (1.1–10.3 cm in diameter) from a total of 15 patients. An independent radiologist manually delineated all lesions and the resultant lesion volumes served as the “gold standard” for validation of the method’s accuracy. Results: The algorithm received a median overlap, overestimation ratio, and underestimation ratio of 82.3%, 6.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, and a median average boundary distance of 1.2 mm. Conclusions: Preliminary results have shown that volumes of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced CT images can be accurately estimated by a semiautomatic segmentation

  10. Blockwise conjugate gradient methods for image reconstruction in volumetric CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W; Titley-Peloquin, D; Soleimani, M

    2012-11-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables volumetric image reconstruction from 2D projection data and plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Filtered back projection is still the most frequently used algorithm in applications. The algorithm discretizes the scanning process (forward projection) into a system of linear equations, which must then be solved to recover images from measured projection data. The conjugate gradients (CG) algorithm and its variants can be used to solve (possibly regularized) linear systems of equations Ax=b and linear least squares problems minx∥b-Ax∥2, especially when the matrix A is very large and sparse. Their applications can be found in a general CT context, but in tomography problems (e.g. CBCT reconstruction) they have not widely been used. Hence, CBCT reconstruction using the CG-type algorithm LSQR was implemented and studied in this paper. In CBCT reconstruction, the main computational challenge is that the matrix A usually is very large, and storing it in full requires an amount of memory well beyond the reach of commodity computers. Because of these memory capacity constraints, only a small fraction of the weighting matrix A is typically used, leading to a poor reconstruction. In this paper, to overcome this difficulty, the matrix A is partitioned and stored blockwise, and blockwise matrix-vector multiplications are implemented within LSQR. This implementation allows us to use the full weighting matrix A for CBCT reconstruction without further enhancing computer standards. Tikhonov regularization can also be implemented in this fashion, and can produce significant improvement in the reconstructed images.

  11. Application of AAPM TG 119 to volumetric arc therapy (VMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynampati, Dinesh Kumar; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Hong, Linda; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Mah, Dennis

    2012-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to create AAPM TG 119 benchmark plans for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and to compare VMAT plans with IMRT plan data. AAPM TG 119 proposes a set of test clinical cases for testing the accuracy of IMRT planning and delivery system. For these test cases, we generated two treatment plans, the first plan using 7-9 static dMLC IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing one- or two-arc VMAT technique. Dose optimization and calculations performed using 6 MV photons and Eclipse treatment planning system. Dose prescription and planning objectives were set according to the TG 119 goals. Plans were scored based on TG 119 planning objectives. Treatment plans were compared using conformity index (CI) for reference dose and homogeneity index (HI) (for D(5)-D(95)). For test cases prostate, head-and-neck, C-shape and multitarget prescription dose are 75.6 Gy, 50.4 Gy, 50 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively. VMAT dose distributions were comparable to dMLC IMRT plans. Our planning results matched TG 119 planning results. For treatment plans studied, conformity indices ranged from 1.05-1.23 (IMRT) and 1.04-1.23 (VMAT). Homogeneity indices ranged from 4.6%-11.0% (IMRT) and 4.6%-10.5% (VMAT). The ratio of total monitor units necessary for dMLC IMRT to that of VMAT was in the range of 1.1-2.0. AAPM TG 119 test cases are useful to generate VMAT benchmark plans. At preclinical implementation stage, plan comparison of VMAT and IMRT plans of AAPM TG 119 test case allowed us to understand basic capabilities of VMAT technique.

  12. Mammographic density estimation with automated volumetric breast density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2014-01-01

    To compare automated volumetric breast density measurement (VBDM) with radiologists' evaluations based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to identify the factors associated with technical failure of VBDM. In this study, 1129 women aged 19-82 years who underwent mammography from December 2011 to January 2012 were included. Breast density evaluations by radiologists based on BI-RADS and by VBDM (Volpara Version 1.5.1) were compared. The agreement in interpreting breast density between radiologists and VBDM was determined based on four density grades (D1, D2, D3, and D4) and a binary classification of fatty (D1-2) vs. dense (D3-4) breast using kappa statistics. The association between technical failure of VBDM and patient age, total breast volume, fibroglandular tissue volume, history of partial mastectomy, the frequency of mass > 3 cm, and breast density was analyzed. The agreement between breast density evaluations by radiologists and VBDM was fair (k value = 0.26) when the four density grades (D1/D2/D3/D4) were used and moderate (k value = 0.47) for the binary classification (D1-2/D3-4). Twenty-seven women (2.4%) showed failure of VBDM. Small total breast volume, history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density were significantly associated with technical failure of VBDM (p = 0.001 to 0.015). There is fair or moderate agreement in breast density evaluation between radiologists and VBDM. Technical failure of VBDM may be related to small total breast volume, a history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density.

  13. Effect of MgO Additive on Volumetric Expansion of Self-Degradable Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.

    2011-09-30

    We identified hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) as a suitable expansive additive for improving the plugging performance of self-degradable, temporary sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash (SSASC) blend cement sealers into rock fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGSs). MgO extended the volumetric expansion of sealers during their exposure to a hydrothermal environment at 200 C under pressures, ranging from 300 to 1500 psi. A great expansion ratc of 19.3% was observed by adding 3.0 wt% MgO under 300 psi pressure, thus promising to plug thoroughly inner fracture. When the pressure was increased from 300 psi to 1500 psi, the expansion rate of cement markedly reduced, corresponding to the formaLion of crack-free specimens and the improvement of compressive strength. However, with 3.0 wt% MgO, the specimens still engendered the generation of numerous visual cracks, although they were prepared under a high pressure of 1500 psi. The effective content of MgO in minimizing and eliminating the generation of cracks was 2.0 wt%, which provided a moderate expansion of {ge} 0.5%. The compressive strength of 2.0 wt% MgO specimens made under a pressure of 300 psi rose {approx} 1.7-fold to 4816 psi with an increasing pressure to 1500 psi. The in-situ growth of brucite crystal formed by the hydrothermal hydration of MgO was responsive for such an expansion of the SSASC cement; meanwhile. two crystalline hydrothermal reaction products, 1.1 nm tobermorite and calcium silicate hydrated, contributed to the development of the sealer's compressive strength. Thus, the increasing pressure seems to suppress and control a growth rate of brucite crystal in response to a lower extension of expansion. Furthermore, all MgO-conlaining SSASC sealers possessed the water-catalyzed self-degradable properties.

  14. Effect of MgO Additive on Volumetric Expansion of Self-Degradable Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.

    2011-09-30

    We identified hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) as a suitable expansive additive for improving the plugging performance of self-degradable, temporary sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash (SSASC) blend cement sealers into rock fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGSs). MgO extended the volumetric expansion of sealers during their exposure to a hydrothermal environment at 200 C under pressures, ranging from 300 to 1500 psi. A great expansion ratc of 19.3% was observed by adding 3.0 wt% MgO under 300 psi pressure, thus promising to plug thoroughly inner fracture. When the pressure was increased from 300 psi to 1500 psi, the expansion rate of cement markedly reduced, corresponding to the formaLion of crack-free specimens and the improvement of compressive strength. However, with 3.0 wt% MgO, the specimens still engendered the generation of numerous visual cracks, although they were prepared under a high pressure of 1500 psi. The effective content of MgO in minimizing and eliminating the generation of cracks was 2.0 wt%, which provided a moderate expansion of {ge} 0.5%. The compressive strength of 2.0 wt% MgO specimens made under a pressure of 300 psi rose {approx} 1.7-fold to 4816 psi with an increasing pressure to 1500 psi. The in-situ growth of brucite crystal formed by the hydrothermal hydration of MgO was responsive for such an expansion of the SSASC cement; meanwhile. two crystalline hydrothermal reaction products, 1.1 nm tobermorite and calcium silicate hydrated, contributed to the development of the sealer's compressive strength. Thus, the increasing pressure seems to suppress and control a growth rate of brucite crystal in response to a lower extension of expansion. Furthermore, all MgO-conlaining SSASC sealers possessed the water-catalyzed self-degradable properties.

  15. Theoretical Prediction of Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient (kLa for Designing an Aeration Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Hebrard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this present paper is to propose a new theoretical prediction method of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa occurring in a gas-liquid contactor based on the dissociation of the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient (kL and the interfacial area (a. The calculated results have been compared with those obtained with the experimental process in a small-scale bubble column. Tap water was used as liquid phase and an elastic membrane with a single orifice as gas sparger. Only the dynamic bubble regime was considered in this work (ReOR= 1501000 and We = 0.0024. This study has clearly shown that, whatever the operating conditions under test, the generated bubble diameters (dB, bubble frequency (fB and their associated rising velocities (UB were the important parameters in order to predict, not only the values of kLa, but also the values of a and of kL. Moreover, these obtained results could provide a better understanding of the parameters which influence the oxygen transfer mechanism in the aeration process. By using the correlations to estimate these bubble hydrodynamics (dB and UB, it diminishes times for measuring the associated mass transfer parameters and also their experimental complexities and errors.

  16. Characterization of solid and liquid sorbent materials for biogas purification by using a new volumetric screening instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, J.; Fieback, T.; Seif, R.; Dreisbach, F.

    2012-05-01

    With the increasing utilization of biogas as an energy source the need for new materials and methods to purify and clean the corresponding gas mixtures is rising. In this regard, the application of ad- or absorptive gas purification methods has increased significantly over the last years. For fast and economic evaluation of the potential of different sorbent materials, a new volumetric screening instrument has been developed. First the measuring method and the new instrument design will be described. This instrument allows ad- and absorption, as well as desorption measurements in a technically relevant, wide pressure, and temperature range. It was used for the characterization of common sorbent materials such as activated carbons and zeolite molecular sieves. Additionally, new substances like metal-organic frameworks and ionic liquids were analyzed. Thereby the sorption of CO2, CH4, N2, and H2 was measured. The obtained data allow the direct comparison of the sorption properties of the different materials, the results of which will be presented in the second part of the paper.

  17. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei; Cai, Jing; Zhang, You; Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique to generate on-board volumetric-cine MRI (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI. Methods One phase of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4D-MRI based on principal-component-analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from four real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using Volume-Percent-Difference(VPD), Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest(ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Results Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was on average 8.43±1.52% and the COMS was on average 0.93±0.58mm across all time-steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against noise levels up to SNR=20. For patient data, average tracking errors were less than 2 mm in all directions for all patients. Conclusions Preliminary studies demonstrated the

  18. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei; Cai, Jing; Zhang, You; Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a techique to generate on-board volumetric cine-magnetic resonance imaging (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling, and on-board 2-dimensional cine MRI. One phase of a 4-dimensional MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. Three major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4-dimensional MRI based on principal-component analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2-dimensional cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both digital extended-cardiac torso (XCAT) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from 4 real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using volume-percent-difference (VPD), center-of-mass-shift (COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change, and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between normalized profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was, on average, 8.43 ± 1.52% and the COMS was, on average, 0.93 ± 0.58 mm across all time steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against noise levels up to SNR = 20. For

  19. Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Lynch, Kyle P.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2015-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional (3D), three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique based on volume illumination and light field imaging with a single plenoptic camera is described. A plenoptic camera uses a densely packed microlens array mounted near a high resolution image sensor to sample the spatial and angular distribution of light collected by the camera. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) computed tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct a volumetric intensity field from individual snapshots and a cross-correlation algorithm is used to estimate the velocity field from a pair of reconstructed particle volumes. This work provides an introduction to the basic concepts of light field imaging with a plenoptic camera and describes the unique implementation of MART in the context of plenoptic image data for 3D/3C PIV measurements. Simulations of a plenoptic camera using geometric optics are used to generate synthetic plenoptic particle images, which are subsequently used to estimate the quality of particle volume reconstructions at various particle number densities. 3D reconstructions using this method produce reconstructed particles that are elongated by a factor of approximately 4 along the optical axis of the camera. A simulated 3D Gaussian vortex is used to test the capability of single camera plenoptic PIV to produce a 3D/3C vector field, where it was found that lateral displacements could be measured to approximately 0.2 voxel accuracy in the lateral direction and 1 voxel in the depth direction over a 300× 200× 200 voxel volume. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated experimentally using a home-built plenoptic camera based on a 16-megapixel interline CCD camera and a 289× 193 array of microlenses and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. 3D/3C measurements were performed in the wake of a low Reynolds number circular cylinder and compared with measurements made using a conventional 2D/2C PIV system. Overall, single camera

  20. Transient refractory material dissolution by a volumetrically-heated melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jean Marie, E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ratel, Gilles [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Combeau, Hervé [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Lorraine University, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gaus-Liu, Xiaoyang; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe a test investigating ceramic dissolution by a molten non-eutectic melt. • The evolution of the interface temperature between melt and refractory is measured. • A theoretical model describing dissolution kinetics is proposed. • When dissolution stops, interface temperature is the liquidus temperature of the melt. - Abstract: The present work addresses the question of corium–ceramic interaction in a core catcher during a core-melt accident in a nuclear power plant. It provides an original insight into transient aspects concerning dissolution of refractory material by a volumetrically heated pool. An experiment with simulant material (LIVECERAM) is presented. Test results clearly show that dissolution of solid refractory material can occur in a non-eutectic melt at a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the refractory material. During the dissolution transient, the interface temperature rises above the liquidus temperature, corresponding to the instantaneous average composition of the melt pool. With constant power dissipation in the melt and external cooling of the core-catcher, a final steady-state situation is reached. Dissolution stops when the heat flux (delivered by the melt to the refractory) can be removed by conduction through the residual thickness of the ceramic, with T{sub interface} = T{sub liquidus} (calculated for the average composition of the final liquid pool). The final steady state corresponds to a uniform pool composition and uniform interface temperature distribution. Convection in the pool is governed by natural thermal convection and the heat flux distribution is therefore similar to what would be obtained for a single component pool. An interpretation of the experiment with two model-based approaches (0D and 1D) is presented. The mass transfer kinetics between the interface and the bulk is controlled by a diffusion sublayer within the boundary layer. During the dissolution transient

  1. Volumetric Forest Change Detection Through Vhr Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Devrim; Stylianidis, Efstratios; Smagas, Konstantinos; Hofer, Martin; Poli, Daniela; Gruen, Armin; Sanchez Martin, Victor; Altan, Orhan; Walli, Andreas; Jimeno, Elisa; Garcia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Quick and economical ways of detecting of planimetric and volumetric changes of forest areas are in high demand. A research platform, called FORSAT (A satellite processing platform for high resolution forest assessment), was developed for the extraction of 3D geometric information from VHR (very-high resolution) imagery from satellite optical sensors and automatic change detection. This 3D forest information solution was developed during a Eurostars project. FORSAT includes two main units. The first one is dedicated to the geometric and radiometric processing of satellite optical imagery and 2D/3D information extraction. This includes: image radiometric pre-processing, image and ground point measurement, improvement of geometric sensor orientation, quasiepipolar image generation for stereo measurements, digital surface model (DSM) extraction by using a precise and robust image matching approach specially designed for VHR satellite imagery, generation of orthoimages, and 3D measurements in single images using mono-plotting and in stereo images as well as triplets. FORSAT supports most of the VHR optically imagery commonly used for civil applications: IKONOS, OrbView - 3, SPOT - 5 HRS, SPOT - 5 HRG, QuickBird, GeoEye-1, WorldView-1/2, Pléiades 1A/1B, SPOT 6/7, and sensors of similar type to be expected in the future. The second unit of FORSAT is dedicated to 3D surface comparison for change detection. It allows users to import digital elevation models (DEMs), align them using an advanced 3D surface matching approach and calculate the 3D differences and volume changes between epochs. To this end our 3D surface matching method LS3D is being used. FORSAT is a single source and flexible forest information solution with a very competitive price/quality ratio, allowing expert and non-expert remote sensing users to monitor forests in three and four dimensions from VHR optical imagery for many forest information needs. The capacity and benefits of FORSAT have been tested in

  2. Improving plan quality for prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katrina; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet; Barry, Tamara; Bernard, Anne; Brown, Elizabeth; Lehman, Margot; Pryor, David

    2017-08-04

    We critically evaluated the quality and consistency of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate planning at a single institution to quantify objective measures for plan quality and establish clear guidelines for plan evaluation and quality assurance. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 34 plans generated on the Pinnacle(3) version 9.4 and 9.8 treatment planning system to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions to the prostate only using VMAT. Data were collected on contoured structure volumes, overlaps and expansions, planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk volumes and relationship, dose volume histogram, plan conformity, plan homogeneity, low-dose wash, and beam parameters. Standard descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Despite a standardized planning protocol, we found variability was present in all steps of the planning process. Deviations from protocol contours by radiation oncologists and radiation therapists occurred in 12% and 50% of cases, respectively, and the number of optimization parameters ranged from 12 to 27 (median 17). This contributed to conflicts within the optimization process reflected by the mean composite objective value of 0.07 (range 0.01 to 0.44). Methods used to control low-intermediate dose wash were inconsistent. At the PTV rectum interface, the dose-gradient distance from the 74.1 Gy to 40 Gy isodose ranged from 0.6 cm to 2.0 cm (median 1.0 cm). Increasing collimator angle was associated with a decrease in monitor units and a single full 6 MV arc was sufficient for the majority of plans. A significant relationship was found between clinical target volume-rectum distance and rectal tolerances achieved. A linear relationship was determined between the PTV volume and volume of 40 Gy isodose. Objective values and composite objective values were useful in determining plan quality. Anatomic geometry and overlap of structures has a measurable impact on the plan quality achieved for prostate patients

  3. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems with gas if you: Are lactose or gluten intolerant Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes Drink carbonated beverages Have a chronic intestinal condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease Neither age nor sex ...

  4. Volumetric humidity timely variation, at different depths, in soils of a toposequence of the Reconcavo Baiano - Brazil; Variacao da umidade volumetrica ao longo do tempo, em diferentes profundidades, em solos de uma topossequencia do Reconcavo Baiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Liovando Marciano da [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Paiva, Arlicelio de Queiroz [UESC, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais. E-mail: aqpaiva@jacaranda.uescba.com.br; Souza, Luciano da Silva [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura. E-mail: lsouza@cnpmf.embrapa.br; Santana, Marlete Bastos [Bahia Univ., Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Escola de Agronomia

    1997-07-01

    Aiming the time basis volumetric humidity evaluation, at different depths, the present work has been developed in a Reconcavo Baiano toposequence consisting of three different soils, in accordance with the distances from the toposequence begin. A neutron probe has been used for determination of the soil water contents. The relative counting of the neutron probe has been converted to gravimetric humidity by using regression equation for each type of soil.

  5. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, M; Biederer, J; Jochens, A; Bornemann, L; Soza, G; Heller, M; Bolte, H

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible image evaluation. The current standard is one-dimensional measurement (e.g. RECIST) with inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is discussed as an alternative for therapy monitoring of lung and liver metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph node metastases in a phantom study. Fifty artificial lymph nodes were produced in a size range from 10 to 55mm; some of them enhanced using iodine contrast media. All nodules were placed in an artificial chest phantom (artiCHEST®) within different surrounding tissues. MDCT was performed using different collimations (1-5 mm) at varying reconstruction kernels (B20f, B40f, B60f). Volume and RECIST measurements were performed using Oncology Software (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) and were compared to reference volume and diameter by calculating absolute percentage errors. The software performance allowed a robust volumetric analysis in a phantom setting. Unsatisfying segmentation results were frequently found for native nodules within surrounding muscle. The absolute percentage error (APE) for volumetric analysis varied between 0.01 and 225%. No significant differences were seen between different reconstruction kernels. The most unsatisfactory segmentation results occurred in higher slice thickness (4 and 5 mm). Contrast enhanced lymph nodes showed better segmentation results by trend. The semi-automated 3D-volumetric analysis software tool allows a reliable and convenient segmentation of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom setting. Lymph nodes adjacent to tissue of similar density cause segmentation problems. For volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases in clinical routine a slice thickness of ≤3mm and a medium soft reconstruction kernel (e.g. B40f for Siemens scan systems) may be a suitable compromise for semi-automated volumetric analysis. Copyright

  6. Acid Gas Removal from Natural Gas with Alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar

    Some 40 % of the world’s remaining gas reserves are sour or acid, containing large quantities of CO2 and H2S and other sulfur compounds. Many large oil and gas fields have more than 10 mole % CO2 and H2S content. In the gas processing industry absorption with chemical solvents has been used...... commercially for the removal of acid gas impurities from natural gas. Alkanolamines, simple combinations of alcohols and ammonia, are the most commonly used category of chemical solvents for acid gas capture. This Ph.D. project is aboutthermodynamics of natural gas cleaning process with alkanolamines...... pressure on acid gas solubility was also quantitatively investigated through both experimental and modeling approaches....

  7. 气相色谱/质谱法分析长白山脉松茸中的脂肪酸%Analysis of fatty acid content in Changbai mountains Tricholoma matsutake sing by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南京熙; 高明; 孙佳; 李官浩; 金炯国

    2012-01-01

    建立了长白山脉松茸中脂肪酸的气相色谱/质谱(GC/MS)的测定方法。采用索氏提取法提取松茸中的粗脂肪,经过0.8mol/LKOH-甲醇溶液的甲酯化处理,并运用GC/MS联用技术对其脂肪酸进行了分离分析,同时结合有机质谱学规律,分别对饱和脂肪酸甲酯、单不饱和脂肪酸甲酯、多不饱和脂肪酸甲酯的裂解规律和质谱特征进行了分析归纳。通过质谱数据库检索,鉴定出长白山脉松茸中的9种主要脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸含量达86.2%,以油酸和亚油酸为主,油酸和亚油酸相对含量分别为34.2%和51.6%。通过对长白山区松茸中脂肪酸的分析,表明松茸是一种良好的保健营养植物,具有很好的开发利用前景。%A method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) was established to determine the fatty acids of Changbai mountain Tricholoma matsutake sing.The Tricholoma matsutake sing were extracted using Soxhlet extration method,derivatized with KOH-CH3OH solution,and analyzed by GC/MS.The fragmentation patterns and mass spectrometry characteristics of satutated fatty acids,monounsaturated,polyunsaturated fatty acids were analyzed and concluded by regular patterns of organic mass spectrometry.According to the database index,nine fatty acid components in Tricholoma matsutake sing were identified and the content of unsaturated fatty acid was 86.2%.The oleic acid(34.2%) and linoleic acid(51.6%) were main components among them.The qualitatived results of fatty acids in Tricholoma matsutake sing show that it is a good nutritional phant for health and it has better development and utilization prospect.

  8. Accuracy of fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue using MRI: correlation with anthropomorphic breast phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengert, Georg J; Pinker, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Spijker, Sylvia M; Bickel, Hubert; Polanec, Stephan H; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2017-06-01

    To demonstrate the accuracy of fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of the amount of fibroglandular breast tissue (FGT), using MRI, and to investigate the impact of different MRI sequences using anthropomorphic breast phantoms as the ground truth. In this study, 10 anthropomorphic breast phantoms that consisted of different known fractions of adipose and protein tissue, which closely resembled normal breast parenchyma, were developed. Anthropomorphic breast phantoms were imaged with a 1.5 T unit (Siemens, Avantofit) using an 18-channel breast coil. The sequence protocol consisted of an isotropic Dixon sequence (Di), an anisotropic Dixon sequence (Da), and T1 3D FLASH sequences with and without fat saturation (T1). Fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurement of FGT for all anthropomorphic phantoms and sequences was performed and correlated with the amounts of fatty and protein components in the phantoms as the ground truth. Fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurements of FGT with MRI for all sequences ranged from 5.86 to 61.05% (mean 33.36%). The isotropic Dixon sequence yielded the highest accuracy (median 0.51%-0.78%) and precision (median range 0.19%) compared with anisotropic Dixon (median 1.92%-2.09%; median range 0.55%) and T1 -weighted sequences (median 2.54%-2.46%; median range 0.82%). All sequences yielded good correlation with the FGT content of the anthropomorphic phantoms. The best correlation of FGT measurements was identified for Dixon sequences (Di, R(2)  = 0.999; Da, R(2)  = 0.998) compared with conventional T1 -weighted sequences (R(2)  = 0.971). MRI yields accurate, fully automated, quantitative, volumetric measurements of FGT, an increasingly important and sensitive imaging biomarker for breast cancer risk. Compared with conventional T1 sequences, Dixon-type sequences show the highest correlation and reproducibility for automated, quantitative, volumetric FGT measurements using anthropomorphic breast

  9. Determination of Content of Nitrate Removal of Ammonia in Ash of Boiler Flue Gas of Coal-ifred Units%燃煤机组锅炉烟气脱硝灰中氨含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政修

    2015-01-01

    NOx is one of the main pollutants in the atmospheric environment, which is mainly from the thermal power generating units. Rely on low nitrogen combustion technology, far less than the emission requirements. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is the power plant flue gas DeNOx Technology is currently the most widely the highest efficiency and most mature, application. At present, online ammonia escape monitoring technology has many problems, affecting the ammonia escape the accuracy and stability of the monitoring data. In determining the type of fuel, furnace structure, the arrangement of heating surface, excess air, furnace air distribution and denitration catalyst type and other conditions, good control of ammonia addition amount and escape volume is the key to guarantee the NOx removal rate. Coal-fired boiler dust fly ash ammonia content can reflect the denitration ammonia escape rate conditions. According to foreign reports, under normal circumstances, the ammonia content in flue dust electricity is generally in the range of 50mg/kg-100mg/kg. The determination method of ammonia is no ash in domestic, no denitrification operation of fly ash containing ammonia affects the amount of accumulated data. In this paper, through a lot of experiments, the conditions of ammonia dissolved in ash determined (such as dissolution time, mixing state, cement water ratio, ash sample quantity and stability), developed methods for determination of ammonia in ash.%NOx是大气环境的主要污染物之一,其主要来源为火力发电机组。依靠低氮燃烧技术,远达不到排放要求。选择性催化还原脱硝(简称SCR)技术是目前效率最高、最成熟、应用最广泛的电厂烟气脱硝技术。目前,在线氨逃逸监测技术存在诸多问题,影响了氨逃逸监测数据的准确度和稳定性。在燃料种类、炉膛结构、受热面布置、过量空气量、炉膛气流分布以及脱硝催化剂类型等条件确定的情

  10. Determination of the contents of methanol and xylene in biodiesel by headspace gas chromatography%顶空气相色谱法测定生物柴油中甲醇和二甲苯含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽燕; 李继文; 王川

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is a complex system containing C14 -C24 fatty acid methyl esters as the main ingredi-ents with a bit residues of monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides and other trace impurities. In order to avoid the disturbance of the above heavy components, facilitate the sample pretreatment and improve testing efficiency, the headspace gas chromatography was used to simultaneously determine the contents of methanol and xylenes in biodiesel quickly. The results showed that under proper headspace sampling and chromatographic conditions, the four components ( methanol, para-xylene, meta-xylene, ortho-xy-lene) were well separated in 46 min. It presented excellent linear relationships for methanol in the range of 0. 002% -1. 038% (mass fraction) and xylenes (para-xylene, meta-xylene and ortho-xylene) in the range of 0. 001% -0. 508% (mass fraction). The correlation coefficient R2 was 0. 999 7. The lowest limit of detection of each component was in the range of 0. 001% -0. 002% (mass fraction);moreover, the relative standard deviations were less than 5% and the standard addition recoveries were in the range of 98. 8% -106. 7%. Thus, a reliable method for determining the contents of methanol and xylene in biodiesel was established with good precision and repetition.%生物柴油是以C14 ~C24脂肪酸甲酯为主要成分,残留少量单脂肪酸甘油酯、二脂肪酸甘油酯、三脂肪酸甘油酯及其他微量杂质的复杂重组分体系. 为避免上述重组分对分析结果的影响和干扰以及减少样品前处理步骤、提高测试效率,采用顶空气相色谱法同时快速测定生物柴油中微量甲醇与二甲苯含量. 结果表明,在一定的顶空与色谱条件下,46 min内同时完成4 组分(甲醇、对二甲苯、间二甲苯、邻二甲苯)的测试且具有良好的分离效果. 甲醇在0 . 002% ~1 . 038%(质量分数)之间、二甲苯(对二甲苯、间二甲苯、邻二甲苯)在0 . 001% ~0 . 508%(质量分数)之间均呈现

  11. Time-lapse monitoring of soil water content using electromagnetic conductivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The volumetric soil water content (VWC) is fundamental to agriculture. Unfortunately, the universally accepted thermogravimetric method is labour intensive and time-consuming to use for field-scale monitoring. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have proven to be useful in mapping the spatio-...

  12. Use of Water Content Reflectometers in Bioinfiltration/Bioretention to Measure Water Movement and Estimate Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most bioinfiltration/bioretention models assume runoff is evenly distributed across the surface area and after the engineered fill media is no longer saturated, the volumetric water content (VWC) is constant throughout the media profile and at field capacity. Four to nine water ...

  13. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases during follow-up--initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Michael; Bolte, H; von Tengg-Kobligk, H; Bornemann, L; Dicken, V; Delorme, S; Kauczor, H-U; Heller, M; Biederer, J

    2011-04-01

    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible evaluation. The current standard is RECIST measurement with its inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is an alternative for therapy monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases using a software prototype in a follow-up setting. MSCT was performed in 50 patients covering the chest, abdomen and pelvis. A total of 174 suspicious lymph nodes were evaluated by two radiologists regarding short axis diameters and volumetric analysis using semi-automated software. Quality of segmentation, time, maximum diameter and volume were documented. Variability of the derived change rates was computed as the standard deviation of the difference of the obtained respective change rates. The software performance provides robust volumetric analysis. Quality of segmentation was rated acceptable to excellent in 76-79% by each reader. Mean time spent per lesion was 38 s. The variability of change in effective diameters was 10.6%; for change rates of RECIST maximum diameter variability was 27.5%. Semi-automated volumetric analysis allows fast and convenient segmentation of most lymph node metastases. Compared with RECIST the inter-observer-variability in baseline and follow-up is reduced. This should principally allow subtle changes to be subclassified within the RECIST stable range as minor response [-15% to +10%].

  14. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  15. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  16. Nonintrusive performance measurement of a gas turbine engine in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko

    2017-08-29

    Performance of a gas turbine engine is monitored by computing a mass flow rate through the engine. Acoustic time-of-flight measurements are taken between acoustic transmitters and receivers in the flow path of the engine. The measurements are processed to determine average speeds of sound and gas flow velocities along those lines-of-sound. A volumetric flow rate in the flow path is computed using the gas flow velocities together with a representation of the flow path geometry. A gas density in the flow path is computed using the speeds of sound and a measured static pressure. The mass flow rate is calculated from the gas density and the volumetric flow rate.

  17. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  18. Raman Gas Analyzer (RGA): Natural Gas Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitry V; Matrosov, Ivan I

    2016-06-08

    In the present work, an improved model of the Raman gas analyzer (RGA) of natural gas (NG) developed by us is described together with its operating principle. The sensitivity has been improved and the number of measurable gases has been expanded. Results of its approbation on a real NG sample are presented for different measurement times. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of chromatographic analysis demonstrates their good agreement. The time stability of the results obtained using this model is analyzed. It is experimentally established that the given RGA can reliably determine the content of all molecular NG components whose content exceeds 0.005% for 100 s; moreover, in this case the limiting sensitivity for some NG components is equal to 0.002%.

  19. Mass Transfer Enhancement of Gas Absorption by Adding the Dispersed Organic Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 许天行; 李文秀; 纪智玲; 许光荣

    2011-01-01

    Mass transfer enhancement of gas absorption by adding a dispersed organic phase has been studied in this work. Various dispersed organic phases (heptanol, octanol, isoamyl alcohol, heptane, octane, and isooctane) were tested respectively in the experiment. According to the theoretical model and experimental data, the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient and enhancement factor were obtained under different dispersed organic phase volume fraction and stirring speed. The experimental results indicate that gas-liquid mass transfer is enhanced at different level by adding a dispersed organic phase. The best performance of enhancement were achieved with the dispersed organic phase volumetric fraction of 5% and under an intermediate stirring speed of 670 r·min^-1. Among the organic phases tested in the experiment, alcohols show better performance, which gave 20% higher enhance-ment of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient than adding alkanes.

  20. Volumetric flame synthesis of well-defined molybdenum oxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson; Saveliev, Alexei V; Desai, Milind

    2009-11-25

    Well-defined faceted inorganic Mo oxide nanocrystals are synthesized in the gas phase using a solid-fed-precursor flame synthesis method. The solid crystals have rectangular cross-section with characteristic size of 10-20 nm and with lengths ranging from 50 nm to a few hundred nanometres. A 1 mm diameter high purity Mo probe introduced in the oxygen-rich part of the flame serves as the material source. A combination of the strong temperature gradient and varying chemical species concentrations within the flame volume provides the ideal conditions for the rapid and direct formation of these unique nanocrystals. Oxidation and evaporation of MoO3 in the oxygen-rich zone are followed by reduction to MoO2 in the lower temperature, more fuel-rich zone. The MoO3 vapours formed are pushed in the direction of the gas flow and transformed into mature well-defined convex polyhedron nanocrystals bounded with six faces resembling rectangular parallelepipeds.

  1. Volumetric flame synthesis of well-defined molybdenum oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson; Desai, Milind [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Saveliev, Alexei V, E-mail: wmerchan-merchan@ou.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2009-11-25

    Well-defined faceted inorganic Mo oxide nanocrystals are synthesized in the gas phase using a solid-fed-precursor flame synthesis method. The solid crystals have rectangular cross-section with characteristic size of 10-20 nm and with lengths ranging from 50 nm to a few hundred nanometres. A 1 mm diameter high purity Mo probe introduced in the oxygen-rich part of the flame serves as the material source. A combination of the strong temperature gradient and varying chemical species concentrations within the flame volume provides the ideal conditions for the rapid and direct formation of these unique nanocrystals. Oxidation and evaporation of MoO{sub 3} in the oxygen-rich zone are followed by reduction to MoO{sub 2} in the lower temperature, more fuel-rich zone. The MoO{sub 3} vapours formed are pushed in the direction of the gas flow and transformed into mature well-defined convex polyhedron nanocrystals bounded with six faces resembling rectangular parallelepipeds.

  2. VOLUMETRIC MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT BETWEEN SLAG AND METAL IN COMBINED BLOWING CONVERTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.H. Wu; Z.S. Zou; W. Wu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of operation parameters of combined blowing converter on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between slag and steel are studied with a cold model with water simulating steel, oil simulating slag and benzoic acid as the transferred substance between water and oil. The results show that, with lance level of 2.Im and the top blowing rate of 25000Nm3/h, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient changes most significantly when the bottom blowing rate ranges from 384 to 540Nm3/h. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient reaches its maximum when the lance level is 2. lm, the top blowing rates is 30000Nm3/h, and the bottom blowing rate is 384Nrr3/h with tuyeres located symmetrically at 0.66D of the converter bottom.

  3. Control and design of volumetric composition in pultruded hybrid fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hashemi, Fariborz; Tahir, Paridah

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composites consist of two of more fibre phases in a common matrix phase. This is a challenge for the control and design of the volumetric composition and microstructural uniformity of such composites. In the present study, a model is presented for the prediction of the complete volumetric...... composition (i.e. volume fractions of fibres, matrix and porosity) in hybrid fibre composites. The model is based on a constant local fibre volume fraction criterion. Good agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass fibre composites with variable hybrid...... fibre weight mixing ratios. To demonstrate the suitability of the model, simulations are performed for four different cases of volumetric composition in hybrid kenaf/glass composites....

  4. NDE Technology Development Program for Non-Visual Volumetric Inspection Technology; Sensor Effectiveness Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Traci L.; Larche, Michael R.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Glass, Samuel W.

    2017-08-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, hosted and administered Sensor Effectiveness Testing that allowed four different participants to demonstrate the NDE volumetric inspection technologies that were previously demonstrated during the Technology Screening session. This document provides a Sensor Effectiveness Testing report for the final part of Phase I of a three-phase NDE Technology Development Program designed to identify and mature a system or set of non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for Hanford DST primary liner bottom inspection. Phase I of the program will baseline the performance of current or emerging non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for their ability to detect and characterize primary liner bottom flaws, and identify candidate technologies for adaptation and maturation for Phase II of the program.

  5. Ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and cyclic stability of fluorine and nitrogen co-doped carbon microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junshuang; Lian, Jie; Hou, Li; Zhang, Junchuan; Gou, Huiyang; Xia, Meirong; Zhao, Yufeng; Strobel, Timothy A.; Tao, Lu; Gao, Faming

    2015-09-01

    Highly porous nanostructures with large surface areas are typically employed for electrical double-layer capacitors to improve gravimetric energy storage capacity; however, high surface area carbon-based electrodes result in poor volumetric capacitance because of the low packing density of porous materials. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of 521 F cm-3 in aqueous electrolytes for non-porous carbon microsphere electrodes co-doped with fluorine and nitrogen synthesized by low-temperature solvothermal route, rivaling expensive RuO2 or MnO2 pseudo-capacitors. The new electrodes also exhibit excellent cyclic stability without capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles in both acidic and basic electrolytes at a high charge current of 5 A g-1. This work provides a new approach for designing high-performance electrodes with exceptional volumetric capacitance with high mass loadings and charge rates for long-lived electrochemical energy storage systems.

  6. Single step full volumetric reconstruction optical coherence tomography utilizing compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoyang; Liu, Jiansheng; cheng, Jiangtao; Liu, Haitao; Zhou, Hongwen

    2017-03-01

    3D optical coherence tomography imaging (OCT) combined with compressive sensing (CS) has been proved to be an attractive and effective tool in a variety of fields, such as medicine and biology. To achieve high quality imaging while using as less CS sampling rate as possible is the goal of this approach. Here we present an innovative single step fully 3D CS-OCT volumetric image recovery method, in which 3D OCT volumetric image of the object is compressively sampled via our proposed CS coding strategies in all three dimensions while its sparsity is simultaneously taken into consideration in every direction. The object can be directly recovered as the whole volume reconstruction via our advanced full 3D CS reconstruction algorithm. The numerical simulations of a human retina OCT volumetric image reconstruction by our method demonstrate a PSNR of as high as 38dB at a sampling rate of less than 10%.

  7. Seeding optimization for instantaneous volumetric velocimetry. Application to a jet in crossflow

    CERN Document Server

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Every volumetric velocimetry measurements based on tracer (particles, bubbles, etc.) detection can be strongly influenced by the optical screening phenomenon. It has to be taken into account when the the statistical properties associated to the performances of the particle detection and tracking algorithms are significantly affected. It leads to a maximum concentration of particles in the images thus limiting the final spatial resolution of the instantaneous three-dimensional three-components (3D3C) velocity fields. A volumetric velocimetry system based on Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to show that above a critical visual concentration of particles in the images, the concentration and accuracy of the final instantaneous raw velocity vector field drop. The critical concentration depends on physical parameters as well as on the processing algorithms. Three distinct regimes are identified. In the first regime, the concentration is well adapted to volumetric velocimetry, the largest concent...

  8. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    Gas hydrate resource assessments that indicate enormous global volumes of gas present within hydrate accumulations have been one of the primary driving forces behind the growing interest in gas hydrates. Gas hydrate volumetric estimates in recent years have focused on documenting the geologic parameters in the “gas hydrate petroleum system” that control the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature. The primary goals of this report are to review our present understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in the offshore of India and to document the application of the petroleum system approach to the study of gas hydrates.

  9. Volumetric Concentration Maximum of Cohesive Sediment in Waters: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisun Byun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cohesive sediment has different characteristics compared to non-cohesive sediment. The density and size of a cohesive sediment aggregate (a so-called, floc continuously changes through the flocculation process. The variation of floc size and density can cause a change of volumetric concentration under the condition of constant mass concentration. This study investigates how the volumetric concentration is affected by different conditions such as flow velocity, water depth, and sediment suspension. A previously verified, one-dimensional vertical numerical model is utilized here. The flocculation process is also considered by floc in the growth type flocculation model. Idealized conditions are assumed in this study for the numerical experiments. The simulation results show that the volumetric concentration profile of cohesive sediment is different from the Rouse profile. The volumetric concentration decreases near the bed showing the elevated maximum in the cases of both current and oscillatory flow. The density and size of floc show the minimum and the maximum values near the elevation of volumetric concentration maximum, respectively. This study also shows that the flow velocity and the critical shear stress have significant effects on the elevated maximum of volumetric concentration. As mechanisms of the elevated maximum, the strong turbulence intensity and increased mass concentration are considered because they cause the enhanced flocculation process. This study uses numerical experiments. To the best of our knowledge, no laboratory or field experiments on the elevated maximum have been carried out until now. It is of great necessity to conduct well-controlled laboratory experiments in the near future.

  10. Isothermal adsorption characteristics of coal reservoir and its gas content prediction in Qinnan-Xiadian block of Qinshui basin%沁南-夏店区块煤储层等温吸附特征及含气量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆忠; 孟召平; 黄平; 何旭龙; 杨延辉; 张永平

    2016-01-01

    煤的吸附能力是决定煤层含气量大小和煤层气开发潜力的重要储层参数。通过对沁南–夏店区块二叠系山西组3号煤层72个煤样进行等温吸附实验,剖析了3号煤层煤的吸附性能,建立了基于 Langmuir方程的煤层含气量预测方法,揭示了研究区3号煤层煤的吸附性能及含气量分布。研究结果表明,沁南–夏店区块3号煤层主要为贫煤和无烟煤,煤的空气干燥基 Langmuir 体积为18.15~34.75 m3/t,平均29.36 m3/t;Langmuir 压力为1.47~2.71 MPa,平均2.03 MPa;煤储层压力梯度0.11~1.06 MPa/hm,平均0.49 MPa/hm,煤储层压力随着煤层埋藏深度的增加而增高;煤层含气饱和度整体呈欠饱和状态。通过预测模型预测研究区3号煤层含气量2.87~24.63 m3/t,平均13.78 m3/t,且随着埋藏深度的增加而增高,其含气量相对沁水盆地南部偏低。煤储层含气量分布主要受控于本区煤层生气、储气和保存等因素。%Adsorption capacity of coal is a significant parameter for gas-bearing measurement and development potential of coal reservoir.the content prediction method of coal bed methane (CBM) based on Langmuir equation was established, Ad-sorption capacity and gas content distribution in coal seam No.3 reservoir in the study area was revealed. It is shown that the main coal type of No.3 coal seam in target area are meagre coal and anthracite coal. The Langmuir volume of air dried coal samples is between 18.15 m3/t and 34.75m3/t, with a mean value of 29.36 m3/t; Langmuir pressure is between 1.47 MPa and 2.71MPa, with a 2.03 MPa mean value. The pressure gradient of coal reservoir is between 0.11MPa/100 m and 1.06 MPa/100 m, with a mean value of 0.49 MPa/100 m. The pressure of coal reservoir increase with burial deepth; and gas saturation of coalbed is under-saturation. According to Langmuir equation, the content prediction method of coal bed meth-ane (CBM) was established, and the gas

  11. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation ...

  12. Effects of volumetric allocation on heave response of semisubmersible in deep sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The configuration of semisubmersibles consisting of pontoons and columns and their corresponding heave motion response in incident progressive waves are examined. The purpose of the present study is to provide a theoretical approach to estimating the effects of volumetric allocation on natural period and response amplitude operator (RAO) in heave motion. We conclude that the amplitude of heave motion response can be considerably suppressed by appropriately adjusting volumetric allocation so that the natural heave period keeps away from the range of wave energy. The theoretical formulae are found in good agreement with the corresponding computational results by WAMIT.

  13. Volumetric Diffuse Optical Tomography for Small Animals Using a CCD-Camera-Based Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Jing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D volumetric diffuse optical tomography for small animal imaging by using a CCD-camera-based imaging system with a newly developed depth compensation algorithm (DCA. Our computer simulations and laboratory phantom studies have demonstrated that the combination of a CCD camera and DCA can significantly improve the accuracy in depth localization and lead to reconstruction of 3D volumetric images. This approach may present great interests for noninvasive 3D localization of an anomaly hidden in tissue, such as a tumor or a stroke lesion, for preclinical small animal models.

  14. DIRECT VOXEL-PROJECTION FOR VOLUMETRIC DATA RENDERING IN MEDICAL IMAGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠; 郭玉红

    2002-01-01

    The volumetric rendering of 3-D medical image data is very effective method for communication about radiological studies to clinicians. Algorithms that produce images with artifacts and inaccuracies are not clinically useful. This paper proposed a direct voxel-projection algorithm to implement volumetric data rendering. Using this algorithm, arbitrary volume rotation, transparent and cutaway views are generated satisfactorily. Compared with the existing raytracing methods, it improves the projection image quality greatly. Some experimental results about real medical CT image data demonstrate the advantages and fidelity of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Gas Transport in Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Gutierre-Rodrigo, V.; Martin, P. I.; Romero, F. J.; Barcala, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The gas permeability of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite compacted at dry densities of between 1.4 and 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} with high water contents was measured for different confining, injection and back pressures. The results were compared with results obtained in previous investigations for lower degrees of saturation. It was checked that gas permeability was greatly affected by dry density, decreasing about three orders of magnitude when it increased from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for similar water content. The increase of water content caused also a decrease in gas permeability. It was found that both gas permeability and the relative gas permeability were mainly related to the accessible porosity. These relationships could be fitted to potential expressions with exponents between 3 and 4, as well as the relationship between intrinsic permeability and void ratio. For gas pressures below 1.2 MPa no effect of the injection or confining pressures on the value of permeability was detected. For a given confining pressure the permeability value decreased as the effective pressure increased, especially if the increase in effective pressure was due to a decrease in gas back pressure. It was checked that the Klinkenberg effect was not significant for this material in the range of pressures applied in the tests. The gas breakthrough pressure values in FEBEX saturated bentonite were determined for different dry densities. They increased clearly with dry density and were always higher than the swelling pressure of the bentonite. In high density samples gas flow tended to stop abruptly after breakthrough, whereas in lower density samples gas flow decreased gradually until a given pressure gradient was reached. The permeabilities computed after breakthrough (which usually did not stabilise) were inversely related to dry density. This would indicate that, even if the flow took place predominantly through preferential pathways that sometimes closed quickly after breakthrough and others

  16. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, D.S.; Jeon, J.S.; Kim, K.D.; Cho, Y.A. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  17. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Characteristics in a Gas-Liquid-Solid Bubble Column under Elevated Pressure and Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo Jin; Suohe Yang; Guangxiang He; Delin Liu; Zemin Tong; Jianhua Zhu

    2014-01-01

    abstract The volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa of gases (H2, CO, CO2) and mass transfer coefficient kL on liquid par-affin side were studied using the dynamic absorption method in slurry bubble column reactors under elevated temperature and elevated pressure. Meanwhile, gas-holdup and gas-liquid interfacial area a were obtained. The effects of temperature, pressure, superficial gas velocity and solid concentration on the mass transfer coeffi-cient were discussed. Experimental results show that the gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa and interfacial area a increased with the increase of pressure, temperature, and superficial gas velocity, and decreased with the slurry concentration. The mass transfer coefficient kL increased with increasing superficial gas velocity and temperature and decreased with higher slurry concentration, while it changed slightly with pressure. Ac-cording to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation is obtained to calculate the values of kLa for H2 (CO, CO2) in the gas-paraffin-quartz system in a bubble column under elevated temperature and elevated pressure.

  18. Characteristics of three-phase internal loop airlift bioreactors with complete gas recirculation for non-Newtonian fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Xianrui; Yang, Peng

    2005-05-01

    Hydrodynamic and gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics, such as liquid velocity, gas holdup, solid holdup and gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient, in the riser and downcomer of the gas-liquid-solid three-phase internal loop airlift bioreactors with complete gas recirculation for non-Newtonian fluids, were investigated. A mathematical model for the description of flow behavior and gas-liquid mass transfer of these bioreactors was developed. The predicted results of this model agreed well with the experimental data.

  19. Correlation Between Liver Volumetric Computed Tomography Results and Measured Liver Weight: A Tool for Preoperative Planning of Liver Transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, L.J.; Hol, J.C.; Monshouwer, R.; Prokop, M.; Klein, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Before liver transplant, it is necessary to know the size of the organ in advance of the procedure. We studied the correlation between liver volumetric computed tomography results and liver weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postmortem volumetric computed tomography was conducted on cadavers

  20. 施用烟气石膏和灌溉对土壤盐分和油葵产量的影响%Effects of application of gypsum from flue gas desulphurization and irrigation on soil salt contents and oil sunflower yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丽琴; 杨建国; 许兴; 孙兆军; 尚红莺

    2011-01-01

    This field experiment studied the effects of flue gas desulphurization by-product gypsum and irrigation on soil salt content and oil sunflower yield. The results showed that the treatment with 10 t flue gas desulphurization byproduct gypsum per hm2 and 3 900 m3 water per hm"2 had best desalination effect, and the desalination rate of upper layer of soil increased with increased irrigation amount. Under the conditions of application of 10 t flue gas desulphurization by-product gypsum per hm2 and 3 900 m3 per hm"2 of irrigation amount, soil salt content in the soil was the lowest, and germination rate and yield of oil sunflower were the highest.%本研究通过田间试验探讨不同灌水量、不同烟气石膏用量对土壤盐分和油葵产量的影响.结果表明:烟气石膏施用量为10t?hm-2时,土壤脱盐效果最好,较高的灌水量处理上层土壤脱盐率较高.当灌水量为3 900 m3?hm-2、烟气石膏施用量为10 t?hm-2时,土壤耕层盐分最低,油葵出苗率和产量最高.

  1. Two-dimensional and volumetric airway changes after bimaxillary surgery for class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Toraj; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Eshghpour, Majid; Kermani, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    Any change in maxilla and mandible position can alter the upper airway, and any decrease in the upper airway can cause sleep disorders. Thus, it is necessary to assess airway changes after repositioning of the maxilla and mandible during orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear and volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery to correct class III malocclusion via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to identify correlations between linear and volumetric changes. This was a prospective cohort study. CBCTs from 10 class III patients were evaluated before surgery and three months after. The Wilcoxon one-sample test was used to evaluate the differences in measurements before and after surgery. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between linear and volumetric changes. The results show that the nasopharyngeal space increased significantly, and that this increase correlated with degree of maxillary advancement. No significant changes were found in volumes before and after surgery. A correlation was found between linear and volumetric oropharyngeal changes. Bimaxillary surgical correction of class III malocclusion did not cause statistically significant changes in the posterior airway space.

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DETERMINATION OF VOLUMETRIC OUTPUT OF LUMBER FROM LOGS, CONTAINING SEVERAL QUALITY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikryukova E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we present a method of cutting logs, containing several quality areas. For this method, a mathematical model was developed to determine the volumetric output of lumber, which allows to determine the geometric dimensions of the lumber cut from the different quality areas separated concentric circles, depending on size and quality characteristics of logs

  3. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Duan, Jianghui [Medical School, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei [Department of Respiration Internal Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  4. Transplantation and Perfusion of Microvascular Fragments in a Rodent Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    options are available for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML). An important consideration that needs to be addressed for the development ...fibroblasts that underwent vascular and myogenic development in vitro resulted in substantial tissue perfusion when implanted in an abdominal defect...Greene AS (2000) Development of an implantable muscle stimulator: measurement of stimulated angiogenesis and poststimulus vessel regression

  5. Optical Addressing of Multi-Colour Photochromic Material Mixture for Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that colour transformations in the volume of a photochromic material (PM) are induced at the intersections of two control light channels, one controlling PM colouration and the other controlling decolouration. Thus, PM colouration is induced by position selectivity, and therefore, a dynamic volumetric display may be realised using these two control lights. Moreover, a mixture of multiple PM types with different absorption properties exhibits different colours depending on the control light spectrum. Particularly, the spectrum management of the control light allows colour-selective colouration besides position selectivity. Therefore, a PM-based, full-colour volumetric display is realised. We experimentally construct a mixture of two PM types and validate the operating principles of such a volumetric display system. Our system is constructed simply by mixing multiple PM types; therefore, the display hardware structure is extremely simple, and the minimum size of a volume element can be as small as the size of a molecule. Volumetric displays can provide natural three-dimensional (3D) perception; therefore, the potential uses of our system include high-definition 3D visualisation for medical applications, architectural design, human–computer interactions, advertising, and entertainment.

  6. VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF BEACHES VARIABILITY BASED ON GIS-TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dolotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In frame of cadastral beach evaluation the volumetric method of natural variability index is proposed. It base on spatial calculations with Cut-Fill method and volume accounting ofboththe common beach contour and specific areas for the each time.

  7. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S.; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where C

  8. Exploration of volumetric cerebral changes, with de micro-MRi, due to psychomotor exercise in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moës, Florian; Plenevaux, Alain; Becker, Guillaume; Tirelli, Ezio; Lespine, Louis-Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    It's well know that exercise is good for health .In addition exercise has postive effects on cognition ,neurodegenerative disease and on mood. Some studies show that exercise has effect on brain so the aim of this study is to see if there are volumetric changes due to exercise or not.

  9. Effect of compression paddle tilt correction on volumetric breast density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, Michiel G J; van Gils, Carla H; Lokate, Mariëtte; den Heeten, Gerard J; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2012-08-21

    For the acquisition of a mammogram, a breast is compressed between a compression paddle and a support table. When compression is applied with a flexible compression paddle, the upper plate may be tilted, which results in variation in breast thickness from the chest wall to the breast margin. Paddle tilt has been recognized as a major problem in volumetric breast density estimation methods. In previous work, we developed a fully automatic method to correct the image for the effect of compression paddle tilt. In this study, we investigated in three experiments the effect of paddle tilt and its correction on volumetric breast density estimation. Results showed that paddle tilt considerably affected accuracy of volumetric breast density estimation, but that effect could be reduced by tilt correction. By applying tilt correction, a significant increase in correspondence between mammographic density estimates and measurements on MRI was established. We argue that in volumetric breast density estimation, tilt correction is both feasible and essential when mammographic images are acquired with a flexible compression paddle.

  10. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual prospect

  11. Empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient for a rectangular internal-loop airlift bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...

  12. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI): are breath-hold and volumetric radiation therapy techniques useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.; Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Donkers, T.; Poortmans, P.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a selective group of patients accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) might be applied after conservative breast surgery to reduce the amount of irradiated healthy tissue. The role of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and voluntary moderately deep inspiration breath-hold (

  13. The NCS code of practice for the quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, Anton; Schuring, Danny; Arends, Mark P.; Vugts, Cornelia A. J. M.; Wolthaus, Jochem W. H.; Lotz, Heidi T.; Admiraal, Marjan; Louwe, Rob J. W.; Ollers, Michel C.; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the NCS (Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry) installed a subcommittee to develop guidelines for quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments. The report (published in 2015) has been written by Dutch medical physicists and has therefore, ine

  14. Real-time volumetric deformable models for surgery simulation using finite elements and condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Cotin, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of SD solid volumetric Finite Element models to surgery simulation. In particular it introduces three new ideas for solving the problem of achieving real-time performance for these models. The simulation system we have developed is described and we demonstrate...

  15. Automated volumetric grid generation for finite element modeling of human hand joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Underhill, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rainsberger, R. [XYZ Scientific Applications, Inc., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We are developing techniques for finite element analysis of human joints. These techniques need to provide high quality results rapidly in order to be useful to a physician. The research presented here increases model quality and decreases user input time by automating the volumetric mesh generation step.

  16. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S.; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where

  17. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual

  18. Species-specific contribution of volumetric growth and tissue convergence to posterior body elongation in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Ben; Duarte, Fernando; Lagadec, Ronan; Mazan, Sylvie; Nicolas, Jean-François; Hirsinger, Estelle

    2016-05-15

    Posterior body elongation is a widespread mechanism propelling the generation of the metazoan body plan. The posterior growth model predicts that a posterior growth zone generates sufficient tissue volume to elongate the posterior body. However, there are energy supply-related differences between vertebrates in the degree to which growth occurs concomitantly with embryogenesis. By applying a multi-scalar morphometric analysis in zebrafish embryos, we show that posterior body elongation is generated by an influx of cells from lateral regions, by convergence-extension of cells as they exit the tailbud, and finally by a late volumetric growth in the spinal cord and notochord. Importantly, the unsegmented region does not generate additional tissue volume. Fibroblast growth factor inhibition blocks tissue convergence rather than volumetric growth, showing that a conserved molecular mechanism can control convergent morphogenesis through different cell behaviours. Finally, via a comparative morphometric analysis in lamprey, dogfish, zebrafish and mouse, we propose that elongation via posterior volumetric growth is linked to increased energy supply and is associated with an overall increase in volumetric growth and elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290473683; van der Kleij, L A; Spijkerman, J M; Biessels, G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; Hendrikse, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266590268; Petersen, E T

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were perform

  20. Ni foam cathode enables high volumetric H2 production in a microbial electrolysis cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Valuable, “green” H2 can be produced with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To achieve a high volumetric production rate of high purity H2, a continuous flow MEC with an anion exchange membrane, a flow through bioanode and a flow through Ni foam cathode was constructed. At an electrical energy in