WorldWideScience

Sample records for volumetric energy density

  1. High Volumetric Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Scrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Thangavel, Ranjith; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Chandra Das, Nayan; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-07-12

    The low volumetric energy density of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrodes limits its application in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices that require high-performance energy storage capacities in small volumes. The volumetric energy density of rGO-based electrode materials is very low due to their low packing density. A supercapacitor with enhanced packing density and high volumetric energy density is fabricated using doped rGO scrolls (GFNSs) as the electrode material. The restacking of rGO sheets is successfully controlled through synthesizing the doped scroll structures while increasing the packing density. The fabricated cell exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 49.66 Wh/L with excellent cycling stability (>10 000 cycles). This unique design strategy for the electrode material has significant potential for the future supercapacitors with high volumetric energy densities.

  2. Study of Volumetrically Heated Ultra-High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, Jorge J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-10-27

    Heating dense matter to millions of degrees is important for applications, but requires complex and expensive methods. The major goal of the project was to demonstrate using a compact laser the creation of a new ultra-high energy density plasma regime characterized by simultaneous extremely high temperature and high density, and to study it combining experimental measurements and advanced simulations. We have demonstrated that trapping of intense femtosecond laser pulses deep within ordered nanowire arrays can heat near solid density matter into a new ultra hot plasma regime. Extreme electron densities, and temperatures of several tens of million degrees were achieved using laser pulses of only 0.5 J energy from a compact laser. Our x-ray spectra and simulations showed that extremely highly ionized plasma volumes several micrometers in depth are generated by irradiation of gold and Nickel nanowire arrays with femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities. We obtained extraordinarily high degrees of ionization (e.g. we peeled 52 electrons from gold atoms, and up to 26 electrons from nickel atoms). In the process we generated Gigabar pressures only exceeded in the central hot spot of highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas.. The plasma created after the dissolved wires expand, collide, and thermalize, is computed to have a thermal energy density of 0.3 GJ cm-3 and a pressure of 1-2 Gigabar. These are pressures only exceeded in highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas. Scaling these results to higher laser intensities promises to create plasmas with temperatures and pressures exceeding those in the center of the sun.

  3. Microfabricated pseudocapacitors using Ni(OH)2 electrodes exhibit remarkable volumetric capacitance and energy density

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2014-09-10

    Metal hydroxide based microfabricated pseudocapacitors with impressive volumetric stack capacitance and energy density are demonstrated. A combination of top-down photolithographic process and bottom-up chemical synthesis is employed to fabricate the micro-pseudocapacitors (μ-pseudocapacitors). The resulting Ni(OH)2-based devices show several excellent characteristics including high-rate redox activity up to 500 V s-1 and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF cm-2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F cm-3. This volumetric capacitance is two-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based μ-supercapacitors with interdigitated electrode architecture. Furthermore, these μ-pseudocapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh cm-3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. The heterogeneous growth of Ni(OH)2 over the Ni surface during the chemical bath deposition is found to be the key parameter in the formation of uniform monolithic Ni(OH)2 mesoporous nanosheets with vertical orientation, responsible for the remarkable properties of the fabricated devices. Additionally, functional tandem configurations of the μ-pseudocapacitors are shown to be capable of powering a light-emitting diode.

  4. Ultrathin, Lightweight, and Wearable Li-O2 Battery with High Robustness and Gravimetric/Volumetric Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Xu, Ji-Jing; Liu, Qing-Chao; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Yin, Yan-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-02-01

    An ultrathin, lightweight, and wearable Li-O2 battery with a novel segmented structure is first fabricated by employing a "break up the whole into parts" strategy. Superior battery performance including low overpotential, high specific capacity, good rate capability, excellent cycle stability, and high gravimetric/volumetric energy density (294.68 Wh kg(-1) /274.06 Wh L(-1) ) is successfully achieved even under repeatedly various deformation.

  5. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-06-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm‑3), highly conductive (39 S cm‑1), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm‑3 at 2 mV s‑1 in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm‑3 at 175.7 mA cm‑3 (568 mF cm‑2 at 0.5 mA cm‑2) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm‑3 with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm‑3, outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  6. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-06-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm(-3)), highly conductive (39 S cm(-1)), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm(-3) at 2 mV s(-1) in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm(-3) at 175.7 mA cm(-3) (568 mF cm(-2) at 0.5 mA cm(-2)) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm(-3) with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm(-3), outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  7. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge–discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l−1 at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology. PMID:26109057

  8. Silicon carbide-free graphene growth on silicon for lithium-ion battery with high volumetric energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, In Hyuk; Hwan Park, Jong; Kwon, Soonchul; Park, Seongyong; Rümmeli, Mark H; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Song, Hyun Jae; Ku, Junhwan; Choi, Jang Wook; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Chang, Hyuk

    2015-06-25

    Silicon is receiving discernable attention as an active material for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes because of its unparalleled gravimetric capacity. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. Here we report direct graphene growth over silicon nanoparticles without silicon carbide formation. The graphene layers anchored onto the silicon surface accommodate the volume expansion of silicon via a sliding process between adjacent graphene layers. When paired with a commercial lithium cobalt oxide cathode, the silicon carbide-free graphene coating allows the full cell to reach volumetric energy densities of 972 and 700 Wh l(-1) at first and 200th cycle, respectively, 1.8 and 1.5 times higher than those of current commercial lithium-ion batteries. This observation suggests that two-dimensional layered structure of graphene and its silicon carbide-free integration with silicon can serve as a prototype in advancing silicon anodes to commercially viable technology.

  9. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Directly Grown Nanostructured Electrodes for High Volumetric Energy Density Binder-Free Hybrid Supercapacitors: A Case Study of CNTs//Li4Ti5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenhua; Wang, Chong; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid supercapacitor (HSC), which typically consists of a Li-ion battery electrode and an electric double-layer supercapacitor electrode, has been extensively investigated for large-scale applications such as hybrid electric vehicles, etc. Its application potential for thin-film downsized energy storage systems that always prefer high volumetric energy/power densities, however, has not yet been explored. Herein, as a case study, we develop an entirely binder-free HSC by using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) network film as the cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanowire array as the anode and study the volumetric energy storage capability. Both the electrode materials are grown directly on carbon cloth current collector, ensuring robust mechanical/electrical contacts and flexibility. Our 3 V HSC device exhibits maximum volumetric energy density of ~4.38 mWh cm-3, much superior to those of previous supercapacitors based on thin-film electrodes fabricated directly on carbon cloth and even comparable to the commercial thin-film lithium battery. It also has volumetric power densities comparable to that of the commercial 5.5 V/100 mF supercapacitor (can be operated within 3 s) and has excellent cycling stability (~92% retention after 3000 cycles). The concept of utilizing binder-free electrodes to construct HSC for thin-film energy storage may be readily extended to other HSC electrode systems.

  11. Maximizing volumetric energy density of all-graphene-oxide-supercapacitors and their potential applications for energy harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuk Joon; Lee, Seul-Yi; Sinh, Le Hoang; Yeo, Chang Su; Son, Yeong Rae; Cho, Kang Rae; Song, YoonKyu; Ju, Sanghyun; Shin, Min Kyoon; Park, Soo-Jin; Park, SangYoon

    2017-04-01

    Graphene has attracted widespread attention for supercapacitor applications thank to their excellent conductivity, mechanical flexibility, chemical stability and extremely high specific surface area. Here, all-graphene-oxide-supercapacitors were developed from two reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as electrodes and one graphene oxide (GO) film as separator. The supercapacitors were then treated with 4M sulfuric acid at temperatures around 80 °C. By this treatment, the sulfuric acid molecules were physically intercalated into both rGO and GO films, which were confirmed by significant decrease intensity of characteristic peaks of sulfuric acid in Raman spectra. These sulfuric-acid-intercalated GO films can function as both quasi-solid-state electrolytes and separators. The average capacitance values measured at 100 mV s-1 of the thermally wetted supercapacitor at 84 °C is improved 93.7 times higher than that of the as-prepared all-graphene-oxide-supercapacitor. The maximum capacitance of 266 F cm-3 is obtained at scan rate 10 mV s-1 for the thermally wetted supercapacitor at 84 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest specific capacitance that has ever been reported for a graphene oxide-based supercapacitor. Importantly, being in a quasi-solid-state, the energy storage performance of supercapacitors are persistent over several thousand cycles, making it very much unlike other carbon-based supercapacitors.

  12. Are adult patients with Laron syndrome osteopenic? A comparison between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and volumetric bone densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Carlos A; Eshed, Varda; Kamjin, Moshe; Laron, Zvi

    2003-10-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in IGF-I is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been noted in LS patients examined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), this technique does not take volume into account and may therefore underestimate the true bone density in patients with small bones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the BMD yielded by DEXA in our LS patients using estimated volumetric values. Volumetric density was calculated with the following formulas: bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) = bone mineral content (BMC)/(area)(3/2) for the lumbar spine and BMAD = BMC/area(2) for the femoral neck. The study sample included 12 patients (mean age, 43.9 yr; mean height, 123.7 cm). Findings were compared with 10 osteopenic subjects without developmental abnormalities (mean age, 56 yr; mean height, 164.8 cm) and 10 healthy control subjects matched for sex and age to the LS patients (mean height, 165.5 cm). BMAD in the LS group was 0.201 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3) at the lumbar spine and 0.201 +/- 0.04 g/cm(3) at the femoral neck; corresponding values for the osteopenic group were 0.130 +/- 0.01 and 0.140 +/- 0.01 g/cm(3), and for the controls, 0.178 +/- 0.03 and 0.192 +/- 0.02 g/cm(3). Although areal BMD was significantly lower in the LS and osteopenic subjects compared with controls (P < 0.02) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck, BMAD was low (P < 0.01) in the osteopenic group only. In conclusion, DEXA does not seem to be a reliable measure of osteoporosis in patients with LS.

  13. An Asymmetric Supercapacitor with Both Ultra-High Gravimetric and Volumetric Energy Density Based on 3D Ni(OH)2/MnO2@Carbon Nanotube and Activated Polyaniline-Derived Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juanjuan; Li, Xiaocheng; Wan, Liu; Liang, Kun; Tay, Beng Kang; Kong, Lingbin; Yan, Xingbin

    2017-01-11

    Development of a supercapacitor device with both high gravimetric and volumetric energy density is one of the most important requirements for their practical application in energy storage/conversion systems. Currently, improvement of the gravimetric/volumetric energy density of a supercapacitor is restricted by the insufficient utilization of positive materials at high loading density and the inferior capacitive behavior of negative electrodes. To solve these problems, we elaborately designed and prepared a 3D core-shell structured Ni(OH)2/MnO2@carbon nanotube (CNT) composite via a facile solvothermal process by using the thermal chemical vapor deposition grown-CNTs as support. Owing to the superiorities of core-shell architecture in improving the service efficiency of pseudocapacitive materials at high loading density, the prepared Ni(OH)2/MnO2@CNT electrode demonstrated a high capacitance value of 2648 F g(-1) (1 A g(-1)) at a high loading density of 6.52 mg cm(-2). Coupled with high-performance activated polyaniline-derived carbon (APDC, 400 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), the assembled Ni(OH)2/MnO2@CNT//APDC asymmetric device delivered both high gravimetric and volumetric energy density (126.4 Wh kg(-1) and 10.9 mWh cm(-3), respectively), together with superb rate performance and cycling lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate an effective approach for building a high-performance supercapacitor with high gravimetric/volumetric energy density.

  14. High Volumetric Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Well-Balanced Graphene and Graphene-MnO2 Electrodes with Densely Stacked Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lizhi; Jiang, Lili; Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2016-10-01

    The well-matched electrochemical parameters of positive and negative electrodes, such as specific capacitance, rate performance, and cycling stability, are important for obtaining high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors. Herein, a facile and cost-effective strategy is demonstrated for the fabrication of 3D densely stacked graphene (DSG) and graphene-MnO2 (G-MnO2 ) architectures as the electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) by using MnO2 -intercalated graphite oxide (GO-MnO2 ) as the precursor. DSG has a stacked graphene structure with continuous ion transport network in-between the sheets, resulting in a high volumetric capacitance of 366 F cm(-3) , almost 2.5 times than that of reduced graphene oxide, as well as long cycle life (93% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles). More importantly, almost similar electrochemical properties, such as specific capacitance, rate performance, and cycling stability, are obtained for DSG as the negative electrode and G-MnO2 as the positive electrode. As a result, the assembled ASC delivers both ultrahigh gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 62.4 Wh kg(-1) and 54.4 Wh L(-1) (based on total volume of two electrodes) in 1 m Na2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte, respectively, much higher than most of previously reported ASCs in aqueous electrolytes.

  15. Mammographic density estimation with automated volumetric breast density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2014-01-01

    To compare automated volumetric breast density measurement (VBDM) with radiologists' evaluations based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to identify the factors associated with technical failure of VBDM. In this study, 1129 women aged 19-82 years who underwent mammography from December 2011 to January 2012 were included. Breast density evaluations by radiologists based on BI-RADS and by VBDM (Volpara Version 1.5.1) were compared. The agreement in interpreting breast density between radiologists and VBDM was determined based on four density grades (D1, D2, D3, and D4) and a binary classification of fatty (D1-2) vs. dense (D3-4) breast using kappa statistics. The association between technical failure of VBDM and patient age, total breast volume, fibroglandular tissue volume, history of partial mastectomy, the frequency of mass > 3 cm, and breast density was analyzed. The agreement between breast density evaluations by radiologists and VBDM was fair (k value = 0.26) when the four density grades (D1/D2/D3/D4) were used and moderate (k value = 0.47) for the binary classification (D1-2/D3-4). Twenty-seven women (2.4%) showed failure of VBDM. Small total breast volume, history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density were significantly associated with technical failure of VBDM (p = 0.001 to 0.015). There is fair or moderate agreement in breast density evaluation between radiologists and VBDM. Technical failure of VBDM may be related to small total breast volume, a history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density.

  16. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Johanna O P; Holland, Katharina; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Mann, Ritse M; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-02-01

    To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density categories. Of all the examinations, 21.6% were categorized as density category 1 ('almost entirely fatty') and 41.5, 28.9, and 8.0% as category 2-4 ('extremely dense'), respectively. We identified 667 screen-detected and 234 interval cancers. Interval cancer rates were 0.7, 1.9, 2.9, and 4.4‰ and false positive rates were 11.2, 15.1, 18.2, and 23.8‰ for categories 1-4, respectively (both p-trend density categories: 85.7, 77.6, 69.5, and 61.0% for categories 1-4, respectively (p-trend density, automatically measured on digital mammograms, impacts screening performance measures along the same patterns as established with ACR breast density categories. Since measuring breast density fully automatically has much higher reproducibility than visual assessment, this automatic method could help with implementing density-based supplemental screening.

  17. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  18. Optimization of volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Katharina; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mann, Ritse M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-05-07

    Fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density can be estimated in unprocessed mammograms using a physics-based method, which relies on an internal reference value representing the projection of fat only. However, pixels representing fat only may not be present in dense breasts, causing an underestimation of density measurements. In this work, we investigate alternative approaches for obtaining a tissue reference value to improve density estimations, particularly in dense breasts. Two of three investigated reference values (F1, F2) are percentiles of the pixel value distribution in the breast interior (the contact area of breast and compression paddle). F1 is determined in a small breast interior, which minimizes the risk that peripheral pixels are included in the measurement at the cost of increasing the chance that no proper reference can be found. F2 is obtained using a larger breast interior. The new approach which is developed for very dense breasts does not require the presence of a fatty tissue region. As reference region we select the densest region in the mammogram and assume that this represents a projection of entirely dense tissue embedded between the subcutaneous fatty tissue layers. By measuring the thickness of the fat layers a reference (F3) can be computed. To obtain accurate breast density estimates irrespective of breast composition we investigated a combination of the results of the three reference values. We collected 202 pairs of MRI's and digital mammograms from 119 women. We compared the percent dense volume estimates based on both modalities and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients. With the references F1-F3 we found respectively a correlation of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Best results were obtained with the combination of the density estimations ([Formula: see text]). Results show that better volumetric density estimates can be obtained with the hybrid method, in particular for dense

  19. Attainable gravimetric and volumetric energy density of Li-S and li ion battery cells with solid separator-protected Li metal anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Bryan D

    2015-11-19

    As a result of sulfur's high electrochemical capacity (1675 mA h/gs), lithium-sulfur batteries have received significant attention as a potential high-specific-energy alternative to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li ion batteries. For Li-S batteries to compete with commercially available Li ion batteries, high-capacity anodes, such as those that use Li metal, will need to be enabled to fully exploit sulfur's high capacity. The development of Li metal anodes has focused on eliminating Coulombically inefficient and dendritic Li cycling, and to this end, an interesting direction of research is to protect Li metal by employing mechanically stiff solid-state Li(+) conductors, such as garnet phase Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), NASICON-type Li1+xAlxTi2-x(PO4)3 (LATP), and Li2S-P2S5 glasses (LPS), as electrode separators. Basic calculations are used to quantify useful targets for solid Li metal protective separator thickness and cost to enable Li metal batteries in general and Li-S batteries specifically. Furthermore, maximum electrolyte-to-sulfur ratios that allow Li-S batteries to compete with Li ion batteries are calculated. The results presented here suggest that controlling the complex polysulfide speciation chemistry in Li-S cells with realistic, minimal electrolyte loading presents a meaningful opportunity to develop Li-S batteries that are competitive on a specific energy basis with current state-of-the-art Li ion batteries.

  20. Buoyancy Driven Mixing with Continuous Volumetric Energy Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtor, Adam J.; Jebrail, Farzaneh F.; Dennisen, Nicholas A.; Andrews, Malcolm J.; Gore, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    An experiment involving a miscible fluid pair is presented which transitioned from a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) stable to RT unstable configuration through continuous volumetric energy deposition (VED) by microwave radiation. Initially a light, low microwave absorbing fluid rested above a heavier, more absorbing fluid. The alignment of the density gradient with gravity made the system stable, and the Atwood number (At) for the initial setup was approximately -0.12. Exposing the fluid pair to microwave radiation preferentially heated the bottom fluid, and caused its density to drop due to thermal expansion. As heating of the bottom fluid continued, the At varied from negative to positive, and after the system passed through the neutral stability point, At = 0, buoyancy driven mixing ensued. Continuous VED caused the At to continue increasing and further drive the mixing process. Successful VED mixing required careful design of the fluid pair used in the experiment. Therefore, fluid selection is discussed, along with challenges and limitations of data collection using the experimental microwave facility. Experimental and model predictions of the neutral stability point, and onset of buoyancy driven mixing, are compared, and differences with classical, constant At RT driven turbulence are discussed.

  1. Mammographic density measurement: a comparison of automated volumetric density measurement to BIRADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Damases, Christine N.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare mammographic breast density assessment with automated volumetric software with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) categorization by radiologists on two imaging systems. A data set of 120 mammograms was classified by twenty American Board of Radiology (ABR) Examiners. The mammograms were of 20 women (mean age, 60 years; range, 42-89 years). These women were image twice once with GE system and the following year with Hologic system. These images also had their volumetric density classified by using Volpara Density Grade (VDG). The radiologists were asked to estimate the mammographic density according to BIRADS categories (1- 4). There was a moderate agreement between VDG classification and radiologist BIRADS density shown with Cohen's Kappa (K=0.45; pBIRADS having a mean of 2.13 and the mean VDG higher at 2.50 (t = -11.99; pBIRADS showed a positive strong correlation (r=0.84; pBIRADS and VDG AvBD% also showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86; pBIRADS categories for each of the VDG AvBD% classifications. Using Volpara, the Hologic system showed a higher meanAvBD% (10.02 vs. 9.97). However using BIRADS the Hologic systems showed a lower mean (2.05 vs. 2.21). Automated systems demonstrated higher internal validity. The results demonstrated a moderate agreement and a strong correlation between VDG classification and radiologist BIRADS density assessment.

  2. Expanding the reduced-current approach for thermoelectric generators to achieve higher volumetric power density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectrics are candidate niche electrical generator devices for energy management. At present, scientists are more focused on thermoelectric (TE) material development, but the TE module design procedure is still in a relatively virgin state. One of the most well-known methods is the reduced...... current approach (RCA) for TE module design, where the same current is induced through the p and n legs of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The current density of each element is manipulated by changing the area of both legs. This technique leads to a TE module architecture based on the most efficient...... configuration of both p and n legs. In the current paper, we apply an extended version of this technique, to show how a TE module with a higher volumetric power density can be designed, compared to the original RCA. Our studies indicate that for some combinations of p and n material properties, optima yielding...

  3. Using Volumetric Breast Density to Quantify the Potential Masking Risk of Mammographic Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destounis, Stamatia; Johnston, Lisa; Highnam, Ralph; Arieno, Andrea; Morgan, Renee; Chan, Ariane

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare BI-RADS density categories with quantitative volumetric breast density (VBD) for the reporting of mammographic sensitivity and to identify which patient factors are most predictive of a diagnosis of interval cancer of the breast versus screen-detected cancer. This retrospective study included screen-detected cancers (n = 652) and interval cancers (n = 119) identified between January 2009 and December 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which patient factors are predictive of a diagnosis of interval cancer. Sensitivity (screen-detected cancer / [screen-detected cancer + interval cancer]) was determined with the BI-RADS 4th edition density categories and an automated equivalent density grade obtained with a proprietary tool. Sensitivity changes within automated density grade categories were investigated by use of quantitative thresholds at the midpoints of each category. In univariate analysis, age, menopausal status, and breast density were associated with a diagnosis of interval cancer. Of these risk factors, breast density was the only independent factor whether it was assessed by visual BI-RADS category (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.55-8.10), automated density grade (odds ratio, 4.68; 95% CI, 2.26-9.67), or VBD (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.92-10.61). Sensitivity decreased consistently across increasing automated density grade categories from fatty to extremely dense (95%, 89%, 83%, 65%) and less so for visual BI-RADS (82%, 90%, 84%, 66%). Further dichotomization with VBD cutoffs showed a striking linear relation between VBD and sensitivity (R(2) = 0.959). In this study, breast density was the only risk factor significantly associated with a diagnosis of interval cancer versus screen-detected cancer. Quantitative VBD captures the potential masking risk of breast density more precisely than does the widely used visual BI-RADS density classification system.

  4. Symmetry energy and density

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Wolfgang; Russotto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear equation-of-state is a topic of highest current interest in nuclear structure and reactions as well as in astrophysics. In particular, the equation-of-state of asymmetric matter and the symmetry energy representing the difference between the energy densities of neutron matter and of symmetric nuclear matter are not sufficiently well constrained at present. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is conventionally expressed in the form of the slope parameter L describing the derivative with respect to density of the symmetry energy at saturation. Results deduced from nuclear structure and heavy-ion reaction data are distributed around a mean value L=60 MeV. Recent studies have more thoroughly investigated the density range that a particular observable is predominantly sensitive to. Two thirds of the saturation density is a value typical for the information contained in nuclear-structure data. Higher values exceeding saturation have been shown to be probed with meson production and collective ...

  5. Effect of compression paddle tilt correction on volumetric breast density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, Michiel G J; van Gils, Carla H; Lokate, Mariëtte; den Heeten, Gerard J; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2012-08-21

    For the acquisition of a mammogram, a breast is compressed between a compression paddle and a support table. When compression is applied with a flexible compression paddle, the upper plate may be tilted, which results in variation in breast thickness from the chest wall to the breast margin. Paddle tilt has been recognized as a major problem in volumetric breast density estimation methods. In previous work, we developed a fully automatic method to correct the image for the effect of compression paddle tilt. In this study, we investigated in three experiments the effect of paddle tilt and its correction on volumetric breast density estimation. Results showed that paddle tilt considerably affected accuracy of volumetric breast density estimation, but that effect could be reduced by tilt correction. By applying tilt correction, a significant increase in correspondence between mammographic density estimates and measurements on MRI was established. We argue that in volumetric breast density estimation, tilt correction is both feasible and essential when mammographic images are acquired with a flexible compression paddle.

  6. Optimization of volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, K.; Gubern Merida, A.; Mann, R.M.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2017-01-01

    Fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density can be estimated in unprocessed mammograms using a physics-based method, which relies on an internal reference value representing the projection of fat only. However, pixels representing fat only may not be present in dense breasts, causing an

  7. Energy in density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranjes, J., E-mail: jvranjes@yahoo.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Kono, M., E-mail: kono@fps.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work, the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindrical configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and, in particular, in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit volume (per second) in quiet regions in the corona. Consequently, within the life-time of a magnetic structure such energy losses can easily be compensated by the stochastic drift wave heating.

  8. Energy in density gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Vranjes, J

    2015-01-01

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

  9. Automated volumetric breast density derived by shape and appearance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Serghei; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John

    2014-03-01

    The image shape and texture (appearance) estimation designed for facial recognition is a novel and promising approach for application in breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to apply a shape and appearance model to automatically estimate percent breast fibroglandular volume (%FGV) using digital mammograms. We built a shape and appearance model using 2000 full-field digital mammograms from the San Francisco Mammography Registry with known %FGV measured by single energy absorptiometry method. An affine transformation was used to remove rotation, translation and scale. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract significant and uncorrelated components of %FGV. To build an appearance model, we transformed the breast images into the mean texture image by piecewise linear image transformation. Using PCA the image pixels grey-scale values were converted into a reduced set of the shape and texture features. The stepwise regression with forward selection and backward elimination was used to estimate the outcome %FGV with shape and appearance features and other system parameters. The shape and appearance scores were found to correlate moderately to breast %FGV, dense tissue volume and actual breast volume, body mass index (BMI) and age. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient was equal 0.77 for the first shape PCA component and actual breast volume. The stepwise regression method with ten-fold cross-validation to predict %FGV from shape and appearance variables and other system outcome parameters generated a model with a correlation of r2 = 0.8. In conclusion, a shape and appearance model demonstrated excellent feasibility to extract variables useful for automatic %FGV estimation. Further exploring and testing of this approach is warranted.

  10. Area and volumetric density estimation in processed full-field digital mammograms for risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Cheddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. METHODS: The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol. The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. RESULTS: All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of risk and genetic association.

  11. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye;

    2014-01-01

    and height with 31 healthy subjects aged 35.9 ± 8.2 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and HR-pQCT were performed in all participants, and blood samples were analyzed for hormonal status and bone biomarkers in KS patients. Twenty-one KS patients were on long-term testosterone-replacement therapy.......03) at the tibia in KS patients. In addition, cortical thickness was significantly reduced, both at the radius and tibia (both p testosterone therapy. This study......Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture...

  12. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  13. Mammographic Breast Density Assessment Using Automated Volumetric Software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) Categorization by Expert Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N; Brennan, Patrick C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate agreement on mammographic breast density (MD) assessment between automated volumetric software and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) categorization by expert radiologists. Forty cases of left craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms from 20 women were used. All images had their volumetric density classified using Volpara density grade (VDG) and average volumetric breast density percentage. The same images were then classified into BIRADS categories (I-IV) by 20 American Board of Radiology examiners. The results demonstrated a moderate agreement (κ = 0.537; 95% CI = 0.234-0.699) between VDG classification and radiologists' BIRADS density assessment. Interreader agreement using BIRADS also demonstrated moderate agreement (κ = 0.565; 95% CI = 0.519-0.610) ranging from 0.328 to 0.669. Radiologists' average BIRADS was lower than average VDG scores by 0.33, with their mean being 2.13, whereas the mean VDG was 2.48 (U = -3.742; P BIRADS showed a very strong positive correlation (ρ = 0.91; P BIRADS and average volumetric breast density percentage (ρ = 0.94; P BIRADS; interreader variations still exist within BIRADS. Because of the increasing importance of MD measurement in clinical management of patients, widely accepted, reproducible, and accurate measures of MD are required. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retraction Statement: "High-Volumetric Performance Aligned Nano-Porous Microwave Exfoliated Graphite Oxide-based Electrochemical Capacitors" and "Aligned Nano-Porous Microwave Exfoliated Graphite Oxide Ionic Actuators with High Strain and Elastic Energy Density".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    These articles first published on 15 August 2013 and 21 August 2013 on the Wiley Online Library have been retracted at the request of the Research Integrity Officer (RIO) of The Pennsylvania State University, in agreement with the corresponding authors, the journal's Editor-in-Chief, and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, because portions of the reported results cannot be considered reliable or reproducible. Following an investigation by the RIO of The Pennsylvania State University, it was found that the data in Figure 2a,b and Figure S1a,b (Supporting Information) of the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301243, and Figure S3 (Supporting Information) of the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301370 were falsified. Data regarding the carbon electrode material, A-aMEGO, reported to have a density of 1.15 g cm(-3) , in the article with DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301243, were falsified. The RIO of The Pennsylvania State University confirms that the investigation found that the mentioned data were falsified by the first author. No findings of research misconduct were made against the co-authors of these publications. [1] M. Ghaffari, Y. Zhou, H. Xu, M. Lin, T. Y. Kim, R. S. Ruoff, Q. M. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 25: 2013, 4879. doi:10.1002/adma.201301243 [2] M. Ghaffari, W. Kinsman, Y. Zhou, S. Murali, Q. Burlingame, M. Lin, R. S. Ruoff, Q. M. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 25: 2013, 6277. doi:10.1002/adma.201301370.

  15. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  16. Superficial Collagen Fibril Modulus and Pericellular Fixed Charge Density Modulate Chondrocyte Volumetric Behaviour in Early Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Tanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if the experimentally detected altered chondrocyte volumetric behavior in early osteoarthritis can be explained by changes in the extracellular and pericellular matrix properties of cartilage. Based on our own experimental tests and the literature, the structural and mechanical parameters for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage were implemented into a multiscale fibril-reinforced poroelastic swelling model. Model simulations were compared with experimentally observed cell volume changes in mechanically loaded cartilage, obtained from anterior cruciate ligament transected rabbit knees. We found that the cell volume increased by 7% in the osteoarthritic cartilage model following mechanical loading of the tissue. In contrast, the cell volume decreased by 4% in normal cartilage model. These findings were consistent with the experimental results. Increased local transversal tissue strain due to the reduced collagen fibril stiffness accompanied with the reduced fixed charge density of the pericellular matrix could increase the cell volume up to 12%. These findings suggest that the increase in the cell volume in mechanically loaded osteoarthritic cartilage is primarily explained by the reduction in the pericellular fixed charge density, while the superficial collagen fibril stiffness is suggested to contribute secondarily to the cell volume behavior.

  17. Rhodium dihydride (RhH2) with high volumetric hydrogen density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Ding, Yang; Kim, Duck Young; Ahuja, Rajeev; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2011-11-15

    Materials with very high hydrogen density have attracted considerable interest due to a range of motivations, including the search for chemically precompressed metallic hydrogen and hydrogen storage applications. Using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique and theoretical calculations, we have discovered a new rhodium dihydride (RhH(2)) with high volumetric hydrogen density (163.7 g/L). Compressing rhodium in fluid hydrogen at ambient temperature, the fcc rhodium metal absorbs hydrogen and expands unit-cell volume by two discrete steps to form NaCl-typed fcc rhodium monohydride at 4 GPa and fluorite-typed fcc RhH(2) at 8 GPa. RhH(2) is the first dihydride discovered in the platinum group metals under high pressure. Our low-temperature experiments show that RhH(2) is recoverable after releasing pressure cryogenically to 1 bar and is capable of retaining hydrogen up to 150 K for minutes and 77 K for an indefinite length of time.

  18. How Precise Is Dental Volumetric Tomography in the Prediction of Bone Density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bilhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to review the bone density assessment techniques and evaluate the macroscopic structure of bone specimens scored by Hounsfield Units (HUs and decide if they are always in congruence. Methods. The mandible of a formalin-fixed human cadaver was scanned by dental volumetric tomography (DVT for planning of the specimen positions and fabrication of a surgical guide and a surgical stent was fabricated afterwards. Bone cylinders of 3.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length, were excised from the mandible using the surgical stent with a slow speed trephine drill. After removal of the cylinders two more scans were performed and the images of the first scan were used for the determination of the HU values. The removed bone cylinder was inspected macroscopically as well by micro-CT scan. Results. The highest HU values were recorded in the interforaminal region, especially in the midline (408–742. Posterior regions showed lower HU values, especially the first molar regions (22–61 for the right; 14–66 for the left first molar regions. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this pilot study, it can be concluded that HU values alone could be a misleading diagnostic tool for the determination of bone density.

  19. Rhodium dihydride (RhH2) with high volumetric hydrogen density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Ding, Yang; Kim, Duck Young; Ahuja, Rajeev; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2011-01-01

    Materials with very high hydrogen density have attracted considerable interest due to a range of motivations, including the search for chemically precompressed metallic hydrogen and hydrogen storage applications. Using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique and theoretical calculations, we have discovered a new rhodium dihydride (RhH2) with high volumetric hydrogen density (163.7 g/L). Compressing rhodium in fluid hydrogen at ambient temperature, the fcc rhodium metal absorbs hydrogen and expands unit-cell volume by two discrete steps to form NaCl-typed fcc rhodium monohydride at 4 GPa and fluorite-typed fcc RhH2 at 8 GPa. RhH2 is the first dihydride discovered in the platinum group metals under high pressure. Our low-temperature experiments show that RhH2 is recoverable after releasing pressure cryogenically to 1 bar and is capable of retaining hydrogen up to 150 K for minutes and 77 K for an indefinite length of time. PMID:22039219

  20. Comparing Visually Assessed BI-RADS Breast Density and Automated Volumetric Breast Density Software: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Breast Cancer Screening Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle van der Waal

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare different methods for measuring breast density, both visual assessments and automated volumetric density, in a breast cancer screening setting. These measures could potentially be implemented in future screening programmes, in the context of personalised screening or screening evaluation.Digital mammographic exams (N = 992 of women participating in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme (age 50-75y in 2013 were included. Breast density was measured in three different ways: BI-RADS density (5th edition and with two commercially available automated software programs (Quantra and Volpara volumetric density. BI-RADS density (ordinal scale was assessed by three radiologists. Quantra (v1.3 and Volpara (v1.5.0 provide continuous estimates. Different comparison methods were used, including Bland-Altman plots and correlation coefficients (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC].Based on the BI-RADS classification, 40.8% of the women had 'heterogeneously or extremely dense' breasts. The median volumetric percent density was 12.1% (IQR: 9.6-16.5 for Quantra, which was higher than the Volpara estimate (median 6.6%, IQR: 4.4-10.9. The mean difference between Quantra and Volpara was 5.19% (95% CI: 5.04-5.34 (ICC: 0.64. There was a clear increase in volumetric percent dense volume as BI-RADS density increased. The highest accuracy for predicting the presence of BI-RADS c+d (heterogeneously or extremely dense was observed with a cut-off value of 8.0% for Volpara and 13.8% for Quantra.Although there was no perfect agreement, there appeared to be a strong association between all three measures. Both volumetric density measures seem to be usable in breast cancer screening programmes, provided that the required data flow can be realized.

  1. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging classification for Alzheimer's disease based on kernel density estimation of local features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hao; WANG Hu; WANG Yong-hui; ZHANG Yu-mei

    2013-01-01

    Background The classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been challenged by lack of effective and reliable biomarkers due to inter-subject variability.This article presents a classification method for AD based on kernel density estimation (KDE) of local features.Methods First,a large number of local features were extracted from stable image blobs to represent various anatomical patterns for potential effective biomarkers.Based on distinctive descriptors and locations,the local features were robustly clustered to identify correspondences of the same underlying patterns.Then,the KDE was used to estimate distribution parameters of the correspondences by weighting contributions according to their distances.Thus,biomarkers could be reliably quantified by reducing the effects of further away correspondences which were more likely noises from inter-subject variability.Finally,the Bayes classifier was applied on the distribution parameters for the classification of AD.Results Experiments were performed on different divisions of a publicly available database to investigate the accuracy and the effects of age and AD severity.Our method achieved an equal error classification rate of 0.85 for subject aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD and outperformed a recent local feature-based work regardless of both effects.Conclusions We proposed a volumetric brain MRI classification method for neurodegenerative disease based on statistics of local features using KDE.The method may be potentially useful for the computer-aided diagnosis in clinical settings.

  2. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of energy density in pressure retarded osmosis: The impact of solution volumes and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimund, Kevin K. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; McCutcheon, Jeffrey R. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Wilson, Aaron D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A general method was developed for estimating the volumetric energy efficiency of pressure retarded osmosis via pressure-volume analysis of a membrane process. The resulting model requires only the osmotic pressure, π, and mass fraction, w, of water in the concentrated and dilute feed solutions to estimate the maximum achievable specific energy density, uu, as a function of operating pressure. The model is independent of any membrane or module properties. This method utilizes equilibrium analysis to specify the volumetric mixing fraction of concentrated and dilute solution as a function of operating pressure, and provides results for the total volumetric energy density of similar order to more complex models for the mixing of seawater and riverwater. Within the framework of this analysis, the total volumetric energy density is maximized, for an idealized case, when the operating pressure is π/(1+√w⁻¹), which is lower than the maximum power density operating pressure, Δπ/2, derived elsewhere, and is a function of the solute osmotic pressure at a given mass fraction. It was also found that a minimum 1.45 kmol of ideal solute is required to produce 1 kWh of energy while a system operating at “maximum power density operating pressure” requires at least 2.9 kmol. Utilizing this methodology, it is possible to examine the effects of volumetric solution cost, operation of a module at various pressure, and operation of a constant pressure module with various feed.

  4. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, pBMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  5. Tibia and radius bone geometry and volumetric density in obese compared to non-obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B; Zemel, Babette S; Wrotniak, Brian H; Klieger, Sarah B; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, biomarkers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI>97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI>5th and Tibia cortical section modulus and calf muscle area Z-scores were greater in obese participants (1.07 and 1.63, respectively, both pTibia and radius trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced skeletal maturity, and physical activity (by accelerometry) were positively associated with tibia cortical section modulus Z-scores (all ptibia section modulus Z-scores between obese and non-obese participants from 1.07 to 0.28. After multivariate adjustment for greater calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced maturity, and less moderate to vigorous physical activity, tibia section modulus Z-scores were 0.32 (95% CI -0.18, 0.43, p=0.06) greater in obese, vs. non-obese participants. Radius cortical section modulus Z-scores were 0.45 greater (p=0.08) in obese vs. non-obese participants; this difference was attenuated to 0.14 with adjustment for advanced maturity. These findings suggest that greater tibia cortical section modulus in obese adolescents is attributable to advanced skeletal maturation and greater muscle area and strength, while less moderate to vigorous physical activities offset the positive effects of these covariates. The impact of obesity on cortical structure was greater at weight bearing sites.

  6. Improved correlation between CT emphysema quantification and pulmonary function test by density correction of volumetric CT data based on air and aortic density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Soo [Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom, E-mail: seojb@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug; Chae, Eun Jin [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kyung [Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yeon Mok; Lee, Sang Do [Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To determine the improvement of emphysema quantification with density correction and to determine the optimal site to use for air density correction on volumetric computed tomography (CT). Methods: Seventy-eight CT scans of COPD patients (GOLD II–IV, smoking history 39.2 ± 25.3 pack-years) were obtained from several single-vendor 16-MDCT scanners. After density measurement of aorta, tracheal- and external air, volumetric CT density correction was conducted (two reference values: air, −1000 HU/blood, +50 HU). Using in-house software, emphysema index (EI) and mean lung density (MLD) were calculated. Differences in air densities, MLD and EI prior to and after density correction were evaluated (paired t-test). Correlation between those parameters and FEV{sub 1} and FEV{sub 1}/FVC were compared (age- and sex adjusted partial correlation analysis). Results: Measured densities (HU) of tracheal- and external air differed significantly (−990 ± 14, −1016 ± 9, P < 0.001). MLD and EI on original CT data, after density correction using tracheal- and external air also differed significantly (MLD: −874.9 ± 27.6 vs. −882.3 ± 24.9 vs. −860.5 ± 26.6; EI: 16.8 ± 13.4 vs. 21.1 ± 14.5 vs. 9.7 ± 10.5, respectively, P < 0.001). The correlation coefficients between CT quantification indices and FEV{sub 1}, and FEV{sub 1}/FVC increased after density correction. The tracheal air correction showed better results than the external air correction. Conclusion: Density correction of volumetric CT data can improve correlations of emphysema quantification and PFT.

  7. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  8. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  9. Genetic determinants of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral densities and bone microstructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD, not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD, trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878 followed by replication (n = 1,052 identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10⁻¹⁴; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10⁻¹²; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10⁻¹⁰; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10⁻⁹. The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500 followed by replication (n = 1,022 identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10⁻⁹. High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729. rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.93 and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735 are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose

  10. Tibia and radius bone geometry and volumetric density in obese compared to non-obese adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Klieger, Sarah B.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A.; Stettler, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, bio-markers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI > 97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI > 5th and <85th percentiles). Results were converted to sex- and race-specific Z-scores relative to age. Cortical structure, muscle area and muscle strength (by dynamometry) Z-scores were further adjusted for bone length. Obese participants had greater height Z-scores (p < 0.001), and advanced skeletal maturity (p < 0.0001), compared with non-obese participants. Tibia cortical section modulus and calf muscle area Z-scores were greater in obese participants (1.07 and 1.63, respectively, both p < 0.0001). Tibia and radius trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced skeletal maturity, and physical activity (by accelerometry) were positively associated with tibia cortical section modulus Z-scores (all p < 0.01). Adjustment for muscle area Z-score attenuated differences in tibia section modulus Z-scores between obese and non-obese participants from 1.07 to 0.28. After multivariate adjustment for greater calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced maturity, and less moderate to vigorous physical activity, tibia section modulus Z-scores were 0.32 (95% CI −0.18, 0.43, p = 0.06) greater in obese, vs. non-obese participants. Radius cortical section modulus Z-scores were 0.45 greater (p = 0.08) in obese vs. non-obese participants; this difference was attenuated to 0.14 with adjustment for advanced maturity. These findings suggest that greater tibia cortical section modulus in obese

  11. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Brixen, Kim; Gravholt, Claus H

    2014-11-01

    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in patients with KS. Thirty-one patients with KS confirmed by lymphocyte chromosome karyotyping aged 35.8 ± 8.2 years were recruited consecutively from a KS outpatient clinic and matched with respect to age and height with 31 healthy subjects aged 35.9 ± 8.2 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and HR-pQCT were performed in all participants, and blood samples were analyzed for hormonal status and bone biomarkers in KS patients. Twenty-one KS patients were on long-term testosterone-replacement therapy. In weight-adjusted models, HR-pQCT revealed a significantly lower cortical area (p < 0.01), total and trabecular vBMD (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04), trabecular bone volume fraction (p = 0.04), trabecular number (p = 0.05), and estimates of bone strength, whereas trabecular spacing was higher (p = 0.03) at the tibia in KS patients. In addition, cortical thickness was significantly reduced, both at the radius and tibia (both p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in indices of bone structure, estimated bone strength, or bone biomarkers in KS patients with and without testosterone therapy. This study showed that KS patients had lower total vBMD and a compromised trabecular compartment with a reduced trabecular density and bone volume fraction at the tibia. The compromised trabecular network integrity attributable to a lower trabecular number with relative preservation of trabecular thickness is similar to the picture found in women with aging. KS patients also displayed a reduced cortical area and thickness at the tibia, which in

  12. Energy Density in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠彪; 苗洪; 高崇寿

    2003-01-01

    We study the energy density in quark-gluon plasma. At the very high temperature, the quark matter is a hot and dense matter in the colour deconfinement condition, and quarks can coalescent diquarks. Energy density of this system is worked out and compared with the energy density in the other two kinds of situations. Possible energy density is about eo ≈ 2.4 GeV/fm3 according to our estimation for quark matter including diquarks,

  13. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  14. Density Dependence of Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, B; Tripathy, S K

    2016-01-01

    High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy is studied on the basis of a stiffest density dependence of asymmetric contribution to energy per nucleon in charge neutral $n+p+e+\\mu$ matter under beta equilibrium. The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy obtained in this way is neither very stiff nor soft at high densities and is found to be in conformity with recent observations of neutron stars

  15. Density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B.; Routray, T. R.; Tripathy, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    High density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy is studied on the basis of the stiffest density dependence of asymmetric contribution to energy per nucleon in charge neutral n + p + e + μ matter under beta equilibrium. The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy obtained in this way is neither very stiff nor soft at high densities and is found to be in conformity with recent observations of neutron stars.

  16. Volumetric breast density from full-field digital mammograms and its association with breast cancer risk factors: a comparison with a threshold method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Kallenberg, M.G.J.; Karssemeijer, N.; Bosch, M.H.J. van den; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast density, a strong breast cancer risk factor, is usually measured on the projected breast area from film screen mammograms. This is far from ideal, as breast thickness and technical characteristics are not taken into account. We investigated whether volumetric density measurement

  17. Sub-micrometer-thick all-solid-state supercapacitors with high power and energy densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanhui [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ding, Yi [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Applied Research Center for Gold Technology (Au-SDARC), Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A sub-micrometer-thick, flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated. Through simultaneous realization of high dispersity of pseudocapacitance materials and quick electrode response, the hybrid nanostructures show enhanced volumetric capacitance and excellent stability, as well as very high power and energy densities. This suggests their potential as next-generation, high-performance energy conversion and storage devices for wearable electronics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Effect of Spinal Degenerative Changes on Volumetric Bone Mineral Density of the Central Skeleton as Measured by Quantitative Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G. [Hospital ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Floriani, I.; Torri, V.; Li, J.; Kuijk, C. van; Genant, H.K.; Lang, T.F. [Scientific Inst. ' Mario Negri' , Milan (Italy). Biometry and Data Management Unit

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of degenerative changes due to osteoarthritis (OA) at the spine on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT). Material and Methods: Eighty-four elderly women (mean age 73 {+-}6 years), comprising 33 with vertebral fractures assessed by radiographs and 51 without vertebral fractures, were studied. Trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD were examined at the spine and hip using a helical CT scanner and were compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements at the same sites. OA changes visible on the radiographs were categorized into two grades according to severity. Differences in BMD measures obtained in the two groups of patients defined by OA grade using the described radiologic methods were compared using analysis of variance. Standardized difference (effect sizes) was also compared between radiologic methods. Results: Spinal trabecular BMD did not differ significantly between OA grade 0 and OA grade. Spinal cortical and integral BMD measures showed statistically significant differences, as did the lumbar spine DXA BMD measurement (13%, P{approx_equal}0.02). The QCT measurements at the hip were also higher in OA subjects. Femoral trabecular BMD was 3-15% higher in OA grade subjects than in OA grade 0 subjects. The cortical BMD measures in the CT{sub T}OT{sub F}EM and CT{sub T}ROCH ROI's were also higher in the OA subjects. The integral QCT BMD measures in the hip showed difference between grades OA and 0. The DXA measurements in the neck and trochanter ROI's showed smaller differences (9 and 1%, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in bone size. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting that trabecular BMD measurements by QCT are influenced by OA. Instead, degenerative changes have an effect on both cortical and integral QCT, and on DXA at the lumbar spine and the hip. For subjects with established OA, assessment of BMD by

  19. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  20. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul...

  1. Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. In this work, we propose a new parameterization UNEDF2 of the local Skyrme energy density functional. The functional optimization is carried out using the POUNDerS optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parameterization UNEDF1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding the most general form of the Skyrme energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body local density. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting UNEDF2 parameterization is comparable wi...

  2. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  3. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experimentsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K+ beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  4. Assessment of volumetric bone mineral density of the femoral neck in postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fractures using quantitative multi-slice CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-yong WU; Hui-hui JIA; Didier HANS; Jing LAN; Li-ying WANG; Jing-xue LI; Yue-zeng CAI

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the validity and reliability of volumetric quantitative computed tomography (vQCT) with multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for hip bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, and to compare the differences between the two techniques in discriminating postmenopausal women with osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures from those without. Methods: Ninety subjects were enrolled and divided into three groups based on the BMD values of the lumbar spine and/or the femoral neck by DXA. Groups 1 and 2 consisted of postmenopausal women with BMD changes <-2SD, with and without radiographically confirmed vertebral fracture (n=11 and 33, respectively).Group 3 comprised normal controls with BMD changes ≥-1SD (n=46). Post-MSCT (GE, LightSpeed16) scan reconstructed images of the abdominal-pelvic region, 1.25 mm thick per slice, were processed by OsteoCAD software to calculate the following parameters: volumetric BMD values of trabecular bone (TRAB), cortical bone (CORT), and integral bone (INTGL) of the left femoral neck, femoral neck axis length (NAL), and minimum cross-section area (mCSA). DXA BMD measurements of the lumbar spine (AP-SPINE) and the left femoral neck (NECK) also were performed for each subject. Results: The values of all seven parameters were significantly lower in subjects of Groups 1 and 2 than in normal postmenopausal women (P<0.05, respectively).Comparing Groups 1 and 2, 3D-TRAB and 3D-INTGL were significantly lower in postmenopausal women with vertebral fracture(s) [(109.8±9.61) and (243.3±33.0) mg/cm3, respectively] than in those without [(148.9±7.47) and (285.4±17.8) mg/cm3,respectively] (P<0.05, respectively), but no significant differences were evident in AP-SPINE or NECK BMD. Conclusion: the femoral neck-derived volumetric BMD parameters using vQCT appeared better than the DXA-derived ones in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures from

  5. Azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes as high-energy density solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-08-10

    Solar thermal fuels, which reversibly store solar energy in molecular bonds, are a tantalizing prospect for clean, renewable, and transportable energy conversion/storage. However, large-scale adoption requires enhanced energy storage capacity and thermal stability. Here we present a novel solar thermal fuel, composed of azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes, with the volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. Our work also demonstrates that the inclusion of nanoscale templates is an effective strategy for design of highly cyclable, thermally stable, and energy-dense solar thermal fuels.

  6. High energy density in multisoliton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.

    2015-09-01

    Solitons are very effective in transporting energy over great distances and collisions between them can produce high energy density spots of relevance to phase transformations, energy localization and defect formation among others. It is then important to study how energy density accumulation scales in multisoliton collisions. In this study, we demonstrate that the maximal energy density that can be achieved in collision of N slowly moving kinks and antikinks in the integrable sine-Gordon field, remarkably, is proportional to N2, while the total energy of the system is proportional to N . This maximal energy density can be achieved only if the difference between the number of colliding kinks and antikinks is minimal, i.e., is equal to 0 for even N and 1 for odd N and if the pattern involves an alternating array of kinks and antikinks. Interestingly, for odd (even) N the maximal energy density appears in the form of potential (kinetic) energy, while kinetic (potential) energy is equal to zero. The results of the present study rely on the analysis of the exact multisoliton solutions for N =1 ,2 , and 3 and on the numerical simulation results for N =4 ,5 ,6 , and 7. The effect of weak Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian perturbations on the maximal energy density in multikink collisions is also discussed as well as that of the collision relative phase. Based on these results one can speculate that the soliton collisions in the sine-Gordon field can, in principle, controllably produce very high energy density. This can have important consequences for many physical phenomena described by the Klein-Gordon equations.

  7. Comparison of Visual Assessment of Breast Density in BI-RADS 4th and 5th Editions With Automated Volumetric Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, So Jung; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare visual assessments of mammographic breast density by radiologists using BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions in correlation with automated volumetric breast density measurements. A total of 337 consecutive full-field digital mammographic examinations with standard views were retrospectively assessed by two radiologists for mammographic breast density according to BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions. Fully automated measurement of the volume of fibroglandular tissue and total breast and percentage breast density was performed with a commercially available software program. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed with kappa statistics. The distributions of breast density categories for both editions of BI-RADS were compared and correlated with volumetric data. Interobserver agreement on breast density category was moderate to substantial (κ = 0.58-0.63) with use of BI-RADS 4th edition and substantial (κ = 0.63-0.66) with use of the 5th edition but without significant difference between the two editions. For intraobserver agreement between the two editions, the distributions of density category were significantly different (p density data, including percentage breast density, were significantly different among density categories (p density assessment had good correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS.

  8. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  9. Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph; Furnstahl, Richard; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witold; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out.

  10. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  11. Density Estimation Trees in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Density Estimation Trees can play an important role in exploratory data analysis for multidimensional, multi-modal data models of large samples. I briefly discuss the algorithm, a self-optimization technique based on kernel density estimation, and some applications in High Energy Physics.

  12. Nuclear Energy Density Functional for KIDS

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Hana; Hyun, Chang Ho; Park, Tae-Sun; Oh, Yongseok

    2016-01-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) is based on the existence and uniqueness of a universal functional $E[\\rho]$, which determines the dependence of the total energy on single-particle density distributions. However, DFT says nothing about the form of the functional. Our strategy is to first look at what we know, from independent considerations, about the analytical density dependence of the energy of nuclear matter and then, for practical applications, to obtain an appropriate density-dependent effective interaction by reverse engineering. In a previous work on homogeneous matter, we identified the most essential terms to include in our "KIDS" functional, named after the early-stage participating institutes. We now present first results for finite nuclei, namely the energies and radii of $^{16,28}$O, $^{40,60}$Ca.

  13. Dark Energy Density in Brane World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Hai-Bao; HUANG Xin-Bing

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present a possible explanation to the tiny positive cosmological constant under the frame of AdS5 spacetime embedded by a dS4 brane.We calculate the dark energy density by summing the zero point energy of massive scalar fields in AdS5 spacetime.Under the assumption that the radius of AdS5 spacetime is of the same magnitude as the radius of observable universe, the dark energy density in dS4 brane is obtained, which is smaller than the observational value.The reasons are also discussed.

  14. Energy density and energy flow of magnetoplasmonic waves on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2017-03-01

    By means the linearized magnetohydrodynamic theory, expressions for energy density and energy flow are derived for the p-polarized surface magnetoplasmon polaritons on graphene in the Voigt configuration, where a static magnetic field is normal to the graphene surface. Numerical results show that the external magnetic field has significant impact on the energy density and energy transport velocity of magnetoplasmon waves in the long-wavelength region, while total power flow vary only weakly with magnetostatic field. The velocity of energy propagation is proved to be identical with group velocity of the surface waves.

  15. Areal and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Geometry at Two Levels of Protein Intake During Caloric Restriction: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar, Deeptha; Ambia-Sobhan, Hasina; Zurfluh, Robert; Schlussel, Yvette; Stahl, Theodore J; Gordon, Chris L; SHAPSES, SUE A.

    2010-01-01

    Weight reduction induces bone loss by several factors, and the effect of higher protein (HP) intake during caloric restriction on bone mineral density (BMD) is not known. Previous study designs examining the longer-term effects of HP diets have not controlled for total calcium intake between groups and have not examined the relationship between bone and endocrine changes. In this randomized, controlled study, we examined how BMD (areal and volumetric), turnover markers, and hormones [insulin-...

  16. Energy density fluctuations in inflationary cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H F; Muller, Harald F; Schmid, Christoph

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the energy density fluctuations contributed by scalar fields \\Phi with vanishing expectation values, \\langle\\Phi\\rangle=0, which are present in addition to the inflaton field. For simplicity we take \\Phi to be non--interacting and minimally coupled to gravity. We use normal ordering to define the renormalized energy density operator \\rho, and we show that any normal ordering gives the same result for correlation functions of \\rho. We first consider massless fields and derive the energy fluctuations in a single mode \\vk, the two--point correlation function of the energy density, the power spectrum, and the variance of the smeared energy density, \\ddR. Mass effects are investigated for energy fluctuations in single modes. All quantities considered are scale invariant at the second horizon crossing (Harrison--Zel'dovich type) for massless and for unstable massive fields. The magnitude of the relative fluctuations \\de\\rho/\\rt is of order (\\Hi/\\Mp)^2 in the massless case, where \\Hi is the Hubble constan...

  17. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization: UNEDF2

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

    2014-01-01

    The parameters of the UNEDF2 nuclear energy density functional (EDF) model were obtained in an optimization to experimental data consisting of nuclear binding energies, proton radii, odd-even mass staggering data, fission-isomer excitation energies, and single particle energies. In addition to parameter optimization, sensitivity analysis was done to obtain parameter uncertainties and correlations. The resulting UNEDF2 is an all-around EDF. However, the sensitivity analysis also demonstrated that the limits of current Skyrme-like EDFs have been reached and that novel approaches are called for.

  18. Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294 Ah l-1 with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60 Ah l-1) and 3-6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50-117 Ah l-1). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries.

  19. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  20. Estimation of energy density of Li-S batteries with liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Heng; Otaegui, Laida; Singh, Gurpreet; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.

    2016-09-01

    With the exponential growth of technology in mobile devices and the rapid expansion of electric vehicles into the market, it appears that the energy density of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries (LIBs) cannot satisfy the practical requirements. Sulfur has been one of the best cathode material choices due to its high charge storage (1675 mAh g-1), natural abundance and easy accessibility. In this paper, calculations are performed for different cell design parameters such as the active material loading, the amount/thickness of electrolyte, the sulfur utilization, etc. to predict the energy density of Li-S cells based on liquid, polymeric and ceramic electrolytes. It demonstrates that Li-S battery is most likely to be competitive in gravimetric energy density, but not volumetric energy density, with current technology, when comparing with LIBs. Furthermore, the cells with polymer and thin ceramic electrolytes show promising potential in terms of high gravimetric energy density, especially the cells with the polymer electrolyte. This estimation study of Li-S energy density can be used as a good guidance for controlling the key design parameters in order to get desirable energy density at cell-level.

  1. Stimulus-Responsive Micro-Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Energy Density and Reversible Electrochromic Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Faxing; Wang, Jinhui; Dong, Renhao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Schmidt, Oliver G; Feng, Xinliang

    2017-02-01

    Stimulus-responsive micro-supercapacitors (SR-MSCs) with ultrahigh volumetric energy density and reversible electrochromic effect are successfully fabricated by employing a vanadium pentoxide and electrochemical exfoliated graphene-based hybrid nanopaper and viologen as electrode and stimulus-responsive material, respectively. The fabricated high-performance SR-MSCs offer new opportunities for intuitively observing the working state of energy devices without the aid of extra equipment and techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  3. Particle creation with finite energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Renn, Jürgen; Salisbury, Donald

    1983-03-01

    We consider the semiclassical quantization of the Klein—Gordon field on a Robertson—Walker background with a flat-out region. We show that the requirement that the energy density of created particles be finite selects a preferred equivalence class of particle definitions. We present a representative element of the equivalence class so determined. We briefly discuss the generalization to Bianchi I spacetimes, and the case of an external Maxwell field.

  4. SURFACE SYMMETRY ENERGY OF NUCLEAR ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, N; Schunck, N; Nazarewicz, W; Bender, M; Pei, J

    2010-12-20

    We study the bulk deformation properties of the Skyrme nuclear energy density functionals. Following simple arguments based on the leptodermous expansion and liquid drop model, we apply the nuclear density functional theory to assess the role of the surface symmetry energy in nuclei. To this end, we validate the commonly used functional parametrizations against the data on excitation energies of superdeformed band-heads in Hg and Pb isotopes, and fission isomers in actinide nuclei. After subtracting shell effects, the results of our self-consistent calculations are consistent with macroscopic arguments and indicate that experimental data on strongly deformed configurations in neutron-rich nuclei are essential for optimizing future nuclear energy density functionals. The resulting survey provides a useful benchmark for further theoretical improvements. Unlike in nuclei close to the stability valley, whose macroscopic deformability hangs on the balance of surface and Coulomb terms, the deformability of neutron-rich nuclei strongly depends on the surface-symmetry energy; hence, its proper determination is crucial for the stability of deformed phases of the neutron-rich matter and description of fission rates for r-process nucleosynthesis.

  5. High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    high energy density energy storage capacitors. High efficency capacitors are available with energy densities as high as 3 J/cc for 1000 shots or...GENERAL ATOMICS ENERGY PRODUCTS Engineering Bulletin HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CAPACITORS FOR PULSED POWER APPLICATIONS Fred MacDougall, Joel...00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  6. Bone lead (Pb) content at the tibia is associated with thinner distal tibia cortices and lower volumetric bone density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy K O; Beattie, Karen A; Bhargava, Aakash; Cheung, Marco; Webber, Colin E; Chettle, David R; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2015-10-01

    Conflicting evidence suggests that bone lead or blood lead may reduce areal bone mineral density (BMD). Little is known about how lead at either compartment affects bone structure. This study examined postmenopausal women (N=38, mean age 76 ± 8, body mass index (BMI): 26.74 ± 4.26 kg/m(2)) within the Hamilton cohort of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), measuring bone lead at 66% of the non-dominant leg and at the calcaneus using (109)Cadmium X-ray fluorescence. Volumetric BMD and structural parameters were obtained from peripheral quantitative computed tomography images (200 μm in-plane resolution, 2.3 ± 0.5mm slice thickness) of the same 66% site and of the distal 4% site of the tibia length. Blood lead was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and blood-to-bone lead partition coefficients (PBB, log ratio) were computed. Multivariable linear regression examined each of bone lead at the 66% tibia, calcaneus, blood lead and PBB as related to each of volumetric BMD and structural parameters, adjusting for age and BMI, diabetes or antiresorptive therapy. Regression coefficients were reported along with 95% confidence intervals. Higher amounts of bone lead at the tibia were associated with thinner distal tibia cortices (-0.972 (-1.882, -0.061) per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral) and integral volumetric BMD (-3.05 (-6.05, -0.05) per μg Pb/g of bone mineral). A higher PBB was associated with larger trabecular separation (0.115 (0.053, 0.178)), lower trabecular volumetric BMD (-26.83 (-50.37, -3.29)) and trabecular number (-0.08 (-0.14, -0.02)), per 100 μg Pb/g of bone mineral after adjusting for age and BMI, and remained significant while accounting for diabetes or use of antiresorptives. Total lead exposure activities related to bone lead at the calcaneus (8.29 (0.11, 16.48)) and remained significant after age and antiresorptives-adjustment. Lead accumulated in bone can have a mild insult on bone structure; but greater partitioning of lead

  7. Dosimetric impact of mixed-energy volumetric modulated arc therapy plans for high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Pokharel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigated the dosimetric impact of mixing low and high energy treatment plans for prostate cancer treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique in the form of RapidArc.Methods: A cohort of 12 prostate cases involving proximal seminal vesicles and lymph nodes was selected for this retrospective study. For each prostate case, the single-energy plans (SEPs and mixed-energy plans (MEPs were generated.  First, the SEPs were created using 6 mega-voltage (MV energy for both the primary and boost plans. Second, the MEPs were created using 16 MV energy for the primary plan and 6 MV energy for the boost plan. The primary and boost MEPs used identical beam parameters and same dose optimization values as in the primary and boost SEPs for the corresponding case. The dosimetric parameters from the composite plans (SEPs and MEPs were evaluated. Results: The dose to the target volume was slightly higher (on average <1% in the SEPs than in the MEPs. The conformity index (CI and homogeneity index (HI values between the SEPs and MEPs were comparable. The dose to rectum and bladder was always higher in the SEPs (average difference up to 3.7% for the rectum and up to 8.4% for the bladder than in the MEPs. The mean dose to femoral heads was higher by about 0.8% (on average in the MEPs than in the SEPs. The number of monitor units and integral dose were higher in the SEPs compared to the MEPs by average differences of 9.1% and 5.5%, respectively.Conclusion: The preliminary results from this study suggest that use of mixed-energy VMAT plan for high-risk prostate cancer could potentially reduce the integral dose and minimize the dose to rectum and bladder, but for the higher femoral head dose.-----------------------------------------------Cite this article as:Pokharel S. Dosimetric impact of mixed-energy volumetric modulated arc therapy plans for high-risk prostate cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:01011.DOI: http

  8. Density of States for Warped Energy Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.; Fornari, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Warping of energy bands can affect the density of states (DOS) in ways that can be large or subtle. Despite their potential for significant practical impacts on materials properties, these effects have not been rigorously demonstrated previously. Here we rectify this using an angular effective mass formalism that we have developed. To clarify the often confusing terminology in this field, “band warping” is precisely defined as pertaining to any multivariate energy function E(k) that does not admit a second-order differential at an isolated critical point in k-space, which we clearly distinguish from band non-parabolicity. We further describe band “corrugation” as a qualitative form of band warping that increasingly deviates from being twice differentiable at an isolated critical point. These features affect the density-of-states and other parameters ascribed to band warping in various ways. We demonstrate these effects, providing explicit calculations of DOS and their effective masses for warped energy dispersions originally derived by Kittel and others. Other physical and mathematical examples are provided to demonstrate fundamental distinctions that must be drawn between DOS contributions that originate from band warping and contributions that derive from band non-parabolicity. For some non-degenerate bands in thermoelectric materials, this may have profound consequences of practical interest.

  9. Inductor Geometry With Improved Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, H; Ngo, KDT; Moss, J; Lim, MHF; Rey, E

    2014-10-01

    The "constant-flux" concept is leveraged to achieve high magnetic-energy density, leading to inductor geometries with height significantly lower than that of conventional products. Techniques to shape the core and to distribute the winding turns to shape a desirable field profile are described for the two basic classes of magnetic geometries: those with the winding enclosed by the core and those with the core enclosed by the winding. A relatively constant flux distribution is advantageous not only from the density standpoint, but also from the thermal standpoint via the reduction of hot spots, and from the reliability standpoint via the suppression of flux crowding. In this journal paper on a constant-flux inductor (CFI) with enclosed winding, the foci are operating principle, dc analysis, and basic design procedure. Prototype cores and windings were routed from powder-iron disks and copper sheets, respectively. The design of CFI was validated by the assembled inductor prototype.

  10. Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits of three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content in a J33 single combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward G

    1950-01-01

    Combustion efficiency and altitude operational limits were determined in a J33 single combustor for AN-F-58 fuel and three liquid hydrocarbon fuels having high volumetric energy content (decalin, tetralin, and monomethylnaphthalene) at simulated altitude and combustor inlet-air conditions. At the conditions investigated, the combustion efficiency for the four fuels generally decreased with an increase in volumetric energy content. The altitude operational limits for decalin and tetralin fuels were higher than for AN-F-58 fuel; monomethylnaphthalene fuel gave the lowest altitude operational limit.

  11. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  12. High Energy Density aluminum/oxygen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell, an example of which is the metal/air cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, with high energy and power densities, environmentally acceptable and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum/oxygen system is currently under development for a prototype unmanned, undersea vehicle (UUV) for the US navy and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys, and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from 5 to 150 mA/cm 2 have been identified, such materials being essential to realize mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 h in a large scale, half-cell system.

  13. Exercise-induced bone gain is due to enlargement in bone size without a change in volumetric bone density: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study of the upper arms of male tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, H; Kontulainen, S; Sievänen, H; Kannus, P; Järvinen, M; Vuori, I

    2000-09-01

    due to a change in volumetric bone density. These upper arm results may not be generalized to the entire skeleton, but the finding may give new insight into conventional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based bone density measurements when interpreting the effects of exercise on bone.

  14. Orchidectomy-induced alterations in volumetric bone density, cortical porosity and strength of femur are attenuated by dietary conjugated linoleic acid in aged guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, Jason R; Mak, Ivy L; Lavery, Paula; Agellon, Sherry; Wykes, Linda J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-04-01

    Age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia are ascribed in part to reductions in anabolic hormones. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) improves lean and bone mass, but its impact during androgen deficiency is not known. This study tested if CLA would attenuate the effects of orchidectomy (ORX)-induced losses of bone and lean tissue. Male guinea pigs (n=40; 70-72 weeks), were randomized into four groups: (1) SHAM+Control diet, (2) SHAM+CLA diet, (3) ORX+Control diet, (4) ORX+CLA diet. Baseline blood sampling and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were conducted, followed by surgery 4 days later with the test diets started 7 days after baseline sampling. Serial blood sampling and DXA scans were repeated 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks on the test diets. Body composition and areal BMD (aBMD) of whole body, lumbar spine, femur and tibia were measured using DXA. At week 16, muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and bone strength were assessed. Body weight declined after SHAM and ORX surgery, with slower recovery in the ORX group. Dietary CLA did not affect weight or lean mass, but attenuated gains in fat mass. Lean mass was stable in SHAM and reduced in ORX by 2 weeks with whole body and femur bone mineral content (BMC) reduced by 4 weeks; CLA did not alter BMC. By week 16 ORX groups had lower free testosterone and myofibrillar FSR, yet higher cortisol, osteocalcin and ionized calcium with no alterations due to CLA. ORX+Control had higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total alkaline phosphatase compared to SHAM+Control whereas ORX+CLA were not different from SHAM groups. Femur metaphyseal vBMD was reduced in ORX+CTRL with the reduction attenuated by CLA. Femur cortical thickness (Ct.Th.) and biomechanical strength were reduced and cortical porosity (Ct.Po.) elevated by ORX and attenuated by CLA. This androgen deficient model with a sarcopenic-osteoporotic phenotype similar to aging men responded to dietary CLA with

  15. Observable to explore high density behaviour of symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, Aman D

    2011-01-01

    We aim to see the sensitivity of collective transverse in-plane flow to symmetry energy at low as well as high densities and also to see the effect of different density dependencies of symmetry energy on the same.

  16. Laplacian-level density functionals for the kinetic energy density and exchange-correlation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdew, John P.; Constantin, Lucian A.

    2007-04-01

    We construct a Laplacian-level meta-generalized-gradient-approximation (meta-GGA) for the noninteracting (Kohn-Sham orbital) positive kinetic energy density τ of an electronic ground state of density n . This meta-GGA is designed to recover the fourth-order gradient expansion τGE4 in the appropriate slowly varying limit and the von Weizsäcker expression τW=∣∇n∣2/(8n) in the rapidly varying limit. It is constrained to satisfy the rigorous lower bound τW(r)⩽τ(r) . Our meta-GGA is typically a strong improvement over the gradient expansion of τ for atoms, spherical jellium clusters, jellium surfaces, the Airy gas, Hooke’s atom, one-electron Gaussian density, quasi-two-dimensional electron gas, and nonuniformly scaled hydrogen atom. We also construct a Laplacian-level meta-GGA for exchange and correlation by employing our approximate τ in the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA density functional. The Laplacian-level TPSS gives almost the same exchange-correlation enhancement factors and energies as the full TPSS, suggesting that τ and ∇2n carry about the same information beyond that carried by n and ∇n . Our kinetic energy density integrates to an orbital-free kinetic energy functional that is about as accurate as the fourth-order gradient expansion for many real densities (with noticeable improvement in molecular atomization energies), but considerably more accurate for rapidly varying ones.

  17. Density content of nuclear symmetry energy from nuclear observables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Agrawal

    2014-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy at a given density measures the energy transferred in converting symmetric nuclear matter into the pure neutron matter. The density content of nuclear symmetry energy remains poorly constrained. Our recent results for the density content of the nuclear symmetry energy, around the saturation density, extracted using experimental data for accurately known nuclear masses, giant resonances and neutron-skin thickness in heavy nuclei are summarized.

  18. Energy density of bloaters in the upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Gorman, Owen T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the energy density of bloaters Coregonus hoyi as a function of fish size across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior in 2008–2009 and assessed how differences in energy density are related to factors such as biomass density of bloaters and availability of prey. Additional objectives were to compare energy density between sexes and to compare energy densities of bloaters in Lake Michigan between two time periods (1998–2001 and 2008–2009). For the cross-lake comparisons in 2008, energy density increased with fish total length (TL) only in Lake Michigan. Mean energy density adjusted for fish size was 8% higher in bloaters from Lake Superior than in bloaters from Lake Huron. Relative to fish in these two lakes, small (175 mm TL) bloaters had higher energy density. In 2009, energy density increased with bloater size, and mean energy density adjusted for fish size was about 9% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron (Lake Superior was not sampled during 2009). Energy density of bloaters in Lake Huron was generally the lowest among lakes, reflecting the relatively low densities of opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana and the relatively high biomass of bloaters reported for that lake. Other factors, such as energy content of prey, growing season, or ontogenetic differences in energy use strategies, may also influence cross-lake variation in energy density. Mean energy density adjusted for length was 7% higher for female bloaters than for male bloaters in Lakes Michigan and Huron. In Lake Superior, energy density did not differ between males and females. Finally, energy density of bloaters in Lake Michigan was similar between the periods 2008–2009 and 1998–2001, possibly due to a low population abundance of bloaters, which could offset food availability changes linked to the loss of prey such as the amphipods Diporeia spp.

  19. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  20. Negative Energy Density in Calabi-Yau Compactifications

    OpenAIRE

    Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T.; Maeda, Kengo

    2003-01-01

    We show that a large class of supersymmetric compactifications, including all simply connected Calabi-Yau and G_2 manifolds, have classical configurations with negative energy density as seen from four dimensions. In fact, the energy density can be arbitrarily negative -- it is unbounded from below. Nevertheless, positive energy theorems show that the total ADM energy remains positive. Physical consequences of the negative energy density include new thermal instabilities, and possible violati...

  1. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  2. Energy transfer, volumetric expansion, and removal of oral biofilms by non-contact brushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; Finger, G.; Schaefer, N.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Non-contact removal of oral biofilms offers advantages beyond the reach of bristles, but it is unknown how energy transfer for removal from brush-to-biofilm occurs. In the present study we evaluated non-contact, oral biofilm removal by oscillating-rotating and sonic toothbrushes, and their acoustic

  3. Energy density, energy intake, and body weight regulation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-11-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Effect of Polyester and Plaster of Paris Casts on Determination of Volumetric Bone Mineral Density Assessed by Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Michael; Blanchard, Romane; Rodda, Christine; Pivonka, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is a non-invasive, low-radiation tool for measuring volumetric bone mineral density. It has potential for use in fracture healing applications; however, the unknown attenuation effects of cast material on peripheral quantitative computed tomography have contributed to its limited use in this area. The effect of two common cast materials, polyester and Plaster of Paris was investigated by performing both in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro study tested the effect of increasing layers of cast material on bone density measurements performed on a hydroxyapatite phantom. Cast thickness was directly associated with a reduction in bone mineral density, with twelve layers of polyester and Plaster of Paris resulting in a 0.55 and 2.21 % decrease in bone density measurements. Precision error in situ with polyester cast material was 0.71 %, and 2.31 % with Plaster of Paris cast material. The in vivo study comprised a prospective trial with 28 healthy adult participants to evaluate the effect of the two cast materials. Trabecular bone mineral density was increased by 0.5 % in the presence of a polyester cast and decreased by 4.22 % in the presence of a Plaster of Paris cast. Cortical bone mineral density was decreased by 3.46 and 5.54 % for polyester and Plaster of Paris, respectively. This study quantified the effects of orthopaedic casts on pQCT-derived bone parameters. The results suggest applicability of commonly utilised cast materials in combination with pQCT to assess fracture healing.

  5. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joe A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lust, Rusty; Nazaewicc, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold: First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties; Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data; Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  6. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joe A. [Michigan State University; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lust, Rusty; Nazaewicc, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

    2012-12-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold:  First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties;  Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data;  Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  7. Beyond the local density approximation : improving density functional theory for high energy density physics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Modine, Normand Arthur; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Muller, Richard Partain; Sears, Mark P.; Wright, Alan Francis

    2006-11-01

    A finite temperature version of 'exact-exchange' density functional theory (EXX) has been implemented in Sandia's Socorro code. The method uses the optimized effective potential (OEP) formalism and an efficient gradient-based iterative minimization of the energy. The derivation of the gradient is based on the density matrix, simplifying the extension to finite temperatures. A stand-alone all-electron exact-exchange capability has been developed for testing exact exchange and compatible correlation functionals on small systems. Calculations of eigenvalues for the helium atom, beryllium atom, and the hydrogen molecule are reported, showing excellent agreement with highly converged quantumMonte Carlo calculations. Several approaches to the generation of pseudopotentials for use in EXX calculations have been examined and are discussed. The difficult problem of finding a correlation functional compatible with EXX has been studied and some initial findings are reported.

  8. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Probing the density content of the nuclear symmetry energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Agrawal; J N De; S K Samaddar

    2014-05-01

    The nature of equation of state for the neutron star matter is crucially governed by the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. We attempt to probe the behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy around the saturation density by exploiting the empirical values for volume and surface symmetry energy coefficients extracted from the precise data on the nuclear masses.

  10. High energy density interpenetrating networks from ionic networks and silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    The energy density of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is sought increased for better exploitation of the DE technology since an increased energy density means that the driving voltage for a certain strain can be lowered in actuation mode or alternatively that more energy can be harvested in generator...

  11. Determinants of the reliability of ultrasound tomography sound speed estimates as a surrogate for volumetric breast density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodr, Zeina G.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Gierach, Gretchen L., E-mail: GierachG@mail.nih.gov [Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive MSC 9774, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Sak, Mark A.; Bey-Knight, Lisa [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Delphinus Medical Technologies, 46701 Commerce Center Drive, Plymouth, Michigan 48170 (United States); Ali, Haythem; Vallieres, Patricia [Henry Ford Health System, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Sherman, Mark E. [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Drive MSC 9774, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: High breast density, as measured by mammography, is associated with increased breast cancer risk, but standard methods of assessment have limitations including 2D representation of breast tissue, distortion due to breast compression, and use of ionizing radiation. Ultrasound tomography (UST) is a novel imaging method that averts these limitations and uses sound speed measures rather than x-ray imaging to estimate breast density. The authors evaluated the reproducibility of measures of speed of sound and changes in this parameter using UST. Methods: One experienced and five newly trained raters measured sound speed in serial UST scans for 22 women (two scans per person) to assess inter-rater reliability. Intrarater reliability was assessed for four raters. A random effects model was used to calculate the percent variation in sound speed and change in sound speed attributable to subject, scan, rater, and repeat reads. The authors estimated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these measures based on data from the authors’ experienced rater. Results: Median (range) time between baseline and follow-up UST scans was five (1–13) months. Contributions of factors to sound speed variance were differences between subjects (86.0%), baseline versus follow-up scans (7.5%), inter-rater evaluations (1.1%), and intrarater reproducibility (∼0%). When evaluating change in sound speed between scans, 2.7% and ∼0% of variation were attributed to inter- and intrarater variation, respectively. For the experienced rater’s repeat reads, agreement for sound speed was excellent (ICC = 93.4%) and for change in sound speed substantial (ICC = 70.4%), indicating very good reproducibility of these measures. Conclusions: UST provided highly reproducible sound speed measurements, which reflect breast density, suggesting that UST has utility in sensitively assessing change in density.

  12. The relationships between breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density with body mass index, body fat mass and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariyah, N.; Pathy, N. B.; Taib, N. A. M.; Rahmat, K.; Judy, C. W.; Fadzil, F.; Lau, S.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    It has been shown that breast density and obesity are related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships of breast volume, breast dense volume and volumetric breast density (VBD) with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass (BFM) for the three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian) in Malaysia. We collected raw digital mammograms from 2450 women acquired on three digital mammography systems. The mammograms were analysed using Volpara software to obtain breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Body weight, BMI and BFM of the women were measured using a body composition analyser. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors of increased overall breast volume, breast dense volume and VBD. Indians have highest breast volume and breast dense volume followed by Malays and Chinese. While Chinese are highest in VBD, followed by Malay and Indian. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing BMI and BFM were independent predictors of increased overall breast volume and dense volume. Moreover, BMI and BFM were independently and inversely related to VBD.

  13. The mapping of electronic energy distributions using experimental electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirelson, Vladimir G

    2002-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the approximate kinetic energy density calculated using the second-order gradient expansion with parameters of the multipole model fitted to experimental structure factors reproduces the main features of this quantity in a molecular or crystal position space. The use of the local virial theorem provides an appropriate derivation of approximate potential energy density and electronic energy density from the experimental (model) electron density and its derivatives. Consideration of these functions is not restricted by the critical points in the electron density and provides a comprehensive characterization of bonding in molecules and crystals.

  14. On exact and approximate exchange-energy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Michael; Dahl, Jens Peder

    1999-01-01

    Based on correspondence rules between quantum-mechanical operators and classical functions in phase space we construct exchange-energy densities in position space. Whereas these are not unique but depend on the chosen correspondence rule, the exchange potential is unique. We calculate this exchange......-energy density for 15 closed-shell atoms, and compare it with kinetic- and Coulomb-energy densities. It is found that it has a dominating local-density character, but electron-shell effects are recognizable. The approximate exchange-energy functionals that have been proposed so far are found to account only...

  15. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became......Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  16. COMBINATION OF DENSITY AND ENERGY MODULATION IN MICROBUNCHING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Microbunching instability (MBI) has been one of the most challenging issues in the transport of high-brightness electron beams for modern recirculating or energy recovery linac machines. Recently we have developed and implemented a Vlasov solver [1] to calculate the microbunching gain for an arbitrary beamline lattice, based on the extension of existing theoretical formulation [2-4] for the microbunching amplification from an initial density perturbation to the final density modulation. For more thorough analyses, in addition to the case of (initial) density to (final) density amplification, we extend in this paper the previous formulation to more general cases, including energy to density, density to energy and energy to energy amplifications for a recirculation machine. Such semi-analytical formulae are then incorporated into our Vlasov solver, and qualitative agreement is obtained when the semi-analytical Vlasov results are compared with particle tracking simulation using ELEGANT [5].

  17. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 ? 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed effort...

  18. An exposition on Friedmann Cosmology with Negative Energy Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, Robert J; Patla, Bijunath R

    2014-01-01

    How would negative energy density affect a classic Friedmann cosmology? Although never measured and possibly unphysical, certain realizations of quantum field theories leaves the door open for such a possibility. In this paper we analyze the evolution of a universe comprising varying amounts of negative energy forms. Negative energy components have negative normalized energy densities, $\\Omega 1/3$. Assuming that such energy forms generate pressure like perfect fluids, the attractive or repulsive nature of negative energy components are reviewed. The Friedmann equation is satisfied only when negative energy forms are coupled to a greater magnitude of positive energy forms or positive curvature. We show that the solutions exhibit cyclic evolution with bounces and turnovers.The future and fate of such universes in terms of curvature, temperature, acceleration, and energy density are reviewed. The end states are dubbed Big Crunch, Big Void, or Big Rip and further qualified as "Warped", "Curved", or "Flat", "Hot...

  19. The rising cost of low-energy-density foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2007-12-01

    Consuming lower-energy-density foods is one recommended strategy for management of body weight. This cross-sectional study used retail food prices to test the hypothesis that low-energy-density foods are not only more costly per kilocalorie, but have increased disproportionately in price as compared to high-energy-density foods. For a list of 372 foods and beverages belonging to a food frequency questionnaire database, retail prices were obtained from major supermarket chains in the Seattle, WA, metropolitan area in 2004 and 2006. Energy density of all items was calculated and prices were expressed as $/100 g edible portion and as $/1,000 kcal. Foods were stratified by quintiles of energy density and the differences in energy cost and in percent price change were tested using analyses of variance. High-energy-density foods provided the most dietary energy at least cost. Energy cost of foods in the bottom quintile of energy density, beverages excluded, was $18.16/1,000 kcal as compared to only $1.76/1,000 kcal for foods in the top quintile. The 2-year price change for the least energy-dense foods was +19.5%, whereas the price change for the most energy-dense foods was -1.8%. The finding that energy-dense foods are not only the least expensive, but also most resistant to inflation, may help explain why the highest rates of obesity continue to be observed among groups of limited economic means. The sharp price increase for the low-energy-density foods suggests that economic factors may pose a barrier to the adoption of more healthful diets and so limit the impact of dietary guidance.

  20. Energy density functional for nuclei and neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, J; Nazarewicz, W; Rafalski, M; Reinhard, P -G

    2012-01-01

    We aim to develop a nuclear energy density functional that can be simultaneously applied to finite nuclei and neutron stars. We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with Skyrme energy density functionals and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables for finite nuclei and neutron stars. In a first step two energy functionals -- a high density energy functional giving reasonable neutron properties, and a low density functional fitted to nuclear properties -- are matched. In a second step, we optimize a new functional using exactly the same protocol as in earlier studies pertaining to nuclei but now including neutron star data. This allows direct comparisons of performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. The new functional TOV-min yields results for nuclear bulk properties (energy, r.m.s. radius, diffraction radius, surface thickness) that are of the same quality as those obtained with the established Skyrme functionals, including SV-min. When c...

  1. Theoretical study of atoms by the electronic kinetic energy density and stress tensor density

    CERN Document Server

    Nozaki, Hiroo; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of atoms in the first, second and third periods using the electronic kinetic energy density and stress tensor density, which are local quantities motivated by quantum field theoretic consideration, specifically the rigged quantum electrodynamics. We compute the zero surfaces of the electronic kinetic energy density, which we call the electronic interfaces, of the atoms. We find that their sizes exhibit clear periodicity and are comparable to the conventional atomic and ionic radii. We also compute the electronic stress tensor density and its divergence, tension density, of the atoms, and discuss how their electronic structures are characterized by them.

  2. Is the Accuracy of Density Functional Theory for Atomization Energies and Densities in Bonding Regions Correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsen, Kurt R; Yang, Yang; Pak, Michael V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2017-05-04

    The development of approximate exchange-correlation functionals is critical for modern density functional theory. A recent analysis of atomic systems suggested that some modern functionals are straying from the path toward the exact functional because electron densities are becoming less accurate while energies are becoming more accurate since the year 2000. To investigate this trend for more chemically relevant systems, the electron densities in the bonding regions and the atomization energies are analyzed for a series of diatomic molecules with 90 different functionals. For hybrid generalized gradient approximation functionals developed since the year 2000, the errors in densities and atomization energies are decoupled; the accuracy of the energies remains relatively consistent while the accuracy of the densities varies significantly. Such decoupling is not observed for generalized gradient and meta-generalized gradient approximation functionals. Analysis of electron densities in bonding regions is found to be important for the evaluation of functionals for chemical systems.

  3. High energy density interpenetrating networks from ionic networks and silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The energy density of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is sought increased for better exploitation of the DE technology since an increased energy density means that the driving voltage for a certain strain can be lowered in actuation mode or alternatively that more energy can be harvested in generator...... mode. One way to increase the energy density is to increase dielectric permittivity of the elastomer. A novel silicone elastomer system with high dielectric permittivity was prepared through the development of interpenetrating networks from ionically assembled silicone polymers and covalently...

  4. Symmetry energy systematics and its high density behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-01-01

    We explore the systematics of the density dependence of nuclear matter symmetry energy in the ambit of microscopic calculations with various energy density functionals, and find that the symmetry energy from subsaturation density to supra-saturation density can be well determined by three characteristic parameters of the symmetry energy at saturation density $\\rho_0 $, i.e., the magnitude $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_0 })$, the density slope $L$ and the density curvature $K_{\\text{sym}}$. This finding opens a new window to constrain the supra-saturation density behavior of the symmetry energy from its (sub-)saturation density behavior. In particular, we obtain $L=46.7 \\pm 12.8$ MeV and $K_{\\text{sym}}=-166.9 \\pm 168.3$ MeV as well as $E_{\\text{sym}}({2\\rho _{0}}) \\approx 40.2 \\pm 12.8$ MeV and $L({2\\rho _{0}}) \\approx 8.9 \\pm 108.7$ MeV based on the present knowledge of $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_{0}}) = 32.5 \\pm 0.5$ MeV, $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_c}) = 26.65 \\pm 0.2$ MeV and $L({\\rho_c}) = 46.0 \\pm 4.5$ MeV at $\\rho_{\\rm{c...

  5. Ultra high energy density and fast discharge nanocomposite capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-04-01

    Nanocomposites containing high dielectric permittivity ceramics embedded in high breakdown strength polymers are currently of considerable interest as a solution for the development of high energy density capacitors. However, the improvement of dielectric permittivity comes at expense of the breakdown strength leading to limit the final energy density. Here, an ultra-high energy density nanocomposite was fabricated based on high aspect ratio barium strontium titanate nanowires. The pyroelectric phase Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 was chosen for the nanowires combined with quenched PVDF to fabricate high energy density nanocomposite. The energy density with 7.5% Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 nanowires reached 14.86 J/cc at 450 MV/m, which represented a 42.9% increase in comparison to the PVDF with an energy density of 10.4 J/cc at the same electric field. The capacitors have 1138% greater than higher energy density than commercial biaxial oriented polypropylene capacitors (1.2 J/cc at 640). These results demonstrate that the high aspect ratio nanowires can be used to produce nanocomposite capacitors with greater performance than the neat polymers thus providing a novel process for the development of future pulsed-power capacitors.

  6. Spin constraints on nuclear energy density functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Robledo, L M; Bertsch, G F

    2013-01-01

    The Gallagher-Moszkowski rule in the spectroscopy of odd-odd nuclei imposes a new spin constraint on the energy functionals for self-consistent mean field theory. The commonly used parameterization of the effective three-body interaction in the Gogny and Skyrme families of energy functionals is ill-suited to satisfy the spin constraint. In particular, the Gogny parameterization of the three-body interaction has the opposite spin dependence to that required by the observed spectra. The two-body part has a correct sign, but in combination the rule is violated as often as not. We conclude that a new functional form is needed for the effective three-body interaction that can take into better account the different spin-isospin channels of the interaction.

  7. On the possibility of kinetic energy density evaluation from the experimental electron-density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, Yu.A. [National Inst. for Research in Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    A simple new approach for the evaluation of the electronic kinetic energy density, G(r), from the experimental (multipole-fitted) electron density is proposed. It allows a quantitative and semi-quantitative description of the G(r) behavior at the bond critical points of compounds with closed-shell and shared interactions, respectively. This can provide information on the values of the kinetic electron energy densities at the bond critical points, which appears to be useful for quantum-topological studies of chemical interactions using experimental electron densities. (orig.).

  8. Theoretical Study of Lithium Ionic Conductors by Electronic Stress Tensor Density and Electronic Kinetic Energy Density

    CERN Document Server

    Nozaki, Hiroo; Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Taku; Aihara, Yuichi; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of lithium ionic conductors, ${\\rm Li_3PO_4}$ and ${\\rm Li_3PS_4}$, using the electronic stress tensor density and kinetic energy density with special focus on the ionic bonds among them. We find that, as long as we examine the pattern of the eigenvalues of the electronic stress tensor density, we cannot distinguish between the ionic bonds and bonds among metalloid atoms. We then show that they can be distinguished by looking at the morphology of the electronic interface, the zero surface of the electronic kinetic energy density.

  9. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina, E-mail: despina.kontos@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers’ manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a

  10. The topology of the Coulomb potential density. A comparison with the electron density, the virial energy density, and the Ehrenfest force density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lizé-Mari; Eaby, Alan; Dillen, Jan

    2017-09-30

    The topology of the Coulomb potential density has been studied within the context of the theory of Atoms in Molecules and has been compared with the topologies of the electron density, the virial energy density and the Ehrenfest force density. The Coulomb potential density is found to be mainly structurally homeomorphic with the electron density. The Coulomb potential density reproduces the non-nuclear attractor which is observed experimentally in the molecular graph of the electron density of a Mg dimer, thus, for the first time ever providing an alternative and energetic foundation for the existence of this critical point. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  12. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  13. Parasitic oscillations, absorption, stored energy density and heat density in active-mirror and disk amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D C; Jacobs, S D; Nee, N

    1978-01-15

    We present detailed calculations of the absorption, stored energy density, and heat density distributions for these commercial laser glasses of current interest (silicate-ED-2, phosphates-EV-2, LHG-5). The form of the stored energy density distribution is shown to be important in the consideration of parasitic oscillations in active-mirror and disk amplifiers. In active-mirror amplifiers, the application of multilayer dielectric coatings has been found not to affect the threshold for bulk parasitic oscillations. Due to the unique geometry of active mirrors, amplified spontaneous emission rather than parasitics is found to limit energy storage ultimately.

  14. Origins and Impacts of High-Density Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bao-An

    2016-01-01

    What is nuclear symmetry energy? Why is it important? What do we know about it? Why is it so uncertain especially at high densities? Can the total symmetry energy or its kinetic part be negative? What are the effects of three-body and/or tensor force on symmetry energy? How can we probe the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy with terrestrial nuclear experiments? What observables of heavy-ion reactions are sensitive to the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy? How does the symmetry energy affect properties of neutron stars, gravitational waves and our understanding about the nature of strong-field gravity? In this lecture, we try to answer these questions as best as we can based on some of our recent work and/or understanding of research done by others. This note summarizes the main points of the lecture.

  15. Nuclear Energy Density Functionals: What do we really know?

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgac, Aurel; Jin, Shi

    2015-01-01

    We present the simplest nuclear energy density functional (NEDF) to date, determined by only 4 significant phenomenological parameters, yet capable of fitting measured nuclear masses with better accuracy than the Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula, while also describing density structures (charge radii, neutron skins etc.) and time-dependent phenomena (induced fission, giant resonances, low energy nuclear collisions, etc.). The 4 significant parameters are necessary to describe bulk nuclear properties (binding energies and charge radii); an additional 2 to 3 parameters have little influence on the bulk nuclear properties, but allow independent control of the density dependence of the symmetry energy and isovector excitations, in particular the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. This Hohenberg-Kohn-style of density functional theory successfully realizes Weizs\\"acker's ideas and provides a computationally tractable model for a variety of static nuclear properties and dynamics, from finite nuclei to neutron stars, where...

  16. Energy Density of Vortices in the Schroedinger Picture

    CERN Document Server

    Laenge, J D; Reinhardt, H

    2003-01-01

    The one-loop energy density of an infinitely thin static magnetic vortex in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is evaluated using the Schroedinger picture. Both the gluonic fluctuations as well as the quarks in the vortex background are included. The energy density of the magnetic vortex is discussed as a function of the magnetic flux. The center vortices correspond to local minima in the effective potential. These minima are degenerated with the perturbative vacuum if the fermions are ignored. Inclusion of fermions lifts this degeneracy, raising the vortex energy above the energy of the perturbative vacuum.

  17. Cosmic-ray energy densities in star-forming galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persic Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy density of cosmic ray protons in star forming galaxies can be estimated from π0-decay γ-ray emission, synchrotron radio emission, and supernova rates. To galaxies for which these methods can be applied, the three methods yield consistent energy densities ranging from Up ~ 0.1 − 1 eV cm−3 to Up ~ 102 − 103 eV cm−3 in galaxies with low to high star-formation rates, respectively.

  18. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  19. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  20. The ESR1 (6q25 locus is associated with calcaneal ultrasound parameters and radial volumetric bone mineral density in European men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Holliday

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 6q25, which incorporates the oestrogen receptor α gene (ESR1, as a quantitative trait locus for areal bone mineral density (BMD(a of the hip and lumbar spine. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of this locus on other bone health outcomes; calcaneal ultrasound (QUS parameters, radial peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT parameters and markers of bone turnover in a population sample of European men. METHODS: Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the 6q25 locus were genotyped in men aged 40-79 years from 7 European countries, participating in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS. The associations between SNPs and measured bone parameters were tested under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre using linear regression. RESULTS: 2468 men, mean (SD aged 59.9 (11.1 years had QUS measurements performed and bone turnover marker levels measured. A subset of 628 men had DXA and pQCT measurements. Multiple independent SNPs showed significant associations with BMD using all three measurement techniques. Most notably, rs1999805 was associated with a 0.10 SD (95%CI 0.05, 0.16; p = 0.0001 lower estimated BMD at the calcaneus, a 0.14 SD (95%CI 0.05, 0.24; p = 0.004 lower total hip BMD(a, a 0.12 SD (95%CI 0.02, 0.23; p = 0.026 lower lumbar spine BMD(a and a 0.18 SD (95%CI 0.06, 0.29; p = 0.003 lower trabecular BMD at the distal radius for each copy of the minor allele. There was no association with serum levels of bone turnover markers and a single SNP which was associated with cortical density was also associated with cortical BMC and thickness. CONCLUSIONS: Our data replicate previous associations found between SNPs in the 6q25 locus and BMD(a at the hip and extend these data to include associations with calcaneal ultrasound parameters and radial volumetric BMD.

  1. Analytical gradients for excitation energies from frozen-density embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyrshin, Arseny; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2016-08-21

    The formulation of analytical excitation-energy gradients from time-dependent density functional theory within the frozen-density embedding framework is presented. In addition to a comprehensive mathematical derivation, we discuss details of the numerical implementation in the Slater-function based Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) program. Particular emphasis is put on the consistency in the use of approximations for the evaluation of second- and third-order non-additive kinetic-energy and exchange-correlation functional derivatives appearing in the final expression for the excitation-energy gradient. We test the implementation for different chemical systems in which molecular excited-state potential-energy curves are affected by another subsystem. It is demonstrated that the analytical implementation for the evaluation of excitation-energy gradients yields results in close agreement with data from numerical differentiation. In addition, we show that our analytical results are numerically more stable and thus preferable over the numerical ones.

  2. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  3. Nuclear Level Density at High Spin and Excitation Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.N. Behkami; Z. Kargar

    2001-01-01

    The intensive studies of equilibrium processes in heavy-ion reaction have produced a need for information on nuclear level densities at high energies and spins. The Fermi gas level density is often used in investigation of heavy-ion reaction studies. Some papers have claimed that nuclear level densities might deviate substantially from the Fermi gas predications at excitations related to heavy-ion reactions. The formulae of calculation of the nuclear level density based on the theory of superconductivity are presented, special attention is paid to the dependence of the level density on the angular momentum. The spin-dependent nuclear level density is evaluated using the pairing interaction. The resulting level density for an average spin of 52h is evaluated for 155Er and compared with experimental data. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained.``

  4. Energy Density Inhomogeneities with Polynomial $f(R)$ Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of polynomial $f(R)$ model on the stability of homogeneous energy density in self-gravitating spherical stellar object. For this purpose, we construct couple of evolution equations which relate the Weyl tensor with matter parameters. We explore different factors responsible for density inhomogeneities with non-dissipative dust, isotropic as well as anisotropic fluids and dissipative dust cloud. We find that shear, pressure, dissipative parameters and $f(R)$ terms affect the existence of inhomogeneous energy density.

  5. High energy density nanocomposite capacitors using non-ferroelectric nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-02-01

    A high energy density nanocomposite capacitor is fabricated by incorporating high aspect ratio functionalized TiO2 nanowires (NWs) into a polyvinylidene-fluoride matrix. These nanocomposites exhibited energy density as high as 12.4 J/cc at 450 MV/m, which is nine times larger than commercial biaxially oriented polypropylene polypropylene capacitors (1.2 J/cc at 640 MV/m). Also, the power density can reach 1.77 MW/cc with a discharge speed of 2.89 μs. The results presented here demonstrate that nanowires can be used to develop nanocomposite capacitors with high energy density and fast discharge speed for future pulsed-power applications.

  6. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  7. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  8. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with areal and volumetric measures of bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone: impact of vitamin D-binding protein and its assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemielita, T. O.; Leonard, M. B.; Baker, J.; Sayed, S.; Zemel, B. S.; Shults, J.; Herskovitz, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A comparison of the association of different forms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and with areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) demonstrated that bioavailable and free 25(OH)D do not provide a better index of vitamin D status in terms of bone health compared to total 25(OH)D. Introduction This study aims to compare measures of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) using a monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA and assess correlations of total versus estimated free and bioavailable 25(OH)D with BMD and PTH concentrations. Methods DXA and peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) scans were obtained in 304 adults (158 black, 146 white), ages 21–80 years. Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated from total 25(OH)D, DBP, and albumin concentrations. Multivariable linear regression with standardized beta coefficients was used to evaluate associations of bone measures and PTH with total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D. Results Measures of DBP obtained using a monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA were not correlated (rs=0.02, p=0.76). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D based on the polyclonal assay were lower in black versus white participants (p<0.0001); this race difference was not evident using the monoclonal assay. Adjusted for age, sex, calcium intake, and race, all forms of 25(OH)D were negatively associated with PTH, but the absolute coefficient was greatest for total 25(OH)D (−0.34, p<0.001) versus free/bioavailable 25(OH)D (−0.18/−0.24 depending on DBP assay, p≤0.003). In analyses stratified on race, none of the measures of 25(OH)D were associated with BMD across DXA and pQCT sites. Conclusions The monoclonal versus polyclonal ELISA yielded highly discrepant measures of DBP, particularly among black individuals, likely related to established race differences in DBP polymorphisms. Contrary to prior studies, our findings indicate that using DBP to estimate bioavailable and free 25(OH)D does not provide a better index of

  9. Energy Density Functional for Nuclei and Neutron Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, J. [UTK/ORNL/German Cancer Research Center-Heidelberg; Horowitz, C. J. [UTK/ORNL/Indiana University; Nazarewicz, Witold [UTK/ORNL/University of Warsaw; Rafalski, M. [UTK/ORNL; Reinhard, P.-G. [Universitat Erlangen, Germany

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent observational data on neutron star masses and radii provide stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron rich matter [ Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 62 485 (2012)]. Purpose: We aim to develop a nuclear energy density functional that can be simultaneously applied to finite nuclei and neutron stars. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with Skyrme energy density functionals and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables for finite nuclei and neutron stars. In a first step two energy functionals a high density energy functional giving reasonable neutron properties, and a low density functional fitted to nuclear properties are matched. In a second step, we optimize a new functional using exactly the same protocol as in earlier studies pertaining to nuclei but now including neutron star data. This allows direct comparisons of performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. Results: The new functional TOV-min yields results for nuclear bulk properties (energy, rms radius, diffraction radius, and surface thickness) that are of the same quality as those obtained with the established Skyrme functionals, including SV-min. When comparing SV-min and TOV-min, isoscalar nuclear matter indicators vary slightly while isovector properties are changed considerably. We discuss neutron skins, dipole polarizability, separation energies of the heaviest elements, and proton and neutron drip lines. We confirm a correlation between the neutron skin of 208Pb and the neutron star radius. Conclusions: We demonstrate that standard energy density functionals optimized to nuclear data do not carry information on the expected maximum neutron star mass, and that predictions can only be made within an extremely broad uncertainty band. For atomic nuclei, the new functional TOV-min performs at least as well as the standard nuclear functionals, but it also reproduces expected neutron star data

  10. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  11. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with the possible different defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in active region NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. It is noticed that the quantity 1/4pi Bn.Bp is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear on the difference between the potential magnetic field (Bp) and non-potential one (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density changes obviously before the powerful solar flares in the active region NOAA 11158, it is consistent with the change of magnetic fields in the lower atmosphere with flares.

  12. Energy density and spatial curvature in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, T.; Galloway, G.J.

    1981-04-01

    Positive energy density tends to limit the size of space. This effect is studied within several contexts. We obtain sufficient conditions (which involve the energy density in a crucial way) for the compactness of spatial hypersurfaces in space-time. We then obtain some results concerning static or, more generally, stationary space-times. The Schwarzchild solution puts an upper bound on the size of a static spherically symmetric fluid with density bounded from below. We derive a result of roughly the same nature which, however, requires no symmetry and allows for rotation. Also, we show that static or rotating universes with L = 0 require that the density along some spatial geodesic must fall off rapidly with distance from a point.

  13. Volumetric evaluation of dual-energy perfusion CT by the presence of intrapulmonary clots using a 64-slice dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa; Nakashima, Yoshiteru; Kunihiro, Yoshie; Nakao, Sei; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan)], e-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Morikage, Noriyasu [Medical Bioregulation Dept. of Organ Regulatory Surgery, Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi (Japan); Sano, Yuichi [Dept. of Radiology, Yamaguchi Univ. Hospital, Yamaguchi (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Dept. of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Dual-energy perfusion CT (DE{sub p}CT) directly represents the iodine distribution in lung parenchyma and low perfusion areas caused by intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) are visualized as low attenuation areas. Purpose: To evaluate if volumetric evaluation of DE{sub p}CT can be used as a predictor of right heart strain by the presence of IPCs. Material and Methods: One hundred and ninety-six patients suspected of having acute pulmonary embolism (PE) underwent DE{sub p}CT using a 64-slice dual-source CT. DE{sub p}CT images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with four threshold ranges: 1-120 HU (V{sub 120}), 1-15 HU (V{sub 15}), 1-10 HU (V{sub 10}), and 1-5 HU (V{sub 5}). Each relative ratio per V{sub 120} was expressed as the %V{sub 15}, %V{sub 10}, and %V{sub 5}. Volumetric data-sets were compared with D-dimer, pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure, right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio, PA diameter, and PA/aorta (PA/Ao) diameter ratio. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were examined for their relationship to the presence of IPCs. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: PA pressure and D-dimer were significantly higher in the patients who had IPCs. In the patients with IPCs, V{sub 15}, V{sub 10}, V{sub 5}, %V{sub 15}, %V{sub 10}, and %V{sub 5} were also significantly higher than those without IPC (P = 0.001). %V{sub 5} had a better correlation with D-dimer (r = 0.30, P < 0.001) and RV/LV diameter ratio (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), and showed a higher AUC (0.73) than the other CT measurements. Conclusion: The volumetric evaluation by DE{sub p}CT had a correlation with D-dimer and RV/LV diameter ratio, and the relative ratio of volumetric CT measurements with a lower attenuation threshold might be recommended for the analysis of acute PE.

  14. Neutron skin uncertainties of Skyrme energy density functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Birge, N; Gao, Y; Olsen, E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neutron-skin thickness is an excellent indicator of isovector properties of atomic nuclei. As such, it correlates strongly with observables in finite nuclei that depend on neutron-to-proton imbalance and the nuclear symmetry energy that characterizes the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. A rich worldwide experimental program involving studies with rare isotopes, parity violating electron scattering, and astronomical observations is devoted to pinning down the isovector sector of nuclear models. Purpose: We assess the theoretical systematic and statistical uncertainties of neutron-skin thickness and relate them to the equation of state of nuclear matter, and in particular to nuclear symmetry energy parameters. Methods: We use the nuclear superfluid Density Functional Theory with several Skyrme energy density functionals and density dependent pairing. To evaluate statistical errors and their budget, we employ the statistical covariance technique. Results: We find that the errors on neutron s...

  15. Energy Density Inhomogeneities with Polynomial $f(R)$ Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, M.; Yousaf, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of polynomial $f(R)$ model on the stability of homogeneous energy density in self-gravitating spherical stellar object. For this purpose, we construct couple of evolution equations which relate the Weyl tensor with matter parameters. We explore different factors responsible for density inhomogeneities with non-dissipative dust, isotropic as well as anisotropic fluids and dissipative dust cloud. We find that shear, pressure, dissipative parameters and $f(R)$...

  16. Theoretical Study on the High Energy Density Compound Hexanitrohexaazatricyclotetradecanedifuroxan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ling; XIAO He-Ming; ZHU Wei-Hua; JU Xue-Hai; GONG Xue-Dong

    2006-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to study the molecular geometries, electronic structures,infrared (IR) spectra, and thermodynamic properties of the high energy density compound hexanitrohexaazatricyclotetradecanedifuroxan (HHTTD) at the B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The calculated results showthattherearefourconformationalisomers (a, β, γ and δ) for HHTTD, and the relative stabilities of four conformers were assessed based on the calculated total energies and the energy-gaps between the frontier molecular orbitals. The computed harmonic vibrational frequencies are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. Thermodynamic properties derived from the IR spectra on the basis of statistical thermodynamic principles are linearly correlated with the temperature. Detonation performances were evaluated by using the Kamlet-Jacobsequationsbasedonthecalculated densities and heats of formation. It was found that four HHTTD isomers with the predicted densities of ca. 2 g·cm-3, detonation velocities near 10 km·s-1, and detonation pressures over 45 Gpa, may be novel potential candidates of high energy density materials (HEDM). These results may provide basic information for the molecular designof HEDM.

  17. Electromagnetic field energy density in homogeneous negative index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand; Webb, Kevin J

    2012-05-07

    An exact separation of both electric and magnetic energies into stored and lost energies is shown to be possible in the special case when the wave impedance is independent of frequency. A general expression for the electromagnetic energy density in such a dispersive medium having a negative refractive index is shown to be accurate in comparison with numerical results. Using an example metamaterial response that provides a negative refractive index, it is shown that negative time-averaged stored energy can occur. The physical meaning of this negative energy is explained as the energy temporarily borrowed by the field from the material. This observation for negative index materials is of interest when approaching properties for a perfect lens. In the broader context, the observation of negative stored energy is of consequence in the study of dispersive materials.

  18. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong

    2000-01-01

    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  19. Molecular partitioning based on the kinetic energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorizadeh, Siamak

    2016-05-01

    Molecular partitioning based on the kinetic energy density is performed to a number of chemical species, which show non-nuclear attractors (NNA) in their gradient maps of the electron density. It is found that NNAs are removed using this molecular partitioning and although the virial theorem is not valid for all of the basins obtained in the being used AIM, all of the atoms obtained using the new approach obey this theorem. A comparison is also made between some atomic topological parameters which are obtained from the new partitioning approach and those calculated based on the electron density partitioning.

  20. Natural atomic orbital based energy density analysis: Implementation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Mari; Nakai, Hiromi

    2006-06-01

    We present an improvement of energy density analysis (EDA), which partitions the total energy obtained by Hartree-Fock and/or density functional theory calculations, with the use of the natural atomic orbital (NAO) [A.E. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 83 (1985) 735] and Löwdin's symmetric-orthogonal orbital (LSO). The present NAO- and LSO-EDA schemes are applied to analyses of CO 2 and Li9+ with various basis sets. Numerical results confirm that NAO-EDA exhibits less basis-set dependence, while the conventional results are very sensitive to the adopted basis sets.

  1. Physical causes of energy-density inhomogenization and stability of energy-density homogeneity in relativistic self--gravitating fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, L

    2011-01-01

    We identify the factors responsible for the appearance of energy-density inhomogeneities in a self-gravitating fluid, and describe the evolution of those factors from an initially homogeneous distribution. It is shown that a specific combination of the Weyl tensor and/or local anisotropy of pressure and/or dissipative fluxes entails the formation of energy-density inhomogeneities. Different cases are analyzed in detail and in the particular case of dissipative fluids, the role of relaxational processes as well as non-local effects are brought out.

  2. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-11-07

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  3. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Thomas; Colby, Eric

    2002-12-01

    We summarize the reported results and the principal technical discussions that occurred in our Working Group on High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes at the 2002 workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts at the Mandalay Beach resort, June 22-28, 2002.

  4. Density functional resonance theory: complex density functions, convergence, orbital energies, and functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, Daniel L; Wasserman, Adam

    2012-04-28

    Aspects of density functional resonance theory (DFRT) [D. L. Whitenack and A. Wasserman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 163002 (2011)], a recently developed complex-scaled version of ground-state density functional theory (DFT), are studied in detail. The asymptotic behavior of the complex density function is related to the complex resonance energy and system's threshold energy, and the function's local oscillatory behavior is connected with preferential directions of electron decay. Practical considerations for implementation of the theory are addressed including sensitivity to the complex-scaling parameter, θ. In Kohn-Sham DFRT, it is shown that almost all θ-dependence in the calculated energies and lifetimes can be extinguished via use of a proper basis set or fine grid. The highest occupied Kohn-Sham orbital energy and lifetime are related to physical affinity and width, and the threshold energy of the Kohn-Sham system is shown to be equal to the threshold energy of the interacting system shifted by a well-defined functional. Finally, various complex-scaling conditions are derived which relate the functionals of ground-state DFT to those of DFRT via proper scaling factors and a non-Hermitian coupling-constant system.

  5. Sloppy nuclear energy density functionals: effective model reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Niksic, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Concepts from information geometry are used to analyse parameter sensitivity for a nuclear energy density functional, representative of a class of semi-empirical functionals that start from a microscopically motivated ansatz for the density dependence of the energy of a system of protons and neutrons. It is shown that such functionals are sloppy, characterized by an exponential range of sensitivity to parameter variations. Responsive to only a few stiff parameter combinations, they exhibit an exponential decrease of sensitivity to variations of the remaining soft parameters. By interpreting the space of model predictions as a manifold embedded in the data space, with the parameters of the functional as coordinates on the manifold, it is also shown that the exponential distribution of model manifold widths corresponds to the distribution of parameter sensitivity. Using the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method, we illustrate how to systematically construct effective nuclear density functionals of successively...

  6. Collapsing Bubble in Metal for High Energy Density Physics Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S F; Barnard, J J; Leung, P T; Yu, S S

    2011-04-13

    This paper presents a new idea to produce matter in the high energy density physics (HEDP) regime in the laboratory using an intense ion beam. A gas bubble created inside a solid metal may collapse by driving it with an intense ion beam. The melted metal will compress the gas bubble and supply extra energy to it. Simulations show that the spherical implosion ratio can be about 5 and at the stagnation point, the maximum density, temperature and pressure inside the gas bubble can go up to nearly 2 times solid density, 10 eV and a few megabar (Mbar) respectively. The proposed experiment is the first to permit access into the Mbar regime with existing or near-term ion facilities, and opens up possibilities for new physics gained through careful comparisons of simulations with measurements of quantities like stagnation radius, peak temperature and peak pressure at the metal wall.

  7. Improved DFT Potential Energy Surfaces via Improved Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Park, Hansol; Son, Suyeon; Sim, Eunji; Burke, Kieron

    2015-10-01

    Density-corrected DFT is a method that cures several failures of self-consistent semilocal DFT calculations by using a more accurate density instead. A novel procedure employs the Hartree-Fock density to bonds that are more severely stretched than ever before. This substantially increases the range of accurate potential energy surfaces obtainable from semilocal DFT for many heteronuclear molecules. We show that this works for both neutral and charged molecules. We explain why and explore more difficult cases, for example, CH(+), where density-corrected DFT results are even better than sophisticated methods like CCSD. We give a simple criterion for when DC-DFT should be more accurate than self-consistent DFT that can be applied for most cases.

  8. Diagnostic group differences in temporomandibular joint energy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, LM; Iwasaki, LR; Gonzalez, YM; Liu, H; Marx, DB; Nickel, JC

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cartilage fatigue, due to mechanical work, may account for precocious development of degenerative joint disease in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This study compared energy densities (mJ/mm3) in TMJs of three diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population Sixty-eight subjects (44 women, 24 men) gave informed consent. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) and imaging were used to group subjects according to presence of jaw muscle or joint pain (+P) and bilateral disc displacement (+DD). Material and Methods Subjects (+P+DD, n=16; −P+DD, n=16; and −P−DD, n=36) provided cone-beam computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, and jaw tracking data. Numerical modeling was used to determine TMJ loads (Fnormal). Dynamic stereometry was used to characterize individual-specific data of stress-field dynamics during 10 symmetrical jaw closing cycles. These data were used to estimate tractional forces (Ftraction). Energy densities were then calculated as W/Q(W=workdoneormechanicalenergyinput=tractionalforce×distanceofstress-fieldtranslation,Q=volumeofcartilage). ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc analyses tested for intergroup differences. Results Mean ±standard error energy density for the +P+DD group was 12.7±1.5 mJ/mm3 and significantly greater (all adjusted p<0.04) when compared to −P+DD (7.4±1.4 mJ/mm3) and −P−DD (5.8±0.9 mJ/mm3) groups. Energy densities in −P+DD and −P−DD groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Diagnostic group differences in energy densities suggest that mechanical work may be a unique mechanism which contributes to cartilage fatigue in subjects with pain and disc displacement. PMID:25865545

  9. Anti-Ferroelectric Ceramics for High Energy Density Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing dependence on electrical energy for powering modern equipment and electronics, research is focused on the development of efficient methods for the generation, storage and distribution of electrical power. In this regard, the development of suitable dielectric based solid-state capacitors will play a key role in revolutionizing modern day electronic and electrical devices. Among the popular dielectric materials, anti-ferroelectrics (AFE display evidence of being a strong contender for future ceramic capacitors. AFE materials possess low dielectric loss, low coercive field, low remnant polarization, high energy density, high material efficiency, and fast discharge rates; all of these characteristics makes AFE materials a lucrative research direction. However, despite the evident advantages, there have only been limited attempts to develop this area. This article attempts to provide a focus to this area by presenting a timely review on the topic, on the relevant scientific advancements that have been made with respect to utilization and development of anti-ferroelectric materials for electric energy storage applications. The article begins with a general introduction discussing the need for high energy density capacitors, the present solutions being used to address this problem, and a brief discussion of various advantages of anti-ferroelectric materials for high energy storage applications. This is followed by a general description of anti-ferroelectricity and important anti-ferroelectric materials. The remainder of the paper is divided into two subsections, the first of which presents various physical routes for enhancing the energy storage density while the latter section describes chemical routes for enhanced storage density. This is followed by conclusions and future prospects and challenges which need to be addressed in this particular field.

  10. Energy and angular momentum densities of stationary gravity fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lynden-Bell, D; Bicak, Jiri; 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.024040

    2009-01-01

    We give physical explanations of explicit invariant expressions for the energy and angular momentum densities of gravitational fields in stationary space-times. These expressions involve non-locally defined conformal factors. In certain coordinates these become locally defined in terms of the metric. These results are derived via expressions for total gravitational potential energy from the difference between the total energy and the mechanical energy. The latter involves kinetic energy seen in the frame of static observers. When in the axially symmetric case we consider zero angular momentum observers (who move orthogonally to surfaces of constant time), we find that the angular momentum they attribute to the gravitational field is solely due to their motion.

  11. Excitation energies from range-separated time-dependent density and density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernal, Katarzyna

    2012-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in the adiabatic formulation exhibits known failures when applied to predicting excitation energies. One of them is the lack of the doubly excited configurations. On the other hand, the time-dependent theory based on a one-electron reduced density matrix functional (time-dependent density matrix functional theory, TD-DMFT) has proven accurate in determining single and double excitations of H(2) molecule if the exact functional is employed in the adiabatic approximation. We propose a new approach for computing excited state energies that relies on functionals of electron density and one-electron reduced density matrix, where the latter is applied in the long-range region of electron-electron interactions. A similar approach has been recently successfully employed in predicting ground state potential energy curves of diatomic molecules even in the dissociation limit, where static correlation effects are dominating. In the paper, a time-dependent functional theory based on the range-separation of electronic interaction operator is rigorously formulated. To turn the approach into a practical scheme the adiabatic approximation is proposed for the short- and long-range components of the coupling matrix present in the linear response equations. In the end, the problem of finding excitation energies is turned into an eigenproblem for a symmetric matrix. Assignment of obtained excitations is discussed and it is shown how to identify double excitations from the analysis of approximate transition density matrix elements. The proposed method used with the short-range local density approximation (srLDA) and the long-range Buijse-Baerends density matrix functional (lrBB) is applied to H(2) molecule (at equilibrium geometry and in the dissociation limit) and to Be atom. The method accounts for double excitations in the investigated systems but, unfortunately, the accuracy of some of them is poor. The quality of the other

  12. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  13. Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, A. [Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, CP 226, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Davesne, D., E-mail: davesne@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS-IN2P3, UMR 5822, Université Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Navarro, J. [IFIC (CSIC University of Valencia), Apdo. Postal 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin–orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the particle–hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin–isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.

  14. Free energy methods for efficient exploration of mixture posterior densities

    CERN Document Server

    Chopin, Nicolas; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Because of their multimodality, mixture posterior densities are difficult to sample with standard Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. We propose a strategy to enhance the sampling of MCMC in this context, using a biasing procedure which originates from computational statistical physics. The principle is first to choose a "reaction coordinate", that is, a direction in which the target density is multimodal. In a second step, the marginal log-density of the reaction coordinate is estimated; this quantity is called "free energy" in the computational statistical physics literature. To this end, we use adaptive biasing Markov chain algorithms which adapt their invariant distribution on the fly, in order to overcome sampling barriers along the chosen reaction coordinate. Finally, we perform an importance sampling step in order to remove the bias and recover the true posterior. A crucial point is the choice of the reaction coordinate. We show that a convenient and efficient reaction coordinate is the hyper-para...

  15. Nuclear energy density functional inspired by an effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Papakonstantinou, Panagiota; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by an effective field theory (EFT) for Fermi systems, we write the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) as an expansion in powers of the Fermi momentum $k_F$, or the cubic root of the density $\\rho^{1/3}$. With the help of pseudodata from microscopic calculations we fit the coefficients of the functional within a wide range of densities relevant for nuclei and neutron stars. The functional already at low order can reproduce known or adopted values of nuclear matter near saturation, a range of existing microscopic results on asymmetric matter, and a neutron-star mass-radius relation consistent with observations. Our approach leads to a transparent expansion of Skyrme-type EDFs and opens up many possibilities for future explorations in nuclei and homogeneous matter.

  16. High energy density capacitors for low cost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyore, Omokhodion David

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene are the most widely investigated ferroelectric polymers, due to their relatively high electromechanical properties and potential to achieve high energy density. [Bauer, 2010; Zhou et al., 2009] The research community has focused primarily on melt pressed or extruded films of PVDF-based polymers to obtain the highest performance with energy density up to 25 Jcm-3. [Zhou et al., 2009] Solution processing offers an inexpensive, low temperature alternative, which is also easily integrated with flexible electronics. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication of solution-based polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene metal-insulator-metal capacitors on flexible substrates using a photolithographic process. Capacitors were optimized for maximum energy density, high dielectric strength and low leakage current density. It is demonstrated that with the right choice of solvent, electrodes, spin-casting and annealing conditions, high energy density thin film capacitors can be fabricated repeatably and reproducibly. The high electric field dielectric constants were measured and the reliabilities of the polymer capacitors were also evaluated via time-zero breakdown and time-dependent breakdown techniques. Chapter 1 develops the motivation for this work and provides a theoretical overview of dielectric materials, polarization, leakage current and dielectric breakdown. Chapter 2 is a literature review of polymer-based high energy density dielectrics and covers ferroelectric polymers, highlighting PVDF and some of its derivatives. Chapter 3 summarizes some preliminary experimental work and presents materials and electrical characterization that support the rationale for materials selection and process development. Chapter 4 discusses the fabrication of solution-processed PVDF-HFP and modification of its properties by photo-crosslinking. It is followed by a

  17. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  18. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  19. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  20. Effect of the density dependent symmetry energy on fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Vinayak, Karan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the density dependence of symmetry energy on fragmentation is studied using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model(IQMD) Model. We have used the reduced isospin-dependent cross-section with soft equation of state to explain the experimental findings for the system 79_Au^197 + 79_Au^197 for the full colliding geometry. In addition to that we have tried to study the collective response of the momentum dependent interactions(MDI) and symmetry energy towards the multifragmentation

  1. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  2. High energy density capacitor testing for the AFWL SHIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Reinovsky, R. E.

    Lifetime testing and analysis of small samples of high energy density (HED) discharge capacitors at the AFWL were conducted to find a component suitable for upgrading the SHIVA capacitor bank to a 6 MJ facility. Evaluation was performed with discharge conditions of approximately 250 kA per capacitor at 60 to 70% reversal and 2 microsec quarter period. Dielectric systems including Kraft paper with caster oil impregnant and Kraft paper, polypropylene with DiOctyl Phthalate (DOP) impregnant were tested.

  3. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  4. Simulation of distribution of radiation energy density in water balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shi-Biao; MA Qing-Li; YIN Ze-Jie; TANG Yu; HUANG Huan; RAO Nan-Xia; ZHU Da-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of energy deposition density in radiate region and its surrounding areas from γ-rays was simulated and analyzed for a water-ball model with Geant4 package ( Geant4.7.0,2005 ) developed by CERN (the Center of European Research of Nucleus). The results show that the distribution depends strongly on the collimating condition of radiation beam. A well-collimated beam would reduce radiation effects on surrounding areas.

  5. Is it possible to obtain cosmic accelerated expansion through energy transfer between different energy densities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Recai

    2017-03-01

    The equation of state of an energy density may be significantly modified by coupling it to another energy density. In the light of this observation we check the possibility of producing cosmic accelerated expansion in this way. In particular we consider the case where matter is converted to radiation (or vice versa by particle physics processes). We find that cosmic accelerated expansion can be obtained in this way only if an intermediate state with negative equation of state forms during the conversion.

  6. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, T.; /General Atomics, San Diego; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  7. Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Allshouse, Michael R; Morrison, Philip J; Swinney, Harry L

    2016-01-01

    Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field $\\mathbf{J} = p \\mathbf{u}$, which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, $p$ and $\\mathbf{u}$. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous $\\mathbf{J}(x,z,t)$ from density perturbations alone: a Green's function-based calculation yields $p$, and $\\mathbf{u}$ is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: the Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations, and the result for $\\mathbf{J}$ is found to agree typically to within $1\\%$ with $\\mathbf{J}$ computed directly using $p$ and $ \\mathbf{u}$ from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to densit...

  8. Functionalization of Polypyrrole Nanopipes with Redox-Active Polyoxometalates for High Energy Density Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Ballesteros, Belén; Mohite, Ashwini A; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2017-02-22

    Hybrid materials are very attractive for the fabrication of high-performance supercapacitors. Here, we have explored organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on open-end porous 1 D polypyrrole nanopipes (PPy-NPipes) and heteropolyoxometalates (phosphotungstate ([PW12 O40 ](3-) , PW12 ) or phosphomolybdate ([PMo12 O40 ](3-) , PMo12 )) that display excellent areal capacitances. Two different hybrid materials (PMo12 @PPy and PW12 @PPy) were effectively synthesized and used for symmetric supercapacitors. The anchoring of the inorganic nanoclusters onto the conducting polymer nanopipes led to electrodes that stood up to our best expectations exhibiting outstanding areal capacitances that are almost 1.5 to 2 fold higher than that of pristine PPy-NPipes. In addition, symmetric cells based on PMo12 @PPy and PW12 @PPy hybrid electrodes were fabricated and showed significant improvement in cell performance with very high volumetric capacitances in the range of 6.3-6.8 F cm(-3) (considering the volume of whole device). Indeed, they provide extended potential windows in acidic electrolytes (up to 1.5 V) which led to ultrahigh energy densities of 1.5 and 2.2 mWh cm(-3) for PMo12 @PPy and PW12 @PPy cells, respectively. Thus, these unique organic-inorganic hybrid symmetric cells displayed extraordinary electrochemical performances far exceeding those of more complex asymmetric systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the operated and contralateral knee after anterior cruciate ligament and reconstruction: A 1-year follow-up study using peripheral quantitative computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mündermann, Annegret; Payer, Nina; Felmet, Gernot; Riehle, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the tibial plateau of the operated and contralateral leg measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) before and 3, 6, and 12 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The ACL was reconstructed with a hamstring tendon autograft using press-fit fixation. pQCT measurements of the proximal tibia were obtained in 61 patients after ACL reconstruction, and total, cortical, and trabecular vBMD were calculated. vBMD in the operated leg decreased from baseline to 3 months (-12% [total], -11% [cortical], and -12.6% [trabecular]; preconstruction contributed to loss in bone mineral density within the first year after surgery. The role of factors such as time of weight-bearing, joint mechanics, post-traumatic inflammatory reactions, or genetic predisposition in modulating the development of posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis after ACL injury should be further elucidated.

  10. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak, E-mail: zak.fang@utah.edu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Udell, Kent S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Bowman, Robert C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH{sub 2} and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH{sub 2} to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH{sub 2} as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV{sub 0.62}Mn{sub 1.5} alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles.

  11. Development of high energy density electrical double layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Thamarai selvi

    Electrochemical Double Layer capacitors (EDLCs) have shown themselves as a viable energy storage alternative. EDLCs have high power density, faster charge/discharge, wide operating temperature and long cycle life compared to batteries since it stores charge by physical separation. Despites all their advantages, their low energy density stand as a bottleneck for capacitors. This research aims to increase the energy density of EDLC without compromising the power density. Energy is proportional to the square of cell voltage. Cell voltage is mainly dependent on electrolyte breakdown. Electrolytes also provide ions for charge separation and conduction. Therefore various electrolytes (Solutes and Solvents) which can give high concentration, solubility and decomposition potential were characterized in the first part of the research. In that study, a novel ionic liquid OPBF4 had higher capacitance and comparable voltage window compared to commercial TEABF4 in Acetonitrile. However, the increased polarity of the fixed ring O-atom and the ion-ion interaction in OPBF4 was responsible for lowering its conductivity. Oxygenated ionic compounds with alkyl groups had lower stability due to beta elimination between two electron withdrawing atoms. Volume based thermodynamics and quantum chemical calculations were used to calculate ion size, HOMO/LUMO energies, and free energy changes and establish relationship with capacitance, redox potential and melting points respectively. In addition free energy of fusion was used to predict the melting point. Ion size had correlation with capacitance due to compact double layer formation. Free energy changes did not explain the differences in melting point and predicted dielectric constant was inconsistent with the polarity. This is presumably due to using Van der Waals volume instead of crystal structure volume and insufficient incorporation of polarization term. The HOMO/LUMO energies gave direct relation between oxidation and reduction

  12. Extension of the statistical modal energy distribution analysis for estimating energy density in coupled subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, N.; Guyader, J. L.

    2012-06-01

    The present article deals with an extension of the Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis (SmEdA) method to estimate kinetic and potential energy density in coupled subsystems. The SmEdA method uses the modal bases of uncoupled subsystems and focuses on the modal energies rather than the global energies of subsystems such as SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis). This method permits extending SEA to subsystems with low modal overlap or to localized excitations as it does not assume the existence of modal energy equipartition. We demonstrate that by using the modal energies of subsystems computed by SmEdA, it is possible to estimate energy distribution in subsystems. This approach has the same advantages of standard SEA, as it uses very short calculations to analyze damping effects. The estimation of energy distribution from SmEdA is applied to an academic case and an industrial example.

  13. Rationally designed polyimides for high-energy density capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Baldwin, Aaron F; Wang, Chenchen; Offenbach, Ido; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Ramprasad, Rampi; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-07-01

    Development of new dielectric materials is of great importance for a wide range of applications for modern electronics and electrical power systems. The state-of-the-art polymer dielectric is a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film having a maximal energy density of 5 J/cm(3) and a high breakdown field of 700 MV/m, but with a limited dielectric constant (∼2.2) and a reduced breakdown strength above 85 °C. Great effort has been put into exploring other materials to fulfill the demand of continuous miniaturization and improved functionality. In this work, a series of polyimides were investigated as potential polymer materials for this application. Polyimide with high dielectric constants of up to 7.8 that exhibits low dissipation factors (<1%) and high energy density around 15 J/cm(3), which is 3 times that of BOPP, was prepared. Our syntheses were guided by high-throughput density functional theory calculations for rational design in terms of a high dielectric constant and band gap. Correlations of experimental and theoretical results through judicious variations of polyimide structures allowed for a clear demonstration of the relationship between chemical functionalities and dielectric properties.

  14. Energy boost in laser wakefield accelerators using sharp density transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Döpp, A; Thaury, C; Lifschitz, A; Phuoc, K Ta; Malka, V

    2015-01-01

    The energy gain in laser wakefield accelerators is limited by dephasing between the driving laser pulse and the highly relativistic electrons in its wake. Since this phase depends on both the driver and the cavity length, the effects of dephasing can be mitigated with appropriate tailoring of the plasma density along propagation. Preceding studies have discussed the prospects of continuous phase-locking in the linear wakefield regime. However, most experiments are performed in the highly non-linear regime and rely on self-guiding of the laser pulse. Due to the complexity of the driver evolution in this regime it is much more difficult to achieve phase locking. As an alternative we study the scenario of rapid rephasing in sharp density transitions, as was recently demonstrated experimentally. Starting from a phenomenological model we deduce expressions for the electron energy gain in such density profiles. The results are in accordance with particle-in-cell simulations and we present gain estimations for singl...

  15. Ferroelectric polymer networks with high energy density and improved discharged efficiency for dielectric energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanchaitit, Paisan; Han, Kuo; Gadinski, Matthew R; Li, Qi; Wang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers are being actively explored as dielectric materials for electrical energy storage applications. However, their high dielectric constants and outstanding energy densities are accompanied by large dielectric loss due to ferroelectric hysteresis and electrical conduction, resulting in poor charge-discharge efficiencies under high electric fields. To address this long-standing problem, here we report the ferroelectric polymer networks exhibiting significantly reduced dielectric loss, superior polarization and greatly improved breakdown strength and reliability, while maintaining their fast discharge capability at a rate of microseconds. These concurrent improvements lead to unprecedented charge-discharge efficiencies and large values of the discharged energy density and also enable the operation of the ferroelectric polymers at elevated temperatures, which clearly outperforms the melt-extruded ferroelectric polymer films that represents the state of the art in dielectric polymers. The simplicity and scalability of the described method further suggest their potential for high energy density capacitors.

  16. Ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and cyclic stability of fluorine and nitrogen co-doped carbon microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junshuang; Lian, Jie; Hou, Li; Zhang, Junchuan; Gou, Huiyang; Xia, Meirong; Zhao, Yufeng; Strobel, Timothy A.; Tao, Lu; Gao, Faming

    2015-09-01

    Highly porous nanostructures with large surface areas are typically employed for electrical double-layer capacitors to improve gravimetric energy storage capacity; however, high surface area carbon-based electrodes result in poor volumetric capacitance because of the low packing density of porous materials. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of 521 F cm-3 in aqueous electrolytes for non-porous carbon microsphere electrodes co-doped with fluorine and nitrogen synthesized by low-temperature solvothermal route, rivaling expensive RuO2 or MnO2 pseudo-capacitors. The new electrodes also exhibit excellent cyclic stability without capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles in both acidic and basic electrolytes at a high charge current of 5 A g-1. This work provides a new approach for designing high-performance electrodes with exceptional volumetric capacitance with high mass loadings and charge rates for long-lived electrochemical energy storage systems.

  17. Thermal condensate structure and cosmological energy density of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of thermal vacuum condensate for scalar and fermion fields. We analyze the thermal states at the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and we show that the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor density of photon fields reproduces the energy density and pressure of the CMB. We perform the computations in the formal framework of the thermo field dynamics. We also consider the case of neutrinos and thermal states at the temperature of the neutrino cosmic background. Consistency with the estimated lower bound of the sum of the active neutrino masses is verified. In the boson sector, non trivial contribution to the energy of the universe is given by particles of masses of the order of $10^{-4}eV$ compatible with the ones of the axion-like particles. The fractal self-similar structure of the thermal radiation is also discussed and related to the coherent structure of the thermal vacuum.

  18. Electromagnetic potentials basis for energy density and power flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, H. E.

    2016-09-01

    In rounding out the education of students in advanced courses in applied electromagnetics it is incumbent on us as mentors to raise issues that encourage appreciation of certain subtle aspects that are often overlooked during first exposure to the field. One of these has to do with the interplay between fields and potentials, with the latter often seen as just a convenient mathematical artifice useful in solving Maxwell’s equations. Nonetheless, to those practiced in application it is well understood that various alternatives in the use of fields and potentials are available within electromagnetic (EM) theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress-energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an energy density/power flux option based on the EM potentials alone.

  19. Thermal Condensate Structure and Cosmological Energy Density of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Capolupo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study thermal vacuum condensate for scalar and fermion fields. We analyze the thermal states at the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB and we show that the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor density of photon fields reproduces the energy density and pressure of the CMB. We perform the computations in the formal framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics. We also consider the case of neutrinos and thermal states at the temperature of the neutrino cosmic background. Consistency with the estimated lower bound of the sum of the active neutrino masses is verified. In the boson sector, nontrivial contribution to the energy of the universe is given by particles of masses of the order of 10−4 eV compatible with the ones of the axion-like particles. The fractal self-similar structure of the thermal radiation is also discussed and related to the coherent structure of the thermal vacuum.

  20. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Nuclear isomers as ultra-high-energy-density materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, C. H.; Weiss, M. S.; Anderson, J. D.

    1992-09-01

    A major energy advance could result if the enormous potential of nuclear energy storage could be tapped without the penalty of radioactive by-products. Recent research has uncovered a new method for nuclear energy storage with high energy density and no residual radioactivity. Nuclear isomers are metastable states of atomic nuclei which release their energy in a prompt burst of electromagnetic radiation; in many cases the product remaining after decay of isomer is stable and no activity is produced by the electromagnetic decay. Two kinds of nuclear isomers are known: spin isomers and shape isomers. The former lacks a release mechanism. Theory has predicted the existence of shape isomers in the mass range around mercury and gold where decay by fission is prohibited. Experiments on the existence of fissionless shape isomers have resulted in evidence for 27 different shape isomers in isotopes of mercury, lead, and thallium. Three potential candidates for release mechanisms have been identified to date: neutron catalysis (Hf- 178), laser-electron-nuclear coupling (Th-229), and Stark-shift-induced mixing (speculative). Ways of producing nonfissioning shape isomers are discussed.

  2. Hydrodynamic Instabilities in High-Energy-Density Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyuk, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Our understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities, such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities, in high-energy-density (HED) settings over past two decades has progressed enormously. The range of conditions where hydrodynamic instabilities are experimentally observed now includes direct and indirect drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) where surprises continue to emerge, linear and nonlinear regimes, classical interfaces vs. stabilized ablation fronts, tenuous ideal plasmas vs. high density Fermi degenerate plasmas, bulk fluid interpenetration vs. mixing down to the atomic level, in the presence of magnetic fields and/or intense radiation, and in solid state plastic flow at high pressures and strain rates. Regimes in ICF can involve extreme conditions of matter with temperatures up to kilovolts, densities of a thousand times solid densities, and time scales of nanoseconds. On the other hand, scaled conditions can be generated that map to exploding stars (supernovae) with length and time scales of millions of kilometers and hours to days or even years of instability evolution, planetary formation dynamics involving solid-state plastic flow which severely modifies the RT growth and continues to challenge reliable theoretical descriptions. This review will look broadly at progress in probing and understanding hydrodynamic instabilities in these very diverse HED settings, and then will examine a few cases in more depth to illustrate the detailed science involved. Experimental results on large-scale HED facilities such as the Omega, Nike, Gekko, and Shenguang lasers will be reviewed and the latest developments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Z machine will be covered. Finally, current overarching questions and challenges will be summarized to motivate research directions for future. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  4. Importance of the Kinetic Energy Density for Band Gap Calculations in Solids with Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fabien; Blaha, Peter

    2017-05-04

    Recently, exchange-correlation potentials in density functional theory were developed with the goal of providing improved band gaps in solids. Among them, the semilocal potentials are particularly interesting for large systems since they lead to calculations that are much faster than with hybrid functionals or methods like GW. We present an exhaustive comparison of semilocal exchange-correlation potentials for band gap calculations on a large test set of solids, and particular attention is paid to the potential HLE16 proposed by Verma and Truhlar. It is shown that the most accurate potential is the modified Becke-Johnson potential, which, most noticeably, is much more accurate than all other semilocal potentials for strongly correlated systems. This can be attributed to its additional dependence on the kinetic energy density. It is also shown that the modified Becke-Johnson potential is at least as accurate as the hybrid functionals and more reliable for solids with large band gaps.

  5. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  6. Nuclear clustering in the energy density functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebran, J.-P., E-mail: jean-paul.ebran@cea.fr [CEA,DAM,DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Khan, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud CEA, IN2P3 CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-10-15

    Nuclear Energy Density Functionals (EDFs) are a microscopic tool of choice extensively used over the whole chart to successfully describe the properties of atomic nuclei ensuing from their quantum liquid nature. In the last decade, they also have proved their ability to deal with the cluster phenomenon, shedding a new light on its fundamental understanding by treating on an equal footing both quantum liquid and cluster aspects of nuclei. Such a unified microscopic description based on nucleonic degrees of freedom enables to tackle the question pertaining to the origin of the cluster phenomenon and emphasizes intrinsic mechanisms leading to the emergence of clusters in nuclei.

  7. Finiteness of the vacuum energy density in quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Edward B.

    1983-03-01

    Recent interest in the finiteness problem of the vacuum energy density (VED) in finite QED has motivated us to reexamine this problem in the light of an analysis we have carried out earlier. By a loopwise summation procedure, supplemented by a renormalization-group analysis, we study the finiteness of the VED with α, the renormalized fine-structure constant, fixed in the process as the (infinite order) zero of the eigenvalue condition F[1](x)|x=α=0∞, and with the electron mass totally dynamical of origin. We propose a possible finite solution for the VED in QED which may require only one additional eigenvalue condition for α.

  8. Ultra High Energy Density Cathodes with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    34Enhanced Capacity and Rate Capability of Carbon Nanotube Based Anodes with Titanium Contacts for Lithium Ion Batteries," ACS Nano, vol. 4, pp. 6121- 6131...2010/10/26 2010. [2] S. L. Chou, et al., "Silicon/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Paper as a Flexible Anode Material for Lithium Ion...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2013-0170 TR-2013-0170 ULTRA HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CATHODES WITH CARBON NANOTUBES Brian J. Landi, et al. Rochester

  9. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madappa Prakash

    2015-05-01

    Neutron stars have long been regarded as extraterrestrial laboratories from which we can learn about extreme energy density matter at low temperatures. In this article, some of the recent advances made in astrophysical observations and related theory are highlighted. Although the focus is on the much needed information on masses and radii of several individual neutron stars, the need for additional knowledge about the many facets of neutron stars is stressed. The extent to which quark matter can be present in neutron stars is summarized with emphasis on the requirement of non-perturbative treatments. Some longstanding and new questions, answers to which will advance our current status of knowledge, are posed.

  10. Energy Continuity in Degenerate Density Functional Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palenik, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can produce open-shell degeneracy in density functional theory. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory by requiring that a differentiable map connects the initial and perturbed states. The degenerate state connects to a single perturbed state which extremizes, but does not necessarily minimize or maximize, the energy with respect to occupation numbers. Using a system of three electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential, we relate the counterintuitive sign of first-order occupation numbers to eigenvalues of the electron-electron interaction Hessian.

  11. Descriptions of carbon isotopes within the energy density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Atef [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt); Cheong, Lee Yen; Yahya, Noorhana [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Tammam, M. [Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, 71524 Assiut (Egypt)

    2014-10-24

    Within the energy density functional (EDF) theory, the structure properties of Carbon isotopes are systematically studied. The shell model calculations are done for both even-A and odd-A nuclei, to study the structure of rich-neutron Carbon isotopes. The EDF theory indicates the single-neutron halo structures in {sup 15}C, {sup 17}C and {sup 19}C, and the two-neutron halo structures in {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C nuclei. It is also found that close to the neutron drip-line, there exist amazing increase in the neutron radii and decrease on the binding energies BE, which are tightly related with the blocking effect and correspondingly the blocking effect plays a significant role in the shell model configurations.

  12. Dipole polarizability of 120Sn and nuclear energy density functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, T; Reinhard, P -G; Tamii, A; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Adachi, T; Aoi, N; Bertulani, C A; Fujita, H; Fujita, Y; Ganioǧlu, E; Hatanaka, K; Iwamoto, C; Kawabata, T; Khai, N T; Krugmann, A; Martin, D; Matsubara, H; Miki, K; Neveling, R; Okamura, H; Ong, H J; Poltoratska, I; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Sakaguchi, H; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Simonis, J; Smit, F D; Süsoy, G; Thies, J H; Suzuki, T; Yosoi, M; Zenihiro, J

    2015-01-01

    The electric dipole strength distribution in 120Sn between 5 and 22 MeV has been determined at RCNP Osaka from a polarization transfer analysis of proton inelastic scattering at E_0 = 295 MeV and forward angles including 0{\\deg}. Combined with photoabsorption data an electric dipole polarizability alpha_D(120Sn) = 8.93(36) fm^3 is extracted. The correlation of this value with alpha_D for 208Pb serves as a test of energy density functionals (EDFs). The majority of models based on Skyrme interactions can describe the data while relativistic approaches fail. The accuracy of the experimental results provides important constraints on the static isovector properties of EDFs used to predict symmetry energy parameters and the neutron skin thickness of nuclei.

  13. Energy savings and higher volumetric loading rate achieved in the conventional anoxic-oxic process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyu; Liu, Fengyuan; Zheng, Shaokui

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study to achieve a short HRT (∼2h for the A/O reactor), high MLSS (∼10gL(-1)), and high volumetric loading (∼3.7kg CODm(-3)d(-1) and ∼0.6kg NH4-Nm(-3)d(-1)) in the A/O process for sewage treatment by enhancing biomass retention in the secondary clarifier (∼4h settling time), which we refer to as the high-performance A/O process (HP-A/O) in this paper. Over 258days of continuous operation, with a decrease in HRT from 12 to 2h, remarkable COD (95±3%), NH4(+)-N (98±2%), TN (79±5%), and TP (74±10%) removals were stably achieved, while the air requirement significantly decreased by 22%. The HP-A/O process offers advantages over the conventional A/O process (6-8h for A/O reactor, 3-5gL(-1)MLSS, and ∼1.0kg CODm(-3)d(-1)) for sewage treatment in terms of its lower energy consumption, smaller footprint and reactor requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple local correlation energy functional for spherically confined atoms from ab initio correlation energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2017-09-03

    We propose a simple method of calculating the electron correlation energy density e_c(r) and the correlation potential V_c(r) from second-order Møller-Plesset amplitudes and its generalization for the case of a Configuration Interaction wavefunction, based on Nesbet's theorem. The correlation energy density obtained by this method for free and spherically confined Be and He atoms was employed to fit a local analytical density functional based on Wigner's functional. The functional is capable to reproduce a strong increase of the correlation energy with decreasing the confined radius for the Be atom. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: application to electronic energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C; Markland, Thomas E; Reichman, David R

    2012-02-28

    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  16. Ultralow energy ion beam surface modification of low density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Martyn J; Bradley, James W; van den Berg, Jaap A; Armour, David G; Stevens, Gary C

    2005-12-01

    Ultralow energy Ar+ and O+ ion beam irradiation of low density polyethylene has been carried out under controlled dose and monoenergetic conditions. XPS of Ar+-treated surfaces exposed to ambient atmosphere show that the bombardment of 50 eV Ar+ ions at a total dose of 10(16) cm(-2) gives rise to very reactive surfaces with oxygen incorporation at about 50% of the species present in the upper surface layer. Using pure O+ beam irradiation, comparatively low O incorporation is achieved without exposure to atmosphere (approximately 13% O in the upper surface). However, if the surface is activated by Ar+ pretreatment, then large oxygen contents can be achieved under subsequent O+ irradiation (up to 48% O). The results show that for very low energy (20 eV) oxygen ions there is a dose threshold of about 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) before surface oxygen incorporation is observed. It appears that, for both Ar+ and O+ ions in this regime, the degree of surface modification is only very weakly dependent on the ion energy. The results suggest that in the nonequilibrium plasma treatment of polymers, where the ion flux is typically 10(18) m(-2) s(-1), low energy ions (<50 eV) may be responsible for surface chemical modification.

  17. 3D strain engineered self-rolled thin-film architecture for high-energy density lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbey, Griffin; Gong, Chen; Yu, Cynthia; Blythe, Clayton; Leite, Marina

    Recently, multiple 3D geometries have been implemented into energy storage devices (e . g . nanowire anodes and arrays of interdigitated rods) in order to better accommodate the large volume expansion experienced by the anode during lithiation and to increase the structure energy density. However, most approached structures are difficult to scale up. Here we show how self-rolled thin-films can maintain a high energy density and can potentially accommodate the volume expansion suffered by the anode. The self-rolled tubes are fabricated by physical deposition of the active layers, creating a stress gradient between thin-film stack due to differences in coefficient of thermal expansion. Upon a sacrificial layer removal, the thin-film rolls to relieve this built-in stress. We predict the final dimension of self-rolled battery tubes using known elastic properties of materials commonly used as the active layers of the device. We will discuss an appropriate figure-of-merit that defines how the winding process can ultimately affect the volumetric capacity of 3D self-rolled batteries.

  18. Vacuum energy density and pressure of a massive scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Fernando Daniel; Fulling, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    With a view toward application of the Pauli-Villars regularization method to the Casimir energy of boundaries, we calculate the expectation values of the components of the stress tensor of a confined massive field in 1+1 space-time dimensions. Previous papers by Hays and Fulling are bridged and generalized. The Green function for the time-independent Schrödinger equation is constructed from the Green function for the whole line by the method of images; equivalently, the one-dimensional system is solved exactly in terms of closed classical paths and periodic orbits. Terms in the energy density and in the eigenvalue density attributable to the two boundaries individually and those attributable to the confinement of the field to a finite interval are distinguished so that their physical origins are clear. Then the pressure is found similarly from the cylinder kernel, the Green function associated most directly with an exponential frequency cutoff of the Fourier mode expansion. Finally, we discuss how the theory could be rendered finite by the Pauli-Villars method.

  19. Vacuum energy density and pressure of a massive scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Mera, Fernando Daniel

    2014-01-01

    With a view toward application of the Pauli-Villars regularization method to the Casimir energy of boundaries, we calculate the expectation values of the components of the stress tensor of a confined massive field in 1+1 space-time dimensions. Previous papers by Hays and Fulling are bridged and generalized. The Green function for the time-independent Schrodinger equation is constructed from the Green function for the whole line by the method of images; equivalently, the one-dimensional system is solved exactly in terms of closed classical paths and periodic orbits. Terms in the energy density and in the eigenvalue density attributable to the two boundaries individually and those attributable to the confinement of the field to a finite interval are distinguished so that their physical origins are clear. Then the pressure is found similarly from the cylinder kernel, the Green function associated most directly with an exponential frequency cutoff of the Fourier mode expansion. Finally, we discuss how the theory ...

  20. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2011-06-05

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  1. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  2. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  3. Quantum Inequality for Negative Energy Density States of Massive Dirac Field in Four-Dimensional Spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒维星; 吴普训; 余洪伟

    2003-01-01

    Negative energy density and the quantum inequality are examined for the Dirac field. A proof is given of the quantum inequality for negative energy densities in the massive Dirac field produced by the superposition of two single particle electron states.

  4. 5th International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrala, G.A

    2005-01-01

    During the past several years, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Research is underway in many areas, such as compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiation flow, radiative shocks and jets, complex opacities, equations o fstat, and relativistic plasmas. Beyond this current research and the papers it is producing, plans are being made for the application, to astrophysics-relevant research, of the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the 600 kj Ligne d'Intergration Laser (LIL) and the 2 MJ Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux, France; petawatt-range lasers now under construction around the world; and current and future Z pinches. The goal of this conference and these proceedings is to continue focusing and attention on this emerging research area. The conference brought together different scientists interested in this emerging new fi...

  5. BUILDING A UNIVERSAL NUCLEAR ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL (UNEDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    2012-07-01

    The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold: First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties. Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data. Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

  6. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars have long been regarded as extra-terrestrial laboratories from which we can learn about extreme energy density matter at low temperatures. In this article, I highlight some of the recent advances made in astrophysical observations and related theory. Although the focus is on the much needed information on masses and radii of several individual neutron stars, the need for additional knowledge about the many facets of neutron stars is stressed. The extent to which quark matter can be present in neutron stars is summarized with emphasis on the requirement of non-perturbative treatments. Some longstanding and new questions, answers to which will advance our current status of knowledge, are posed.

  7. Aromatic Polyurea Possessing High Electrical Energy Density and Low Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a dielectric polymer, poly (ether methyl ether urea) (PEMEU), which possesses a dielectric constant of 4 and is thermally stable up to 150°C. The experimental results show that the ether units are effective in softening the rigid polymer and making it thermally processable, while the high dipole moment of urea units and glass structure of the polymer leads to a low dielectric loss and low conduction loss. As a result, PEMEU high quality thin films can be fabricated which exhibit exceptionally high breakdown field of >1.5 GV/m, and a low conduction loss at fields up to the breakdown. Consequently, the PEMEU films exhibit a high charge-discharge efficiency of 90% and a high discharged energy density of 36 J/cm3.

  8. High Energy Density Physics:. the Laser Field of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-03-01

    Ever since its invention, the laser has become an increasingly important tool for physics research. Indeed, the laser has made it possible to not only study many extant physical phenomena, but also to actually produce matter in conditions that don't exist in nature, or more precisely, don't exist on the earth. In this lecture, I discuss how the development of lasers that produce ultra-short (˜fsec) and ultra-intense (≥1020 W/cm2) laser pulses actually produce plasmas that are at a density and temperature that exist only in stars. In doing so I discuss some of the basics of these extreme pulses interacting with electrons, yielding surprisingly intriguing physical phenomena. Finally, I argue that this field is an essential element in any comprehensive physical research endeavor, explicitly citing its fundamental relationship with the development of clean, unlimited fusion energy power.

  9. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  10. The negative energy density for a three-single-electron state in the Dirac field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Wei-Xing; Yu Hong-Wei; Wu Pu-Xun

    2004-01-01

    We examine the energy density produced by a state vector which is the superposition of three single electron states in the Dirac field in the four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. We derive the conditions on which the energy density can be negative. We then show that the energy density satisfies two quantum inequalities in the ultrarelativistic limit.

  11. Densely-packed graphene/conducting polymer nanoparticle papers for high-volumetric-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-08-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) are one of the most ideal candidates for high-performance flexible power sources. The achievement of high volumetric energy density is highly desired for practical application of this type of ASSSCs. Here, we present a facile method to boost volumetric performances of graphene-based flexible ASSSCs through incorporation of ultrafine polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) nanoparticles in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) papers. A compact structure is obtained via intimate contact and π-π interaction between PANI-PSS nanoparticles and rGO sheets. The hybrid paper electrode with the film thickness of 13.5 μm, shows an extremely high volumetric specific capacitance of 272 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a three-electrode cell). The assembled ASSSCs show a large volumetric specific capacitance of 217 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a two-electrode cell), high volumetric energy and power density, excellent capacitance stability, small leakage current as well as low self-discharge characteristics, revealing the usefulness of this robust hybrid paper for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  12. Curvature and Frontier Orbital Energies in Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tamar; Autschbach, Jochen; Govind, Niranjan; Kronik, Leeor; Baer, Roi

    2012-12-20

    Perdew et al. discovered two different properties of exact Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT): (i) The exact total energy versus particle number is a series of linear segments between integer electron points. (ii) Across an integer number of electrons, the exchange-correlation potential "jumps" by a constant, known as the derivative discontinuity (DD). Here we show analytically that in both the original and the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of DFT the two properties are two sides of the same coin. The absence of a DD dictates deviation from piecewise linearity, but the latter, appearing as curvature, can be used to correct for the former, thereby restoring the physical meaning of orbital energies. A simple correction scheme for any semilocal and hybrid functional, even Hartree-Fock theory, is shown to be effective on a set of small molecules, suggesting a practical correction for the infamous DFT gap problem. We show that optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functionals can inherently minimize both DD and curvature, thus requiring no correction, and that this can be used as a sound theoretical basis for novel tuning strategies.

  13. What is the benefit of high energy photons within the frame of a pelvic volumetric modulated arc therapy?; Quel est l'interet des hautes energies de photons dans le cadre d'une arctherapie volumique modulee pelvienne?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenoglietto, P.; Ailleres, N.; Simeon, S.; Santoro, L.; Idri, K.; Moscardo, C.L.; Azria, D.; Dubois, J. [CRLC Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-10-15

    As intensity-modulated volumetric arc therapy has known important development, a question still remains: is it still necessary to use machines producing very-high-energy photons to deliver the dose? Ten patients had been treated with a 18 MV photon beam and a new treatment plan has been designed using a 6 MV beam, based on the results obtained with the 18 MV beam. The only modification concerned the decrease of the dose rate. Treatments have been planned using the simulated integrated boost in the Eclipse software. The prostatic treatments appeared to be equivalent with the 18 MV and 6 MV beams, with no dosimetric impact of the dose rate decrease. Short communication

  14. Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Supercapacitors with High Gravimetric and Volumetric Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Xu, Yunling; Shen, Laifa; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2015-10-14

    Graphene is considered a promising electrochemical capacitors electrode material due to its high surface area and high electrical conductivity. However, restacking interactions between graphene nanosheets significantly decrease the ion-accessible surface area and impede electronic and ionic transfer. This would, in turn, severely hinder the realization of high energy density. Herein, we report a strategy for preparation of few-layer graphene material with abundant crumples and high-level nitrogen doping. The two-dimensional graphene nanosheets (CNG) feature high ion-available surface area, excellent electronic and ion transfer properties, and high packing density, permitting the CNG electrode to exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. In ionic liquid electrolyte, the CNG electrode exhibits gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 128 F g(-1) and 98 F cm(-3), respectively, achieving gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 56 Wh kg(-1) and 43 Wh L(-1). The preparation strategy described here provides a new approach for developing a graphene-based supercapacitor with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities.

  15. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical

  16. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical vari

  17. Energy flow, energy density of Timoshenko beam and wave mode incoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Rao, Zhushi; Ta, Na

    2015-10-01

    Time-averaged energy flow and energy density are of significance in vibration analysis. The wave decomposition method is more fruitful and global in physical sense than the state variables depicted point by point. By wave approach, the Timoshenko beam vibration field is decomposed into two distinct modes: travelling and evanescent waves. Consequently, the power and energy functions defined on these waves' amplitude and phase need to be established. However, such formulas on Timoshenko beam are hardly found in literatures. Furthermore, the incoherence between these two modes is of theoretical and practical significance. This characteristic guarantees that the resultant power or energy of a superposed wave field is equal to the sum of the power or energy that each wave mode would generate individually. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beam, such incoherence in the Timoshenko beam case has not been theoretically proved so far. Initially, the power and energy formulas based on wave approach and the corresponding incoherence proof are achieved by present work, both in theoretical and numerical ways. Fortunately, the theoretical and numerical results show that the travelling and evanescent wave modes are incoherent with each other both on power and energy functions. Notably, the energy function is unconventional and self-defined in order to obtain the incoherence. Some remarkable power transmission characteristics of the evanescent wave are also illustrated meanwhile.

  18. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design,

  19. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-06-07

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-{micro}s risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001.

  20. A generalized model for estimating the energy density of invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Csargo, Isak J.; Von Eschen, Aaron; Thul, Megan D.; Baker, James M.; Hayer, Cari-Ann; Howell, Jessica; Krause, Jacob; Letvin, Alex; Chipps, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Invertebrate energy density (ED) values are traditionally measured using bomb calorimetry. However, many researchers rely on a few published literature sources to obtain ED values because of time and sampling constraints on measuring ED with bomb calorimetry. Literature values often do not account for spatial or temporal variability associated with invertebrate ED. Thus, these values can be unreliable for use in models and other ecological applications. We evaluated the generality of the relationship between invertebrate ED and proportion of dry-to-wet mass (pDM). We then developed and tested a regression model to predict ED from pDM based on a taxonomically, spatially, and temporally diverse sample of invertebrates representing 28 orders in aquatic (freshwater, estuarine, and marine) and terrestrial (temperate and arid) habitats from 4 continents and 2 oceans. Samples included invertebrates collected in all seasons over the last 19 y. Evaluation of these data revealed a significant relationship between ED and pDM (r2  =  0.96, p calorimetry approaches. This model should prove useful for a wide range of ecological studies because it is unaffected by taxonomic, seasonal, or spatial variability.

  1. Upgrading of biorenewables to high energy density fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Weizhong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dirmyer, Matthew R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Jin K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keith, Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pierpont, Aaron W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silks Ill, L. A. " " Pete [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smythe, Mathan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sutton, Andrew D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trovitch, Ryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasudevan, Kalyan V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waidmann, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ruilian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, R. Thomas [UNIV OF OTTAWWA; Schlaf, Marcel [UNIV OF GUELPH

    2010-12-07

    According to a recent report, lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biological resource on earth, with an annual production of {approx} 200 x 10{sup 9} tons. Conversion of lignocellulosics derived from wood, agricultural wastes, and woody grasses into liquid fuels and value-added chemical feedstocks is an active area of research that has seen an explosion of effort due to the need to replace petroleum based sources. The carbohydrates D-glucose (C{sub 6}), L-arabinose (C{sub 5}), and D-xylose (C{sub 5}) are readily obtained from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose and constitute the most abundant renewable organic carbon source on the planet. Because they are naturally produced on such a large scale, these sugars have the greatest potential to displace petrochemical derived transportation fuel. Recent efforts in our laboratories aimed towards the production of high energy density transportation fuels from carbohydrates have been structured around the parameters of selective carbohydrate carbon chain extension chemistries, low reaction temperatures, and the desired use of water or neat substrate as the solvent. Some of our efforts in this regard will be presented.

  2. Building A Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Furnstahl, Dick [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Horoi, Mihai [Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant, MI (United States); Lusk, Rusty [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nazarewicz, Witek [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ng, Esmond [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, Ian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vary, James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    During the period of Dec. 1 2006 - Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold: first, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties; second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data; third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory. The main physics areas of UNEDF, defined at the beginning of the project, were: ab initio structure; ab initio functionals; DFT applications; DFT extensions; reactions.

  3. Preface to Special Topic: High-Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, Siegfried H.; /SLAC

    2017-04-01

    In the 1990s, when the large inertial confinement fusion facilities in the United States became accessible for discovery-class research, physicists soon realized that the combination of these energetic drivers with precision plasmas diagnostics would allow the unprecedented experimental study of astrophysical problems. These facilities routinely produce states of matter in the high-energy density physics regime, i.e., pressures above a million atmospheres, 1011 J/m3, and employ a suite of temporally and spatially resolving imaging and scattering measurements that were originally developed to understand the behavior of inertial confinement fusion plasmas. These capabilities bring to the field of astrophysics critical experimental tests of simulations in relevant regimes that are far from the conditions that can otherwise be routinely produced on earth.5 These astrophysical motivated studies are now finding their way into the laboratory plasma community. Further, laboratory astrophysics helped to motivate the development of new precision experimental capabilities; the latest being the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray laser at the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument at Stanford that is dedicated to fundamental research.

  4. Improving Robotic Assembly of Planar High Energy Density Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudt, D.; Carlson, L.; Alexander, N.; Boehm, K.

    2016-10-01

    Increased quantities of planar assemblies for high energy density targets are needed with higher shot rates being implemented at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility and the Matter in Extreme Conditions station of the Linac Coherent Light Source. To meet this growing demand, robotics are used to reduce assembly time. This project studies how machine vision and force feedback systems can be used to improve the quantity and quality of planar target assemblies. Vision-guided robotics can identify and locate parts, reducing laborious manual loading of parts into precision pallets and associated teaching of locations. On-board automated inspection can measure part pickup offsets to correct part drop-off placement into target assemblies. Force feedback systems can detect pickup locations and apply consistent force to produce more uniform glue bond thickness, thus improving the performance of the targets. System designs and performance evaluations will be presented. Work supported in part by the US DOE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI) and ICF Target Fabrication DE-NA0001808.

  5. Ion energy distributions and densities in the plume of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shotaro; Cravens, Thomas E.; Omidi, Nojan; Perry, Mark E.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2016-10-01

    Enceladus has a dynamic plume that is emitting gas, including water vapor, and dust. The gas is ionized by solar EUV radiation, charge exchange, and electron impact and extends throughout the inner magnetosphere of Saturn. The charge exchange collisions alter the plasma composition. Ice grains (dust) escape from the vicinity of Enceladus and form the E ring, including a portion that is negatively charged by the local plasma. The inner magnetosphere within 10 RS (Saturn radii) contains a complex mixture of plasma, neutral gas, and dust that links back to Enceladus. In this paper we investigate the energy distributions, ion species and densities of water group ions in the plume of Enceladus using test particle and Monte Carlo methods that include collisional processes such as charge exchange and ion-neutral chemical reactions. Ion observations from the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) for E07 are presented for the first time. We use the modeling results to interpret observations made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the INMS. The low energy ions, as observed by CAPS, appear to be affected by a vertical electric field (EZ=-10 μV/m) in the plume. The EZ field may be associated with the charged dust and/or the pressure gradient of plasma. The model results, along with the results of earlier models, show that H3O+ ions created by chemistry are predominant in the plume, which agrees with INMS and CAPS data, but the INMS count rate in the plume for the model is several times greater than the data, which we do not fully understand. This composition and the total ion count found in the plume agree with INMS and CAPS data. On the other hand, the Cassini Langmuir Probe measured a maximum plume ion density more than 30,000 cm-3, which is far larger than the maximum ion density from our model, 900 cm-3. The model results also demonstrate that most of the ions in the plume are from the external magnetospheric flow and are not generated by local

  6. Phantom-less bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual energy computed tomography-based 3-material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Sedlmair, Martin; Krauss, Bernhard; Wichmann, Julian L.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Flohr, Thomas G.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease usually diagnosed at the manifestation of fragility fractures, which severely endanger the health of especially the elderly. To ensure timely therapeutic countermeasures, noninvasive and widely applicable diagnostic methods are required. Currently the primary quantifiable indicator for bone stability, bone mineral density (BMD), is obtained either by DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or qCT (quantitative CT). Both have respective advantages and disadvantages, with DEXA being considered as gold standard. For timely diagnosis of osteoporosis, another CT-based method is presented. A Dual Energy CT reconstruction workflow is being developed to evaluate BMD by evaluating lumbar spine (L1-L4) DE-CT images. The workflow is ROI-based and automated for practical use. A dual energy 3-material decomposition algorithm is used to differentiate bone from soft tissue and fat attenuation. The algorithm uses material attenuation coefficients on different beam energy levels. The bone fraction of the three different tissues is used to calculate the amount of hydroxylapatite in the trabecular bone of the corpus vertebrae inside a predefined ROI. Calibrations have been performed to obtain volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) without having to add a calibration phantom or to use special scan protocols or hardware. Accuracy and precision are dependent on image noise and comparable to qCT images. Clinical indications are in accordance with the DEXA gold standard. The decomposition-based workflow shows bone degradation effects normally not visible on standard CT images which would induce errors in normal qCT results.

  7. Densities and volumetric properties of binary mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with benzaldehyde at T = (298.15 to 313.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Haiyan; Qi Feng [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Road of Lihu, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Wang Haijun [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Road of Lihu, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)], E-mail: wanghj329@hotmail.com

    2009-07-15

    The densities of the binary mixtures formed by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF{sub 4}] with aromatic compound (benzaldehyde) have been determined over the full range of compositions at the temperature range from (298.15 to 313.15) K and at atmospheric pressure using a vibrating-tube densimeter (DMA4500). Excess molar volumes (V{sub m}{sup E}) have been obtained from these experimental results, and been fitted by the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation. In addition, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volumes, and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution have been calculated for each component. Our results show V{sub m}{sup E} decreases slightly when temperature increases in the systems studied. The results have been interpreted in terms of ion-dipole interactions and structural factors of the ionic liquid and these organic molecular liquids.

  8. Strain Energy Density in the Elastodynamics of the Spacetime Continuum and the Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millette P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the strain energy density of the spacetime continuum in the Elasto- dynamics of the Spacetime Continuum by applying continuum m echanical results to strained spacetime. The strain energy density is a scalar. W e find that it is separated into two terms: the first one expresses the dilatation energy density (the “mass” longitu- dinal term while the second one expresses the distortion en ergy density (the “massless” transverse term. The quadratic structure of the energy rel ation of Special Relativity is found to be present in the theory. In addition, we find that the kinetic energy pc is car- ried by the distortion part of the deformation, while the dil atation part carries only the rest-mass energy. The strain energy density of the electrom agnetic energy-momentum stress tensor is calculated. The dilatation energy density (the rest-mass energy density of the photon is found to be 0 as expected. The transverse dis tortion energy density is found to include a longitudinal electromagnetic energy fl ux term, from the Poynting vector, that is massless as it is due to distortion, not dilatation, of the spacetime con- tinuum. However, because this energy flux is along the direct ion of propagation (i.e. longitudinal, it gives rise to the particle aspect of the el ectromagnetic field, the photon.

  9. Proton and neutron density distributions at supranormal density in low- and medium-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. R.; Danielewicz, P.; Iwata, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Background: The distribution of protons and neutrons in the matter created in heavy-ion collisions is one of the main points of interest for the collision physics, especially at supranormal densities. These distributions are the basis for predictions of the density dependence of the symmetry energy and the density range that can be achieved in a given colliding system. We report results of the first systematic simulation of proton and neutron density distributions in central heavy-ion collisions within the beam energy range of Ebeam≤800 MeV /nucl . The symmetric 40Ca+40Ca , 48Ca+48Ca , 100Sn+100Sn , and 120Sn+120Sn and asymmetric 40Ca+48Ca and 100Sn+120Sn systems were chosen for the simulations. Purpose: We simulate development of proton and neutron densities and asymmetries as a function of initial state, beam energy, and system size in the selected collisions in order to guide further experiments pursuing the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Methods: The Boltzmann-Uhlenbeck-Uehling (pBUU) transport model with four empirical models for the density dependence of the symmetry energy was employed. Results of simulations using pure Vlasov dynamics were added for completeness. In addition, the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) model, with the SV-bas Skyrme interaction, was used to model the heavy-ion collisions at Ebeam≤40 MeV /nucl . Maximum proton and neutron densities ρpmax and ρnmax, reached in the course of a collision, were determined from the time evolution of ρp and ρn. Results: The highest total densities predicted at Ebeam=800 MeV /nucl . were of the order of ˜2.5 ρ0 (ρ0=0.16 fm-3 ) for both Sn and Ca systems. They were found to be only weakly dependent on the initial conditions, beam energy, system size, and a model of the symmetry energy. The proton-neutron asymmetry δ =(ρnmax-ρpmax) /(ρnmax+ρpmax) at maximum density does depend, though, on these parameters. The highest value of δ found in all systems and at all investigated beam

  10. Spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlong; Lü, Baida; Zhu, Shifu

    2009-07-06

    The formulas of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence are derived by using Maxwell's equations. Expressions expressed by elements of electric cross spectral density matrixes of the magnetic and the mutual cross spectral density matrix are obtained for the partially coherent electromagnetic beams. Taken the partially coherent Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) electromagnetic beam as a typical example, the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density in atmospheric turbulence are numerically calculated. It is found that the turbulence shows a broadening effect on the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density. Some interesting results are obtained and explained with regard to their physical nature.

  11. Covariant energy density functionals: the assessment of global performance across the nuclear landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasjev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the global performance of the state-of-the-art covariant energy density functionals and related theoretical uncertainties in the description of ground state observables has recently been performed. Based on these results, the correlations between global description of binding energies and nuclear matter properties of covariant energy density functionals have been studied in this contribution.

  12. High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy density, power density and safety requirements specified by NASA for future exploration missions....

  13. Effects of volumetric expansion in molecular crystals: A quantum mechanical investigation on aspirin and paracetamol most stable polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kapil; Flurchick, Kenneth M.; Valenzano, Loredana

    2015-02-01

    This work reports a study performed at hybrid semi-empirical density functional level (B3LYP-D2*) of the physico-chemical properties of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in their most stable crystalline forms. It is shown how effects arising from volumetric expansions influence the properties of the materials. Structural, energetic, and vibrational properties are in good agreement with experimental values reported at temperatures far from 0 K. Results show that the proposed approach is reliable enough to reproduce effects of volumetric expansion on lattice energies and other measurable physico-chemical observables related to inter-molecular forces.

  14. The symmetry energy at subnuclear densities and nuclei in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Oyamatsu, K; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We examine how the properties of inhomogeneous nuclear matter at subnuclear densities depend on the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Using a macroscopic nuclear model we calculate the size and shape of nuclei in neutron star matter at zero temperature in a way dependent on the density dependence of the symmetry energy. We find that for smaller symmetry energy at subnuclear densities, corresponding to larger density symmetry coefficient L, the charge number of nuclei is smaller, and the critical density at which matter with nuclei or bubbles becomes uniform is lower. The decrease in the charge number is associated with the dependence of the surface tension on the nuclear density and the density of a sea of neutrons, while the decrease in the critical density can be generally understood in terms of proton clustering instability in uniform matter.

  15. Design of high energy density thermoelectric energy conversion unit by using FGM compliant pads

    CERN Document Server

    Kambe, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to provide increasingly large amounts of electrical power to space and terrestrial systems with a sufficiently high level of reliability at a reasonable cost, thermoelectric (TE) energy conversion system by using $9 functionally graded material (FGM) compliant pads has been focused. To achieve high thermal energy density in TE power conversion systems, conductively coupling the TE units to the hot and cold heat exchangers is the most effective $9 configuration. This is accomplished by two sets of FGM compliant pads. This design strategy provides (1) a high flux, direct conduction path to heat source and heat sink, (2) the structural flexibility to protect the cell from high $9 stress due to thermal expansion, (3) an extended durability by a simple FGM structure, and (4) manufacturing cost reduction by spark plasma sintering. High thermal energy density of ten times as much as conventional radioisotope $9 thermoelectric generator is expected. Manufacturing of Cu/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//Cu symmetrical FGM co...

  16. Symmetry Energy, Temperature, Density and Isoscaling Parameter as a Function of Excitation energy in A $\\sim$ 100 mass region

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, D V; Souliotis, G A; Keksis, A L; Soisson, S N; Stein, B C; Wuenschel, S

    2006-01-01

    The symmetry energy, temperature, density and isoscaling parameter, in $^{58}$Ni + $^{58}$Ni, $^{58}$Fe + $^{58}$Ni and $^{58}$Fe + $^{58}$Fe reactions at beam energies of 30, 40 and 47 MeV/nucleon, are studied as a function of excitation energy of the multifragmenting source. It is shown that the decrease in the isoscaling parameter is related to the near flattening of the temperature in the caloric curve, and the decrease in the density and the symmetry energy with increasing excitation energy. The decrease in the symmetry energy is mainly a consequence of decreasing density with increasing excitation rather than the increasing temperature. The symmetry energy as a function of density obtained from the correlation is in close agreement with the form, E$_{sym}(\\rho)$ $=$ 31.6 ($\\rho/\\rho_{\\circ})^{0.69}$.

  17. Freezing of low energy excitations in charge density wave glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresinic, D; Zaitsev-Zotov, S V; Baklanov, N I; Biljaković, K

    2008-03-07

    Thermally stimulated discharge current measurements were performed to study slow relaxation processes in two canonical charge density wave systems K(0.3)MoO(3) and o-TaS(3). Two relaxation processes were observed and characterized in each system, corroborating the results of dielectric spectroscopy. Our results are consistent with the scenario of the glass transition on the charge density wave superstructure level. In particular, the results directly prove the previously proposed criterion of charge density wave freezing based on the interplay of charge density wave pinning by impurities and screening by free carriers. In addition, we obtained new information on distribution of relaxation parameters, as well as on nonlinear dielectric response both below and above the threshold field for charge density wave sliding.

  18. Determination of the Density of Energy States in a Quantizing Magnetic Field for Model Kane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gulyamov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For nonparabolic dispersion law determined by the density of the energy states in a quantizing magnetic field, the dependence of the density of energy states on temperature in quantizing magnetic fields is studied with the nonquadratic dispersion law. Experimental results obtained for PbTe were analyzed using the suggested model. The continuous spectrum of the energy density of states at low temperature is transformed into discrete Landau levels.

  19. Statistical properties of kinetic and total energy densities in reverberant spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    . With the advent of a three-dimensional particle velocity transducer, it has become somewhat easier to measure total rather than only potential energy density in a sound field. This paper examines the ensemble statistics of kinetic and total sound energy densities in reverberant enclosures theoretically......Many acoustical measurements, e.g., measurement of sound power and transmission loss, rely on determining the total sound energy in a reverberation room. The total energy is usually approximated by measuring the mean-square pressure (i.e., the potential energy density) at a number of discrete...... positions. The idea of measuring the total energy density instead of the potential energy density on the assumption that the former quantity varies less with position than the latter goes back to the 1930s. However, the phenomenon was not analyzed until the late 1970s and then only for the region of high...

  20. Influence of Density on Compressive Properties and Energy Absorption of Foamed Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Peng; LIU Lin

    2007-01-01

    The foamed aluminum alloys with different densities were fabricated by melt foaming technique. The compressive properties and energy absorption of the foamed aluminum alloy with different densities were analyzed. The results reveal that the compressive stress-strain curves follow the typical behavior of cellular foams with three deformation stages. Under the same strain, the energy absorption capability decreases with the decrease of density. However, with increasing the strain, the energy absorption efficiency of foamed metal increases initially and then decreases. The lower the density, the longer the plateau region, within the range of high strain, the energy absorption efficiency is always high.

  1. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  2. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  3. Self-consistent versus experimental densities in the ion-ion potential derived using the energy density formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirao, A.; Vinas, X. (Dept. de Estructura y Constituyentes de la Materia, Univ. Barcelona (Spain)); Diaz, J. (Dept. de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Burjassot (Spain) IFIC, Burjassot (Spain))

    1992-06-01

    We have used the energy density formalism together with Skyrme forces to build up the real part of the ion-ion potential. We have analysed the elastic scattering data for the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca reaction at several bombarding energies including a phenomenological imaginary part. The results obtained using as input the nuclear density derived from electron scattering are compared with those from theoretical semiclassical calculations of different degree of complexity. Finally, we study the role of some properties of the nuclear interactions on some magnitudes that can be compared with the experimental ones. (orig.).

  4. Change in dietary energy density after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Watson, Kathy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2010-03-01

    Consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's energy density. The study's objective was to assess the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on children's energy density by using a pre- and post-policy evaluation. Analysis of variance/covariance and nonparametric tests compared energy density after the Texas policy change to intakes at baseline. Two years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in Southeast Texas at three public middle schools: baseline (2001-2002) and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded the amount and source of foods consumed. The Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was designed to promote a healthy school environment by restricting portion sizes of high-fat and high-sugar snacks and sweetened beverages, fat content of foods, and serving of high-fat vegetables like french fries. Energy density (kcal/g): energy density-1 was the energy of foods only (no beverages) divided by the gram weight and has been previously associated with obesity and insulin resistance; energy density-2 included all food and beverages to give a complete assessment of all sources of calories. Following implementation of the Texas policy, students' energy density-1 significantly decreased from 2.80+/-1.08 kcal/g to 2.17+/-0.78 kcal/g (P<0.0001). Similarly, energy density-2 significantly decreased from 1.38+/-0.76 kcal/g to 1.29+/-0.53 kcal/g (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy was associated with desirable reductions in energy density, which suggests improved nutrient intake as a result of student school lunch consumption. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying Correlations Between Isovector Observables and the Density Dependence of Nuclear Symmetry Energy away from Saturation Density

    CERN Document Server

    Fattoyev, F J; Li, Bao-An

    2014-01-01

    According to the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, the nuclear symmetry energy $S(\\rho)$ and its slope $L(\\rho)$ at arbitrary densities can be decomposed in terms of the density and momentum dependence of the single-nucleon potentials in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter which are potentially accessible to experiment. We quantify the correlations between several well-known isovector observables and $L(\\rho)$ to locate the density range in which each isovector observable is most sensitive to the density dependence of the $S(\\rho)$. We then study the correlation coefficients between those isovector observables and all the components of the $L(\\rho)$. The neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb is found to be strongly correlated with the $L(\\rho)$ at a subsaturation density of $\\rho = 0.59 \\rho_0$ through the density dependence of the first-order symmetry potential. Neutron star radii are found to be strongly correlated with the $L(\\rho)$ over a wide range of supra-saturation densities mainly through both the density an...

  6. The energy density of a Landau damped plasma wave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, R. W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper some theories about the energy of a Landau damped plasma wave are discussed and new initial conditions are proposed. Analysis of a wave packet, rather than an infinite wave, gives a clear picture of the energy transport from field to particles. Initial conditions are found which excite

  7. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  8. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility

  9. High Energy Density Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride Improved Reverse Voltage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED R-ETC(U) DEC 81 A E ZOLLA N660011-C-0310...HIGH ENERGY DENSITY BATTERY LITHIUM THIONYL CHLORIDE IMPROVED REVERSE VOLTAGE DESIGN Dr. A. E. Zolla Altus Corporation C:1 1610 Crane Court San Jose...reverse aide If necesary and identify by block number) Lithium Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride High Energy Density Battery Voltage Reversal Battery

  10. Experimental energy-density flux characterization of ultrashort laser pulse filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, Daniele; Lotti, Antonio; Matijosius, Aidas; Bragheri, Francesca; Degiorgio, Vittorio; Couairon, Arnaud; Di Trapani, Paolo

    2009-05-11

    Visualization of the energy density flux gives a unique insight into the propagation properties of complex ultrashort pulses. This analysis, formerly relegated to numerical investigations, is here shown to be an invaluable experimental diagnostic tool. By retrieving the spatio-temporal amplitude and phase we experimentally obtain the energy density flux within complex ultrashort pulses generated by filamentation in a nonlinear Kerr medium.

  11. Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption - RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Matthew B. Dickinson; Benjamin C. Bright; Robert L. Kremens; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that fire radiative energy is linearly related to fuel combusted but such a relationship has not been shown at the landscape level of prescribed fires. This paper presents field and remotely sensed measures of pre-fire fuel loads, consumption, fire radiative energy density (FRED) and fire radiative power flux density (FRFD),...

  12. Kaon condensation in neutron stars and high density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, S

    1999-01-01

    We study the influence of a high density behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy on a kaon condensation in neutron stars. We find that the symmetry energy typical for several realistic nuclear potentials, which decreases at high densities, inhibits kaon condensation for weaker kaon-nucleon couplings. There exists a threshold coupling above which the kaon condensate forms at densities exceeding some critical value. This is in contrast to the case of rising symmetry energy, as e.g. for relativistic mean field models, when the kaon condensate can form for any coupling at a sufficiently high density. Properties of the condensate are also different in both cases.

  13. Density Functional Theory Based on the Electron Distribution on the Energy Coordinate

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We introduced a new electron density n({\\epsilon}) by projecting the spatial electron density n(r) onto the energy coordinate {\\epsilon} defined with the external potential \\upsion (r) of interest. Then, a density functional theory (DFT) was formulated, where n({\\epsilon}) serves as a fundamental variable for the electronic energy. It was demonstrated that the Kohn-Sham equation can also be adapted to the DFT that employs the density n({\\epsilon}) as an argument to the exchange energy functional. An important attribute of the energy density is that it involves the spatially non-local population of the spin-adapted density n(r) at the bond dissociation. By taking advantage of this property we developed a prototype of the static correlation functional employing no empirical parameters, which realized a reasonable dissociation curve for H2 molecule.

  14. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-06-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  15. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  16. Energy density of food, gastric emptying, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J N; Cash, R; Newland, P

    1978-10-01

    Certain receptors in the duodenal mucosa respond to the osomotic effects of the digestion products of dietary carbohydrates and proteins with a resultant slowing of gastric emptying. Other receptors respond to the soaps formed during the digestion of fats. The relative effectiveness of these two sets of receptors is such that foods with equal energy produce equal slowing of gastric emptying. Thus the rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum, and hence to the blood, can be regulated without the energy having been directly measured. The results in the literature that we have examined are consistent with this duodenal system playing some part in the regulation of food intake.

  17. Dependence of ion-induced Pd-silicide formation on nuclear energy deposition density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horino, Yuji; Matsunami, Noriaki; Itoh, Noriaki

    1986-05-01

    Pd/sub 2/Si formation at the Pd-Si interface induced by irradiation with ions having a wide range of nuclear energy of deposition density has been investigated. It is found that the thickness of the silicide layer formed by irradiation is proportional to the ion fluence for irradiation with ions having low energy-deposition densities, while it is proportional to the square root of the fluence for irradiation with ions having energy-deposition densities. The results indicate that Pd/sub 2/Si formation is reaction limited when the energy-deposition density at the interface is low and is diffusion limited when it is high. The results are compared with the phenomenological theory developed by Horino et al. and it is shown that such a dependence of the limiting processes on the energy depositon density is induced when the diffusion is thermally activated while the reaction at the interface is radiation-enhanced.

  18. High Power Density, Lightweight Thermoelectric Metamaterials for Energy Harvesting Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to precisely control the flow of thermal, electrical and thermoelectrical energy by advancing the development of a new class of...

  19. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  20. Synthesis of Novel High Energy Density Materials Using Nitrocarbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-21

    synthesis is our finding that the combination of titanium tetrachloride/methylene bromide/zinc smoothly converts the caged diketone to the bismethylene...AD-A248 465 AO PAGE ft 07ŕ Februa re 21 , 992uq" Final~o Repotm 8//9 -12319 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNOING NUMBERS Synthesis of Novel High Energy...theory to predict the structures and energies of potential energetic molecules and to guide the synthesis of the more promising candidate molecules, 2

  1. Density measurement of thin layers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Ramm, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    A method to measure the density of thin layers is presented which utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques within a transmission electron microscope. The method is based on the acquisition of energy filtered images in the low loss region as well as of an element distribution map using core loss edges. After correction of multiple inelastic scattering effects, the intensity of the element distribution map is proportional to density and thickness. The dependence of the intensities of images with low energy loss electrons on the density is different from that. This difference allows the calculation of the relative density pixel by pixel and to determine lateral density gradients or fluctuations in thin films without relying on a constant specimen thickness. The method is demonstrated at thin carbon layers produced with density gradients.

  2. New parameterization of Skyrme's interaction for regularized multi-reference energy density functional calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Washiyama, K; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P -H; Hellemans, V

    2012-01-01

    [Background] Symmetry restoration and configuration mixing in the spirit of the generator coordinate method based on energy density functionals have become widely used techniques in low-energy nuclear structure physics. Recently, it has been pointed out that these techniques are ill-defined for standard Skyrme functionals, and a regularization procedure has been proposed to remove the resulting spuriosities from such calculations. This procedure imposes an integer power of the density for the density dependent terms of the functional. At present, only dated parameterizations of the Skyrme interaction fulfill this condition. [Purpose] To construct a set of parameterizations of the Skyrme energy density functional for multi-reference energy density functional calculations with regularization using the state-of-the-art fitting protocols. [Method] The parameterizations were adjusted to reproduce ground state properties of a selected set of doubly magic nuclei and properties of nuclear matter. Subsequently, these ...

  3. Local kinetic-energy density of the Airy gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Johansson, B.; Kollár, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Airy gas model is used to derive an expression for the local kinetic energy in the linear potential approximation. The expression contains an explicit Laplacian term 2/5((h) over bar(2)/2m)del(mu)(2)(r) that, according to jellium surface calculations, must be a universal feature of any accura...

  4. The Search for New High-Energy-Density Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    a Mn atom with halogen atoms and stability of its half-filled 3d- shell ”, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 234311 (2011) Pathak, B., Samanta, D., Ahuja, R...Society, Cocoa Beach, FL, February 21-25, 2010 US-Egypt Advanced Studies Institute (ASI) on “Nanomaterials and Nanocatalysis for Energy

  5. Formation energies of rutile metal dioxides using density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Hansen, Heine Anton; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We apply standard density functional theory at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) level to study the stability of rutile metal oxides. It is well known that standard GGA exchange and correlation in some cases is not sufficient to address reduction and oxidation reactions. Especially...... and due to a more accurate description of exchange for this particular GGA functional compared to PBE. Furthermore, we would expect the self-interaction problem to be largest for the most localized d orbitals; that means the late 3d metals and since Co, Fe, Ni, and Cu do not form rutile oxides...

  6. A Low Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianfeng; Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-10-05

    Flow battery (FB) is one of the most promising stationary energy storage devices for storing renewable energies. However, commercial progress of the FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. Here we report a neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density. By using highly soluble FeCl2/ZnBr2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh/L can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe3+/Fe2+. The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66% can be obtained at 40 mA/cm2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a porous membrane with low cost was employed to lower the capital cost to less than 50 $/kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB becomes a promising candidate for stationary energy storage applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, partic

  8. On the thermodynamic origin of the initial radiation energy density in warm inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Gim, Yongwan

    2016-01-01

    In warm inflation scenarios, radiation always exists, so that the radiation energy density is also assumed to be finite when inflation starts. To find out the origin of the non-vanishing initial radiation energy density, we revisit thermodynamic analysis for a warm inflation model and then derive an effective Stefan-Boltzmann law which is commensurate with the temperature-dependent effective potential by taking into account the non-vanishing trace of the total energy-momentum tensors. The effective Stefan-Boltzmann law shows that the zero energy density for radiation at the Grand Unification epoch increases until the inflation starts and it becomes eventually finite at the initial stage of warm inflation. By using the above effective Stefan-Boltzmann law, we also study the cosmological scalar perturbation, and obtain the sufficient radiation energy density in order for GUT baryogenesis at the end of inflation.

  9. Volume and surface contributions to the nuclear symmetry energy within the coherent density fluctuation model

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, A N; Sarriguren, P; de Guerra, E Moya

    2016-01-01

    The volume and surface components of the nuclear symmetry energy (NSE) and their ratio are calculated within the coherent density fluctuation model (CDFM). The estimations use the results of the model for the NSE in finite nuclei based on the Brueckner energy-density functional for nuclear matter. In addition, we present results for the NSE and its volume and surface contributions obtained by using the Skyrme energy-density functional. The CDFM weight function is obtained using the proton and neutron densities from the self-consistent HF+BCS method with Skyrme interactions. We present and discuss the values of the volume and surface contributions to the NSE and their ratio obtained for the Ni, Sn, and Pb isotopic chains studying their isotopic sensitivity. The results are compared with estimations of other approaches which have used available experimental data on binding energies, neutron-skin thicknesses, excitation energies to isobaric analog states (IAS) and also with results of other theoretical methods.

  10. Radiant flux density, energy density, and fuel consumption in mixed-oak forest surface fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Kremens; M.B. Dickinson; A.S. Bova

    2012-01-01

    Closing the wildland fire heat budget involves characterising the heat source and energy dissipation across the range of variability in fuels and fire behaviour. Meeting this challenge will lay the foundation for predicting direct ecological effects of fires and fire-atmosphere coupling. In this paper, we focus on the relationships between the fire radiation field, as...

  11. Flow at AGS energies a barometer for high density effects?

    CERN Document Server

    Kahana, D E; Shuryak, E V

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary data on transverse energy `flow' and event asymmetries reported by the E877(814) collaborations are compared to ARC model calculations for Au+Au at full AGS beam energy. ARC triple differential cross-sections for protons and pions are presented. Proton flow is produced in ARC, with the maximum in-plane momentum about 120 MeV/c. For central events the directed momentum for pions is near zero, consistent with experiment. Pion momentum opposite to the nucleons' is evident in a peripheral sample, however, indicating that this pion `anti-flow' involves absorption by `spectator' matter. `Squeeze-out' of protons in central events at mid-rapidity is suggested by the ARC distributions.

  12. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both Penergy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all Pwell as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status.

  13. Statistical properties of kinetic and total energy densities in reverberant spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodríguez

    2010-04-01

    Many acoustical measurements, e.g., measurement of sound power and transmission loss, rely on determining the total sound energy in a reverberation room. The total energy is usually approximated by measuring the mean-square pressure (i.e., the potential energy density) at a number of discrete positions. The idea of measuring the total energy density instead of the potential energy density on the assumption that the former quantity varies less with position than the latter goes back to the 1930s. However, the phenomenon was not analyzed until the late 1970s and then only for the region of high modal overlap, and this analysis has never been published. Moreover, until fairly recently, measurement of the total sound energy density required an elaborate experimental arrangement based on finite-difference approximations using at least four amplitude and phase matched pressure microphones. With the advent of a three-dimensional particle velocity transducer, it has become somewhat easier to measure total rather than only potential energy density in a sound field. This paper examines the ensemble statistics of kinetic and total sound energy densities in reverberant enclosures theoretically, experimentally, and numerically.

  14. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklja, Maija M.; Tsyshevsky, Roman V.; Rashkeev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural point defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  15. Extended MHD Effects in High Energy Density Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The MHD model is the workhorse for computational modeling of HEDP experiments. Plasma models are inheritably limited in scope, but MHD is expected to be a very good model for studying plasmas at the high densities attained in HEDP experiments. There are, however, important ways in which MHD fails to adequately describe the results, most notably due to the omission of the Hall term in the Ohm's law (a form of extended MHD or XMHD). This talk will discuss these failings by directly comparing simulations of MHD and XMHD for particularly relevant cases. The methodology is to simulate HEDP experiments using a Hall-MHD (HMHD) code based on a highly accurate and robust Discontinuous Galerkin method, and by comparison of HMHD to MHD draw conclusions about the impact of the Hall term. We focus on simulating two experimental pulsed power machines under various scenarios. We examine the MagLIF experiment on the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories and liner experiments on the COBRA machine at Cornell. For the MagLIF experiment we find that power flow in the feed leads to low density plasma ablation into the region surrounding the liner. The inflow of this plasma compresses axial magnetic flux onto the liner. In MHD this axial flux tends to resistively decay, whereas in HMHD a force-free current layer sustains the axial flux on the liner leading to a larger ratio of axial to azimuthal flux. During the liner compression the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability leads to helical perturbations due to minimization of field line bending. Simulations of a cylindrical liner using the COBRA machine parameters can under certain conditions exhibit amplification of an axial field due to a force-free low-density current layer separated by some distance from the liner. This results in a configuration in which there is predominately axial field on the liner inside the current layer and azimuthal field outside the layer. We are currently attempting to experimentally verify the simulation

  16. Symmetry energy effects on properties of neutron star crusts around the neutron drip density

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, S S; Zhang, Z W; Shen, H

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of the symmetry energy on the neutron drip density and properties of nuclei in neutron star crusts. The nonuniform matter around the neutron drip point is calculated using the Thomas--Fermi approximation with the relativistic mean-field model. The neutron drip density and the composition of the crust are found to be correlated with the symmetry energy and its slope. We compare the self-consistent Thomas--Fermi approximation with other treatments of surface and Coulomb energies, and find that these finite-size effects play an essential role in determining the equilibrium state at low density.

  17. Rapidity Profile of the Initial Energy Density in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ozonder, Sener

    2013-01-01

    The rapidity dependence of the initial energy density in heavy-ion collisions is calculated from a three-dimensional McLerran-Venugopalan model (3dMVn) introduced by Lam and Mahlon. This model is infrared safe since global color neutrality is enforced. In this non-boost-invariant framework, the nuclei have non-zero thickness in the longitudinal direction. This results in Bjorken-x dependent unintegrated gluon distribution functions which lead to a rapidity-dependent initial energy density after the collision. The initial energy density and its rapidity dependence are important initial conditions for the quark gluon plasma and its hydrodynamic evolution.

  18. Energy Density Bounds in Cubic Quasi-Topological Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    dS, U Camara; Sotkov, G M

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamical and causal consistency of cosmological models of the cubic Quasi-Topological Gravity (QTG) in four dimensions, as well as their phenomenological consequences. Specific restrictions on the maximal values of the matter densities are derived by requiring the apparent horizon's entropy to be a non-negative, non-decreasing function of time. The QTG counterpart of the Einstein-Hilbert (EH) gravity model of linear equation of state is studied in detail. An important feature of this particular QTG cosmological model is the new early-time acceleration period of the evolution of the Universe, together with the standard late-time acceleration present in the original EH model. The QTG correction to the causal diamond's volume is also calculated.

  19. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  20. Role of the density, density effect and mean excitation energy in solid-state detectors for small photon fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Pedro; Benmakhlouf, Hamza

    2017-02-01

    A number of recent publications on small photon beam dosimetry aim at contributing to the understanding of the response of solid-state detectors in small fields. Some of them assign the difference in response to the mass density, or to the electron density, of the sensitive detector material relative to that of water. This work analyses the role of the mass and electron density (ρ,{{n}\\text{e}} ), density effect (δ) and mean excitation energy (I-value) of some detector materials in a 6 MV photon beam of 0.5 cm radius, its rationale being that the response of a detector depends critically on the stopping-power ratio detector-to-water. The influence on the detector response of volume scaling by electron density, and of electron single and multiple scattering, is also investigated. Detector materials are water, diamond and silicon, and additional materials are included for consistency in the analysis. A detailed analysis on the (ρ,I,δ ) dependence of stopping-power ratios shows that the density effect δ depends both on the electron density and on the I-value of the medium, but not on the mass density ρ alone as is usually assumed. This leads to a double dependence of stopping-power ratios on the I-value and questions the adequacy of a ‘density perturbation factor’ or of common interpretations of detector response in terms of ρ alone. Differences in response can be described in terms of the variation of stopping power ratios detector-to-water, mainly due to different I-values and to a lesser extent to different values of electron density. It is found that at low energies the trend of Monte Carlo-calculated electron fluence spectra inside the detector materials depends solely on their I-values. No dependence on mass density or density effect alone is observed at any energy. The trend of restricted-cema ratios to water (as a substitute of absorbed dose ratios) follows that of stopping-power ratios at 1 MeV, the most probable energy of differential

  1. Asymmetry energy of nuclear matter: Temperature and density dependence, and validity of semi-empirical formula

    CERN Document Server

    Bordbar, G H; Taghizade, M

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have done a completely microscopic calculation using a many-body variational method based on the cluster expansion of energy to compute the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter. In our calculations, we have employed the $AV_{18}$ nuclear potential. We have also investigated the temperature and density dependence of asymmetry energy. Our results show that the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter depends on both density and temperature. We have also studied the effects of different terms in the asymmetry energy of nuclear matter. These investigations indicate that at different densities and temperatures, the contribution of parabolic term is very substantial with respect to the other terms. Therefore, we can conclude that the parabolic approximation is a relatively good estimation, and our calculated binding energy of asymmetric nuclear matter is in a relatively good agreement with that of semi-empirical mass formula. However, for the accurate calculations, it is better to consider the effects of o...

  2. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions.

  3. Association between Dietary Energy Density and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie D; Wertheim, Betsy C; Neuhouser, Marian L; Tinker, Lesley F; Howard, Barbara V; Johnson, Karen; Liu, Simin; Phillips, Lawrence S; Qi, Lihong; Sarto, Gloria; Turner, Tami; Waring, Molly E; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy density, or energy available in relation to gram intake, can inform disease risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between baseline dietary energy density and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. Dietary energy density, weight status, and type 2 diabetes incidence were prospectively characterized in a large cohort of postmenopausal women participating in one or more clinical trials or an observational study. The study involved 161,808 postmenopausal women recruited to the Women's Health Initiative observational study or clinical trials at 40 centers across the United States between 1993 and 1998. The primary outcome was incident type 2 diabetes. The association between dietary energy density quintiles and incident diabetes was tested using Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 143,204 participants without self-reported diabetes at enrollment completed baseline dietary assessment and were followed for 12.7±4.6 years. Risk of diabetes developing was 24% greater for women in the highest dietary energy density quintile compared with the lowest after adjusting for confounders (95% CI 1.17 to 1.32). Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumference mediated the relationship between dietary energy density and diabetes. In waist circumference-stratified analysis, women in dietary energy density quintiles 2 to 5 with waist circumferences >88 cm were at 9% to 12% greater risk of diabetes developing compared with women with waist circumference ≤88 cm. In this prospective study, a higher baseline dietary energy density was associated with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women, both overall, and in women with elevated waist circumference. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Density functional calculations for a high energy density compound of formula C6H 6-n (NO 2) n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Lu-Lin; Li, Bu-Tong; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2012-08-01

    A series of polynitroprismanes, C(6)H(6-n )(NO(2))(n) (n = 1-6) intended for use as high energy density compounds (HEDCs) were designed computationally. Their electronic structures, heats of formation, interactions between nitro groups, specific enthalpies of combustion, bond dissociation energies, and explosive performances (detonation velocities and detonation pressures) were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with the 6-311 G** basis set. The results showed that all of the polynitroprismanes had high positive heats of formation that increased with the number of substitutions for the prismane derivatives, while the specific enthalpy of combustion decreased as the number of nitro groups increased. In addition, the range of enthalpy of combustion reducing is getting smaller. Interactions between ortho (vicinal) groups deviate from the group additivity rule and decrease as the number of nitro groups increases. In terms of thermodynamic stability, all of the polynitroprismanes had higher bond dissociation energies (BDEs) than RDX and HMX. Detonation velocities and detonation pressures were estimated using modified Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the heat of detonation (Q) and the theoretical density of the molecule (ρ). It was found that ρ, D, and P are strongly linearly related to the number of nitro groups. Taking both their energetic properties and thermal stabilities into account, pentanitroprismane and hexanitroprismane are potential candidate HEDCs.

  5. Reverse energy partitioning—An efficient algorithm for computing the density of states, partition functions, and free energy of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hainam; Wheatley, Richard J.

    2016-08-01

    A robust and model free Monte Carlo simulation method is proposed to address the challenge in computing the classical density of states and partition function of solids. Starting from the minimum configurational energy, the algorithm partitions the entire energy range in the increasing energy direction ("upward") into subdivisions whose integrated density of states is known. When combined with the density of states computed from the "downward" energy partitioning approach [H. Do, J. D. Hirst, and R. J. Wheatley, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 174105 (2011)], the equilibrium thermodynamic properties can be evaluated at any temperature and in any phase. The method is illustrated in the context of the Lennard-Jones system and can readily be extended to other molecular systems and clusters for which the structures are known.

  6. From dilute matter to the equilibrium point in the energy--density--functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, C J; Lacroix, D

    2016-01-01

    Due to the large value of the scattering length in nuclear systems, standard density--functional theories based on effective interactions usually fail to reproduce the nuclear Fermi liquid behavior both at very low densities and close to equilibrium. Guided on one side by the success of the Skyrme density functional and, on the other side, by resummation techniques used in Effective Field Theories for systems with large scattering lengths, a new energy--density functional is proposed. This functional, adjusted on microscopic calculations, reproduces the nuclear equations of state of neutron and symmetric matter at various densities. Furthermore, it provides reasonable saturation properties as well as an appropriate density dependence for the symmetry energy.

  7. Constrained Parmeterization of Reduced Density Approximation of Kinetic Energy Functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debajit; Trickey, Samuel; Karasiev, Valentin

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of forces in ab initio MD is greatly accelerated by orbital-free DFT, especially at finite temperature. The recent achievement of a fully non-empirical constraint-based generalized gradient (GGA) functional for the Kohn-Sham KE Ts [ n ] brings to light the inherent limitations of GGAs. This motivates inclusion of higher-order derivatives in the form of reduced derivative approximation (RDA) functionals. That, in turn, requires new functional forms and design criteria. RDA functionals are constrained further to produce a positive-definite, non-singular Pauli potential. We focus on designing a non-empirical constraint-based meta-GGA functional with certain combinations of higher-order derivatives which avoid nuclear-site singularities to a specified order of gradient expansion. Here we report progress on this agenda. Work supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, grant DE-SC0002139.

  8. Spectroscopic properties of nuclear skyrme energy density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpanov, D; Dobaczewski, J; Toivanen, J; Carlsson, B G

    2014-12-19

    We address the question of how to improve the agreement between theoretical nuclear single-particle energies (SPEs) and observations. Empirically, in doubly magic nuclei, the SPEs can be deduced from spectroscopic properties of odd nuclei that have one more or one less neutron or proton. Theoretically, bare SPEs, before being confronted with observations, must be corrected for the effects of the particle vibration coupling (PVC). In the present work, we determine the PVC corrections in a fully self-consistent way. Then, we adjust the SPEs, with PVC corrections included, to empirical data. In this way, the agreement with observations, on average, improves; nevertheless, large discrepancies still remain. We conclude that the main source of disagreement is still in the underlying mean fields, and not in including or neglecting the PVC corrections.

  9. Charged Particle Transport in High-Energy-Density Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Liam; Murillo, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Transport coefficients for dense plasmas have been numerically computed using an effective Boltzmann approach. We have developed a simplified effective potential approach that yields accurate fits for all of the relevant cross sections and collision integrals. Our results have been validated with molecular dynamics simulations for self-diffusion, interdiffusion, viscosity, thermal conductivity and stopping power. Molecular dynamics has also been used to examine the underlying assumptions of the Boltzmann approach through a categorization of behaviors of the velocity autocorrelation function in the Yukawa phase diagram. Using a velocity-dependent screening model, we examine the role of dynamical screening in transport as well. Implications of these results for Coulomb logarithm approaches are discussed. This work is performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Density manifolds, geometric measures and high-energy physics in transfinite dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nada, S.I. [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)], E-mail: snada@qu.edu.qa

    2009-11-15

    We discuss certain manifolds with density. Furthermore, we outline natural connections leading to E-infinity theory and high-energy physics from a geometric measure and transfinite dimensional theoretical viewpoints.

  11. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  12. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  13. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  14. Advanced Cathode Material For High Energy Density Lithium-Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cathode materials having high red-ox potential and high specific capacity offer great promise to the development of high energy density lithium-based...

  15. High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEI Corporation proposes to develop a mixed metal oxide nanocomposite cathode that is designed for delivering high energy density with good rate performance at low...

  16. Quantification of breast density with dual energy mammography: An experimental feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Breast density, the percentage of glandular breast tissue, has been shown to be a strong indicator of breast cancer risk. A quantitative method to measure breast density with dual energy mammography was investigated using physical phantoms. Methods: The dual energy mammography system used a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a 50 {mu}m rhodium beam filter for low energy images and a 300 {mu}m copper beam filter for high energy images. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Four different phantom studies were used to evaluate the technique. The first study consisted of phantoms with thicknesses of 2.5-8.5 cm in 0.5 cm steps with variable densities centered at a mean of 28%. The second study consisted of phantoms at a fixed thickness of 4.0 cm, which ranged in densities from 0% to 100% in increments of 12.5%. The third study consisted of 4.0 cm thick phantoms at densities of 25%, 50% and 75% each imaged at three areal sizes, approximately 62.5, 125, and 250 cm{sup 2}, in order to assess the effect of breast size on density measurement. The fourth study consisted of step phantoms designed to more closely mimic the shape of a female breast with maximal thicknesses from 3.0 to 7.0 cm at a fixed density of 50%. All images were corrected for x-ray scatter. Results: The RMS errors in breast density measurements were 0.44% for the variable thickness phantoms, 0.64% for the variable density phantoms, 2.87% for the phantoms of different areal sizes, and 4.63% for step phantoms designed to closely resemble the shape of a breast. Conclusions: The results of the phantom studies indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to measure breast density with an RMS error of approximately 5%.

  17. Use of nonlinear programming to optimize performance response to energy density in broiler feed formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, V R

    2004-02-01

    A nonlinear programming optimization model was developed to maximize margin over feed cost in broiler feed formulation and is described in this paper. The model identifies the optimal feed mix that maximizes profit margin. Optimum metabolizable energy level and performance were found by using Excel Solver nonlinear programming. Data from an energy density study with broilers were fitted to quadratic equations to express weight gain, feed consumption, and the objective function income over feed cost in terms of energy density. Nutrient:energy ratio constraints were transformed into equivalent linear constraints. National Research Council nutrient requirements and feeding program were used for examining changes in variables. The nonlinear programming feed formulation method was used to illustrate the effects of changes in different variables on the optimum energy density, performance, and profitability and was compared with conventional linear programming. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, I determined the impact of variation in prices. Prices for broiler, corn, fish meal, and soybean meal were increased and decreased by 25%. Formulations were identical in all other respects. Energy density, margin, and diet cost changed compared with conventional linear programming formulation. This study suggests that nonlinear programming can be more useful than conventional linear programming to optimize performance response to energy density in broiler feed formulation because an energy level does not need to be set.

  18. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-08-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  20. Dietary Energy Density, Renal Function, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background. There is evidence of the association between dietary energy density and chronic diseases. However, no report exists regarding the relation between DED and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective. To examine the association between dietary energy density (DED), renal function, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Three nephrology clinics. Subjects. Two hundred twenty-one subjects with diagnosed CKD. Main Outcome Measure. Dietary intake ...

  1. Development of novel cathodes for high energy density lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Amruth

    Lithium based batteries have become ubiquitous with our everyday life. They have propelled a generation of smart personal electronics and electric transport. Their use is now percolating to various fields as a source of energy to facilitate the operation of devices from nanoscale to mega scale. This need for a portable energy source has led to tremendous scientific interest in this field to develop electrochemical devices like batteries with higher capacities, longer cycle life and increased safety at a low cost. To this end, the research presented in this thesis focuses on two emerging and promising technologies called lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) and lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. These batteries can offer an order of magnitude higher capacities through cheap, environmentally safe and abundant elements namely oxygen and sulfur. The first work introduces the concept of closed system lithium-oxygen batteries wherein the cell contains the discharge product of Li-O2 batteries namely, lithium peroxide (Li2O2) as the starting active material. The reversibility of this system is analyzed along with its rate performance. The possible use of such a cathode in a full cell is explored. Also, this concept is used to verify if all the lithium can be extracted from the cathode in the first charge. In the following work, lithium peroxide is chemically synthesized and deposited in a carbon nanofiber matrix. This forms a free standing cathode that shows high reversibility. It can be cycled up to 20 times and while using capacity control protocol, a cycle life of 50 is obtained. The cause of cell degradation and failure is also analyzed. In the work on full cell lithium-sulfur system, a novel electrolyte is developed that can support reversible lithium insertion and extraction from a graphite anode. A method to deposit solid lithium polysulfide is developed for the cathode. Coupling a lithiated graphite anode with the cathode using the new electrolyte yields a full cell whose

  2. Polymerization contraction of resin composite vs. energy and power density of light-cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne

    2005-10-01

    This study measured the polymerization contraction of a resin composite cured at three levels of energy density, each attained at six different levels of power density. The polymerization contraction of the composite was recorded by the method of the deflecting disc (n = 5) for 1 h following the start of irradiation. Power densities of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1,000 mW cm(-2), as measured on a dental radiometer, were obtained by variation of distance and supply voltage of a commercial light-curing unit. The spectral distribution at each power density was recorded using a spectrophotometer. The absorption spectrum of camphorquinone was also recorded, and the efficiency of the radiation at each power density was calculated as the integral over wavelength of the product of absorption and emission. From the slope of the contraction curves, an approximation to the initial rate of polymerization, Rp, was calculated and was taken as an alternative measure of power density. Statistical analyses showed that polymerization contraction increased significantly with increasing levels of energy density received by the resin composite, and, for each level of energy density, that the contraction decreased significantly with increasing power density.

  3. Towards a Microscopic Reaction Description Based on Energy Density Functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, G A; DIetrich, F S; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Dupuis, M; Terasaki, J; Engel, J

    2011-09-26

    A microscopic calculation of reaction cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all particle-hole excitations in the target and one-nucleon pickup channels. The particle-hole states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and subsequently to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. Target excitations for {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 144}Sm were described in a random-phase framework using a Skyrme functional. Reaction cross sections obtained agree very well with experimental data and predictions of a state-of-the-art fitted optical potential. Couplings between inelastic states were found to be negligible, while the pickup channels contribute significantly. The effect of resonances from higher-order channels was assessed. Elastic angular distributions were also calculated within the same method, achieving good agreement with experimental data. For the first time observed absorptions are completely accounted for by explicit channel coupling, for incident energies between 10 and 70 MeV, with consistent angular distribution results.

  4. Advanced Polymer Electrolytes for High-energy-density Power Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Golodnitsky; E. Livshits; R. Kovarsky; E. Peled

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The preparation of highly controlled thin films of lithium ion conducting organic materials is becoming a challenging but rewarding goal in view of obtaining high-performance technological devices like solid-state polymer batteries and capacitors. The classical polymer electrolyte consists of organic macromolecules (usually polyether polymer) that are doped with inorganic (typically lithium) salts. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is the most commonly employed polymer in PEs because of the peculiar array in the (-CH2-CH2-O-)n chain providing the ability to solvate low-lattice-energy lithium salts. For three decades the major research attention was focused on amorphous polymer electrolytes in the belief that ionic conductivity occurs in a manner somewhat analogous to gas diffusion through polymer membranes. Segmental motion of the polymer chains continuously creates free volume, into which the ions migrate, and this process allows ions to progress across the electrolyte. Such a view was established by a number of experiments, and denied the possibility of ionic conductivity in crystalline polymer phases. This concept has been recently overturned by our group, demonstrating that conductivity comes about as a result of permanent conducting pathways for the movement of ions.

  5. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  6. Nanoparticle shapes of LiMnPO4, Li+ diffusion orientation and diffusion coefficients for high volumetric energy Li+ ion cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nam Hee; Yin, Hui; Vavrova, Tatiana; Lim, Jonathan H.-W.; Steiner, Ullrich; Grobéty, Bernard; Fromm, Katharina M.

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles of LiMnPO4 were fabricated in rod, elongated as well as cubic shapes. The 1D Li+ preferred diffusion direction for each shape was determined via electron diffraction spot patterns. The shape of nano-LiMnPO4 varied the diffusion coefficient of Li+ because the Li+ diffusion direction and the path length were different. The particles with the shortest dimension along the b-axis provided the highest diffusion coefficient, resulting in the highest gravimetric capacity of 135, 100 and 60 mAh g-1 at 0.05C, 1C and 10C, respectively. Using ball-milling, a higher loading of nano-LiMnPO4 in the electrode was achieved, increasing the volumetric capacity to 263 mAh cm-3, which is ca. 3.5 times higher than the one obtained by hand-mixing of electrode materials. Thus, the electrochemical performance is governed by both the diffusion coefficient of Li+, which is dependent on the shape of LiMnPO4 nanoparticles and the secondary composite structure.

  7. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage.

  8. High–energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440

  9. Nuclear matter symmetry energy from generalized polarizabilities: dependences on momentum, isospin, density and temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Braghin, F L

    2004-01-01

    Symmetry energy terms from macroscopic mass formulae are investigated as generalized polarizabilities of nuclear matter. Besides the neutron-proton (n-p) symmetry energy the spin dependent symmetry energies and a scalar one are also defined. They depend on the nuclear densities ($\\rho$), neutron-proton asymmetry ($b$), temperature ($T$) and exchanged energy and momentum ($q$). Based on a standard expression for the generalized polarizabilities, a differential equation is proposed to constrain the dependence of the symmetry energy on the n-p asymmetry and on the density. Some solutions are discussed. The q-dependence (zero frequence) of the symmetry energy coefficients with Skyrme-type forces is investigated in the four channels of the particle-hole interaction. Spin dependent symmetry energies are also investigated indicating much stronger differences in behavior with $q$ for each Skyrme force than the results for the neutron-proton one.

  10. Antiferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors with High Energy-Storage Densities, Low Energy Losses, and Fast Discharge Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chang Won; Amarsanaa, Gantsooj; Won, Sung Sik; Chae, Song A; Lee, Dae Su; Kim, Ill Won

    2015-12-09

    We demonstrate a capacitor with high energy densities, low energy losses, fast discharge times, and high temperature stabilities, based on Pb(0.97)Y(0.02)[(Zr(0.6)Sn(0.4))(0.925)Ti(0.075)]O3 (PYZST) antiferroelectric thin-films. PYZST thin-films exhibited a high recoverable energy density of U(reco) = 21.0 J/cm(3) with a high energy-storage efficiency of η = 91.9% under an electric field of 1300 kV/cm, providing faster microsecond discharge times than those of commercial polypropylene capacitors. Moreover, PYZST thin-films exhibited high temperature stabilities with regard to their energy-storage properties over temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C and also exhibited strong charge-discharge fatigue endurance up to 1 × 10(7) cycles.

  11. Geometrical optics response tensors and the transport of the wave energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornatici, M [INFM, Physics Department ' A. Volta' , University of Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Maj, O [INFM, Physics Department, University of Milan, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2003-08-01

    Two forms of the transport equation for the wave energy density inherent in two (apparently diverse) formulations of geometrical optics (GO) are discussed on the basis of the relationships among the plane-wave dielectric tensor, the effective dielectric tensor and the effective conductivity tensor. For a generic space- and time-varying medium, a novel relationship between the dielectric tensor and the conductivity tensor is obtained whereupon the equivalence of the two GO formulations is established. The conditions for which either the wave action density or the wave energy density is conserved are discussed.

  12. 绝经后妇女腰椎骨密度容积性定量 CT测量研究%Evaluation of bone mineral density measurement of lumbar vertebrae by volumetric quantitative CT in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡跃增; 王立英; 吴胜勇; 兰静; 李景学

    2009-01-01

    %、(75.1±17.9)%、(62.8±20.9)%、(49.2±21.9)%]、正常组[分别为(120.6±19.4) mg/cm3、(154.0±16.3) mg/cm3、(131.1±21.1) mg/cm3、(95.6±5.3)%、(91.4±8.7)%、(84.7±12.4)%、(75.2±15.5)%],P值均<0.01。 DXA测量中AP-SPINE值在骨质疏松伴骨折组[(0.84±0.16)g/cm2]与骨质疏松组[(0.85±0.06)g/cm2]之间的差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。在骨质疏松组和骨质疏松伴骨折组 AP-SPINE 仅与3 D-CORT 间有相关性( R2=0.189,P<0.01);App60 BV/TV%、 App80 BV/TV%、App100 BV/TV%、App120 BV/TV%与3D-TRAB 或2D-TRAB之有相关性(3D 法:R2值分别为0.955、0.951、0.941、0.912;2D 法:R2值分别为0.912、0.910、0.878、0.821;P值均<0.01)。容积性BMD的测量精确度为0.70%~2.25%。结论 vQCT技术可区分骨质疏松及伴骨质疏松性骨折绝经后妇女骨量,能力高于DXA,其中整体骨BMD诊断严重骨质疏松的效果最好;App BV/TV%可反映骨质疏松者骨小梁丢失程度,预测骨折风险。%Objective To demonstrate the validity of volumetric QCT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry( DXA ) in bone mineral density ( BMD ) measurement and compare the difference in discriminating osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fracture. Methods One hundred and eighteen postmenopausal women [mean age (62.1 ±7.0) years] who received thoracolumbar radiographic examination were enrolled and divided into four groups ( normal, osteopenia, osteoporotic and osteoporotic fractured group) also based on their BMD value of lumbar vertebra( AP-SPINE) measured by DXA: >x¯-1s,x¯-1s—x¯-2s,0.05].In osteoporotic groups, AP-SPINE was not correlated significantly with other variables except 3D-CORT ( R2 =0.189, P <0.01 );parameters of App60, 80, 100, 120 BV/TV% were correlated

  13. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  14. The inverse relationship between food price and energy density: is it spurious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George C; Carlson, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An important debate in the literature is whether or not higher energy-dense foods are cheaper than less energy-dense foods. The present communication develops and applies an easy statistical test to determine if the relationship between food price and energy density is an artifact of how the data units are constructed (i.e. is it 'spurious' or 'real'?). After matching data on 4430 different foods from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with corresponding prices from the Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion's Food Prices Database, we use a simple regression model to test if the relationship between food price and energy density is 'real' or 'spurious'. USA. Total sample size is 4430 observations of consumed foods from 4578 participants from the non-institutionalized US adult population (aged 19 years and over). Over all 4430 foods, the null hypothesis of a spurious inverse relationship between food price per energy density and energy density is not rejected. When the analysis is broken down by twenty-five food groups, there are only two cases where the inverse relationship is not spurious. In fact, the majority of non-spurious relationships between food price and energy density are positive, not negative. One of the main arguments put forth regarding the poor diet quality of low-income households is that high energy-dense food is cheaper than lower energy-dense food. We find almost no statistical support for higher energy-dense food being cheaper than low energy-dense food. While economics certainly plays a role in explaining low nutritional quality, more sophisticated economic arguments are required and discussed.

  15. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    The maximum electrostatic energy density of a capacitor is a function of the relative permittivity (epsilonr) and the square of the dielectric breakdown strength (Eb). Currently, state-of-the art high temperature (>200 °C), SiC-based power electronics utilize CaZrO3-rich NP0/C0G-type capacitors, which have low relative permittivities of epsilonr ˜ 30-40, high breakdown strengths (> 1.0 MV/cm), and are chosen for their minimal change in energy storage with temperature. However, with operating temperatures exceeding the rated temperatures for such capacitors, there is an opportunity to develop new dielectric ceramics having higher energy densities and volumetric efficiencies at high temperatures (>200 °C) by utilizing higher permittivity dielectrics while maintaining high breakdown strengths via doping. The solid solution behavior of was characterized in order to determine the optimal composition for balancing permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength to obtain high energy densities at elevated temperatures. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Vegard's law behavior across the solid solution with minimal 2nd phases. To determine a Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 composition that will also minimize electronic or band conduction, the optical properties of the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 solid solution were investigated to identify a composition on the CaTiO3 - rich end of the solid solution with a large band gap. Both ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry were utilized to determine the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 band gaps and optical properties. The resistivity at 250 °C scaled with the band gap energy across the solid solution. Comparing the current-voltage (I--V) behavior at 250 °C for Ca(Tix-yMnyZr0.2)O3 (CTZ + Mn) where x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and y = 0.005, it was found that the Ca(Ti 0.795Mn0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition showed the lowest current density and a decrease in current density of 5 orders of magnitude compared to the un

  16. A coarse-grain force field for RDX: Density dependent and energy conserving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joshua D.; Barnes, Brian C.; Izvekov, Sergei; Lísal, Martin; Sellers, Michael S.; Taylor, DeCarlos E.; Brennan, John K.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the development of a density-dependent transferable coarse-grain model of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) that can be used with the energy conserving dissipative particle dynamics method. The model is an extension of a recently reported one-site model of RDX that was developed by using a force-matching method. The density-dependent forces in that original model are provided through an interpolation scheme that poorly conserves energy. The development of the new model presented in this work first involved a multi-objective procedure to improve the structural and thermodynamic properties of the previous model, followed by the inclusion of the density dependency via a conservative form of the force field that conserves energy. The new model accurately predicts the density, structure, pressure-volume isotherm, bulk modulus, and elastic constants of the RDX crystal at ambient pressure and exhibits transferability to a liquid phase at melt conditions.

  17. Communication: Simple and accurate uniform electron gas correlation energy for the full range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachiyo, Teepanis

    2016-07-01

    A simple correlation energy functional for the uniform electron gas is derived based on the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory. It can reproduce the known correlation functional in the high-density limit, while in the mid-density range maintaining a good agreement with the near-exact correlation energy of the uniform electron gas to within 2 × 10-3 hartree. The correlation energy is a function of a density parameter rs and is of the form a * ln ( 1 + /b r s + /b rs 2 ) . The constants "a" and "b" are derived from the known correlation functional in the high-density limit. Comparisons to the Ceperley-Alder's near-exact Quantum Monte Carlo results and the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair correlation functional are also reported.

  18. Impact of a School Nutrition Policy to Middle School Students Dietary Energy Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with rising obesity rates and linked to the metabolic syndrome. Reducing dietary energy density (DED) is an important strategy to address obesity, but few studies have examined the effect of nutrition policies on children's DED. The Texas Pub...

  19. Midrapidity inclusive densities in high energy pp collisions in additive quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelski, Yu. M.; Shuvaev, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    High energy (CERN SPS and LHC) inelastic pp (pbar{p}) scattering is treated in the framework of the additive quark model together with Pomeron exchange theory. We extract the midrapidity inclusive density of the charged secondaries produced in a single quark-quark collision and investigate its energy dependence. Predictions for the π p collisions are presented.

  20. Energy Density in Aligned Nanowire Arrays Irradiated with Relativistic Intensities: Path to Terabar Pressure Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, J.; Bargsten, C.; Hollinger, R.; Shylaptsev, V.; Wang, S.; Rockwood, A.; Wang, Y.; Keiss, D.; Capeluto, M.; Kaymak, V.; Pukhov, A.; Tommasini, R.; London, R.; Park, J.

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-high-energy-density (UHED) plasmas, characterized by energy densities >1 x 108 J cm-3 and pressures greater than a gigabar are encountered in the center of stars and in inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultra-high contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto aligned nanowire array targets. Here we report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high aspect ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 x 1019 W cm-2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several μm, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic 3D particle-in-cell-simulations validated by these measurements predict that irradiation of nanostructures at increased intensity will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 x 1010 J cm-3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar. This work was supported by the Fusion Energy Program, Office of Science of the U.S Department of Energy, and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  1. Encircling the dark: constraining dark energy via cosmic density in spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Codis, S; Bernardeau, F; Uhlemann, C; Prunet, S

    2016-01-01

    The recently published analytic probability density function for the mildly non-linear cosmic density field within spherical cells is used to build a simple but accurate maximum likelihood estimate for the redshift evolution of the variance of the density, which, as expected, is shown to have smaller relative error than the sample variance. This estimator provides a competitive probe for the equation of state of dark energy, reaching a few percent accuracy on wp and wa for a Euclid-like survey. The corresponding likelihood function can take into account the configuration of the cells via their relative separations. A code to compute one-cell density probability density functions for arbitrary initial power spectrum, top-hat smoothing and various spherical collapse dynamics is made available online so as to provide straightforward means of testing the effect of alternative dark energy models and initial power-spectra on the low-redshift matter distribution.

  2. Comparison of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for measuring bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, E; Akram, M; Pi Sunyer, F X

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the measurement of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with the measurement of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by high-resolution peripheral computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) in subjects with a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). We scanned the arms and legs of 49 premenopausal women, aged 21-45 years, with BMI from 18.5 to 46.5, by HR-pQCT and found that there was a nonsignificant change in vBMD associated with increased BMI, whereas aBMD (DXA) was associated with a positive significant increase. HR-pQCT scans a slice at the extremity of the tibia and radius, whereas DXA scans the entire leg and arm. The correlation coefficients (r) of BMD (DXA) of the legs with BMI were 0.552, PD100) of legs and arms measured by HR-pQCT with BMI, W and %fat were not significant. Although HR-pQCT and DXA scan different parts of the bone, the high r of BMD with BMI and low r of bone density measured by HR-pQCT with BMI suggest that BMD measured by DXA is artifactually increased in the presence of obesity.

  3. New parametrization of Skyrme's interaction for regularized multireference energy density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiyama, K.; Bennaceur, K.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.; Hellemans, V.

    2012-11-01

    Background: Symmetry restoration and configuration mixing in the spirit of the generator coordinate method based on energy density functionals have become widely used techniques in low-energy nuclear structure physics. Recently, it has been pointed out that these techniques are ill defined for standard Skyrme functionals, and a regularization procedure has been proposed to remove the resulting spuriosities from such calculations. This procedure imposes an integer power of the density for the density-dependent terms of the functional. At present, only dated parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction fulfill this condition.Purpose: To construct a set of parametrizations of the Skyrme energy density functional for multireference energy density functional calculations with regularization using the state-of-the-art fitting protocols.Method: The parametrizations were adjusted to reproduce ground-state properties of a selected set of doubly magic nuclei and properties of nuclear matter. Subsequently, these parameter sets were validated against properties of spherical and deformed nuclei.Results: Our parameter sets successfully reproduce the experimental binding energies and charge radii for a wide range of singly magic nuclei. Compared to the widely used SLy5 and to the SIII parametrization that has integer powers of the density, a significant improvement of the reproduction of the data is observed. Similarly, a good description of the deformation properties at A˜80 was obtained.Conclusions: We have constructed new Skyrme parametrizations with integer powers of the density and validated them against a broad set of experimental data for spherical and deformed nuclei. These parametrizations are tailor-made for regularized multireference energy density functional calculations and can be used to study correlations beyond the mean field in atomic nuclei.

  4. Band offset formation at semiconductor heterojunctions through density-based minimization of interface energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Raymond T.; Kronik, Leeor

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the magnitude of band offset (BO) at any semiconductor heterojunction is directly derivable from the distribution of charge at that interface and that the latter is decided by a minimization of total energy. However, the fact that BO formation is governed by energy minimization has not been explicitly used in theoretical BO models, likely because the equilibrium charge densities at heterojunction interfaces appear difficult to predict, except via explicit calculation. In this paper, electron densities at a large number of (100), (110), and (111) oriented heterojunctions between lattice-matched, isovalent semiconductors with the zinc blende (ZB) structure have been calculated by first-principles methods and analyzed in detail for possible common characteristics among energy-minimized densities. Remarkably, the heterojunction electron density was found to largely depend only on the immediate, local atomic arrangement. In fact, it is so much so that a juxtaposition of local electron-densities generated in oligo-cells (LEGOs) accurately reproduced the charge densities that minimize the energy for the heterojunctions. Furthermore, the charge distribution for each bulk semiconductor was found to display a striking separability of its electrostatic effect into two neutral parts, associated with the cation and the anion, which are approximately transferrable among semiconductors. These discoveries form the basis of a neutral polyhedra theory (NPT) that approximately predicts the equilibrium charge density and BO of relaxed heterojunctions from the energy minimization requirement. Well-known experimentally observed characteristics of heterojunctions, such as the insensitivity of BO to heterojunction orientation and the identity of interface bonds, the transitivity rule, etc., are all in good agreement with the NPT. Therefore, energy minimization, which essentially decides the electronic properties of all other solid and molecular systems, also governs

  5. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  6. The effect of cell size and channel density on neuronal information encoding and energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Biswa; Faisal, A Aldo; Laughlin, Simon B; Niven, Jeremy E

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the determinants of neuronal energy consumption and their relationship to information coding is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Three of the main determinants are cell size, ion channel density, and stimulus statistics. Here we investigate their impact on neuronal energy consumption and information coding by comparing single-compartment spiking neuron models of different sizes with different densities of stochastic voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels and different statistics of synaptic inputs. The largest compartments have the highest information rates but the lowest energy efficiency for a given voltage-gated ion channel density, and the highest signaling efficiency (bits spike(-1)) for a given firing rate. For a given cell size, our models revealed that the ion channel density that maximizes energy efficiency is lower than that maximizing information rate. Low rates of small synaptic inputs improve energy efficiency but the highest information rates occur with higher rates and larger inputs. These relationships produce a Law of Diminishing Returns that penalizes costly excess information coding capacity, promoting the reduction of cell size, channel density, and input stimuli to the minimum possible, suggesting that the trade-off between energy and information has influenced all aspects of neuronal anatomy and physiology.

  7. The National Ignition Facility and the Golden Age of High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W; Moses, E I; Newton, M

    2007-09-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192-beam Nd:glass laser facility being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density (HED) science. When completed, NIF will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of ultraviolet light, making it the world's largest and highest-energy laser system. The NIF is poised to become the world's preeminent facility for conducting ICF and fusion energy research and for studying matter at extreme densities and temperatures.

  8. The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn; Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The link between urban density and building energy use is a complex balance between climatic factors and the spatial, material and use patterns of urban spaces and the buildings that constitute them. This study uses the concept of the urban canyon to investigate the ways that the energy performance...... of low-energy buildings in a north-European setting is affected by their context.This study uses a comprehensive suite of climate-based dynamic thermal and daylight simulations to describe how these primary factors in the passive energy properties of buildings are affected by increases in urban density.......It was found that the geometry of urban canyons has an impact on total energy consumption in the range of up to +30% for offices and +19% for housing, which shows that the geometry of urban canyons is a key factor in energy use in buildings. It was demonstrated how the reflectivity of urban canyons plays...

  9. Energy-dense fast food products cost less: an observational study of the energy density and energy cost of Australian fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between energy cost and energy density of fast food products. Twenty Sydney outlets of the five largest fast food chains were surveyed four times. Price and kilojoule data were collected for all limited-time-only menu items (n=54) and a sample of standard items (n=67). Energy cost ($/kilojoule) and energy density (kilojoules/gram) of menu items were calculated. There was a significant inverse relationship between menu item energy density and energy cost (ppricing of larger serve sizes, or change defaults in meals to healthier options. More research is required to determine the most effective strategy to reduce the negative impact of fast food on the population's diet. Current pricing in the fast food environment may encourage unhealthier purchases. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 2 - Energy consumption and density mapping. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The second task in the overall project was the mapping of regional energy consumption density. Combined with the findings from task one, this enables comparison of energy consumption density per area unit with the renewable energy resource availability. In addition, it provides an energy baseline against which future energy planning activities can be evaluated. The mapping of the energy consumption density was divided into categories to correspond with local British Columbia Assessment Authority (BCAA) reporting. The residential sub-categories were comprised of single family detached dwellings, single family attached dwellings, apartments, and moveable dwellings. For commercial and industrial end-users the 14 sub-categories are also in line with BCAA as well as the on-going provincial TaNDM project of which the CVRD is a partner. The results of task two are documented in this report. (LN)

  11. Warm unstable asymmetric nuclear matter: Critical properties and the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, N.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    The spinodal instabilities in hot asymmetric nuclear matter and some important critical parameters derived thereof are studied by using six different families of relativistic mean-field models. The slopes of the symmetry energy coefficient vary over a wide range within each family. The critical densities and proton fractions are more sensitive to the symmetry energy slope parameter at temperatures much below its critical value (Tc˜14 -16 MeV ). The spread in the critical proton fraction at a given symmetry energy slope parameter is noticeably larger near Tc, indicating that the equation of state of warm asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation densities is not sufficiently constrained. The distillation effects are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at low temperatures which tend to wash out with increasing temperature.

  12. Anisotropy of the field-induced kinetic energy density in Bi2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, J.P., E-mail: jullypaola@if.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, C.P. 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, R.R. da [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Sérgio Buarque de Holanda 777, C.P. 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pureur, P. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, C.P. 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    We present an experimental study of the in-field kinetic energy density in two Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} single crystals. The kinetic energy density is determined from magnetization measurements performed above the irreversibility line. Anisotropy effects are observed when an external magnetic field is applied in the direction perpendicular or parallel to the superconducting Cu–O{sub 2} planes. When the field is applied parallel to the c-axis, the most relevant contribution to the kinetic energy comes from the Abrikosov vortices. At low fields, an additional term related to granularity is also observed. A kink in the kinetic energy density associated to the decoupling of the superconducting layers is identified when the field is applied parallel to the ab planes.

  13. Structural Damage Identification via Pseudo Strain Energy Density and Wavelet Packet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-qiang; ZHU Hong-ping; GE Dong-dong

    2009-01-01

    Based on strain signals,a new time-domain methodology for detecting the beam local damage has been developed.The pseudo strain energy density (PSED) is defined and used to build two major damage indexes,the average pseudo strain energy density (APSED) and the average pseudo strain energy density rate (APSEDR).Probability and mathematical statistics are utilized to derive a standardized damage index.Furthermore,by applying the analytic relation between the strain energy release rate and the stress intensity factor,an analytic solution of crack depth is derived.For the dynamic strain signals,the wavelet packet transform is used to pre-process measured data.Finally,a numerical simulation indicates that this method can effectively identify the damage location and its absolute severity.

  14. Equipartition and Cosmic Ray Energy Densities in Central Molecular Zones of Starbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2015-01-01

    The energy densities in magnetic fields and cosmic rays (CRs) in galaxies are often assumed to be in equipartition, allowing for an indirect estimate of the magnetic field strength from the observed radio synchrotron spectrum. However, both primary and secondary CRs contribute to the synchrotron spectrum, and the CR electrons also loose energy via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton. While classical equipartition formulae avoid these intricacies, there have been recent revisions that account for the extreme conditions in starbursts. Yet, the application of the equipartition formula to starburst environments also presupposes that timescales are long enough to reach equilibrium. Here, we test equipartition in the central molecular zones (CMZs) of nearby starburst galaxies by modeling the observed gamma-ray spectra, which provide a direct measure of the CR energy density, and the radio spectra, which provide a probe of the magnetic field strength. We find that in starbursts, the magnetic field energy density is s...

  15. Template-assisted low temperature synthesis of functionalized graphene for ultrahigh volumetric performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Qian; Wei, Tong; Jiang, Lili; Zhang, Milin; Jing, Xiaoyan; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2014-05-27

    We demonstrated the fabrication of functionalized graphene nanosheets via low temperature (300 °C) treatment of graphite oxide with a slow heating rate using Mg(OH)2 nanosheets as template. Because of its dented sheet with high surface area, a certain amount of oxygen-containing groups, and low pore volume, the as-obtained graphene delivers both ultrahigh specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 456 F g(-1) and 470 F cm(-3), almost 3.7 times and 3.3 times higher than hydrazine reduced graphene, respectively. Especially, the obtained volumetric capacitance is the highest value so far reported for carbon materials in aqueous electrolytes. More importantly, the assembled supercapacitor exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 27.2 Wh L(-1), which is among the highest values for carbon materials in aqueous electrolytes, as well as excellent cycling stability with 134% of its initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles. Therefore, the present work holds a great promise for future design and large-scale production of high performance graphene electrodes for portable energy storage devices.

  16. Effect of varying protein and energy densities in complete rations fed to cows in first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, G K; Grieve, D G; McMillan, I; Smith, G C

    1984-07-01

    Sixty-three Holstein cows in first lactation were allotted randomly at 28 days postpartum to receive one of nine rations in a 3 X 3 factorial design. Rations had crude protein 12, 15, or 18% in each of three energy densities from ratios of forage:concentrate of 75:25, 55:45, and 35:65. Corn silage and hay crop silage were combined in a ratio of 2:1 (dry basis) in each case, and diets were offered for ad libitum intake as complete feeds for an 11-wk experimental period plus 2 wk for a digestion trial. In regression analysis as energy density increased, feed intake, milk yield, milk protein, and lactose yields increased linearly, urea nitrogen in blood plasma decreased linearly, and milk fat percent and yield decreased curvilinearly. As dietary protein increased, feed intake, fat-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and plasma urea nitrogen increased linearly, and yields of milk, solids-corrected milk, milk protein, and lactose increased curvilinearly. Actual milk yield adjusted for dry matter intake increased with greater energy density but not with higher protein concentration. Increases of energy and protein each resulted in linear increases of digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and energy of diets. There were no interactions of energy X protein for these measurements. Cows in first lactation will increase milk production in response to increasing protein over a range of energy densities when feed intake is increased.

  17. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrodes for supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Han; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2011-10-21

    We describe a graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite film prepared by a blending process for use as electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. Specific capacitances of 290.6 F g(-1) and 201.0 F g(-1) have been obtained for a single electrode in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively, using a more practical two-electrode testing system. In the organic electrolyte the energy density reached 62.8 Wh kg(-1) and the power density reached 58.5 kW kg(-1). The addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes raised the energy density by 23% and power density by 31% more than the graphene electrodes. The graphene/CNT electrodes exhibited an ultra-high energy density of 155.6 Wh kg(-1) in ionic liquid at room temperature. In addition, the specific capacitance increased by 29% after 1000 cycles in ionic liquid, indicating their excellent cyclicity. The SWCNTs acted as a conductive additive, spacer, and binder in the graphene/CNT supercapacitors. This work suggests that our graphene/CNT supercapacitors can be comparable to NiMH batteries in performance and are promising for applications in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles.

  18. Analytic form for a nonlocal kinetic energy functional with a density-dependent kernel for orbital-free density functional theory under periodic and Dirichlet boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gregory S.; Lignères, Vincent L.; Carter, Emily A.

    2008-07-01

    We derive an analytic form of the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) [Wang , Phys. Rev. B 60, 16350 (1999)] kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) with the density-dependent response kernel. A real-space aperiodic implementation of the WGC KEDF is then described and used in linear scaling orbital-free density functional theory (OF-DFT) calculations.

  19. Thermodynamic, energy efficiency, and power density analysis of reverse electrodialysis power generation with natural salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Vermaas, David A; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-06

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for RED and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible RED process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible process with maximized power density using a constant-resistance load is then examined to assess the energy conversion efficiency and power density. With equal volumes of seawater and river water, energy conversion efficiency of ∼ 33-44% can be obtained in RED, while the rest is lost through dissipation in the internal resistance of the ion-exchange membrane stack. We show that imperfections in the selectivity of typical ion exchange membranes (namely, co-ion transport, osmosis, and electro-osmosis) can detrimentally lower efficiency by up to 26%, with co-ion leakage being the dominant effect. Further inspection of the power density profile during RED revealed inherent ineffectiveness toward the end of the process. By judicious early discontinuation of the controlled mixing process, the overall power density performance can be considerably enhanced by up to 7-fold, without significant compromise to the energy efficiency. Additionally, membrane resistance was found to be an important factor in determining the power densities attainable. Lastly, the performance of an RED stack was examined for different membrane conductivities and intermembrane distances simulating high performance membranes and stack design. By thoughtful selection of the operating parameters, an efficiency of ∼ 37% and an overall gross power density of 3.5 W/m(2) represent the maximum performance that can potentially be achieved in a seawater-river water RED system with low

  20. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Rodacki, Tomasz; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna; Brzozowska, Anna; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Wojtanowska-Krosniak, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bechthold, Angela; Mardas, Marcin; Boeing, Heiner

    2016-04-20

    Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  1. Link between Food Energy Density and Body Weight Changes in Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stelmach-Mardas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., −0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: −0.88, −0.19. In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.

  2. Series multilayer internal electrodes for high energy density glass-ceramic capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jun; DU Jun; TANG Qun; MAO ChangHui

    2009-01-01

    The glass-ceramic dielectrics and internal electrode structures are investigated for improving the general energy storage density of capacitors.Calculation indicates that glass-ceramics acquired from glass matrix annealing at 850℃ for 3 hours can be approximately up to 17 J/cm3 in energy storage density.They are appropriately chosen as the dielectrics for preparing high energy storage density capacitors (HESDCs).A series multilayer structure of internal electrode is developed for the HESDCs,in which each layer is a combination of gold film and silver paste.This electrode structure promises the capacitor immune from the residual porosity defects inevitably brought by electrode paste sintering process,and specifically improves the electrical breakdown strength of the capacitor.Based on this new electrode structure,the energy storage densities of capacitors are increased by more than one order of magnitude compared with those traditional ones with only single layer of internal electrode.Thus,HESDCs based on the optimized glass-ceramic dielectrics can potentially achieve 7.5 J/cm3 in energy storage density,even taking into consideration the enlargement of total capacitor volumes while encapsulating practicable capacitors from dielectrics media.

  3. Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy and high power density in aqueous electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Songtao; Varanasi, Chakrapani V; Liu, Jie

    2013-02-07

    Supercapacitors with both high energy and high power densities are critical for many practical applications. In this paper, we discuss the design and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on nanocomposite electrodes of MnO(2), activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The combined unique properties of each of these components enable highly flexible and mechanically strong films that can serve as electrodes directly without using any current collectors or binders. Using these flexible electrodes and a roll-up approach, asymmetric supercapacitors with 2 V working voltage were successfully fabricated. The fabricated device showed excellent rate capability, with 78% of the original capacitance retained when the scan rate was increased from 2 mV s(-1) to 500 mV s(-1). Owing to the unique composite structure, these supercapacitors were able to deliver high energy density (24 W h kg(-1)) under high power density (7.8 kW kg(-1)) conditions. These features could enable supercapacitor based energy storage systems to be very attractive for a variety of critical applications, such as the power sources in hybrid electric vehicles and the back-up powers for wind and solar energy, where both high energy density and high power density are required.

  4. Density functional theory screening of gas-treatment strategies for stabilization of high energy-density lithium metal anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Stephan L.; Morgan, Benjamin J.; Passerini, Stefano; Teobaldi, Gilberto

    2015-11-01

    To explore the potential of molecular gas treatment of freshly cut lithium foils in non-electrolyte-based passivation of high-energy-density Li anodes, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to study the decomposition of molecular gases on metallic lithium surfaces. By combining DFT geometry optimization and Molecular Dynamics, the effects of atmospheric (N2, O2, CO2) and hazardous (F2, SO2) gas decomposition on Li(bcc) (100), (110), and (111) surfaces on relative surface energies, work functions, and emerging electronic and elastic properties are investigated. The simulations suggest that exposure to different molecular gases can be used to induce and control reconstructions of the metal Li surface and substantial changes (up to over 1 eV) in the work function of the passivated system. Contrary to the other considered gases, which form metallic adlayers, SO2 treatment emerges as the most effective in creating an insulating passivation layer for dosages ≤1 mono-layer. The substantial Li → adsorbate charge transfer and adlayer relaxation produce marked elastic stiffening of the interface, with the smallest change shown by nitrogen-treated adlayers.

  5. Energy flux density and angular momentum density of Pearcey-Gauss vortex beams in the far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Lu, G.; Zhong, X.

    2017-02-01

    The longitudinal and transverse energy flux density (EFD) and angular momentum density (AMD) of a Pearcey-Gauss vortex beam in the far field are studied using the vector angular spectrum representation and stationary phase method, where the influence of topological charge, noncanonical strength and off-axis distance of the embedded optical vortex on far-field vectorial structures of the corresponding beam is emphasized. For comparison, the EFD and AMD of the Pearcey-Gauss beam with non-vortex in the far field are also discussed. The results show that the longitudinal EFDs of the Pearcey-Gauss vortex beam exhibit parabolic patterns, and the number of parabolic dark zones equals the absolute value of topological charge of the embedded optical vortex in the input plane. While for the Pearcey-Gauss beam, the dark zones are not found owing to the non-vortex in the input plane. The motion of zero-intensity spot of whole beam appears by varying the off-axis distance. Noncanonical strength and off-axis distance both can adjust the magnitudes and directions of transverse EFD and control the spatial energy distributions of longitudinal EFD, but not change the net AMD.

  6. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of dark matter and dark energy in spherical voids

    CERN Document Server

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Kulinich, Yurij

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large isolated voids in the Universe. We assume that initial perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe (radiation, matter and dark energy) are continuous media with perfect fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations for every component in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame are obtained from equations of energy and momentum conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated numerically. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is much larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter and dark energy are formed and how they depend on parameters of dark energy and initial conditions. In particular, it is shown that final matter density and velocity amplitudes change within range $\\sim$4-7...

  7. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....

  8. Magnetic volumetric hologram memory with magnetic garnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2014-06-30

    Holographic memory is a promising next-generation optical memory that has a higher recording density and a higher transfer rate than other types of memory. In holographic memory, magnetic garnet films can serve as rewritable holographic memory media by use of magneto-optical effect. We have now demonstrated that a magnetic hologram can be recorded volumetrically in a ferromagnetic garnet film and that the signal image can be reconstructed from it for the first time. In addition, multiplicity of the magnetic hologram was also confirmed; the image could be reconstructed from a spot overlapped by other spots.

  9. Cosmological constant problem and renormalized vacuum energy density in curved background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Matsui, Hiroki

    2017-06-01

    The current vacuum energy density observed as dark energy ρdarksimeq 2.5×10-47 GeV4 is unacceptably small compared with any other scales. Therefore, we encounter serious fine-tuning problem and theoretical difficulty to derive the dark energy. However, the theoretically attractive scenario has been proposed and discussed in literature: in terms of the renormalization-group (RG) running of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy density can be expressed as ρvacuumsimeq m2H2 where m is the mass of the scalar field and rather dynamical in curved spacetime. However, there has been no rigorous proof to derive this expression and there are some criticisms about the physical interpretation of the RG running cosmological constant. In the present paper, we revisit the RG running effects of the cosmological constant and investigate the renormalized vacuum energy density in curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the vacuum energy density described by ρvacuumsimeq m2H2 appears as quantum effects of the curved background rather than the running effects of cosmological constant. Comparing to cosmological observational data, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the scalar fields to be smaller than the Planck mass, m lesssim MPl.

  10. Research and Evaluation of the Energy Flux Density of the Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses variations in the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of 10 mobile phones depending on distance. The studies have been conducted using three modes: sending a text message, receiving a text message and connecting a mobile phone to the Internet. When text messages are received or sent from a mobile phone, the values of the energy flux density of the mobile phone electromagnetic field exceed the safe allowable limit and make 10 μW / cm². A distance of 10, 20 and 30 cm from a mobile phone is effective protection against the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field when writing texts, receiving messages or connecting to the mobile Internet.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Kinetic Energy of Hydrocarbons as a Function of Electron Density and Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Parkhill, John

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a convolutional neural network trained to reproduce the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy of hydrocarbons from an input electron density. The output of the network is used as a nonlocal correction to conventional local and semilocal kinetic functionals. We show that this approximation qualitatively reproduces Kohn-Sham potential energy surfaces when used with conventional exchange correlation functionals. The density which minimizes the total energy given by the functional is examined in detail. We identify several avenues to improve on this exploratory work, by reducing numerical noise and changing the structure of our functional. Finally we examine the features in the density learned by the neural network to anticipate the prospects of generalizing these models.

  12. Hydrate-melt electrolytes for high-energy-density aqueous batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Usui, Kenji; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Ko, Seongjae; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous Li-ion batteries are attracting increasing attention because they are potentially low in cost, safe and environmentally friendly. However, their low energy density (commercial Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with a low reaction potential (1.55 V versus Li+/Li) and a high capacity (175 mAh g-1). The resultant aqueous Li-ion batteries with high energy density (>130 Wh kg-1) and high voltage (˜2.3-3.1 V) represent significant progress towards performance comparable to that of commercial non-aqueous batteries (with energy densities of ˜150-400 Wh kg-1 and voltages of ˜2.4-3.8 V).

  13. Note: A high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator with novel insulating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Su, Jiancang; Fan, Xuliang

    2017-09-01

    A 10-GW high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator is developed with an improved insulating liquid based on a modified Tesla pulser—TPG700, of which the pulse forming line (PFL) is filled with novel insulating oil instead of transformer oil. Properties of insulating oil determining the stored energy density of the PFL are analyzed, and a criterion for appropriate oil is proposed. Midel 7131 is chosen as an application example. The results of insulating property experiment under tens-of-microsecond pulse charging demonstrate that the insulation capability of Midel 7131 is better than that of KI45X transformer oil. The application test in Tesla pulser TPG700 shows that the output power is increased to 10.5 GW with Midel 7131. The output energy density of TPG700 increases for about 60% with Midel 7131.

  14. Electromagnetic reflection, transmission, and energy density at boundaries of nonlocal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R. J.; Philbin, T. G.

    2016-12-01

    We consider a semi-infinite spatially dispersive dielectric with unequal transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities. The effect of the boundary is characterized by arbitrary reflection coefficients for polarization waves in the material that propagate to the surface. Specific values of these coefficients correspond to various additional boundary conditions (ABCs) for Maxwell's equations. We derive the electromagnetic reflection and transmission coefficients at the boundary and investigate their dependence on material parameters and ABCs. We also investigate the electromagnetic zero-point and thermal spectral energy density outside the dielectric. The nonlocal response removes the boundary divergence of the spectral energy density that is present in a local model. The spectral energy density shows a large dependence on the difference between the transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities, even at distances up to 10 nm from the boundary.

  15. Level densities of iron isotopes and lower-energy enhancement of y-strength function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinov, A V; Grimes, S M; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Brune, C R; Guttormsen, M; Hornish, M J; Massey, T N; Mitchell, G; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2005-08-30

    The neutron spectrum from the {sup 55}Mn(d,n){sup 56}Fe reaction has been measured at E{sub d} = 7 MeV. The level density of {sup 56}Fe obtained from neutron evaporation spectrum has been compared to the level density from Oslo-type {sup 57}Fe({sup 3}He, a{gamma}){sup 56}Fe experiment [1]. The good agreement supports the recent results [1, 8] including an availability of a low-energy enhancement in the {gamma}-strength function for iron isotopes. The new level density function allowed us to investigate an excitation energy dependence of this enhancement, which is shown to increase with increasing excitation energy.

  16. Electromagnetic reflection, transmission and energy density at boundaries of nonlocal media

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J

    2016-01-01

    We consider a semi-infinite spatially dispersive dielectric with unequal transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities. The effect of the boundary is characterized by arbitrary reflection coefficients for polarization waves in the material that propagate to the surface. Specific values of these coefficients correspond to various additional boundary conditions (ABC) for Maxwell's equations. We derive the electromagnetic reflection and transmission coefficients at the boundary and investigate their dependence on material parameters and ABC. We also investigate the electromagnetic zero-point and thermal spectral energy density outside the dielectric. The nonlocal response removes the boundary divergence of the spectral energy density that is present in a local model. The spectral energy density shows a large dependence on the difference between the transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities, even at distances up to 10nm from the boundary.

  17. Correlation energy, correlated electron density, and exchange-correlation potential in some spherically confined atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2016-12-05

    We report correlation energies, electron densities, and exchange-correlation potentials obtained from configuration interaction and density functional calculations on spherically confined He, Be, Be(2+) , and Ne atoms. The variation of the correlation energy with the confinement radius Rc is relatively small for the He, Be(2+) , and Ne systems. Curiously, the Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) functional works well for weak confinements but fails completely for small Rc . However, in the neutral beryllium atom the CI correlation energy increases markedly with decreasing Rc . This effect is less pronounced at the density-functional theory level. The LYP functional performs very well for the unconfined Be atom, but fails badly for small Rc . The standard exchange-correlation potentials exhibit significant deviation from the "exact" potential obtained by inversion of Kohn-Sham equation. The LYP correlation potential behaves erratically at strong confinements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  19. Estimation Prospects of the Source Number Density of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays

    OpenAIRE

    Takami, Hajime; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of accurately estimating the source number density of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) using small-scale anisotropy in their arrival distribution. The arrival distribution has information on their source and source distribution. We calculate the propagation of UHE protons in a structured extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF) and simulate their arrival distribution at the Earth using our previously developed method. The source number density that can best reprodu...

  20. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 5 - Energy density mapping projections. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Task 5 focused on energy projection mapping to estimate and visualise the energy consumption density and GHG emissions under different scenarios. The scenarios from task 4 were built around the energy consumption density of the residential sector under future land use patterns and rely on different energy source combinations (the suite of pathways). In task 5 the energy usage under the different scenarios were fed back into GIS, thereby giving a visual representation of forecasted residential energy consumption per unit area. The methodology is identical to that used in task 2 where current usage was mapped, whereas the mapping in this task is for future forecasts. These results are documented in this report. In addition, GHG mapping under the various scenarios was also undertaken. (LN)

  1. Gravitational Energy-Momentum Density in Bianchi Type-II Space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Aydogdu, O

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, using Einstein and Landau and Lifshitz's energy-momentum complexes in both general relativity and teleparallel gravity, we calculate the total energy distribution(due to matter plus fields) associated with Locally Rotationally Symmetric(LRS) Bianchi type II cosmological models. We show that energy density in these different gravitation theories is the same, so agree with each other. We obtain that the total energy is zero. This result agrees with previous works of Cooperstock and Israelit, Rosen, Johri et al., Banerjee and Sen, Vargas, Aydogdu and Salti. Moreover, our result supports the viewpoints of Albrow and Tryon.

  2. Initial energy density of quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the central rapidity region of highly relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Such an interest stems from the possibility of creating hadron matter of high energy density which may exceed the critical energy density for a phase transition between ordinary confined matter and the unconfined quark-gluon plasma. The experimental searches and identification of the quark-gluon plasma may provide a new insight into the question of quark confinement. The estimate of the initial energy density is quite uncertain. The initial energy density is nonetheless an important physical quantity. It is one of the factors which determines whether the produced matter can undergo phase transition or not. The energy density has been estimated previously by using the color neutralization model of Brodsky et al. However, the color neutralization model gives a central rapidity multiplicity in heavy-ion collision too low by a factor of two. For this reason, we wish to obtain a better estimate of the energy density (in the central rapidity region). As is well known, a simple Glauber-type multiple collision model can reproduce the total multiplicity and multiplicity plateau near the central rapidity region to within 30%. The simple multiple collision model has an approximate validity as a gross description of the reaction process. We shall adopt a semiempirical approach. Using the multiple collision model and the thickness function of Glauber, we obtain analytical functional form for all the quantities in question. A single parameter, r/sub rms/, is adjusted to fit the experimental central rapidity multiplicity data. The semi-empirical results provide a useful tool to extrapolate to the unknown central rapidity region of heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Critical energy density of O(n) models in d = 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerattini, Rachele; Trombettoni, Andrea; Casetti, Lapo

    2014-12-01

    A relation between O(n) models and Ising models has been recently conjectured (Casetti et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 057208). Such a relation, inspired by an energy landscape analysis, implies that the microcanonical density of states of an O(n) spin model on a lattice can be effectively approximated in terms of the density of states of an Ising model defined on the same lattice and with the same interactions. Were this relation exact, it would imply that the critical energy densities of all the O(n) models (i.e. the average values per spin of the O(n) Hamiltonians at their respective critical temperatures) should be equal to that of the corresponding Ising model. It is therefore worth investigating how different the critical energies are and how this difference depends on n. We compare the critical energy densities of O(n) models in three dimensions in some specific cases: the O(1) or Ising model, the O(2) or XY model, the O(3) or Heisenberg model, the O(4) model and the O(∞) or spherical model, all defined on regular cubic lattices and with ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions. The values of the critical energy density in the n = 2, n = 3 and n = 4 cases are derived through a finite-size scaling analysis of data produced by means of Monte Carlo simulations on lattices with up to 1283 sites. For n = 2 and n = 3 the accuracy of previously known results has been improved. We finally derive an interpolation formula showing that the difference between the critical energy densities of O(n) models and that of the Ising model is smaller than 1% if n < 8 and never exceeds 3% for any n.

  4. Influence of basal energy expenditure and body composition on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Aparecida Bezerra Quirino,1 João Modesto-Filho,2 Sancha Helena de Lima Vale,3 Camila Xavier Alves,3 Lúcia Dantas Leite,4 José Brandão-Neto51Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 3Postgraduate Health Science Program, 4Department of Nutrition, 5Department of Clinical Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of body mass index, body weight, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of a sample of 50 women, with minimum time since menopause between 1 and 10 years. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine (L2–L4, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and basal energy expenditure were measured by bioimpedance.Results: The mean age of the women was 51.49 ± 3.86 years and time since menopause was 3.50 ± 2.59 years. Significant negative correlations were found between chronological age and lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric bone mineral density. In regard to time since menopause, we also observed significant negative correlations with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle. The following significant positive correlations were recorded: body mass index with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; fat mass with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; lean mass with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter; and basal energy expenditure with bone mineral density at all sites assessed. On the other hand, the multiple linear regression model showed that: 20.2% of bone mineral density variability at the lumbar spine is related to lean mass and time since

  5. On valence electron density, energy dissipation and plasticity of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, J.J.; Tan, M.J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Liew, K.M., E-mail: kmliew@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Relationship between valence electron density and plasticity of metallic glasses. ► Poisson's ratio increases as electron density decreases. ► Energy dissipation proposed to understand plasticity. ► Low electron density indicates small activation energy. -- Abstract: In conventional crystalline alloys, valence electron density (VED) is one of the most significant factors in determining their phase stability and mechanical properties. Extending the concept to metallic glasses (MGs), it is found, not totally surprisingly, that their mechanical properties are VED-dependent as in crystalline alloys. Interestingly, the whole VED region can be separated into two zones: Zone 1 consists of Mg-, Ca-, and RE-based (RE for rare earth) alloys; Zone 2 consists of the rest of MGs. In either zone, for each type of MGs, Poisson's ratio generally decreases as VED increases. From the energy dissipation viewpoint proposed recently, the amorphous plasticity is closely related to the activation energy for the operation of shear-transformation-zones (STZs). Smaller STZ activation energy suggests higher ductility because STZs with lower activation energy are able to convert deformation work more efficiently into configurational energy rather than heat, which yields mechanical softening and advances the growth of shear bands (SBs). Following this model, it is revealed that the activation energies for STZ operation and crystallization are certainly proportional to VED. Thus, it is understood that, in Zone 2, MGs have a smaller VED and hence lower activation energies which are favorable for ductility and Poisson's ratio. In Zone 1, MGs have the lowest VED but apparent brittleness because either of low glass transition temperature and poor resistance to oxidation or of a large fraction of covalent bonds.

  6. Extra-metabolic energy use and the rise in human hyper-density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Weinberger, Vanessa P.; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2017-03-01

    Humans, like all organisms, are subject to fundamental biophysical laws. Van Valen predicted that, because of zero-sum dynamics, all populations of all species in a given environment flux the same amount of energy on average. Damuth’s ’energetic equivalence rule’ supported Van Valen´s conjecture by showing a tradeoff between few big animals per area with high individual metabolic rates compared to abundant small species with low energy requirements. We use metabolic scaling theory to compare variation in densities and individual energy use in human societies to other land mammals. We show that hunter-gatherers occurred at densities lower than the average for a mammal of our size. Most modern humans, in contrast, concentrate in large cities at densities up to four orders of magnitude greater than hunter-gatherers, yet consume up to two orders of magnitude more energy per capita. Today, cities across the globe flux greater energy than net primary productivity on a per area basis. This is possible by importing enormous amounts of energy and materials required to sustain hyper-dense, modern humans. The metabolic rift with nature created by modern cities fueled largely by fossil energy poses formidable challenges for establishing a sustainable relationship on a rapidly urbanizing, yet finite planet.

  7. Extra-metabolic energy use and the rise in human hyper-density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Weinberger, Vanessa P.; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2017-01-01

    Humans, like all organisms, are subject to fundamental biophysical laws. Van Valen predicted that, because of zero-sum dynamics, all populations of all species in a given environment flux the same amount of energy on average. Damuth’s ’energetic equivalence rule’ supported Van Valen´s conjecture by showing a tradeoff between few big animals per area with high individual metabolic rates compared to abundant small species with low energy requirements. We use metabolic scaling theory to compare variation in densities and individual energy use in human societies to other land mammals. We show that hunter-gatherers occurred at densities lower than the average for a mammal of our size. Most modern humans, in contrast, concentrate in large cities at densities up to four orders of magnitude greater than hunter-gatherers, yet consume up to two orders of magnitude more energy per capita. Today, cities across the globe flux greater energy than net primary productivity on a per area basis. This is possible by importing enormous amounts of energy and materials required to sustain hyper-dense, modern humans. The metabolic rift with nature created by modern cities fueled largely by fossil energy poses formidable challenges for establishing a sustainable relationship on a rapidly urbanizing, yet finite planet. PMID:28252010

  8. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong; Xu, Jiayun; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  9. Energy Flux and Density of Nonuniform Electromagnetic Waves with Total Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Analytic expressions are obtained for the energy flux and density of refracted nonuniform waves produced during total reflection at the boundary between two isotropic media for the general case of elliptically polarized incident light. The average values are determined as functions of the parameters of the adjoining media and the angle of incidence. The cases of linearly and circularly polarized incident waves are examined in detail. An explicit general expression relating the energy fl ux and density of these waves for arbitrarily polarized incident light is obtained.

  10. Dark Energy density in models with Split Supersymmetry and degenerate vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Froggatt, C; Nielsen, H B

    2011-01-01

    The breakdown of global symmetries, which protect a zero value for the cosmological constant in supergravity (SUGRA) models, may lead to a set of degenerate vacua with broken and unbroken supersymmetry (SUSY) whose vacuum energy densities vanish in the leading approximation. Assuming the degeneracy of vacua with broken and unbroken SUSY originating in the hidden sector, we estimate the value of the cosmological constant. We argue that the observed value of the dark energy density can be reproduced in the Split-SUSY scenario if the SUSY breaking scale is of order of 10^{10} GeV.

  11. The Kinetic Energy of Hydrocarbons as a Function of Electron Density and Convolutional Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a convolutional neural network trained to reproduce the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy of hydrocarbons from electron density. The output of the network is used as a non-local correction to the conventional local and semi-local kinetic functionals. We show that this approximation qualitatively reproduces Kohn-Sham potential energy surfaces when used with conventional exchange correlation functionals. Numerical noise inherited from the non-linearity of the neural network is identified as the major challenge for the model. Finally we examine the features in the density learned by the neural network to anticipate the prospects of generalizing these models.

  12. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaton, Yann; Stoyanova, Alexandrina; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa.; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    An alternative separation of short-range exchange and correlation energies is used in the framework of second-order range-separated density-functional perturbation theory. This alternative separation was initially proposed by Toulouse et al. [Theor. Chem. Acc. 114, 305 (2005)] and relies on a long-range interacting wavefunction instead of the non-interacting Kohn-Sham one. When second-order corrections to the density are neglected, the energy expression reduces to a range-separated double-hyb...

  13. A Method to Improve Electron Density Measurement of Cone-Beam CT Using Dual Energy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Men

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a dual energy imaging method to improve the accuracy of electron density measurement with a cone-beam CT (CBCT device. Materials and Methods. The imaging system is the XVI CBCT system on Elekta Synergy linac. Projection data were acquired with the high and low energy X-ray, respectively, to set up a basis material decomposition model. Virtual phantom simulation and phantoms experiments were carried out for quantitative evaluation of the method. Phantoms were also scanned twice with the high and low energy X-ray, respectively. The data were decomposed into projections of the two basis material coefficients according to the model set up earlier. The two sets of decomposed projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images of the basis material coefficients. Then, the images of electron densities were calculated with these CBCT images. Results. The difference between the calculated and theoretical values was within 2% and the correlation coefficient of them was about 1.0. The dual energy imaging method obtained more accurate electron density values and reduced the beam hardening artifacts obviously. Conclusion. A novel dual energy CBCT imaging method to calculate the electron densities was developed. It can acquire more accurate values and provide a platform potentially for dose calculation.

  14. [Cost and energy density of diet in Brazil, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the cost and energy density of diet consumed in Brazilian households. Data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF 2008/2009) were used to identify the main foods and their prices. Similar items were grouped, resulting in a basket of 67 products. Linear programming was applied for the composition of isoenergetic baskets, minimizing the deviation from the average household diet. Restrictions were imposed on the inclusion of items and the energy contribution of the various food groups. A reduction in average cost of diet was applied at intervals of R$0.15 to the lowest possible cost. We identified an inverse association between energy density and cost of diet (p < 0.05), and at the lowest possible cost we obtained the maximum value of energy density. Restrictions on the diet's cost resulted in the selection of diets with higher energy density, indicating that cost of diet may lead to the adoption of inadequate diets in Brazil.

  15. Quadrupole Collective Dynamics from Energy Density Functionals: Collective Hamiltonian and the Interacting Boson Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, K; Otsuka, T; Shimizu, N; Vretenar, D

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic energy density functionals (EDF) have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing an accurate global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. For spectroscopic applications this framework has to be extended to account for collective correlations related to restoration of symmetries broken by the static mean field, and for fluctuations of collective variables. In this work we compare two approaches to five-dimensional quadrupole dynamics: the collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrations and rotations, and the Interacting Boson Model. The two models are compared in a study of the evolution of non-axial shapes in Pt isotopes. Starting from the binding energy surfaces of $^{192,194,196}$Pt, calculated with a microscopic energy density functional, we analyze the resulting low-energy collective spectra obtained from the collective Hamiltonian, and the corresponding IBM-2 Hamiltonian. The calculated excitation spectra and transition probabilities for t...

  16. Energy Aware Self-Organizing Density Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Merrer, Erwan Le; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Viana, Aline; Bertier, Marin

    2008-01-01

    Energy consumption is the most important factor that determines sensor node lifetime. The optimization of wireless sensor network lifetime targets not only the reduction of energy consumption of a single sensor node but also the extension of the entire network lifetime. We propose a simple and adaptive energy-conserving topology management scheme, called SAND (Self-Organizing Active Node Density). SAND is fully decentralized and relies on a distributed probing approach and on the redundancy resolution of sensors for energy optimizations, while preserving the data forwarding and sensing capabilities of the network. We present the SAND's algorithm, its analysis of convergence, and simulation results. Simulation results show that, though slightly increasing path lengths from sensor to sink nodes, the proposed scheme improves significantly the network lifetime for different neighborhood densities degrees, while preserving both sensing and routing fidelity.

  17. Revisiting the density scaling of the non-interacting kinetic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoo, Alex; Teale, Andrew M; Tozer, David J

    2014-07-28

    Scaling relations play an important role in the understanding and development of approximate functionals in density functional theory. Recently, a number of these relationships have been redefined in terms of the Kohn-Sham orbitals [Calderín, Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys., 2013, 86, 032510]. For density scaling the author proposed a procedure involving a multiplicative scaling of the Kohn-Sham orbitals whilst keeping their occupation numbers fixed. In the present work, the differences between this scaling with fixed occupation numbers and that of previous studies, where the particle number change implied by the scaling was accommodated through the use of the grand canonical ensemble, are examined. We introduce the terms orbital and ensemble density scaling for these approaches, respectively. The natural ambiguity of the density scaling of the non-interacting kinetic energy functional is examined and the ancillary definitions implicit in each approach are highlighted and compared. As a consequence of these differences, Calderín recovered a homogeneity of degree 1 for the non-interacting kinetic energy functional under orbital scaling, contrasting recent work by the present authors [J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 136, 034101] where the functional was found to be inhomogeneous under ensemble density scaling. Furthermore, we show that the orbital scaling result follows directly from the linearity and the single-particle nature of the kinetic energy operator. The inhomogeneity of the non-interacting kinetic energy functional under ensemble density scaling can be quantified by defining an effective homogeneity. This quantity is shown to recover the homogeneity values for important approximate forms that are exact for limiting cases such as the uniform electron gas and one-electron systems. We argue that the ensemble density scaling provides more insight into the development of new functional forms.

  18. Constructing multiscale gravitational energy spectra from molecular cloud surface density PDF - interplay between turbulence and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Xing; Burkert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Gravity is believed to be important on multiple physical scales in molecular clouds. However, quantitative constraints on gravity are still lacking. We derive an analytical formula which provides estimates on multiscale gravitational energy distribution using the observed surface density probability distribution function (PDF). Our analytical formalism also enables one to convert the observed column density PDF into an estimated volume density PDF, and to obtain average radial density profile ρ(r). For a region with N_col ˜ N^{-γ _N}, the gravitational energy spectra is E_p(k)˜ k^{-4(1 - 1/γ _N)}. We apply the formula to observations of molecular clouds, and find that a scaling index of -2 of the surface density PDF implies that ρ ˜ r-2 and Ep(k) ˜ k-2. The results are valid from the cloud scale (a few parsec) to around ˜ 0.1 pc. Because of the resemblance the scaling index of the gravitational energy spectrum and the that of the kinetic energy power spectrum of the Burgers turbulence (where E ˜ k-2), our result indicates that gravity can act effectively against turbulence over a multitude of physical scales. This is the critical scaling index which divides molecular clouds into two categories: clouds like Orion and Ophiuchus have shallower power laws, and the amount of gravitational energy is too large for turbulence to be effective inside the cloud. Because gravity dominates, we call this type of cloud g-type clouds. On the other hand, clouds like the California molecular cloud and the Pipe nebula have steeper power laws, and turbulence can overcome gravity if it can cascade effectively from the large scale. We call this type of cloud t-type clouds. The analytical formula can be used to determine if gravity is dominating cloud evolution when the column density PDF can be reliably determined.

  19. Bubbler: A Novel Ultra-High Power Density Energy Harvesting Method Based on Reverse Electrowetting

    OpenAIRE

    Tsung-Hsing Hsu; Supone Manakasettharn; J. Ashley Taylor; Tom Krupenkin

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed and successfully demonstrated a novel approach to direct conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy using microfluidics. The method combines previously demonstrated reverse electrowetting on dielectric (REWOD) phenomenon with the fast self-oscillating process of bubble growth and collapse. Fast bubble dynamics, used in conjunction with REWOD, provides a possibility to increase the generated power density by over an order of magnitude, as compared to the REWOD alon...

  20. Energy Quantization and Probability Density of Electron in Intense-Field-Atom Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 付盘铭

    2003-01-01

    We find that, due to the quantum correlation between the electron and the field, the electronic energy becomes quantized also, manifesting the particle aspect of light in the electron-light interaction. The probability amplitude of finding electron with a given energy is given by a generalized Bessel function, which can be represented as a coherent superposition of contributions from a few electronic quantum trajectories. This concept is illustrated by comparing the spectral density of the electron with the laser assisted recombination spectrum.

  1. Restrictions on negative energy density for the Dirac field in flat spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Wei-Xing; Yu Hong-Wei; Li Fei; Wu Pu-Xun; Ren Zhong-Zhou

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the quantum Dirac field in n + 1-dimensional flat spacetime and derives a lower bound in the form of quantum inequality on the energy density averaged against spacetime sampling functions. The stateindependent quantum inequality derived in the present paper is similar to the temporal quantum energy inequality and it is stronger for massive field than for massless one. It also presents the concrete results of the quantum inequality in 2 and 4-dimensional spacetimes.

  2. Nuclear single-particle states: dynamical shell model and energy density functional methods

    CERN Document Server

    Bortignon, P F; Sagawa, H

    2010-01-01

    We discuss different approaches to the problem of reproducing the observed features of nuclear single-particle (s.p.) spectra. In particular, we analyze the dominant energy peaks, and the single-particle strength fragmentation, using the example of neutron states in 208Pb. Our main emphasis is the interpretation of that fragmentation as due to particle-vibration coupling (PVC). We compare with recent Energy Density Functional (EDF) approaches, and try to present a critical perspective.

  3. Accuracy of a simplified equation for energy expenditure based on bedside volumetric carbon dioxide elimination measurement - A two-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Mehta (Nilesh M.); C.D. Smallwood (Craig D.); K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); R.C. Tasker (Robert); C.P. Duggan (Christopher P.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground & aims: Accurate assessment of resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolic state is essential to optimize nutrient intake in critically ill patients. We aimed to examine the accuracy of a simplified equation for predicting REE using carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2) values.

  4. Energy density distribution of shaped waves inside scattering media mapped onto a complete set of diffusion modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ojambati, Oluwafemi S; Vellekoop, Ivo M; Lagendijk, Ad; Vos, Willem L

    2016-01-01

    We show that the spatial distribution of the energy density of optimally shaped waves inside a scattering medium can be described by considering only a few of the lowest eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. Taking into account only the fundamental eigenfunction, the total internal energy inside the sample is underestimated by only 2%. The spatial distribution of the shaped energy density is very similar to the fundamental eigenfunction, up to a cosine distance of about 0.01. We obtained the energy density inside a quasi-1D disordered waveguide by numerical calculation of the joined scattering matrix. Computing the transmission-averaged energy density over all transmission channels yields the ensemble averaged energy density of shaped waves. From the averaged energy density obtained, we reconstruct its spatial distribution using the eigenfunctions of the diffusion equation. The results from our study have exciting applications in controlled biomedical imaging, efficient light harvesting in solar cells, en...

  5. First-principles investigation of high energy density in PVDF copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, V.; Lu, Liping; Buongiorno Nardelli, M.; Bernholc, J.

    2008-03-01

    PVDF and its copolymers exhibit excellent electromechanical properties and in the case of PVDF-CTFE also a very high energy density [1]. We have investigated the phase diagram of these systems and can quantitatively explain the observed energy density of PVDF-CTFE as due to a para to ferroelectric phase transition in a disordered, multidomain structure [2]. Our results show that pure PVDF prefers the α phase at zero field. Electric field lowers the free energy of the β phase, resulting in a structural phase transition at a sufficiently high field. Copolymer admixture lowers the critical field and eventually leads to an energetic preference for the β phase even at zero field. For PVDF-CTFE with CTFE content below 17 %, the α phase is still preferred and the field-induced phase transformation reversibly stores large amounts of energy. For PVDF-TeFE, the total energy difference between the two phases is much smaller, resulting in substantially smaller energy density. [1] B. Chu et al., Science 313, 334 (2006). [2] V. Ranjan et al., PRL 99, 047801 (2007).

  6. Iron oxide-decorated carbon for supercapacitor anodes with ultrahigh energy density and outstanding cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cao; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Yadong; Mao, Lu; Fan, Zhanxi; Shen, Zexiang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, John

    2015-05-26

    Supercapacitor with ultrahigh energy density (e.g., comparable with those of rechargeable batteries) and long cycling ability (>50000 cycles) is attractive for the next-generation energy storage devices. The energy density of carbonaceous material electrodes can be effectively improved by combining with certain metal oxides/hydroxides, but many at the expenses of power density and long-time cycling stability. To achieve an optimized overall electrochemical performance, rationally designed electrode structures with proper control in metal oxide/carbon are highly desirable. Here we have successfully realized an ultrahigh-energy and long-life supercapacitor anode by developing a hierarchical graphite foam-carbon nanotube framework and coating the surface with a thin layer of iron oxide (GF-CNT@Fe2O3). The full cell of anode based on this structure gives rise to a high energy of ∼74.7 Wh/kg at a power of ∼1400 W/kg, and ∼95.4% of the capacitance can be retained after 50000 cycles of charge-discharge. These performance features are superior among those reported for metal oxide based supercapacitors, making it a promising candidate for the next generation of high-performance electrochemical energy storage.

  7. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  8. Effect of Radial Density Configuration on Wave Field and Energy Flow in Axially Uniform Helicon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Li, Qingchong; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Yinghong; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Bailing; Zhuang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the radial density configuration in terms of width, edge gradient and volume gradient on the wave field and energy flow in an axially uniform helicon plasma is studied in detail. A three-parameter function is employed to describe the density, covering uniform, parabolic, linear and Gaussian profiles. It finds that the fraction of power deposition near the plasma edge increases with density width and edge gradient, and decays in exponential and “bump-on-tail” profiles, respectively, away from the surface. The existence of a positive second-order derivative in the volume density configuration promotes the power deposition near the plasma core, which to our best knowledge has not been pointed out before. The transverse structures of wave field and current density remain almost the same during the variation of density width and gradient, confirming the robustness of the m=1 mode observed previously. However, the structure of the electric wave field changes significantly from a uniform density configuration, for which the coupling between the Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) mode and the helicon mode is very strong, to non-uniform ones. The energy flow in the cross section of helicon plasma is presented for the first time, and behaves sensitive to the density width and edge gradient but insensitive to the volume gradient. Interestingly, the radial distribution of power deposition resembles the radial profile of the axial component of current density, suggesting the control of the power deposition profile in the experiment by particularly designing the antenna geometry to excite a required axial current distribution. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11405271)

  9. The Γ-Limit of the Two-Dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki Energy. I. Droplet Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dorian; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2013-11-01

    This is the first in a series of two papers in which we derive a Γ-expansion for a two-dimensional non-local Ginzburg-Landau energy with Coulomb repulsion, also known as the Ohta-Kawasaki model, in connection with diblock copolymer systems. In that model, two phases appear, which interact via a nonlocal Coulomb type energy. We focus on the regime where one of the phases has very small volume fraction, thus creating small "droplets" of the minority phase in a "sea" of the majority phase. In this paper we show that an appropriate setting for Γ-convergence in the considered parameter regime is via weak convergence of the suitably normalized charge density in the sense of measures. We prove that, after a suitable rescaling, the Ohta-Kawasaki energy functional Γ-converges to a quadratic energy functional of the limit charge density generated by the screened Coulomb kernel. A consequence of our results is that minimizers (or almost minimizers) of the energy have droplets which are almost all asymptotically round, have the same radius and are uniformly distributed in the domain. The proof relies mainly on the analysis of the sharp interface version of the energy, with the connection to the original diffuse interface model obtained via matching upper and lower bounds for the energy. We thus also obtain an asymptotic characterization of the energy minimizers in the diffuse interface model.

  10. Neutron Densities from a Global Analysis of Medium Energy Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, B C; Kerr, L J

    2003-01-01

    A new method for extracting neutron densities from intermediate energy elastic proton-nucleus scattering observables uses a global Dirac phenomenological (DP) approach based on the Relativistic Impulse Approximation (RIA). Data sets for Ca40, Ca48 and Pb208 in the energy range from 500 MeV to 1040 MeV are considered. The global fits are successful in reproducing the data and in predicting data sets not included in the analysis. Using this global approach, energy independent neutron densities are obtained. The vector point proton density distribution is determined from the empirical charge density after unfolding the proton form factor. The other densities are parametrized. The RMS neutron radius, R_n and the neutron skin thickness S_n obtained from the global fits using the most conservative errors are given as follows: for Ca40 R_n is (3.325 +/- 0.025) fm and S_n (-0.044 +/- 0.036) fm; for Ca48 R_n is (3.463 +/- 0.042) fm and S_n (0.103 +/- 0.045) fm; and for Pb208 R_n is (5.551 +/- 0.038) and S_n (0.116 +/-...

  11. High-Energy-Density Physics Fundamentals, Inertial Fusion, and Experimental Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, R. Paul; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    The raw numbers of high-energy-density physics are amazing: shock waves at hundreds of km/s (approaching a million km per hour), temperatures of millions of degrees, and pressures that exceed 100 million atmospheres. This book introduces the reader to the fundamental tools and discoveries of high-energy-density physics. It surveys the production of high-energy-density conditions, the fundamental plasma and hydrodynamic models that can describe them and the problem of scaling from the laboratory to the cosmos. Connections to astrophysics are discussed throughout. The book is intended to support coursework in high-energy-density physics, to meet the needs of new researchers in this field, and also to serve as a useful reference on the fundamentals. Specifically the book has been designed to enable academics in physics, astrophysics, applied physics and engineering departments to provide in a single-course introduction to fluid mechanics and radiative transfer, with dramatic applications in the field of high-ene...

  12. Visualizing the large-$Z$ scaling of the kinetic energy density of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    The scaling of neutral atoms to large $Z$, combining periodicity with a gradual trend to homogeneity, is a fundamental probe of density functional theory, one that has driven recent advances in understanding both the kinetic and exchange-correlation energies. Although research focus is normally upon the scaling of energies, insights can also be gained from energy densities. We visualize the scaling of the positive-definite kinetic energy density (KED) in closed-shell atoms, in comparison to invariant quantities based upon the gradient and Laplacian of the density. We notice a striking fit of the KED within the core of any atom to a gradient expansion using both the gradient and the Laplacian, appearing as an asymptotic limit around which the KED oscillates. The gradient expansion is qualitatively different from that derived from first principles for a slowly-varying electron gas and is correlated with a nonzero Pauli contribution to the KED near the nucleus. We propose and explore orbital-free meta-GGA models...

  13. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  14. On the role of deformed Coulomb potential in fusion using energy density formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lavneet Kaur; Raj Kumari

    2015-10-01

    Using the Skyrme energy density formalism, the effect of deformed Coulomb potential on fusion barriers and fusion cross-sections is studied. Our detailed study reveals that the fusion barriers as well as fusion probabilities depend on the shape deformation (due to deformed Coulomb potential) of the colliding nuclei. However, this dependence due to deformed Coulomb potential is found to be very weak.

  15. Energy Density and Production Ratios of Baryon from QGP with Diquarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhong-Biao; GAO Chong-Shou

    2005-01-01

    @@ At a very high temperature, the quark matter is a hot and dense matter under the colour deconfinement condition,and quarks can coalescent diquarks. Energy density of this system is figured out. A way to calculate baryon ratios produced from quark gluon plasma with diquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions is presented.

  16. Energy and Centrality Dependences of Charged Multiplicity Density in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA; Ben-hao; Bonasera; A; TAI; An

    2002-01-01

    Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, the energy and centrality dependences of chargedparticle pseudo rapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions were studied. Within the framework ofthis model, both the relativistic p + p experimental data and the PHOBOS and PHENIX Au + Au data at

  17. On the Energy-Momentum Densities of the Cylindrically Symmetric Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Havare, A; Yetkin, T; Havare, Ali; Salti, Mustafa; Yetkin, Taylan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, using Moller and Tolman prescriptions we calculate energy and momentum densities for the general cylindrically symmetric spacetime metric. We find that results are finite and well defined in these complexes. We also give the results for some cylindrically symmetric spacetime models.

  18. Energy density in general relativity a possible role of cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, S; Ray, Saibal; Bhadra, Sumana

    2004-01-01

    We consider a static spherically symmetric charged anisotropic fluid source of finite physical radius (\\sim 10^{-16} cm) by introducing a scalar variable \\Lambda dependent on the radial coordinate r under general relativity. From the solution sets a possible role of the cosmological constant is investigated which indicates the dependency of energy density of electron on the variable \\Lambda.

  19. DETERMINATION OF COHESIVE ENERGY DENSITY OF UP RESIN BY THE SWELLING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different types of solvents were chosen,and their soluble expansion ability to unsaturated polyster resin was determined. The principle and method of determining the cohesive energy density of unsaturated polyster resin by using the swelling method are presented in details.

  20. Full charge-density calculation of the surface energy of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Kollár, J..; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1994-01-01

    of the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals (LMTO) method and the ASA in surface calculations. We find that the full charge-density functional improves the agreement with recent full-potential LMTO calculations to a level where the average deviation in surface energy over the 4d series is down to 10%....

  1. Laser energy density, structure and properties of pulsed-laser deposited zinc oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsouva, M.G.; Panagopoulos, C.N. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, Athens 15780 (Greece); Kompitsas, M., E-mail: mcomp@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, Vasileos Konstantinou Ave. 48, Athens 11635 (Greece)

    2011-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen-reactive atmosphere at 20 Pa and a constant substrate temperature at 300 deg. C. A pulsed KrF excimer laser, operated at 248 nm with pulse duration 10 ns, was used to ablate the ceramic zinc oxide target. The structure, the optical and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were studied in dependence of the laser energy density in the 1.2-2.8 J/cm{sup 2} range, with the aid of X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscope, Transmission Spectroscopy techniques, and the Van der Pauw method, respectively. The results indicated that the structural and optical properties of the zinc oxide films were improved by increasing the laser energy density of the ablating laser. The surface roughness of the zinc oxide film increased with the decrease of laser energy density and both the optical bang gap and the electrical resistivity of the film were significantly affected by the laser energy density.

  2. An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.

  3. Advanced High Energy Density Secondary Batteries with Multi-Electron Reaction Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Luo, Rui; Huang, Yongxin; Wu, Feng; Li, Li

    2016-10-01

    Secondary batteries have become important for smart grid and electric vehicle applications, and massive effort has been dedicated to optimizing the current generation and improving their energy density. Multi-electron chemistry has paved a new path for the breaking of the barriers that exist in traditional battery research and applications, and provided new ideas for developing new battery systems that meet energy density requirements. An in-depth understanding of multi-electron chemistries in terms of the charge transfer mechanisms occuring during their electrochemical processes is necessary and urgent for the modification of secondary battery materials and development of secondary battery systems. In this Review, multi-electron chemistry for high energy density electrode materials and the corresponding secondary battery systems are discussed. Specifically, four battery systems based on multi-electron reactions are classified in this review: lithium- and sodium-ion batteries based on monovalent cations; rechargeable batteries based on the insertion of polyvalent cations beyond those of alkali metals; metal-air batteries, and Li-S batteries. It is noted that challenges still exist in the development of multi-electron chemistries that must be overcome to meet the energy density requirements of different battery systems, and much effort has more effort to be devoted to this.

  4. Theory of gravity admitting arbitrary choice of the energy density level

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkas, S L

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a five-vectors theory of gravity admitting arbitrary choice of the energy density level. This theory is formulated as the constraint theory of the second kind, where the concrete values of Lagrange multipliers are evaluated. Cosmological implications of the model could be that the residual vacuum fluctuations dominate over all the universe evolution that resembles the Milne's universe.

  5. Application of an excited state LDA exchange energy functional for the calculation of transition energy of atoms within time-independent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K, E-mail: sami@iitk.ac.i, E-mail: mkh@iitk.ac.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2010-11-14

    Transition energies of a new class of excited states (two-gap systems) of various atoms are calculated in time-independent density functional formalism by using a recently proposed local density approximation exchange energy functional for excited states. It is shown that the excitation energies calculated with this functional compare well with those calculated with exact exchange theories.

  6. Universal and robust electron-density assessment using dual-energy CT

    CERN Document Server

    Möhler, Christian; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) can be used to acquire an electron-density and an effective-atomic-number image of the scanned object. We show that a simple one-parametric formula for the electron density follows from a basic assumption on the functional form of the cross section. This assumption is valid in the energy range relevant to a CT scanner and in the atomic number range relevant to human tissue. We propose a robust calibration for the electron-density equation, which is easily applicable using standard equipment, and provide parameters for two clinical DECT scanners. For the application in proton and ion radiation therapy, we suggest to use the relative cross section instead of the effective atomic number, as it enables a proper treatment of tissue mixtures, while providing the same contrast for diagnostic or delineation purposes.

  7. Configuration mixing within the energy density functional formalism: pathologies and cures

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, Denis; Duguet, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Configuration mixing calculations performed in terms of the Skyrme/Gogny Energy Density Functional (EDF) rely on extending the Single-Reference energy functional into non-diagonal EDF kernels. The standard way to do so, based on an analogy with the pure Hamiltonian case and the use of the generalized Wick theorem, is responsible for the recently observed divergences and steps in Multi-Reference calculations. We summarize here the minimal solution to this problem recently proposed [Lacroix et al, arXiv:0809.2041] and applied with success to particle number restoration[Bender et al, arXiv:0809.2045]. Such a regularization method provides suitable corrections of pathologies for EDF depending on integer powers of the density. The specific case of fractional powers of the density[Duguet et al, arXiv:0809.2049] is also discussed.

  8. libKEDF: An accelerated library of kinetic energy density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Johannes M; Witt, William C; Carter, Emily A

    2017-06-30

    Kinetic energy density functionals (KEDFs) approximate the kinetic energy of a system of electrons directly from its electron density. They are used in electronic structure methods that lack direct access to orbitals, for example, orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) and certain embedding schemes. In this contribution, we introduce libKEDF, an accelerated library of modern KEDF implementations that emphasizes nonlocal KEDFs. We discuss implementation details and assess the performance of the KEDF implementations for large numbers of atoms. We show that using libKEDF, a single computing node or (GPU) accelerator can provide easy computational access to mesoscale chemical and materials science phenomena using OFDFT algorithms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of dietary energy density on serum adipocytokine levels in diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, M; Hosseinzadeh, M J; Tabesh, M; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2013-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum levels of adipocytokines of type 2 diabetic women. In this randomized parallel design clinical trial, a total of 60 diabetic women (aged 30-60 years; BMI>25 kg/m²) were assigned to consume either a low-energy dense (LED) (65% of energy from carbohydrates and 25% from fats), normal-energy dense (NED) (60% from carbohydrates, 30% from fats), or high-energy dense (HED) diet (55% from carbohydrates and 35% from fats) for 8 weeks. The low-energy dense diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and water, while the high-energy dense diet was rich in fats and oils and limited in fruits and vegetables as compared with the normal-dense diet. At baseline and at the end of intervention fasting blood samples were taken to assess metabolic profile. Women in the LED group consumed significantly more dietary fiber (p<0.001), fruits (p<0.001) and vegetables (p<0.001) than those in the NED and HED groups. We failed to find a significant effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum adiponectin and visfatin levels. Even the within-group changes in serum adiponectin and visfatin levels were not significant. Consumption of LED and NED diets resulted in a significant increase in serum chemerin levels (p=0.04). Comparison of mean changes of serum chemerin levels across 3 groups revealed a significant difference (p=0.04). Our study provides evidence indicating that consumption of HED diet for 8 weeks among diabetic patients prevented the increase in serum chemerin levels compared with LED and NED diets. Furthermore, we found no significant effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum adiponectin and visfatin concentrations in the current study.

  10. Configuration Mixing within the Energy Density Functional Formalism: Removing Spurious Contributions from Non-Diagonal Energy Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, D; Bender, M

    2008-01-01

    Multi-reference calculations along the lines of the Generator Coordinate Method or the restoration of broken symmetries within the nuclear Energy Density Functional (EDF) framework are becoming a standard tool in nuclear structure physics. These calculations rely on the extension of a single-reference energy functional, of the Gogny or the Skyrme types, to non-diagonal energy kernels. There is no rigorous constructive framework for this extension so far. The commonly accepted way proceeds by formal analogy with the expressions obtained when applying the generalized Wick theorem to the non-diagonal matrix element of a Hamilton operator between two product states. It is pointed out that this procedure is ill-defined when extended to EDF calculations as the generalized Wick theorem is taken outside of its range of applicability. In particular, such a procedure is responsible for the appearance of spurious divergences and steps in multi-reference EDF energies, as was recently observed in calculations restoring pa...

  11. Publications of Proceedings for the RF 2005 7th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, Jr, N C

    2006-01-01

    The University of California, Davis hosted the High Energy Density and High Power RF 7th Workshop on High Energy Density and High Power RF in Kalamata, Greece, 13-17 June, 2005. The Proceedings cost was supported by these funds from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Proceedings was published through the American Institute of Physics.

  12. Analogy of strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm and structural topology optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Gwun; Kim, Il Yong; Kwak, Byung Ban

    2009-01-01

    In bone-remodeling studies, it is believed that the morphology of bone is affected by its internal mechanical loads. From the 1970s, high computing power enabled quantitative studies in the simulation of bone remodeling or bone adaptation. Among them, Huiskes et al. (1987, "Adaptive Bone Remodeling Theory Applied to Prosthetic Design Analysis," J. Biomech. Eng., 20, pp. 1135-1150) proposed a strain energy density based approach to bone remodeling and used the apparent density for the characterization of internal bone morphology. The fundamental idea was that bone density would increase when strain (or strain energy density) is higher than a certain value and bone resorption would occur when the strain (or strain energy density) quantities are lower than the threshold. Several advanced algorithms were developed based on these studies in an attempt to more accurately simulate physiological bone-remodeling processes. As another approach, topology optimization originally devised in structural optimization has been also used in the computational simulation of the bone-remodeling process. The topology optimization method systematically and iteratively distributes material in a design domain, determining an optimal structure that minimizes an objective function. In this paper, we compared two seemingly different approaches in different fields-the strain energy density based bone-remodeling algorithm (biomechanical approach) and the compliance based structural topology optimization method (mechanical approach)-in terms of mathematical formulations, numerical difficulties, and behavior of their numerical solutions. Two numerical case studies were conducted to demonstrate their similarity and difference, and then the solution convergences were discussed quantitatively.

  13. Silicon-Nanowire Based Lithium Ion Batteries for Vehicles With Double the Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Ionel [Amprius, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Cohen, Yehonathan [Amprius, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Amprius researched and developed silicon nanowire anodes. Amprius then built and delivered high-energy lithium-ion cells that met the project’s specific energy goal and exceeded the project’s energy density goal. But Amprius’ cells did not meet the project’s cycle life goal, suggesting additional manufacturing process development is required. With DOE support, Amprius developed a new anode material, silicon, and a new anode structure, nanowire. During the project, Amprius also began to develop a new multi-step manufacturing process that does not involve traditional anode production processes (e.g. mixing, drying and calendaring).

  14. Extending the random-phase approximation for electronic correlation energies: the renormalized adiabatic local density approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2012-01-01

    while chemical bond strengths and absolute correlation energies are systematically underestimated. In this work we extend the RPA by including a parameter-free renormalized version of the adiabatic local-density (ALDA) exchange-correlation kernel. The renormalization consists of a (local) truncation...... of the ALDA kernel for wave vectors q > 2kF, which is found to yield excellent results for the homogeneous electron gas. In addition, the kernel significantly improves both the absolute correlation energies and atomization energies of small molecules over RPA and ALDA. The renormalization can...

  15. Test Facility for Volumetric Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, M.; Dibowski, G.; Pfander, M.; Sack, J. P.; Schwarzbozl, P.; Ulmer, S.

    2006-07-01

    Long-time testing of volumetric absorber modules is an inevitable measure to gain the experience and reliability required for the commercialization of the open volumetric receiver technology. While solar tower test facilities are necessary for performance measurements of complete volumetric receivers, the long-term stability of individual components can be tested in less expensive test setups. For the qualification of the aging effects of operating cycles on single elements of new absorber materials and designs, a test facility was developed and constructed in the framework of the KOSMOSOL project. In order to provide the concentrated solar radiation level, the absorber test facility is integrated into a parabolic dish system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Several new designs of ceramic absorbers were developed and tested during the last months. (Author)

  16. Level density of $^{56}$Fe and low-energy enhancement of $\\gamma$-strength function

    CERN Document Server

    Voinov, A V; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Brune, C R; Guttormsen, M; Hornish, M J; Massey, T; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2006-01-01

    The $^{55}$Mn$(d,n)^{56}$Fe differential cross section is measured at $E_d=7$ MeV\\@. The $^{56}$Fe level density obtained from neutron evaporation spectra is compared to the level density extracted from the $^{57}$Fe$(^3$He,$\\alpha\\gamma)^{56}$Fe reaction by the Oslo-type technique. Good agreement is found between the level densities determined by the two methods. With the level density function obtained from the neutron evaporation spectra, the $^{56}$Fe $\\gamma$-strength function is also determined from the first-generation $\\gamma$ matrix of the Oslo experiment. The good agreement between the past and present results for the $\\gamma$-strength function supports the validity of both methods and is consistent with the low-energy enhancement of the $\\gamma$ strength below $\\sim 4$ MeV first discovered by the Oslo method in iron and molybdenum isotopes.

  17. Bone mineral density level by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdoom, Asadullah; Rahopoto, Muhammad Qasim; Awan, Shazia; Tahir, Syed Muhammad; Memon, Shazia; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    To observe the level of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in rheumatoid arthritis patients. The observational study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, from January 2011 to December 2014. Bone mineral density was measured from the femoral neck, ward's triangle and lumbar spine, in patients 25-55 years of age, who were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. All the cases were assessed for bone mineral density from appendicular as well as axial skeleton. Data was collected through a designed proforma and analysis was performed using SPSS 21. Of the 229 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 33(14.4%) were males. Five (15.1%) males had normal bone density, 14(42.4%) had osteopenia and 14(42.4%) had osteoporosis. Of the 196(85.5%) females, 45(29.9%) had normal bone density, 72 (37.7%) had osteopenia and 79(40.30%) had osteoporosis. Of the 123(53.7%) patients aged 30-50 years, 38(30.9%) had normal bone density, 59(48.0%) had osteopenia, and 26(21.1%) had osteoporosis. Of the 106(46.3%) patients over 50 years, 12(11.3%) had normal bone density, 27 (25.5%) had osteopenia and 67(63.2%) had osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were most common among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Assessment of bone mineral density by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry can lead to quick relief in the clinical symptoms with timely therapy.

  18. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  19. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of dark matter and dark energy in spherical voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Tsizh, Maksym; Kulinich, Yurij

    2017-02-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large isolated voids in the Universe. We assume that initial perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe (radiation, matter and dark energy) are continuous media with ideal fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations for every component in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame are obtained from equations of energy and momentum conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated numerically. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is much larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter and dark energy are formed and how they depend on parameters of dark energy and initial conditions. In particular, it is shown that final matter density and velocity amplitudes change within range ˜4-7 per cent when the value of equation-of-state parameter of dark energy w vary in the range from -0.8 to -1.2, and change within ˜1 per cent only when the value of effective sound speed of dark energy vary over all allowable range of its values.

  20. Machine Protection and High Energy Density States in Matter for High Energy Hadron Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Sancho, Juan; Schmidt, R

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest accelerator in the world. It is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7TeV. The energy stored in each beam is 362MJ, sufficient to melt 500kg of copper. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. Machine protection systems are essential to safely operate the accelerator and handle all possible accidents. This thesis deals with the study of different failure scenarios and its possible consequences. It addresses failure scenarios ranging from low intensity losses on high-Z materials and superconductors to high intensity losses on carbon and copper collimators. Low beam losses are sufficient to quench the superconducting magnets and the stabilized superconducting cables (bus-bars) that connects the main magnets. If this occurs and the energy from the bus-bar is not extracted fast enough it can lead to a situation similar to the accident in 2008 at LHC during pow...

  1. Localized operator partitioning method for electronic excitation energies in the time-dependent density functional formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Nagesh, Jayashree; Brumer, Paul; Izmaylov, Artur F

    2016-01-01

    We extend the localized operator partitioning method (LOPM) [J. Nagesh, A.F. Izmaylov, and P. Brumer, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 084114 (2015)] to the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) framework to partition molecular electronic energies of excited states in a rigorous manner. A molecular fragment is defined as a collection of atoms using Stratman-Scuseria-Frisch atomic partitioning. A numerically efficient scheme for evaluating the fragment excitation energy is derived employing a resolution of the identity to preserve standard one- and two-electron integrals in the final expressions. The utility of this partitioning approach is demonstrated by examining several excited states of two bichromophoric compounds: 9-((1-naphthyl)-methyl)-anthracene and 4-((2-naphthyl)-methyl)-benzaldehyde. The LOPM is found to provide nontrivial insights into the nature of electronic energy localization that are not accessible using simple density difference analysis.

  2. Characterization of structural vibration: Field descriptors based on energy density and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjama, Jukka

    Measurement of energy flow in acoustical and vibrational fields is usually based on the detection of one linear field quantity (e.g. sound pressure) and its spatial gradient, two transducers being used for the measurement. This report first reviews the quantities which can be obtained from the measurement of acoustical intensity with a two-microphone probe: intensity and the energy densities. A set of 'field descriptors', relative quantities giving a measure of propagating (active) character of the waves in the sound field, is proposed. These energetic quantities are based entirely on the transversal velocity measured and the gradient of that velocity, and are available when the two-transducer method of bending wave intensity is used. Examples of the energy densities and field descriptors measured in an aluminum plate are presented, and proposals for further work are given.

  3. Lower Bounds on Negative Energy Densities for the Scalar Field in Flat Spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Wei-Xing; YU Hong-Wei; REN Zhong-Zhou; Wu Pu-Xun; LI Fei

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a lower bound on the spacetime-weighted average of the energy density for the scalar field in four-dimensional flat spacetime.The bound takes the form of a quantum inequality.The inequality does not rely on the quantum state and its form is only related to the weights,namely the spacetime sampling functions which are assumed to be smooth,positive and compactly supported.It is found that the inequality is just equal to the temporal quantum energy inequality. When the characteristic length of the temporal sampling function tends to zero,the lower bound becomes divergent.This is consistent with the fact that the spatial restriction on negative energy density does not exist in four-dimensional spacetime.

  4. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  5. Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changlani, Hitesh J; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K

    2015-09-14

    We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U(∗)/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.

  6. Weighted-density functionals for cavity formation and dispersion energies in continuum solvation models

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Arias, T A

    2014-01-01

    Continuum solvation models enable efficient first principles calculations of chemical reactions in solution, but require extensive parametrization and fitting for each solvent and class of solute systems. Here, we examine the assumptions of continuum solvation models in detail and replace empirical terms with physical models in order to construct a minimally-empirical solvation model. Specifically, we derive solvent radii from the nonlocal dielectric response of the solvent from ab initio calculations, construct a closed-form and parameter-free weighted-density approximation for the free energy of the cavity formation, and employ a pair-potential approximation for the dispersion energy. We show that the resulting model with a single solvent-independent parameter: the electron density threshold ($n_c$), and a single solvent-dependent parameter: the dispersion scale factor ($s_6$), reproduces solvation energies of organic molecules in water, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride with RMS errors of 1.1, 0.6 and 0....

  7. High-energy-density Targets Fabricated by The University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sallee; Davis, J. S.; Gao, L.; Gillespie, R. S.; MacDonald, M. J.; Malamud, G.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Young, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Keiter, P. A.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    The University of Michigan has been fabricating their own targets for high-energy-density physics experiments for well over the past decade. We utilize the process of machined acrylic bodies and tightly toleranced mating components that serve as constraints, enabling our group to build repeatable targets. We favor traditional machining, utilizing 3D printing when it suits, taking advantage of the very best part of both of these methods of creating precision parts for our targets. Here we present several campaigns shot at the OMEGA, Titan and Trident facilities and methods used to those fabricate targets. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the National Laser User Facility Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719.

  8. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pwaste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  9. Excitation and ionization energies of substituted anilines calculated with density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Takahata

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Valence electron singlet excitation energies (VEExE, valence electron ionization energies (VEIE, core electron binding energies (CEBE, and non-resonant X-ray emission energies of substituted anilines and related molecules were calculated using density functional theory (DFT. The energy calculations were done with TZP basis set of Slater Type Orbitals. PW86x-PW91c, turned out to be the best XC functional among eight functionals tested for time dependent DFT (TDDFT calculation of the singlet excitation energies of the substituted anilines. Using the XC functional, average absolute deviation (AAD from experiment was 0.223 eV for eighteen cases with maximum absolute deviation of 0.932 eV. The valence electron ionization energies of the substituted benzenes were calculated by ΔSCF method with PW86x-PW91c. AAD from experiment was 0.21 eV. The CEBEs were calculated with the previously established method, named as scheme 2003. ΔCEBE(SMS,, sum of mono substituted (SMS CEBE shift, and mutual interference effect (MIE were defined and their values were calculated. Magnitude of MIE provides the degree of mutual interference between two substituents in a phenyl ring. Average absolute value of MIE was ca. 0.1 eV for the three isomers of phenetidine. Using the calculated valence electron ionization energies and the core electron binding energies of one of the phenetidines, some X-ray emission energies were calculated.

  10. Symmetry energy effects on isovector properties of neutron rich nuclei with a density functional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papazoglou, M C

    2014-01-01

    We employ a variational method to study the effect of the symmetry energy on the neutron skin thickness and the symmetry energy coefficients of various neutron rich nuclei. We concentrate our interest on $^{208}$Pb, $^{124}$Sn, $^{90}$Zr, and $^{48}$Ca, although the method can be applied in the totality of medium and heavy neutron rich nuclei. Our approach has the advantage that the isospin asymmetry function $\\alpha(r)$, which is the key quantity to calculate isovector properties of various nuclei, is directly related with the symmetry energy as a consequence of the variational principle. Moreover, the Coulomb interaction is included in a self-consistent way and its effects can be separated easily from the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We confirm, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the strong dependence of the symmetry energy on the various isovector properties for the relevant nuclei, using possible constraints between the slope and the value of the symmetry energy at the saturation density.

  11. Volumetric Heat Generation and Consequence Raise in Temperature Due to Absorption of Neutrons from Thermal up to 14.9 MeV Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Massoud, E

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the heat generation rate and the consequence rise in temperature due to absorption of all neutrons from thermal energies (E<0.025) up to 14.9 MeV in water, paraffin wax, ordinary concrete and heavy concrete and heavy concrete as some selected hydrogenous materials are investigated. The neutron flux distributions are calculated by both ANISN-code and three group method in which the fast neutrons are expressed by the removal cross section concept while the other two groups (epithermal and thermal) are treated by the diffusion equation. The heat generation can be calculated from the neutron macroscopic absorption of each material or mixture multiplied by the corresponding neutron fluxes. The rise in temperature is then calculated by using both of the heat generation and the thermal conductivity of the selected materials. Some results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and a good agreement is achieved.

  12. Nonlocal Wigner-like correlation energy density functional: parametrization and tests on two-electron systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katriel, Jacob; Bauer, Michael; Springborg, Michael; McCarthy, Shane P; Thakkar, Ajit J

    2007-07-14

    Reparametrization of Wigner's correlation energy density functional yields a very close fit to the correlation energies of the helium isoelectronic sequence. However, a quite different reparametrization is required to obtain an equally close fit to the isoelectronic sequence of Hooke's atom. In an attempt to avoid having to reparametrize the functional for different choices of the one-body potential, we propose a parametrization that depends on global characteristics of the ground-state electron density as quantified by scale-invariant combinations of expectation values of local one-body operators. This should be viewed as an alternative to the density-gradient paradigm, allowing one to introduce the nonlocal dependence of the density functional on the density in a possibly more effective way. Encouraging results are obtained for two-electron systems with one-body potentials of the form r(zeta) with zeta=-12,+12,1, which span the range between the Coulomb potential (zeta=-1) and the Hooke potential (zeta=2).

  13. α MnMoO₄/graphene hybrid composite: high energy density supercapacitor electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Giri, Soumen; Moniruzzaman, Md; Basu, Tanya; Mandal, Manas; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2014-07-28

    A unique and cost effective hydrothermal procedure has been carried out for the synthesis of hexahedron shaped α MnMoO4 and its hybrid composite with graphene using three different weight percentages of graphene. Characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman and FTIR analysis, established the phase and formation of the composite. The electrochemical characterization of the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composites in 1 M Na2SO4 displayed highest specific capacitances of 234 F g(-1) and 364 F g(-1), respectively at a current density of 2 A g(-1). Unlike many other pseudocapacitive electrode materials our prepared materials responded in a wide range of working potentials of (-)1 V to (+)1 V, which indeed resulted in a high energy density without substantial loss of power density. The highest energy densities of 130 Wh kg(-1) and 202.2 Wh kg(-1) were achieved, respectively for the MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composite at a constant power delivery rate of 2000 W kg(-1). The synergistic effect of the graphene with the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 caused an increased cycle stability of 88% specific capacitance retention after 1000 consecutive charge discharge cycles at 8 A g(-1) constant current density, which was higher than the virgin MnMoO4 with 84% specific capacitance retention.

  14. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  15. Self-suspended vibration-driven energy harvesting chip for power density maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Gonzalo; Agustí, Jordi; Abadal, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    This work introduces a new concept to integrate energy-harvesting devices with the aim of improving their throughput, mainly in terms of scavenged energy density and frequency tunability. This concept, named energy harvester in package (EHiP), is focused on the heterogeneous integration of a MEMS die, dedicated to scavenging energy, with an auxiliary chip, which can include the control and power management circuitry, sensors and RF transmission capabilities. The main advantages are that the whole die can be used as an inertial mass and the chip area usage is optimized. Based on this concept, in this paper we describe the development and characterization of a MEMS die fully dedicated to harvesting mechanical energy from ambient vibrations through an electrostatic transduction. A test PCB has been fabricated to perform the assembly that allows measurement of the resonance motion of the whole system at 289 Hz. An estimated maximum generated power of around 11 μW has been obtained for an input vibration acceleration of ˜10 m s-2 when the energy harvester operates in a constant-charge cycle for the best-case scenario. Therefore, a maximum scavenged power density of 0.85 mW cm-3 is theoretically expected for the assembled system. These results demonstrate that the generated power density of any vibration-based energy harvester can be significantly increased by applying the EHiP concept, which could become an industrial standard for manufacturing this kind of system, independently of the transduction type, fabrication technology or application.

  16. Energy-momentum and angular momentum densities in gauge theories of gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Toshiharu

    2000-01-01

    In the $\\bar{\\mbox{\\rm Poincar\\'{e}}}$ gauge theory of gravity, which has been formulated on the basis of a principal fiber bundle over the space-time manifold having the covering group of the proper orthochronous Poincar\\'{e} group as the structure group, we examine the tensorial properties of the dynamical energy-momentum density ${}^{G}{\\mathbf T}_{k}{}^{\\mu}$ and the ` ` spin" angular momentum density ${}^{G}{\\mathbf S}_{kl}{}^{\\mu}$ of the gravitational field. They are both space-time ve...

  17. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-06-09

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  18. $\\Delta$ self-energy at finite temperature and density and the $\\pi N$ cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Snigdha; Sarkar, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The self energy of $\\Delta$-baryon is evaluated at finite temperature and density using the real time formalism of thermal field theory. The Dyson-Schwinger equation is used to get the exact thermal propagator followed by the spectral function of $\\Delta$. The $\\pi N$ scattering cross section obtained using explicit $\\Delta$ exchange is normalized to the experimental data in vacuum and its medium modification is implemented by means of the exact thermal propagator. A significant suppression of the peak is observed at higher temperature and baryon density.

  19. The force density and the kinetic energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic fields in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    We determine the invariant expression for the force density that the electromagnetic field exerts on dipolar matter. We construct the non-symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field in matter which is consistent with that force and with Maxwell equations. We recover Minkowski's expression for the momentum density. We use our results to discuss momentum exchange of an electromagnetic wave-packet which falls into a dielectric block. In particular we show that the wave-packet pulls the block when it enters and drags it when it leaves.

  20. Magnetic Density of States at Low Energy in Geometrically Frustrated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaouanc, A.; de Réotier, P. Dalmas; Glazkov, V.; Marin, C.; Bonville, P.; Hodges, J. A.; Gubbens, P. C.; Sakarya, S.; Baines, C.

    2005-07-01

    Using muon-spin-relaxation measurements we show that the pyrochlore compound Gd2Ti2O7, in its magnetically ordered phase below ˜1 K, displays persistent spin dynamics down to temperatures as low as 20 mK. The characteristics of the induced muon relaxation can be accounted for by a scattering process involving two magnetic excitations, with a density of states characterized by an upturn at low energy and a small gap depending linearly on the temperature. We propose that such a density of states is a generic feature of geometrically frustrated magnetic materials.

  1. Self-consistent study of nuclei far from stability with the energy density method

    CERN Document Server

    Tondeur, F

    1981-01-01

    The self-consistent energy density method has been shown to give good results with a small number of parameters for the calculation of nuclear masses, radii, deformations, neutron skins, shell and sub- shell effects. It is here used to study the properties of nuclei far from stability, like densities, shell structure, even-odd mass differences, single-particle potentials and nuclear deformations. A few possible consequences of the results for astrophysical problems are briefly considered. The predictions of the model in the super- heavy region are summarised. (34 refs).

  2. Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-05-01

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  3. Enhanced von Weizsäcker Wang-Govind-Carter kinetic energy density functional for semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ilgyou [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-1009 (United States); Carter, Emily A., E-mail: eac@princeton.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, and Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    We propose a new form of orbital-free (OF) kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) for semiconductors that is based on the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC99) nonlocal KEDF. We enhance within the latter the semi-local von Weizsäcker KEDF term, which is exact for a single orbital. The enhancement factor we introduce is related to the extent to which the electron density is localized. The accuracy of the new KEDF is benchmarked against Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) by comparing predicted energy differences between phases, equilibrium volumes, and bulk moduli for various semiconductors, along with metal-insulator phase transition pressures. We also compare point defect and (100) surface energies in silicon for a broad test of its applicability. This new KEDF accurately reproduces the exact non-interacting kinetic energy of KSDFT with only one additional adjustable parameter beyond the three parameters in the WGC99 KEDF; it exhibits good transferability between semiconducting to metallic silicon phases and between various III-V semiconductors without parameter adjustment. Overall, this KEDF is more accurate than previously proposed OF KEDFs (e.g., the Huang-Carter (HC) KEDF) for semiconductors, while the computational efficiency remains at the level of the WGC99 KEDF (several hundred times faster than the HC KEDF). This accurate, fast, and transferable new KEDF holds considerable promise for large-scale OFDFT simulations of metallic through semiconducting materials.

  4. Symmetry energy at subsaturation densities and the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaohua; Zuo, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The mass-dependent symmetry energy coefficients $a_{sym}(A)$ has been extracted by analysing the heavy nuclear mass differences reducing the uncertainties as far as possible in our previous work. Taking advantage of the obtained symmetry energy coefficient $a_{sym}(A)$ and the density profiles obtained by switching off the Coulomb interaction in $^{208}\\text{Pb}$, we calculated the slope parameter $L_{0.11}$ of the symmetry energy at the density of $0.11\\text{fm}^{-3}$. The calculated $L_{0.11}$ ranges from 40.5 MeV to 60.3 MeV. The slope parameter $L_{0.11}$ of the symmetry energy at the density of $0.11\\text{fm}^{-3}$ is also calculated directly with Skyrme interactions for nuclear matter and is found to have a fine linear relation with the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}\\text{Pb}$, which is the difference of the neutron and proton rms radii of the nucleus. With the linear relation the neutron skin thickness $ \\Delta R_{np} $ of $^{208}\\text{Pb}$ is predicted to be 0.15 - 0.21 fm.

  5. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  6. Pie-like electrode design for high-energy density lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jin Tao; Chen, Yu Ming; Li, Ju; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the overwhelming advantage in energy density, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising next-generation electrochemical energy storage system. Despite many efforts in pursuing long cycle life, relatively little emphasis has been placed on increasing the areal energy density. Herein, we have designed and developed a `pie' structured electrode, which provides an excellent balance between gravimetric and areal energy densities. Combining lotus root-like multichannel carbon nanofibers `filling' and amino-functionalized graphene `crust', the free-standing paper electrode (S mass loading: 3.6 mg cm-2) delivers high specific capacity of 1,314 mAh g-1 (4.7 mAh cm-2) at 0.1 C (0.6 mA cm-2) accompanied with good cycling stability. Moreover, the areal capacity can be further boosted to more than 8 mAh cm-2 by stacking three layers of paper electrodes with S mass loading of 10.8 mg cm-2.

  7. Assessment of Density Functional Methods for Exciton Binding Energies and Related Optoelectronic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jui-Che; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2015-01-01

    The exciton binding energy, the energy required to dissociate an excited electron-hole pair into free charge carriers, is one of the key factors to the optoelectronic performance of organic materials. However, it remains unclear whether modern quantum-mechanical calculations, mostly based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), are reliably accurate for exciton binding energies. In this study, the exciton binding energies and related optoelectronic properties (e.g., the ionization potentials, electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and optical gaps) of 121 small- to medium-sized molecules are calculated using KS-DFT and TDDFT with various density functionals. Our KS-DFT and TDDFT results are compared with those calculated using highly accurate CCSD and EOM-CCSD methods, respectively. The omegaB97, omegaB97X, and omegaB97X-D functionals are shown to generally outperform (with a mean absolute error of 0.36 eV) other functionals for the properties inve...

  8. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneralp, Burak; Zhou, Yuyu; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Gupta, Mukesh; Yu, Sha; Patel, Pralit L; Fragkias, Michail; Li, Xiaoma; Seto, Karen C

    2017-01-09

    Although the scale of impending urbanization is well-acknowledged, we have a limited understanding of how urban forms will change and what their impact will be on building energy use. Using both top-down and bottom-up approaches and scenarios, we examine building energy use for heating and cooling. Globally, the energy use for heating and cooling by the middle of the century will be between 45 and 59 exajoules per year (corresponding to an increase of 7-40% since 2010). Most of this variability is due to the uncertainty in future urban densities of rapidly growing cities in Asia and particularly China. Dense urban development leads to less urban energy use overall. Waiting to retrofit the existing built environment until markets are ready in about 5 years to widely deploy the most advanced renovation technologies leads to more savings in building energy use. Potential for savings in energy use is greatest in China when coupled with efficiency gains. Advanced efficiency makes the least difference compared with the business-as-usual scenario in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa but significantly contributes to energy savings in North America and Europe. Systemic efforts that focus on both urban form, of which urban density is an indicator, and energy-efficient technologies, but that also account for potential co-benefits and trade-offs with human well-being can contribute to both local and global sustainability. Particularly in growing cities in the developing world, such efforts can improve the well-being of billions of urban residents and contribute to mitigating climate change by reducing energy use in urban areas.

  9. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneralp, Burak; Zhou, Yuyu; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Gupta, Mukesh; Yu, Sha; Patel, Pralit L.; Fragkias, Michail; Li, Xiaoma; Seto, Karen C.

    2017-01-01

    Although the scale of impending urbanization is well-acknowledged, we have a limited understanding of how urban forms will change and what their impact will be on building energy use. Using both top-down and bottom-up approaches and scenarios, we examine building energy use for heating and cooling. Globally, the energy use for heating and cooling by the middle of the century will be between 45 and 59 exajoules per year (corresponding to an increase of 7–40% since 2010). Most of this variability is due to the uncertainty in future urban densities of rapidly growing cities in Asia and particularly China. Dense urban development leads to less urban energy use overall. Waiting to retrofit the existing built environment until markets are ready in about 5 years to widely deploy the most advanced renovation technologies leads to more savings in building energy use. Potential for savings in energy use is greatest in China when coupled with efficiency gains. Advanced efficiency makes the least difference compared with the business-as-usual scenario in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa but significantly contributes to energy savings in North America and Europe. Systemic efforts that focus on both urban form, of which urban density is an indicator, and energy-efficient technologies, but that also account for potential co-benefits and trade-offs with human well-being can contribute to both local and global sustainability. Particularly in growing cities in the developing world, such efforts can improve the well-being of billions of urban residents and contribute to mitigating climate change by reducing energy use in urban areas. PMID:28069957

  10. An algorithm for noise correction of dual-energy computed tomography material density images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Rafael Simon; Jacob, Christian; Hara, Amy K; Silva, Alvin C; Pavlicek, William; Ross, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) images can undergo a two-material decomposition process which results in two images containing material density information. Material density images obtained by that process result in images with increased pixel noise. Noise reduction in those images is desirable in order to improve image quality. A noise reduction algorithm for material density images was developed and tested. A three-level wavelet approach combined with the application of an anisotropic diffusion filter was used. During each level, the resulting noise maps are further processed, until the original resolution is reached and the final noise maps obtained. Our method works in image space and, therefore, can be applied to any type of material density images obtained from any DECT vendor. A quantitative evaluation of the noise-reduced images using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and 2D noise power spectrum was done to quantify the improvements. The noise reduction algorithm was applied to a set of images resulting in images with higher SNR and CNR than the raw density images obtained by the decomposition process. The average improvement in terms of SNR gain was about 49 % while CNR gain was about 52 %. The difference between the raw and filtered regions of interest mean values was far from reaching statistical significance (minimum [Formula: see text], average [Formula: see text]). We have demonstrated through a series of quantitative analyses that our novel noise reduction algorithm improves the image quality of DECT material density images.

  11. Ag incorporated Mn3O4/AC nanocomposite based supercapacitor devices with high energy density and power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamuthu, S; Vijayakumar, S; Muralidharan, G

    2014-12-14

    Silver incorporated Mn3O4/amorphous carbon (AC) nanocomposites are synthesized by a green chemistry method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the structural changes in Mn3O4/AC nanocomposites attributable to the addition of silver. Cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and ac-impedance studies indicated that the Ag-Mn3O4/AC-5 electrode was the most suitable candidate for supercapacitor applications. From the galvanostatic charge-discharge studies, a higher specific capacitance of 981 F g(-1) at a specific current of 1 A g(-1) was obtained. An Ag-Mn3O4/AC-symmetric supercapacitor consisting of an Ag-incorporated Mn3O4/AC composite as an anode as well as a cathode, and an asymmetric supercapacitor consisting of an Ag-incorporated Mn3O4/AC composite as a cathode and an activated carbon as an anode have been fabricated. The symmetric device exhibits a specific cell capacitance of 72 F g(-1) at a specific current of 1 A g(-1) whereas the asymmetric device delivers a specific cell capacitance of 180 F g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 A g(-1). The asymmetric supercapacitor device yields a high energy density of 81 W h kg(-1). This is higher than that of lead acid batteries and comparable with that of nickel hydride batteries.

  12. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT) for the Calculation of Atomization Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The calculation of atomization energies using density functional theory (DFT), using the B3LYP hybrid functional, is reported. The sensitivity of the atomization energy to basis set is studied and compared with the coupled cluster singles and doubles approach with a perturbational estimate of the triples (CCSD(T)). Merging the B3LYP results with the G2(MP2) approach is also considered. It is found that replacing the geometry optimization and calculation of the zero-point energy by the analogous quantities computed using the B3LYP approach reduces the maximum error in the G2(MP2) approach. In addition to the 55 G2 atomization energies, some results for transition metal containing systems will also be presented.

  13. Global analysis of quadrupole shape invariants based on covariant energy density functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, S.; Chen, Q.; Li, Z. P.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2017-05-01

    Background: The coexistence of different geometric shapes at low energies presents a universal structure phenomenon that occurs over the entire chart of nuclides. Studies of the shape coexistence are important for understanding the microscopic origin of collectivity and modifications of shell structure in exotic nuclei far from stability. Purpose: The aim of this work is to provide a systematic analysis of characteristic signatures of coexisting nuclear shapes in different mass regions, using a global self-consistent theoretical method based on universal energy density functionals and the quadrupole collective model. Method: The low-energy excitation spectrum and quadrupole shape invariants of the two lowest 0+ states of even-even nuclei are obtained as solutions of a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (5DCH) model, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations based on the relativistic energy density functional PC-PK1, and a finite-range pairing interaction. Results: The theoretical excitation energies of the states, 21+,41+,02+,22+,23+, as well as the B (E 2 ;01+→21+) values, are in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental values for 621 even-even nuclei. Quadrupole shape invariants have been implemented to investigate shape coexistence, and the distribution of possible shape-coexisting nuclei is consistent with results obtained in recent theoretical studies and available data. Conclusions: The present analysis has shown that, when based on a universal and consistent microscopic framework of nuclear density functionals, shape invariants provide distinct indicators and reliable predictions for the occurrence of low-energy coexisting shapes. This method is particularly useful for studies of shape coexistence in regions far from stability where few data are available.

  14. Energy and centrality dependences of charged multiplicity pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Dai Mei; Sá Ben-Hao; Li Zhong Dao

    2002-01-01

    Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, and the corresponding Monte Carlo events generator, the energy and centrality dependences of charged particle pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions were studied. Within the framework of this model, both the relativistic p anti p experimental data and the PHOBOS and PHENIX Au + Au data could be reproduced fairly well without retuning the model parameters. The author shows that since is not a well defined physical variable both experimentally and theoretically, the charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair can increase and also can decrease with increasing of , so it may be hard to use charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair as a function of to distinguish various theoretical models for particle production

  15. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results.

  16. Density effect of the neutron halo nucleus induced reactions in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xi-Guang; CHEN Jin-Gen; MA Yu-Gang; FANG De-Qing; TIAN Wen-Dong; YAN Ting-Zhi; CAI Xiang-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Using an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model, we study the 15C induced reactions from 30-120 MeV/nucleon systematically. Here the valence neutron of 15C is assigned at both 1d5/2 and 2s1/2 states respectively in order to study the density effect of reaction mechanism. It is. believed that the existent neutron halo structure at the 2s1/2 state of 15C will affect the light particle emission evidently.In our calculation, the different density distributions of 15C at two states are calculated by relativistic mean field (RMF) model and introduced in the initiation of IQMD model, respectively. It is found that some observables such as emission fragmentation multiplicity, emission neutron/proton ratio and emission neutrons'kinetic energy spectrum are sensitive to the initial density distribution.

  17. Nuclear level density of even-even nuclei with temperature-dependent pairing energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghani, V.; Alavi, S.A. [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The influence of using a temperature-dependent pairing term on the back-shifted Fermi gas (BSFG) model of nuclear level density of some even-even nuclei has been investigated. We have chosen an approach to determine the adjustable parameters from theoretical calculations, directly. The exact Ginzburg-Landau (EGL) theory was used to determine the temperature-dependent pairing energy as back-shifted parameter of the BSFG model. The level density parameter of the BSFG model has been determined through the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The level densities of {sup 96}Mo, {sup 106,112}Cd, {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and heat capacities of {sup 96}Mo and {sup 164}Dy nuclei were calculated. Good agreement between theory and experiment was observed. (orig.)

  18. Multispecies Density and Temperature Gradient Dependence of Quasilinear Particle and Energy Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Rewoldt; R.V. Budny; W.M. Tang

    2004-08-09

    The variations of the normalized quasilinear particle and energy fluxes with artificial changes in the density and temperature gradients, as well as the variations of the linear growth rates and real frequencies, for ion temperature gradient and trapped-electron modes, are calculated. The quasilinear fluxes are normalized to the total energy flux, summed over all species. Here, realistic cases for tokamaks and spherical torii are considered which have two impurity species. For situations where there are substantial changes in the normalized fluxes, the ''diffusive approximation,'' in which the normalized fluxes are taken to be linear in the gradients, is seen to be inaccurate. Even in the case of small artificial changes in density or temperature gradients, changes in the fluxes of different species (''off-diagonal'') generally are significant, or even dominant, compared to those for the same species (''diagonal'').

  19. Stability of regular energy density in Palatini f(R) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Yousaf, Z. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2015-02-01

    The present work explores the effects of the three-parametric f(R) model on the stability of the regular energy density of planar fluid configurations with the Palatini f(R) formalism. For this purpose, we develop a link between the Weyl scalar and structural properties of the system by evaluating a couple of differential equations. We also see the effects of Palatini f(R) terms in the formulation of structure scalars obtained by orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor in general relativity. We then identify the parameters which produce energy density irregularities in expansive and expansion-free dissipative as well as non-dissipative matter distributions. It is found that particular combinations of the matter variables lead to irregularities in an initially homogeneous fluid distribution. We conclude that Palatini f(R) extra corrections tend to decrease the inhomogeneity, thereby imparting stability to the self-gravitating system. (orig.)

  20. Spin Magnetohydrodynamics. Energy density and vorticity evolution in electron-ion quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Trukhanova, Mariya Iv

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explain a magneto quantum hydrodynamics (MQHD) method for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of spinning fermions in an external electromagnetic field. The fundamental equations of microscopic quantum hydrodynamics (the momentum balance equation, the energy evolution equation and the magnetic moment density equation) were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schredinger equation with a Spin-spin and Coulomb modified Hamiltonian. It has been showed that in the absence of external electromagnetic field the system of particles are subject to the usual quantum force (Bohm potential) and spin-dependent addition (Spin stress). Using the developed approach, an extended vorticity evolution equation for the quantum spinning plasma has been derived. The effects of the new spin forces and Spin-spin interaction contributions on the motion of fermions, the evolution of the magnetic moment density, the energy dynamics and vorticity generation have been predicted. The explicated MQHD appr...

  1. Orbital relaxation effects on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, DaDi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Xiao, E-mail: xz58@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Li, Chen [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-04-21

    We explore effects of orbital relaxation on Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies in density functional theory by using a nonempirical scaling correction approach developed in Zheng et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 174105 (2013)]. Relaxation of Kohn–Sham orbitals upon addition/removal of a fractional number of electrons to/from a finite system is determined by a systematic perturbative treatment. The information of orbital relaxation is then used to improve the accuracy of predicted Kohn–Sham frontier orbital energies by Hartree–Fock, local density approximation, and generalized gradient approximation methods. The results clearly highlight the significance of capturing the orbital relaxation effects. Moreover, the proposed scaling correction approach provides a useful way of computing derivative gaps and Fukui quantities of N-electron finite systems (N is an integer), without the need to perform self-consistent-field calculations for (N ± 1)-electron systems.

  2. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: Constraining the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au, 96Zr+96Zr and 96Ru+96Ru collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon with the Large Area Neutron Detector LAND as part of a setup with several additional detection systems used for the event characterization. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  3. Enhancing Understanding of High Energy Density Plasmas Using Fluid Modeling with Kinetic Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David; Held, Eric; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Masti, Robert; King, Jake

    2016-10-01

    This work seeks to understand possible stabilization mechanisms of the early-time electrothermal instability in the evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) experiments. Such mechanisms may include electron thermal conduction, viscosity, and large magnetic fields. Experiments have shown that the high-energy density plasmas from wire-array implosions require physics modelling that goes well beyond simple models such as ideal MHD. The plan is to develop a multi-fluid extended-MHD model that includes kinetic closures for thermal conductivity, resistivity, and viscosity using codes that are easily available to the wider research community. Such an effort would provide the community with a well-benchmarked tool capable of advanced modeling of high-energy-density plasmas.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2008-03-01

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity reduction of cereal porridges for improving energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Hun; Oh, Sang-Hee; Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwan-Soo [Research and Development Department, Greenpia Technology, Yeoju 469-811 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-03-15

    Cereal porridges have low energy and nutrient density because of its viscosity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the reduction of viscosity and on the increasing solid content of cereal porridge. Four cereals, wheat, rice, maize (the normal starchy type) and waxy rice, were used in this study. The porridge with 3000 cP was individually prepared from cereal flour, gamma-irradiated at 20 kGy and tested. Gamma irradiation of 20 kGy was allowed that the high viscous and rigid cereal porridges turned into semi-liquid consistencies. The solid contents of all porridges could increase by irradiation, compared with non-irradiated ones. No significant differences of starch digestibility were observed in all cereal porridge samples. The results indicated that gamma irradiation might be helpful for improving energy density of cereal porridge with acceptable consistency.

  6. Energy density dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Ezumi, N. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano-city, Nagano (Japan); Sawada, K. [Shinshu University, Nagano-city, Nagano (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Kanazawa University, Kakuma-cho, Kanzawa-city, Ishikawa (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K. [National Insitute for Fusion Science, Toki-city, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue for safety. So far, the oxidation procedure using an atmospheric pressure plasma is expected to be part of the recovery method. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation by plasma chemistry, we have investigated the dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency on gas flow rate and input power in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma. It has been found that the combustion efficiency depends on energy density of absorbed microwave power. Hence, the energy density is considered as a key parameter for combustion processes. Also neutral gas temperatures inside and outside the plasma were measured by an optical emission spectroscopy method and thermocouple. The result shows that the neutral gas temperature in the plasma is much higher than the outside temperature of plasma. The high neutral gas temperature may affect the combustion reaction. (authors)

  7. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  8. Visualizing fast electron energy transport into laser-compressed high-density fast-ignition targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, L. C.; Wei, M. S.; McGuffey, C.; Solodov, A. A.; Theobald, W.; Qiao, B.; Stoeckl, C.; Betti, R.; Chen, H.; Delettrez, J.; Döppner, T.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Habara, H.; Iwawaki, T.; Key, M. H.; Luo, R. W.; Marshall, F. J.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Patel, P. K.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Stephens, R. B.; Yabuuchi, T.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-05-01

    Recent progress in kilojoule-scale high-intensity lasers has opened up new areas of research in radiography, laboratory astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and fast-ignition (FI) laser fusion. FI requires efficient heating of pre-compressed high-density fuel by an intense relativistic electron beam produced from laser-matter interaction. Understanding the details of electron beam generation and transport is crucial for FI. Here we report on the first visualization of fast electron spatial energy deposition in a laser-compressed cone-in-shell FI target, facilitated by doping the shell with copper and imaging the K-shell radiation. Multi-scale simulations accompanying the experiments clearly show the location of fast electrons and reveal key parameters affecting energy coupling. The approach provides a more direct way to infer energy coupling and guide experimental designs that significantly improve the laser-to-core coupling to 7%. Our findings lay the groundwork for further improving efficiency, with 15% energy coupling predicted in FI experiments using an existing megajoule-scale laser driver.

  9. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, E. W.; Ratcliff, L. E.; Payne, M. C.; Haynes, P. D.; Hine, N. D. M.

    2016-04-20

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable.

  10. Dielectric Elastomer Generator with Improved Energy Density and Conversion Efficiency Based on Polyurethane Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guoling; Yang, Yu; Song, Feilong; Renard, Christophe; Dang, Zhi-Min; Shi, Chang-Yong; Wang, Dongrui

    2017-02-15

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs), which follow the physics of variable capacitors and harvest electric energy from mechanical work, have attracted intensive attention over the past decade. The lack of ideal dielectric elastomers, after nearly two decades of research, has become the bottleneck for DEGs' practical applications. Here, we fabricated a series of polyurethane-based ternary composites and estimated their potential as DEGs to harvest electric energy for the first time. Thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) with high relative permittivity (∼8) was chosen as the elastic matrix. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizers, which were selected to improve the permittivity and mechanical properties, respectively, were blended into the PU matrix. As compared to pristine PU, the resultant ternary composite films fabricated through a solution casting approach showed enhanced permittivity, remarkably reduced elastic modulus, and relatively good electrical breakdown strength, dielectric loss, and strain at break. Most importantly, the harvested energy density of PU was significantly enhanced when blended with BT and DBP. A composite film containing 25 phr of BT and 60 phr of DBP with the harvested energy density of 1.71 mJ/cm(3) was achieved, which is about 4 times greater than that of pure PU and 8 times greater than that of VHB adhesives. Remarkably improved conversion efficiency of mechano-electric energy was also obtained via cofilling BT and DBP into PU. The results shown in this work strongly suggest compositing is a very promising way to provide better dielectric elastomer candidates for forthcoming practical DEGs.

  11. SAMURAI-TPC: A Time Projection Chamber for Constraining the Asymmetry Energy at High Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A. B.; Maass, N.; Yennello, S. J.; Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI-TPC is a time projection chamber designed to measure pions and light charged particles. By measuring pion yield ratios and particle flow in heavy ion collisions around E = 200A MeV, we expect to constrain the behavior of the nuclear asymmetry energy around twice saturation density. In this talk, the design and construction of the TPC components will be discussed. Upon completion, the SAMURAI-TPC will be installed in the SAMURAI spectrometer at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Facility at RIKEN, Japan. This work is supported by the Department of Energy (DE-SC0004835).

  12. Time-dependent density functional calculation of the energy loss of antiprotons colliding with metallic nanoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijada, M. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Borisov, A.G. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (France); CNRS, UMR 8625, Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, LCAM, Batiment 351, UPS-11, Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Muino, R.D. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Centro de Fisica de Materiales, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Edificio Korta, Avenida de Tolosa 72, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Time-dependent density functional theory is used to study the interaction between antiprotons and metallic nanoshells. The ground state electronic properties of the nanoshell are obtained in the jellium approximation. The energy lost by the antiproton during the collision is calculated and compared to that suffered by antiprotons traveling in metal clusters. The resulting energy loss per unit path length of material in thin nanoshells is larger than the corresponding quantity for clusters. It is shown that the collision process can be interpreted as the antiproton crossing of two nearly bi-dimensional independent metallic systems. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sio, H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. The sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  14. High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, S.A. (Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); Fawcett, E. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.

  15. High-energy spin-density-wave correlated fluctuations in paramagnetic Cr + 5 at. % V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, S.A. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fawcett, E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Elmiger, M.W.; Shirane, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr + 5 at.%V are extended up in energy to about 80 MeV. These fluctuating spin-spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wavevector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T = 10K and 300K.

  16. Stabilizing laser energy density on a target during pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowden, Paul C.; Jia, Quanxi

    2016-05-31

    A process for stabilizing laser energy density on a target surface during pulsed laser deposition of thin films controls the focused laser spot on the target. The process involves imaging an image-aperture positioned in the beamline. This eliminates changes in the beam dimensions of the laser. A continuously variable attenuator located in between the output of the laser and the imaged image-aperture adjusts the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a "constant voltage" mode. The process provides reproducibility and controllability for deposition of electronic thin films by pulsed laser deposition.

  17. Comparative study of fusion barriers using Skyrme interactions and the energy density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Torabi, F.

    2015-12-01

    Using different Skyrme interactions, we have carried out a comparative analysis of fusion barriers for a wide range of interacting nuclei in the framework of semiclassical Skyrme energy density formalism. The results of our calculations reveal that SVI, SII, and SIII Skyrme forces are able to reproduce the empirical values of barrier heights with higher accuracy than the other considered forces in this formalism. It is also shown that the calculated nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from such Skyrme interactions are able to explain the fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barrier.

  18. Comparative study of fusion barriers using Skyrme interactions and the energy density functional

    CERN Document Server

    Ghodsi, O N

    2015-01-01

    Using different Skyrme interactions, we have carried out a comparative analysis of fusion barriers for a wide range of interacting nuclei in the framework of semiclassical Skyrme energy density formalism. The results of our calculations reveal that SVI, SII, and SIII Skyrme forces are able to reproduce the empirical values of barrier heights with higher accuracy than the other considered forces in this formalism. It is also shown that the calculated nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from such Skyrme interactions are able to explain the fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barrier.

  19. Landau parameters for energy density functionals generated by local finite-range pseudopotentials

    CERN Document Server

    Idini, Andrea; Dobaczewski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    In Landau theory of Fermi liquids, the particle-hole interaction near the Fermi energy in different spin-isospin channels is probed in terms of an expansion over the Legendre polynomials. This provides a useful and efficient way to constrain properties of nuclear energy density functionals in symmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei. In this study, we present general expressions for Landau parameters corresponding to a two-body central local regularized pseudopotential. We also show results obtained for two recently adjusted NLO and N$^2$LO parametrizations. Such pseudopotentials will be used to determine mean-field and beyond-mean-field properties of paired nuclei across the entire nuclear chart.

  20. Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP226, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pearson, J. M. [Dépt. de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec), H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-02-24

    In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations.