WorldWideScience

Sample records for volumetric colon wall

  1. Colonic diverticulosis is associated with abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, Erling; Jorgensen, L N; Meisner, S

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Colonic diverticulosis and abdominal wall hernia are common pathologies. Studies have suggested that connective tissue alterations play a role in the formation of both diverticulosis and abdominal wall hernia. The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the association between...... diverticulosis and abdominal wall hernia in a large cohort of patients undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2001 and 2013 at Bispebjerg Hospital were eligible for inclusion. The endoscopists prospectively registered the findings of diverticulosis...... in a database. Data were merged with the Danish Hernia Database identifying patients who underwent groin and ventral hernia repair. Calculated odds ratios (ORs) were used to describe the extent of association and multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to adjust for age and gender. RESULTS...

  2. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps with level set-based adaptive convolution in volumetric mucosa to advance CT colonography toward a screening modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Duan, Chaijie; Pickhardt, Perry; Wang, Su; Liang, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    As a promising second reader of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) screening, the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps has earned fast growing research interest. In this paper, we present a CAD scheme to automatically detect colonic polyps in CTC images. First, a thick colon wall representation, ie, a volumetric mucosa (VM) with several voxels wide in general, was segmented from CTC images by a partial-volume image segmentation algorithm. Based on the VM, we employed a level set-based adaptive convolution method for calculating the first- and second-order spatial derivatives more accurately to start the geometric analysis. Furthermore, to emphasize the correspondence among different layers in the VM, we introduced a middle-layer enhanced integration along the image gradient direction inside the VM to improve the operation of extracting the geometric information, like the principal curvatures. Initial polyp candidates (IPCs) were then determined by thresholding the geometric measurements. Based on IPCs, several features were extracted for each IPC, and fed into a support vector machine to reduce false positives (FPs). The final detections were displayed in a commercial system to provide second opinions for radiologists. The CAD scheme was applied to 26 patient CTC studies with 32 confirmed polyps by both optical and virtual colonoscopies. Compared to our previous work, all the polyps can be detected successfully with less FPs. At the 100% by polyp sensitivity, the new method yielded 3.5 FPs/dataset. PMID:20428331

  3. Ectopic paragonimiasis on colon wall and mesocolon of the descending colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Hong, Kyung Chun; Chung, Hye Kyung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    Paragonimiasis is prevalent in Far East and a kind of endemic Korean diseases. The primary site of human paragonimiasis is the lung, but the ectopic infection of lung fluke has been reported by many authors. We experienced one case of abdominal paragonimiasis in a 44 year old male with a complaint of left lower quadrant pain. Physical examination, barium enema, and other data suggested the possibility of tumor originating from the wall of descending colon. (intramural tumor). Postoperative specimen taken from the solid tumorous lesion showed parasitic granuloma, characteristic of Paragonimus Westermani. Here, we report a cases of very peculiar ectopic paragonimiasis involved descending colon wall simulating neoplastic tumor, and also review the literatures briefly.

  4. Unusual causes of colonic wall thickening on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.R.; Markose, G.; Arends, M.J.; Ng, C.S.; Freeman, A.H

    2003-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) appearances in 'colitis' are often non-specific, and include mural thickening and mesenteric fat stranding. In the western world, the majority of cases will have, or be subsequently diagnosed with, inflammatory bowel disease, pseudomembranous colitis or ischaemic colitis. However, other rare conditions may also produce these rather non-specific signs. We present a number of cases demonstrating colonic wall thickening on CT due to rarer diagnoses, which are correlated with the histopathological features. Some of these CT appearances have not been described previously in the literature.

  5. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  6. Colon wall motility: comparison of novel quantitative semi-automatic measurements using cine MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Hoad, Caroline; Menys, A.; Garsed, Klara; Marciani, Luca; Hamy, Valentin; Murray, Kathryn; Costigan, Carolyn; Atkinson, D.; Major, Giles; Spiller, Robin C; Taylor, S.; Gowland, Penny A.

    2016-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Recently, cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise for visualizing movement of the colonic wall, although assessment of data has been subjective and observer dependent. This study aimed to develop an objective and semi-automatic imaging metric of ascending colonic wall movement, using image registration techniques.\\ud Methods\\ud \\ud Cine balanced turbo field echo MRI images of ascending colonic motility were acquired over 2 min from 23 healthy volunteers (HVs)...

  7. [Morphometric characteristics of human colon wall as anatomic basis for microsurgical anastomoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, D Iu

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the morphometric characteristics and some peculiarities of microsurgical anatomy of human colon wall. The thickness of colon wall varied from 495 to 3501 microm in the areas between teniae and from 1103 to 4007 microm in the areas of teniae, the average values were equal to 1693+93.3 and 2602+85 microm, respectively. The width of teniae was 3.5-10.3 mm (6.2+0.3 mm on the average). The thickness of tunica muscularis along the colon prevailed over the thickness of other tunics and increased caudally, while the thickness of submucosa diminished. Marked variability and small thickness of both the colon wall and its layers, differences of these characteristics in the areas of teniae musculares and between them support the expediency of the application of microsurgical operative technique in the operations performed on the colon.

  8. Instant Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Biologic Mesh following Resection of Locally Advanced Colonic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskay Kaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of immediate abdominal wall reconstruction with biologic mesh following the resection of locally advanced colonic cancer. The tumor in the right colon did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical enbloc excision, including excision of the invasion in the abdominal wall, was achieved, and the defect was reconstructed with porcine dermal collagen mesh. The patient was discharged with no complication, and adaptation of the mesh was excellent at the six-month followup.

  9. Colon wall motility: comparison of novel quantitative semi-automatic measurements using cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, C L; Menys, A; Garsed, K; Marciani, L; Hamy, V; Murray, K; Costigan, C; Atkinson, D; Major, G; Spiller, R C; Taylor, S A; Gowland, P A

    2016-03-01

    Recently, cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise for visualizing movement of the colonic wall, although assessment of data has been subjective and observer dependent. This study aimed to develop an objective and semi-automatic imaging metric of ascending colonic wall movement, using image registration techniques. Cine balanced turbo field echo MRI images of ascending colonic motility were acquired over 2 min from 23 healthy volunteers (HVs) at baseline and following two different macrogol stimulus drinks (11 HVs drank 1 L and 12 HVs drank 2 L). Motility metrics derived from large scale geometric and small scale pixel movement parameters following image registration were developed using the post ingestion data and compared to observer grading of wall motion. Inter and intra-observer variability in the highest correlating metric was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis calculated from two separate observations on a subset of data. All the metrics tested showed significant correlation with the observer rating scores. Line analysis (LA) produced the highest correlation coefficient of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.55-0.86), p cine MRI registered data provides a quick, accurate and non-invasive method to detect wall motion within the ascending colon following a colonic stimulus in the form of a macrogol drink. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Colonic wall thickness measured by ultrasound: striking differences in patients with cystic fibrosis versus healthy controls.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colonic strictures represent an advanced stage of fibrosing colonopathy in patients with cystic fibrosis. AIMS: To clarify whether ultrasonography can identify patients with an early stage of fibrosing colonopathy and to determine clinical factors that influence bowel wall thickening. PATIENTS: Ninety patients with cystic fibrosis, median age 10 years, and 46 healthy controls, median age 13 years, were investigated. METHODS: Bowel wall thickness was measured by ultrasound in a pro...

  11. Case of a sigmoid colon cancer with metachronous metastases to the mesorectum and the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjimarcou Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Sigmoid colon cancer metachronous metastases commonly occur in the liver and lungs with sporadic reports also to the spleen, stomach, thyroid gland, abdominal wall and upper urinary tract. This is a rare case of metachronous metastases invading the mesorectum and the abdominal wall. Case presentation A 72-year-old female underwent sigmoidectomy for stage I (T2N0 M0 sigmoid colon cancer in May 2008. In June 2009, an abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a tumor 2 cm in size at the lower anterior mesorectum and a second mass 2 cm in size at the anterior abdominal wall midline. Total colonoscopy showed no mucosal lesion. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was normal. A biopsy of the mesorectum tumor showed similar histologic characteristics with the primary tumor. Since no other site of recurrence was identified, an abdominoperineal resection was attempted. During the operation and after the removal of the incision recurrence, sinus bradycardia and signs of myocardial ischemia were noticed. A loop transverse colostomy was immediately perfomed and the operation was terminated. Postoperative cardiologic examination revealed an acute myocardium infract. Chemo-radiation of the mesorectum tumor and re-evaluation for surgical excision was decided. Conclusion Metachronous metastasis of the mesorectum from sigmoid colon cancer is extremely rare. Although patterns of lymphatic spread from rectal cancer to sigmoid colon have recently been demonstrated, there is no evidence of metachronous mesorectum invasion from sigmoid colon cancer. This could be the issue for future trials.

  12. Volumetric mosaicing for optical coherence tomography for large area bladder wall visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary imaging modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC) because it can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, enabling it to stage early cancers and visualize tumors undetectable to WLC. However, the inherently small field of view (FOV) of OCT compared with the area of the bladder wall restricts its clinical utility. A large OCT FOV could improve surgical planning by enabling complete visualization of tumor margins or could aid in early cancer detection by tracking the appearance of the bladder wall over time. To overcome the limited FOV of OCT, we developed a method to create mosaics of OCT volume data using a modified version of the N-dimensional scale invariant feature transform (N-SIFT) algorithm: white-light-enhanced N-SIFT (WhiLE-NS). WhiLE-NS adds a pre-processing step to N-SIFT that uses white light images co-registered with OCT volumes to select small, highly overlapped volumes on which to run N-SIFT. This pre-processing step adds minimal computational time and enables a 200- fold decrease in the amount of time required to register two volumes compared with N-SIFT alone. Quantitatively, WhiLE-NS achieves nearly sub-pixel registration accuracy, and qualitatively, we demonstrate that the algorithm can generate large FOV mosaics of ex vivo bladder tissue. The realization of this algorithm is a critical step to enabling OCT to contribute meaningfully to bladder surveillance and surgical guidance.

  13. Uncommon presentation of actinomycosis mimicking colonic cancer: Colon actinomycosis with invasion of the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Bali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic suppurative infectious disease that is caused by Actinomycetes organisms, which are gram-positive, microaerophilic, anaerobic bacteria. Herein, we present the case of a 42-year-old female patient who underwent surgical exploration following presentation with abdominal pain and an abdominal mass, initially thought to be a malignancy. Histological examination of the specimen revealed colon actinomycosis. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 107-110

  14. Penetration of the sigmoid colon to the posterior uterine wall secondary to diverticulitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyama Tomoyuki

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Penetration of the colon to the posterior uterine wall secondary to diverticulitis is unusual, with diagnostic methods not yet established. Non-invasive imaging, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may help to establish a proper diagnosis, but confirmation may be reached only after surgical exploration. Case presentation We report the case of a 78-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a low grade fever and mild diarrhea which occurred two or three times a week. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a capsular lesion including an air structure with a diameter of 5 cm, between the posterior aspect of the uterine body and the sigmoid colon. A gastrograffin enema and colonoscopy demonstrated a giant diverticulum of the sigmoid colon with no evidence of malignancy. These data confirmed the diagnosis of diverticulitis complicated by a giant diverticulum. Because of a relapsing fever after therapy with antibiotics, the patient had en bloc surgical treatment of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and sigmoid colon, the organs involved in the diverticulitis, followed by an uneventful recovery. Conclusion This is a rare case report of penetration of the sigmoid colon to the posterior uterine wall secondary to diverticulitis.

  15. Bacillus calmette-guerin cell wall cytoskeleton enhances colon cancer radiosensitivity through autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Jae-Min; Shin, Dong-Min; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jin-Man; Lee, Ji-Sook; Paik, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Sang; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    The cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG/CWS) is an effective antitumor immunotherapy agent. Here, we demonstrate that BCG/CWS has a radiosensitizing effect on colon cancer cells through the induction of autophagic cell death. Exposure of HCT116 colon cancer cells to BCG/CWS before ionizing radiation (IR) resulted in increased cell death in a caspase-independent manner. Treatment with BCG/CWS plus IR resulted in the induction of autophagy in colon cancer cells. Either the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or knockdown of beclin 1 or Atg7 significantly reduced tumor cell death induced by BCG/CWS plus IR, whereas the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk failed to do so. BCG/CWS plus IR-mediated autophagy and cell death was mediated predominantly by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway functioned upstream of ROS generation in the induction of autophagy and cell death in HCT116 cells after co-treatment with BCG/CWS and IR. Furthermore, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and in part, TLR4, were responsible for BCG/CWS-induced radiosensitization. In vivo studies revealed that BCG/CWS-mediated radiosensitization of HCT116 xenograft growth is accompanied predominantly by autophagy. Our data suggest that BCG/CWS in combination with IR is a promising therapeutic strategy for enhancing radiation therapy in colon cancer cells through the induction of autophagy.

  16. Morphological Differentiation of Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines in Rotating Wall Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine whether (1) microgravity permits unique, three-dimensional cultures of neoplastic human colon tissues and (2) this culture interaction produces novel intestinal growth and differentiation factors. The initial phase of this project tested the efficacy of simulated microgravity for the cultivation and differentiation of human colon carcinoma in rotating wall vessels (RWV's) on microcarrier beads. The RWV's simulate microgravity by randomizing the gravity vector in an aqueous medium under a low shear stress environment in unit gravity. This simulation achieves approximately a one-fifth g environment that allows cells to 'float' and form three-dimensional relationships with less shear stress than in other stirred aqueous medium bioreactors. In the second phase of this project we assessed the ability of human colon carcinoma lines to adhere to various substrates because adhesion is the first event that must occur to create three-dimensional masses. Finally, we tested growth factor production in the last phase of this project.

  17. Abnormal Expressions of Age, RAGE, TGF- b1 and TGF- b1 Receptor in Colonic Wall Contributed to STZ-Induced Diabetic Colon Remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Diabetic colon dysfunction is common in longstanding diabetes. Previously the histomorphological and biomechanical remodeling of colon has been demonstrated in the diabetic rat model (1). However, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. It was reported that advanced...... in different layers were up-regulated in the DM group (Figure 1). Glucose level and wall area mainly correlated with AGE and RAGE expressions. Outer residual strain correlated with all proteins expressions in the mucosa layer and with RAGE expressions in the muscle and submucosa layers. Opening angle...

  18. Liver abscess caused by an unnoticed swallowed toothpick perforating the colonic wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwe, S; Weber, J; Strock, P; Lens, V

    2007-10-01

    We present an unusual case of a liver abscess caused by a swallowed toothpick in a 43-year-old man. The abscess was first punctured under percutaneous ultrasound control and intraveneous administration of antibiotics whereas the diagnosis of the foreign body stuck in the sigmoid bowel wall was only made by a follow-up computed tomography since the patient had no complains indicating a colonic pathology. Even more, the patient did not remember ever having ingested a foreign body. The wooden toothpick was then successfully removed by endoscopy. The case report stresses the need for a search of the cause of unexplained liver abscesses and highlights the importance of computed tomography as the first imaging technique as the foreign body was missed on the ultrasound examination. Finally, the non-surgical treatment as first line management of liver abscesses will be discussed.

  19. Probiotics prevent growth deficit of colon wall strata of malnourished rats post-lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlene P. Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze morphometrically the colon wall strata of malnourished rats supplemented with probiotics. Sixteen recently weaned Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus were distributed into four groups: animals that received commercial chow (G1, n = 4; animals that received the same feed as G1 and were supplemented with probiotics (G2, n = 4; animals that received chow with 4% of proteins (G3, n = 4; animals that received the same feed as G3 and were supplemented with probiotics (G4, n = 4. After 12 weeks, the proximal colon was collected and submitted to histological processing. Three-µm cuts were stained with H.E., Periodic Acid Schifff (P.A.S. + diasthasis solution and Alcian Blue (A.B. pH 2.5 and pH 1.0. The morphometric analysis of the intestinal wall showed that the supplementation with ABT-4 probiotic culture prevents the growth deficit of colon wall strata that normally occurs in malnourished rats right after lactation. Besides, no alteration was observed in the proportion of the number of globet cells in relation to the number of enterocytes in malnourished rats, regardless of the supplementation with probiotics.Objetivou-se analisar morfometricamente os estratos da parede do cólon de ratos desnutridos e suplemen-tados com probióticos. Utilizaram-se 16 ratos (Rattus norvegicus Wistar, recém-desmamados, distribuídos em quatro grupos: animais que receberam a ração comercial (G1, n = 4; animais que receberam a mesma ração do grupo G1 e que foram suplementados com probióticos (G2, n = 4; animais que receberam uma ração com 4% de proteínas (G3, n = 4; animais que receberam a mesma ração do grupo G3 e que foram suplementados com probióticos (G4, n = 4. Após 12 semanas, o cólon foi coletado e submetido a rotina de processamento histológico. Cortes de 3µm foram corados com H.E., Periodic Acid Schifff (P.A.S. + solução de diástase e Alcian Blue (A.B. pH 2,5 e pH 1,0. A análise morfométrica da parede

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  1. Chest wall radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arcs and the potential role of flattening filter free photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, S.; Thirumalaiswamy, S.; Srinivas, C. [Yashoda Super Specialty Hospital, Hyderabad (IN)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    The goal of the work was to assess the role of RapidArc treatments in chest wall irradiation after mastectomy and determine the potential benefit of flattening filter free beams. Planning CT scans of 10 women requiring post-mastectomy chest wall radiotherapy were included in the study. A dose of 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions was prescribed. Organs at risk (OARs) delineated were heart, lungs, contralateral breast, and spinal cord. Dose-volume metrics were defined to quantify the quality of concurrent treatment plans assessing target coverage and sparing of OARs. Plans were designed for conformal 3D therapy (3DCRT) or for RapidArc with double partial arcs (RA). RapidArc plans were optimized for both conventional beams as well as for unflattened beams (RAF). The goal for this planning effort was to cover 100% of the planning target volume (PTV) with {>=} 90% of the prescribed dose and to minimize the volume inside the PTV receiving > 105% of the dose. The mean ipsilateral lung dose was required to be lower than 15 Gy and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} < 22%. Contralateral organ irradiation was required to be kept as low as possible. All techniques met planning objectives for PTV and for lung (3DCRT marginally failed for V{sub 20} {sub Gy}). RA plans showed superiority compared to 3DCRT in the medium to high dose region for the ipsilateral lung. Heart irradiation was minimized by RAF plans with {proportional_to} 4.5 Gy and {proportional_to} 15 Gy reduction in maximum dose compared to RA and 3DCRT, respectively. RAF resulted in superior plans compared to RA with respect to contralateral breast and lung with a reduction of {proportional_to} 1.7 Gy and 1.0 Gy in the respective mean doses. RapidArc treatment resulted in acceptable plan quality with superior ipsilateral tissue sparing compared to traditional techniques. Flattening filter free beams, recently made available for clinical use, might provide further healthy tissue sparing, particularly in contralateral organs, suggesting their

  2. Morphologic differentiation of colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and HT-29KM in rotating-wall vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Jessup, J. M.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new low shear stress microcarrier culture system has been developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center that permits three-dimensional tissue culture. Two established human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, an undifferentiated, and HT-29KM, a stable, moderately differentiated subline of HT-29, were grown in new tissue culture bioreactors called Rotating-Wall Vessels (RWVs). RWVs are used in conjunction with multicellular cocultivation to develop a unique in vitro tissue modeling system. Cells were cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads, with and without mixed normal human colonic fibroblasts, which served as the mesenchymal layer. Culture of the tumor lines in the absence of fibroblasts produced spheroidlike growth and minimal differentiation. In contrast, when tumor lines were co-cultivated with normal colonic fibroblasts, initial growth was confined to the fibroblast population until the microcarriers were covered. The tumor cells then commenced proliferation at an accelerated rate, organizing themselves into three-dimensional tissue masses that achieved 1.0- to 1.5-cm diameters. The masses displayed glandular structures, apical and internal glandular microvilli, tight intercellular junctions, desmosomes, cellular polarity, sinusoid development, internalized mucin, and structural organization akin to normal colon crypt development. Differentiated samples were subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histologic analysis, revealing embryoniclike mesenchymal cells lining the areas around the growth matrices. Necrosis was minimal throughout the tissue masses. These data suggest that the RWV affords a new model for investigation and isolation of growth, regulatory, and structural processes within neoplastic and normal tissue.

  3. Effect of anti-biofouling potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-filled polydimethylsiloxane composites on pioneer microbial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Lang, Yanhe; Sun, Qian; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, namely the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the carboxyl-modified MWCNTs (cMWCNTs), were introduced into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix respectively, in order to produce the PDMS composites with reinforced anti-biofouling properties. The anti-biofouling capacity of the silicone-based coatings, including the unfilled PDMS (P0), the MWCNTs-filled PDMS (PM) and the cMWCNTs-filled PDMS (PC), was examined via the field assays conducted in Weihai, China. The effect of different silicone-based coatings on the dynamic variations of the pioneer microbial-community diversity was analyzed using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The PM and PC surfaces have exhibited excellent anti-biofouling properties in contrast to that of the PDMS surface, with extremely low attachment of the early colonizers, such as juvenile invertebrates, seaweeds and algae sporelings. The PM and PC surfaces can effectively prevent biofouling for more than 12 weeks. These combined results suggest that the incorporation of MWCNTs or cMWCNTs into the PDMS matrix can dramatically reinforce its anti-biofouling properties. The SSCP analysis reveals that compared with the PDMS surfaces, the PM and PC surfaces have strong modulating effect on the pioneer prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities, particularly on the colonization of pioneer eukaryotic microbes. The significantly reduced pioneer eukaryotic-community diversity may contribute to the weakening of the subsequent colonization of macrofoulers.

  4. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  5. Peptidoglycan Acetylation of Campylobacter jejuni Is Essential for Maintaining Cell Wall Integrity and Colonization in Chicken Intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Watanabe, Ayako; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Akiba, Masato

    2016-10-15

    Peptidoglycan (PG) acetylation of Gram-positive bacteria confers lysozyme resistance and contributes to survival in the host. However, the importance of PG acetylation in Gram-negative bacteria has not been fully elucidated. The genes encoding putative PG acetyltransferase A (PatA) and B (PatB) are highly conserved in Campylobacter jejuni, the predominant cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. To evaluate the importance of PatA and PatB of C. jejuni, we constructed patA and patB isogenic mutants and compared their phenotypes with those of the parental strains. Although transmission electron microscopy did not reveal morphological changes, both mutants exhibited decreased motility and biofilm formation in vitro The extent of acetylation of the PG purified from the patA and patB mutants was significantly lower than the PG acetylation in the parental strains. Both mutants exhibited decreased lysozyme resistance and intracellular survival in macrophage cells. In a chick colonization experiment, significant colonization deficiency was observed for both mutants. These results suggest that PatA and PatB of C. jejuni play important roles in maintaining cell wall integrity by catalyzing PG O-acetylation and that the loss of these enzymes causes decreased motility and biofilm formation, thus leading to colonization deficiency in chicken infection. The importance of peptidoglycan (PG) acetylation in Gram-negative bacteria has not been fully elucidated. The genes encoding putative PG acetyltransferase A (PatA) and B (PatB) are highly conserved in Campylobacter jejuni, the predominant cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. We evaluated the importance of these enzymes using isogenic mutants. The results of this study suggest that PatA and PatB of C. jejuni play important roles in maintaining cell wall integrity. The loss of these factors caused multiple phenotypic changes, leading to colonization deficiency in chicken infection. These data should be useful in developing novel

  6. Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis Gene uppP Is Required for Burkholderia Colonization of the Stinkbug Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Ho Jin; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo

    2013-01-01

    To establish a host-bacterium symbiotic association, a number of factors involved in symbiosis must operate in a coordinated manner. In insects, bacterial factors for symbiosis have been poorly characterized at the molecular and biochemical levels, since many symbionts have not yet been cultured or are as yet genetically intractable. Recently, the symbiotic association between a stinkbug, Riptortus pedestris, and its beneficial gut bacterium, Burkholderia sp., has emerged as a promising experimental model system, providing opportunities to study insect symbiosis using genetically manipulated symbiotic bacteria. Here, in search of bacterial symbiotic factors, we targeted cell wall components of the Burkholderia symbiont by disruption of uppP gene, which encodes undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in biosynthesis of various bacterial cell wall components. Under culture conditions, the ΔuppP mutant showed higher susceptibility to lysozyme than the wild-type strain, indicating impaired integrity of peptidoglycan of the mutant. When administered to the host insect, the ΔuppP mutant failed to establish normal symbiotic association: the bacterial cells reached to the symbiotic midgut but neither proliferated nor persisted there. Transformation of the ΔuppP mutant with uppP-encoding plasmid complemented these phenotypic defects: lysozyme susceptibility in vitro was restored, and normal infection and proliferation in the midgut symbiotic organ were observed in vivo. The ΔuppP mutant also exhibited susceptibility to hypotonic, hypertonic, and centrifugal stresses. These results suggest that peptidoglycan cell wall integrity is a stress resistance factor relevant to the successful colonization of the stinkbug midgut by Burkholderia symbiont. PMID:23747704

  7. Dosimetric Comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, Static Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, and 3D Conformal Planning for the Treatment of a Right-Sided Reconstructed Chest Wall and Regional Nodal Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishruta A. Dumane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared 3D conformal planning, static field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT to investigate the suitable treatment plan and delivery method for a right-sided reconstructed chest wall and nodal case. The dose prescribed for the reconstructed chest wall and regional nodes was 50.4 Gy. Plans were compared for target coverage and doses of the lungs, heart, contralateral breast, and healthy tissue. All plans achieved acceptable coverage of the target and IMNs. The best right lung sparing achieved with 3D was a V20 Gy of 31.09%. Compared to it, VMAT reduced the same by 10.85% and improved the CI and HI over 3D by 18.75% and 2%, respectively. The ipsilateral lung V5 Gy to V20 Gy decreased with VMAT over IMRT by as high as 17.1%. The contralateral lung V5 Gy was also lowered with VMAT compared to IMRT by 16.22%. The MU and treatment beams were lowered with VMAT over IMRT by 30% and 10, respectively, decreasing the treatment time by >50%. VMAT was the treatment plan and delivery method of choice for this case due to a combination of improved lung sparing and reduced treatment time without compromising target coverage.

  8. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong

    2000-01-01

    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  9. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  10. Nasopharyngeal colonization and invasive disease are enhanced by the cell wall hydrolases LytB and LytC of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ramos-Sevillano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx and one of the major pathogens causing invasive disease worldwide. Dissection of the molecular pathways responsible for colonization, invasion, and evasion of the immune system will provide new targets for antimicrobial or vaccine therapies for this common pathogen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have constructed mutants lacking the pneumococcal cell wall hydrolases (CWHs LytB and LytC to investigate the role of these proteins in different phases of the pneumococcal pathogenesis. Our results show that LytB and LytC are involved in the attachment of S. pneumoniae to human nasopharyngeal cells both in vitro and in vivo. The interaction of both proteins with phagocytic cells demonstrated that LytB and LytC act in concert avoiding pneumococcal phagocytosis mediated by neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, C3b deposition was increased on the lytC mutant confirming that LytC is involved in complement evasion. As a result, the lytC mutant showed a reduced ability to successfully cause pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. Bacterial mutants lacking both LytB and LytC showed a dramatically impaired attachment to nasopharyngeal cells as well as a marked degree of attenuation in a mouse model of colonization. In addition, C3b deposition and phagocytosis was more efficient for the double lytB lytC mutant and its virulence was greatly impaired in both systemic and pulmonary models of infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that the CWHs LytB and LytC of S. pneumoniae are essential virulence factors involved in the colonization of the nasopharynx and in the progress of invasive disease by avoiding host immunity.

  11. Estudo comparativo do tratamento de ferimento de colon de coelho com reparo seroso da parede de jejunum e sutura primária Comparative study of colon wound repair using jejunal serosal wall and primary suture, in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edmundo Fontes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os animais foram submetidos a procedimento operatório sob anestesia geral para a produção de dois ferimentos padronizados em colo não preparado, usando instrumento desenvolvido para esta finalidade. O primeiro ferimento foi produzido a 2 cm do ceco e o segundo 20 cm eqüidistante deste, no sentido caudal. Estes ferimentos foram reparados obedecendo a resultado de sorteio que determinou a técnica a ser usada, se com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno ou por sutura primária. Nas duas técnicas foram usados pontos separados de fio monofilamentar de poliglecaprone 4-0 , sendo que o animal serviu de controle para si mesmo. Realizou-se eutanásia no 7º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo A e no 30º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo B para avaliação macroscópica e microscópica. O experimento demonstrou que é viável o uso do lado seroso da parede de jejuno para reparar ferimento em colo não preparado e apresentou resultados com tendências a serem superiores aos da sutura primária , não dual de MaringáThe present research aimed to compare the repair of colon wound using both the jejunal wall and the primary suture . Thirty young rabbits white New Zeland were used, weighing about 3,2 Kg. and were born and raised at the University of Maringá's Experimental farm. The animals were deeply anaesthetized and then submited to a surgery during wich two similar wounds were made in unprepared colon . An instrument created for this purpose was used. The first wound was made 2 cm away from the ceco , and the second one was made 20 cm from the first wound in the caudal location. The wounds were repaired using either the jejunal serosal wall or the primary suture. In both techniques were used separated stitches , made by monofilament poliglecaprone 4-0. The animal was used to control itself. The animals were submited to euthanasia either in the 7th or in 30th day after surgery, at random.Then a macroscopic and microscopic study was made. This research

  12. Estudo do reparo do ferimento de colon com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno, utilizando cianoacrilato e cola de fibrina Study of repair of rat's colon wound whith serosal of jejunal wall using cyanoacrylate and fibrin glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edmundo Rodrigues Fontes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do cianoacrilato e da cola de fibrina como adesivo das bordas do ferimento de cólon reparado com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 45 ratos wistar adultos jovens, machos , com peso médio de 260 gramas procedentes do Biotério Central da Universidade Estadual de Maringá.Os animais foram submetidos a procedimento operatório sob sedação com thiopental para produção de ferimento pradonizado de 0,5 cm distante caudalmente a 2 cm do ceco que foi reparado no grupo I pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e sutura, no grupo II, pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e cola de fibrina, e o grupo III pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e cianoacrilato. No 4º dia de pós-operatório os animais foram submetidos a um enema opaco, para estudo o de estenose. No 7º dia de pós-operatório os animais foram submetidos a laparotomia sob sedação para estudo macroscópico da cavidade , e coleta dos segmentos que foram processados para análise microscópica. RESULTADOS: A cola de fibrina teve uma tendência de ser melhor reparadora, estimulando a proliferação de fibras de colágeno a partir da borda da ferida. CONCLUSÃO: O experimento demonstrou que o ferimento em cólon de rato pode ser reparado pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno colado às bordas da ferida por cola de fibrina ou cianoacrilato.BACKGROUND: The present experiment aimed to compare the effect of the use of cyanoacrylate and fibrine glue as adesive on repared colon's wounds with the serosal side of jejuno's wall. METHODS: Forty five male, young adult Wister rats, weighting about 260 g , from the University of Maringá were used.After having been deeply anaesthetized (thiopental was used, the animals underwent a surgery, and a pattern 0,5 cm wound was made, 2 cm away from the cecum, in the caudal location. Group one the wound was repaired by using the jejunal serosal wall and suture.On group two the jejunal serosal wall and fibrine glue

  13. Dosimetric comparison for volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy on the left-sided chest wall and internal mammary nodes irradiation in treating post-mastectomy breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yu, Xiao Li; Hu, Wei Gang; Chen, Jia Yi; Wang, Jia Zhou; Ye, Jin Song; Guo, Xiao Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the dosimetric benefit of applying volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) on the post-mastectomy left-sided breast cancer patients, with the involvement of internal mammary nodes (IMN). Patients and methods The prescription dose was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions, and the clinical target volume included the left chest wall (CW) and IMN. VMAT plans were created and compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans on Pinnacle treatment planning system. Comparative endpoints were dose homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV), target dose coverage, doses to the critical structures including heart, lungs and the contralateral breast, number of monitor units and treatment delivery time. Results VMAT and IMRT plans showed similar PTV dose homogeneity, but, VMAT provided a better dose coverage for IMN than IMRT (p = 0.017). The mean dose (Gy), V30 (%) and V10 (%) for the heart were 13.5 ± 5.0 Gy, 9.9% ± 5.9% and 50.2% ± 29.0% by VMAT, and 14.0 ± 5.4 Gy, 10.6% ± 5.8% and 55.7% ± 29.6% by IMRT, respectively. The left lung mean dose (Gy), V20 (%), V10 (%) and the right lung V5 (%) were significantly reduced from 14.1 ± 2.3 Gy, 24.2% ± 5.9%, 42.4% ± 11.9% and 41.2% ± 12.3% with IMRT to 12.8 ± 1.9 Gy, 21.0% ± 3.8%, 37.1% ± 8.4% and 32.1% ± 18.2% with VMAT, respectively. The mean dose to the contralateral breast was 1.7 ± 1.2 Gy with VMAT and 2.3 ± 1.6 Gy with IMRT. Finally, VMAT reduced the number of monitor units by 24% and the treatment time by 53%, as compared to IMRT. Conclusions Compared to 5-be am step-and-shot IMRT, VMAT achieves similar or superior target coverage and a better normal tissue sparing, with fewer monitor units and shorter delivery time. PMID:25810708

  14. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... is presented, using cellulose/epoxy and aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites as case materials. The buoyancy method is used for the accurate measurements of materials density. The accuracy of the method is determined to be high, allowing the measured nanocomposite densities to be reported with 5...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition...

  15. Sonographic Features of Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yu Mee; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate sonographic features, location of diverticulum, and usefulness of sonography as a primary diagnostic tool. Sonographic findings of 28 patients with acute diverticulitis were reviewed. The diagnosis was made by surgery (11 patients), barium enema (20 patients), colonoscopy (3 patients), or CT (2 patients). There were 13 men and 15 women with ages ranging from 23 to 71 years old (mean, 33 years old). Sonographic abnormalities were seen in the cecum in 12 patients, both the cecum and ascending colon in seven, the ascending colon in six, the descending colon in two, and the transverse colon in one. On sonography, segmental thickening of the colonic wall was the most common finding, seen in 16 patients. The second most common finidngs were pericolic omental thickening and pericolic localized fluid collection (15 patients). Pericolic inflammatory mass of varying echogenicity (10 patients), out pouching hyper echoic foci beyond the lumen of the colon into or beyond the thickened wall (5 patients), contracture of the colon (5 patients), slightly thickened terminal ileum (1 patient), and local enlargement of ileocecal lymph node (1 patient) were also seen. Most diverticulitis occurred in the right colon. The useful sonographic findings in acute diverticulitis were echogenic foci of the diverticulum in the thickened colonic wall, focally and eccentrically thickened colonic wall, and localized omental thickening or fluid collection. In cases of pericecal fluid collection, appendicitis or colonic diverticulitis can be considered as a differential diagnosis

  16. Expression of synaptophysin in colonic wall in patients with slow transit constipation%突触素在慢传输型便秘患者结肠壁的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔利霞; 宋建亭; 赵士彭

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究突触素( SY )在慢传输型便秘( STC )患者肠神经系统中的表达情况。方法选择肠道造影提示有结肠痉挛并经手术证实 STC 者20例,取其乙状结肠(痉挛段)及横结肠(近端非痉挛段)肠壁标本为实验组;无结肠痉挛的 STC 患者20例,取其乙状结肠及横结肠肠壁标本为对照组。2组标本均进行免疫组化检测,分析突触素在 STC 患者结肠壁的表达情况。结果突触素在2组便秘患者结肠壁肌层的表达均比黏膜下层表达增高(P<0.05),实验组的横结肠黏膜下层突触素的表达明显低于对照组(P <0.05),其余组间突触素的表达差异无统计学意义。结论 STC患者横结肠与乙状结肠结肠壁肌层突触素的表达均明显高于黏膜下层的表达,与其生理功能相一致。乙状结肠痉挛的发生与突触素的表达水平无相关。突触素在结肠痉挛区近端横结肠黏膜下层的表达减少,可能与其远端乙状结肠肠管持续痉挛导致其近端横结肠发生进行性退变引起代偿性、继发性肠管扩大肥厚造成的肠管扩张和蠕动减弱相关。%Objective It is tO explOre the expressiOn Of synaptOphysin( SY)in the enteric nervOus system in slOw transit cOnstipatiOn( STC)patients. Methods 20 cases with cOlOn spasms prOmpted by intestinal tract imaging and cOnfirmed by sur-gery were selected in which a specimen each Of the sigmOid cOlOn wall( the part Of spasm )and transverse cOlOn wall( the prOximal part Of nO spasm)was made as the experimental grOup;20 STC patients with nO cOlOn spasm were selected and the same specimen frOm the same part Of cOlOnic wall was made as the cOntrOl grOup. The expressiOn Of SY in cOlOnic wall was de-tected by immunOhistOchemical methOd in the specimen Of bOth grOups. Results The expressiOn Of SY in cOlOn wall muscle lay-er was higher than that Of SY in submucOsa layer in the patients with STC in bOth grOups(P <0

  17. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  18. Sonography in Colonic Diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Mi Yun; Choi, Byung Hun; Kim, Keum Won; Kwon, Kwi Ryun; Lim, Myung Ah; Kim, Sung Soo; Choi, Chang Ho [Sunlin Presbyterian Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings and the diagnostic value of colonic diverticulitis. We evaluated the sonograms of 26 patients with colonic diverticulitis retrospectively. The final diagnosis was based on the pathologic interpretation of a surgical specimen (5 cases), clinical course (21 cases), on barium enema (12 cases) and colonoscopy (1 case). Twenty-five patients had acute diverticulitis in the cecum and 1 patient in the descending colon. On sonography, an oval or short tubular focus which protruded from the colonic wall was seen in 23 patients (88%) and the longest diameter were from 0.5 cm to 3 cm (mean 1.4cm). The lesions were echogenic in 8 cases and hypoechoic in 17 cases. Segmental thickening of the colonic wall was seen in 13 patients (50%), of these, protruding focus was seen in 92%. Pericolic abscess located inposterolateral and medial portion to the colon was seen in 11 patients (42%). Infiltration in pericolic fat(50%), enlargement of pericolic lymph nodes (27%) and small pericolic fluid (8%) were also seen. Our results show that ultrasonography is useful technique in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis and in the differentiation from acute appendicitis

  19. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  20. Congenital Diverticular Disease of the Entire Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital or true colonic diverticulosis is a rare condition typified by the preservation of the colonic wall architecture within the diverticular outpouching. Cases of multiple jejunal diverticula have been reported as well as cases of solitary giant diverticula of the colon. There have been no reports in the literature of pancolonic congenital diverticulosis.

  1. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the

  2. Test Facility for Volumetric Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, M.; Dibowski, G.; Pfander, M.; Sack, J. P.; Schwarzbozl, P.; Ulmer, S.

    2006-07-01

    Long-time testing of volumetric absorber modules is an inevitable measure to gain the experience and reliability required for the commercialization of the open volumetric receiver technology. While solar tower test facilities are necessary for performance measurements of complete volumetric receivers, the long-term stability of individual components can be tested in less expensive test setups. For the qualification of the aging effects of operating cycles on single elements of new absorber materials and designs, a test facility was developed and constructed in the framework of the KOSMOSOL project. In order to provide the concentrated solar radiation level, the absorber test facility is integrated into a parabolic dish system at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain. Several new designs of ceramic absorbers were developed and tested during the last months. (Author)

  3. Abdominal wall lifting laparoscopic sigmoid colon vaginoplasty%悬吊式腹腔镜下带血管蒂乙状结肠移植阴道成形术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑泽; 伍冀湘; 李文志

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigute the operational technique and therapeutic effect of suspended laparoscopic sigmoid colon vaginoplasty. Methods 64 patients underwent laparoscopic sigmoid colon vaginoplasty using abdominal wall-lifting methods, 56 patients for laparoscopic assisted vaginoplasty: 50 patients with congenital absence of vagina, 6 patients with transsexualism; 8 patients for total laparoscopic operation. Results 64 patients underwent this surgery successfully. The operation time was 90~210 min, and the blood loss was 50~120ml, one patient with transsexualism occurred vagina contracture 3 months after operation. Conclusion Laparoscopic sigmoid colon vaginoplasty with abdominal wall lifting is satisfying for effective technique, physiological and anatomic function, and cosmetic result.%目的:探讨悬吊式无气腹腹腔镜下带血管蒂乙状结肠移植阴道成形术的手术方法和疗效.方法:应用悬吊式无气腹腹腔镜行乙状结肠阴道成形术64例,其中悬吊式腹腔镜辅助下手术56例,包括先天性无阴道50例,易性癖6例:悬吊式全腹腔镜下手术8例,为先天性无阴道患者.结果:64例患者手术均成功,手术时间90~210min,术中出血量50~120ml,1例易性癖患者术后3个月时出现阴道口挛缩.结论:悬吊式无气腹腹腔镜乙状结肠阴道成形术创伤小,操作便利,术后恢复快,生理解剖功能较好,且具有美学效果,是一种比较理想的阴道成形术式.

  4. Suppression of c-Myc is involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes' down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojing; Xu, Yonghong; Meng, Xiangning; Watari, Fumio; Liu, Hudan; Chen, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a large family of integral membrane proteins that decrease cellular drug uptake and accumulation by active extrusion, is one of the major causes of cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR) that frequently leads to failure of chemotherapy. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based drug delivery devices hold great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. However, CNTs' effects on the ABC transporters remain under-investigated. In this study, we found that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reduced transport activity and expression of ABC transporters including ABCB1/Pgp and ABCC4/MRP4 in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Proto-oncogene c-Myc, which directly regulates ABC gene expression, was concurrently decreased in MWCNT-treated cells and forced over-expression of c-Myc reversed MWCNTs' inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC4 expression. MWCNT-cell membrane interaction and cell membrane oxidative damage were observed. However, antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-mecaptoethanol and dimethylthiourea failed to antagonize MWCNTs' down-regulation of ABC transporters. These data suggest that MWCNTs may act on c-Myc, but not through oxidative stress, to down-regulate ABC transporter expression. Our findings thus shed light on CNTs' novel cellular effects that may be utilized to develop CNTs-based drug delivery devices to overcome ABC transporter-mediated cancer chemoresistance.

  5. 悬吊式腹腔镜行乙状结肠代阴道成形术31例%Abdominal Wall Lifting Laparoscopic Sigmoid Colon Vaginoplasty: Report of 31 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕英; 王君; 伍冀湘; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨悬吊式腹腔镜行乙状结肠代阴道成形术的临床效果. 方法 回顾性分析2007年1月~2009年12月31例悬吊式腹腔镜乙状结肠代阴道成形术的临床资料,其中先天性无阴道29例,男性易性癖阴道成形术后人工阴道狭窄2例.手术时在骶岬高度截取乙状结肠肠襻(13 cm左右),超声刀游离乙状结肠系膜,直线切割闭合器切断闭合选取的乙状结肠,缝合关闭移植肠襻的顶端,乙状结肠的近端荷包缝合并放入抵钉座,圆形吻合器行乙状结肠端端吻合术.转阴式人工阴道建腔,将移植段乙状结肠远端拉出阴道隐窝,与阴道前庭黏膜间断缝合,形成人工阴道口,人工阴道顶端与骶岬处腹膜缝合固定. 结果 31例手术均获得成功,手术时间100~200 min,平均144.7 min;术中出血50~200 ml,平均104.8 ml.1例术后12天出现粘连性不全肠梗阻,经保守治疗治愈.31例随访14~22个月,平均18个月,均佩带阴道模具达3个月以上,人工阴道扩张良好,接近女性阴道的形态和生理功能,分泌物为少量乳白色黏液,无异味.有性生活者25例,均满意. 结论 悬吊式腹腔镜行乙状结肠代阴道成形手术临床可行,是可选择的阴道成形方法 之一.%Objective To study the clinical effectiveness of abdominal wall lifting laparoscopic sigmoid colon vaginoplasty. Methods We reviewed the clinical data of 31 cases of gasless laparoscopic vaginoplasty using a vascularized pedicled sigmoid colon flap from January 2007 to December 2009. The cases included 29 patients with congenital absence of the vagina, and 2 cases of male transsexual. A 13-cm transplantation sigmoid colon segment was selected at the level of thesacrum point. The mesentery was separated by ultrasonic knife, and then the sigmoid colon segment was cut and closed with Endo-Cutter. The distal end was permanently sealed to form the apex of neovagina, and a purse-string suture was placed in the distal end of

  6. Colonic angiodysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.; Favriel, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches.

  7. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such device

  8. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  9. Colonic Lipomas Mimicking Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna AYTAÇ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Colonic lipomas are uncommon tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Most of these tumors are asymptomatic and usually detected incidentally during colonoscopy or laparotomy and do not require treatment. Large lipomas are usually symptomatic and may mimic clinic manifestations of colonic carcinoma. Here we studied seven cases of submucosal and intramuscular colonic lipomas to evaluate the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of this disease.Material and Method: Seven patients who were diagnosed with colonic lipoma between 1999 and 2006 were evaluated as regards age, gender, size of tumor, anatomic site, symptoms, location and treatment modality.Result: The mean age was 57.8± 14.7 years. Five patients were male and two were female. The size of the lipomas ranged from 1 to 5.5 cm and all were symptomatic except one patient. Five of the gastrointestinal lipomas were located submucosally and 2 intramurally. Five lipomas arose from the ascending colon, 1 from the hepatic flexure and 1 from the splenic flexure. Four large GI lipomas were removed by subtotal resection and one case underwent hemicolectomy while two pedunculated lipomas were resected by polypectomy. No recurrence was found after at least one year follow-up with endoscopic examination.Conclusion: Colonic lipomas may mimic malignancy with their clinical manifestations. Appropriate radiological and colonoscopic evaluation is essential to avoid unnecessary wide resections.

  10. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  11. 大鼠结肠壁不同电切深度自然愈合的差异%Spontaneous healing of colonic wall in SD rats undergoing different depth of electrosurgical resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱良润; 谭庆华; 张伟光

    2013-01-01

    day after operation in groups.The healing of ulcerated tissue was observed by HE staining.The expressions of collagen Ⅲ,collagen Ⅳ,b-FGF and TGF-β1 in the ulcerated tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry.Results ①Healing of ulcerated tissues:Compared with control group,the colonic samples of mucosa electrosurgical resection group and full-thickness incision group were both infiltrated with inflammatory cells and hyperplasia fibrous connective tissue,and the defect of tissue was both filled with various fibrous connective tissue.At the same time point,differences in the degree of maturation of the regenerated epithelium tissue in the both group were not statistically significant (all P > 0.5).But,the change of intermediate healing was earlier in mucosa electrosurgical resection group than that in full-thickness incision group (on the 4th day after the operation).The degree of filling of fibrous connective tissue in mucosa electrosurgical resection group was significantly better than that in full-thickness incision group on the 7th day after the operation (P <0.05).②Expression of growth factors and collagen:On the 4th and 7th day after the operation,there were statistical differences in the expression of collagen Ⅱ and collagen Ⅳ between mucosa electrosurgical resection group and full-thickness incision group(all P < 0.05).The expressions of endogenous b-FGF and TGF-β increased in both groups after the injury of colonic wall,but,there were no statistical differences in these two groups at the same time point(all P > 0.05).Conclusions The healing processes of rat colon in mucosa electrosurgical resection group and full-thickness incision group are not significantly different.But,the healing process of fibrous connective tissue consumes more time in full-thickness incision group comparing with mucosa electrosurgical resection group.

  12. Volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of endovenous laser treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, Thomas F.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Schaur, Peter; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is one of the most common medical conditions with reported prevalence estimates as high as 30% in the adult population. Although conservative management with compression therapy may improve the symptoms associated with CVI, healing often demands invasive procedures. Besides established surgical methods like vein stripping or bypassing, endovenous laser therapy (ELT) emerged as a promising novel treatment option during the last 15 years offering multiple advantages such as less pain and faster recovery. Much of the treatment success hereby depends on monitoring of the treatment progression using clinical imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound. The latter however do not provide sufficient contrast, spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging capacity which is necessary for accurate online lesion assessment during treatment. As a consequence, incidence of recanalization, lack of vessel occlusion and collateral damage remains highly variable among patients. In this study, we examined the capacity of volumetric optoacoustic tomography (VOT) for real-time monitoring of ELT using an ex-vivo ox foot model. ELT was performed on subcutaneous veins while optoacoustic signals were acquired and reconstructed in real-time and at a spatial resolution in the order of 200μm. VOT images showed spatio-temporal maps of the lesion progression, characteristics of the vessel wall, and position of the ablation fiber's tip during the pull back. It was also possible to correlate the images with the temperature elevation measured in the area adjacent to the ablation spot. We conclude that VOT is a promising tool for providing online feedback during endovenous laser therapy.

  13. Colon Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole grains. Reduce your fat intake. Limit alcohol consumption. Don't use tobacco. Stay physically active and maintain a healthy body weight. Talk to your doctor about calcium. Studies have shown that increasing your consumption of calcium may help prevent recurrence of colon ...

  14. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  15. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [cancer.gov] The most ...

  16. Surfactant enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, J.H.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    Surfactant-enhanced waterflooding is a novel EOR method aimed to improve the volumetric sweep efficiencies in reservoirs. The technique depends upon the ability to induce phase changes in surfactant solutions by mixing with surfactants of opposite charge or with salts of appropriate type. One surfactant or salt solution is injected into the reservoir. It is followed later by injection of another surfactant or salt solution. The sequence of injections is arranged so that the two solutions do not mix until they are into the permeable regions well away from the well bore. When they mix at this point, by design they form a precipitate or gel-like coacervate phase, plugging this permeable region, forcing flow through less permeable regions of the reservoir, improving sweep efficiency. The selectivity of the plugging process is demonstrated by achieving permeability reductions in the high permeable regions of Berea sandstone cores. Strategies were set to obtain a better control over the plug placement and the stability of plugs. A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the potential increases in oil production of model systems. Furthermore, the hardness tolerance of anionic surfactant solutions is shown to be enhanced by addition of monovalent electrolyte or nonionic surfactants. 34 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  18. CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Su Yeon; Whang, Kang Ik [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the CT findings of acute right colonic diverticulitis, and to determine the difference between these and published reports describing left colonic, especially sigmoid, diverticulitis. Inflamed diverticula were visible in all cases, and were solitary. Nine cases occurred in the ascending colon and four in the cecum; in particular, eleven occurred around the ileocecal valve. In three cases, the inflamed diverticulum was less than 1 cm in diameter; in five cases, 1-2 cm; in three, 2-3 cm, and in two, 3-4 cm. These were able to be classified into two major forms. In three cases it was nodular with hyperattenuation and some inhomogeneity, and ten shows the target form with thick walls and a central cavity. In five of these target lesions, the wall pattern was partially or completely inhomogeneous, or multilayered. The material filling the central cavity were gas in five cases, fecalith in two, and fluid in three. Abnormal pericoloic fat infiltrations were seen in twelve cases (92%), segmental colonic wall thickening in eleven (85%), other not-inflamed diverticula in five (38%), mesenteric lymph node enlargement in three (23%), free pericecal fluid collection in three (23%), and perirenal fascial thickening in two (15%). The complications such as remote abscess cavity, colonic obstruction, fistula or perforation were not found. On barium colon study, diverticulitis was in all cases confirmed by the presence of barium in the deformed diversiculum. Among CT findings for acute right colonic diverticulitis, the most important and pathognomonic is inflamed diverticula; the forms of these vary, and include gangrenous diverticulitis. The CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis in Koreans might not, however, reveal the complications which sigmoid diverticulitis frequently involves; in patients with right lower quadrant pain imaging studies are performed promptly, and for the mesentery, the anatomical base between right and

  19. Rapid morphological changes and loss of collagen following experimental acute colonic obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Rehn, Martin; Sand-Dejmek, Janna;

    2013-01-01

    Anastomosis of an acutely obstructed colon is associated with an increased risk of dehiscence. In experimental models, acute obstruction decreases collagen in the colonic wall, but the time course and propagation along the colon of the biochemical changes are unknown. Furthermore, there is a pauc......Anastomosis of an acutely obstructed colon is associated with an increased risk of dehiscence. In experimental models, acute obstruction decreases collagen in the colonic wall, but the time course and propagation along the colon of the biochemical changes are unknown. Furthermore...

  20. CT in the diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumi, Yoshifumi; Mitani, Takashi; Kuriyama, Keiko

    1987-11-01

    Pericolic abscess is the most frequent complication of colonic diverticulitis which requires an accurate diagnosis on its location, extent, and complications. Double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) was able to reveal indirect signs such as displacement of the colon and contrast material in the abscess cavity. Conventional Computed tomography (CT) of the colon could not demonstrate a pericolic abscess and thickened colonic wall clearly. We tried to demonstrate direct signs of pericolic abscess and thickened colonic wall by administering 200 ml of olive oil per anum. Additionally, to demonstrate the fistulous tract between sigmoid colon and urinary bladder, 200 ml of 0.8% barium solution was administered first per anum, and then evacuated prior to administering olive oil. The DCBE and CT examination in 4 patients with a clinical diagnosis (2 cases) or surgically confirmed diagnosis (2 cases) of colonic diverticulitis were studied to determine the sensitivity of the two technics. Our results showed that CT was significantly superior to the DCBE in visualising the location and extent of pericolic inflammatory process, especially colovesical fistula, the most severe complication of pericolic abscess.

  1. [Systematization of the angioarchitectonics of the colon in adult man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram-Gabel, R; Maillot, C; Koritké, J G

    1986-01-01

    The systematization of the angioarchitecture of the human colon was studied in 25 colons, the vascular system of which was injected with gelatinous indian ink. The arterial vascularization of the colonic wall is organized in two morphologically very different types of networks. The first type forms the distributional networks which consist of the subserosal, intermuscular and submucosal networks distributing harmoniously the blood running from the straight arteries. The second type forms the functional networks which consist of the muscular and mucosal networks related to the supply of the essential structure of the colonic wall. These consist essentially of pre- and postcapillary vessels. The venous vascularization of the colonic wall is organized according to a similar pattern. It also consists of three venous networks: the submucosal, intermuscular and subserosal networks which are tributaries of the straight veins and which receive the mucosal and muscular veins.

  2. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  3. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Teitelbaum, Daniel H. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  4. Process conditions and volumetric composition in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated as a fun...... is increased. Altogether, the model is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for a quantitative analysis of the effect of process conditions. Based on the presented findings and considerations, examples of future work are mentioned for the further improvement of the model.......The obtainable volumetric composition in composites is linked to the gravimetric composition, and it is influenced by the conditions of the manufacturing process. A model for the volumetric composition is presented, where the volume fractions of fibers, matrix and porosity are calculated...... as a function of the fiber weight fraction, and where parameters are included for the composite microstructure, and the fiber assembly compaction behavior. Based on experimental data of composites manufactured with different process conditions, together with model predictions, different types of process related...

  5. Indexing Volumetric Shapes with Matching and Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel algorithm for bulk-loading an index with high-dimensional data and apply it to the problem of volumetric shape matching. Our matching and packing algorithm is a general approach for packing data according to a similarity metric. First an approximate k-nearest neighbor graph is constructed using vantage-point initialization, an improvement to previous work that decreases construction time while improving the quality of approximation. Then graph matching is iteratively performed to pack related items closely together. The end result is a dense index with good performance. We define a new query specification for shape matching that uses minimum and maximum shape constraints to explicitly specify the spatial requirements of the desired shape. This specification provides a natural language for performing volumetric shape matching and is readily supported by the geometry-based similarity search (GSS) tree, an indexing structure that maintains explicit representations of volumetric shape. We describe our implementation of a GSS tree for volumetric shape matching and provide a comprehensive evaluation of parameter sensitivity, performance, and scalability. Compared to previous bulk-loading algorithms, we find that matching and packing can construct a GSS-tree index in the same amount of time that is denser, flatter, and better performing, with an observed average performance improvement of 2X.

  6. Efeito da suplementação oral de l-glutamina na parede colônica de ratos submetidos à irradiação abdominal Effect of oral supplement of l-glutamine in colonic wall of rats subjected to abdominal irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fajardo Diestel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações estruturais na parede do cólon irradiado, em ratos, verificando se a suplementação de L-glutamina pode prevení-las. MÉTODOS: Foram empregados 30 ratos Wistar, machos, adultos, divididos em três grupos: I - controle, II- irradiado e III - irradiado, com suplementação de L-glutamina durante os 14 dias do estudo. O Grupo Controle foi mantido em condições-padrão de laboratório, enquanto os grupos II e III foram submetidos à irradiação abdominal, com dose única de 1000 cGy, no 8°. dia da experimentação. Todos os animais foram operados no 15°. dia, para ressecção de segmento colônico para análise estereológica. RESULTADOS: O grupo II apresentou volume total da parede colônica significativamente menor que o Grupo Controle, sem alterar os volumes parciais de cada camada histológica. No grupo III, houve manutenção do volume total da parede do cólon, próxima ao Grupo Controle, com aumento significativo da camada mucosa, quando comparada aos grupos I e II. Na camada mucosa do grupo III, houve a manutenção do volume parcial do epitélio, comparado ao Grupo Controle, sem melhora significativa da superfície epitelial. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a suplementação de L-glutamina seja benéfica na parede do cólon irradiado, em ratos.PURPOSE: To evaluate the structural alterations of the irradiated colonic wall in rats, verifying if L-glutamine supplementation is able to prevent them. METHODS: We used 30 male adult Wistar rats, divided into three groups: I - control, II - irradiated, and III - irradiated with L-glutamine supplementation during the 14 days of the study. Control group was maintained in laboratory standard conditions while groups II and three were submitted to abdominal radiation with an only dose of 1000 cGy in the 8th day of experimentation. All the animals were submitted to laparotomy in the 15th day for resection of the colonic segment for stereological analysis. RESULTS: Group

  7. The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  8. Chronic anisakiasis of the ascending colon associated with carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineta, Sho; Shimanuki, Kimiyoshi; Sugiura, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Yoshihiko; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    Chronic anisakiasis of the colon is rare and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of chronic anisakiasis associated with advanced colonic carcinoma. A 69-year-old man was admitted for abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urticaria. Right hemicolectomy was performed because of an obstruction of the ascending colon and a palpable tumor of the right lower abdomen. The lesion was thought to be located in the deeper layers of the ascending colon. Preoperative examinations failed to detect the coexistence of anisakiasis and carcinoma of the colon. The anisakis was identified morphologically in the intestinal wall of the resected specimen and by an elevated titer of an IgE antibody specific to the parasite. Seventy-five cases of colonic and rectal anisakiasis, including the present case, have been reported in Japan. This is the only reported case of anisakiasis to appear in association with colonic carcinoma.

  9. Effect of compression paddle tilt correction on volumetric breast density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, Michiel G J; van Gils, Carla H; Lokate, Mariëtte; den Heeten, Gerard J; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2012-08-21

    For the acquisition of a mammogram, a breast is compressed between a compression paddle and a support table. When compression is applied with a flexible compression paddle, the upper plate may be tilted, which results in variation in breast thickness from the chest wall to the breast margin. Paddle tilt has been recognized as a major problem in volumetric breast density estimation methods. In previous work, we developed a fully automatic method to correct the image for the effect of compression paddle tilt. In this study, we investigated in three experiments the effect of paddle tilt and its correction on volumetric breast density estimation. Results showed that paddle tilt considerably affected accuracy of volumetric breast density estimation, but that effect could be reduced by tilt correction. By applying tilt correction, a significant increase in correspondence between mammographic density estimates and measurements on MRI was established. We argue that in volumetric breast density estimation, tilt correction is both feasible and essential when mammographic images are acquired with a flexible compression paddle.

  10. Combined surface and volumetric occlusion shading

    KAUST Repository

    Schott, Matthias O.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a method for interactive direct volume rendering is proposed that computes ambient occlusion effects for visualizations that combine both volumetric and geometric primitives, specifically tube shaped geometric objects representing streamlines, magnetic field lines or DTI fiber tracts. The proposed algorithm extends the recently proposed Directional Occlusion Shading model to allow the rendering of those geometric shapes in combination with a context providing 3D volume, considering mutual occlusion between structures represented by a volume or geometry. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. MR volumetric assessment of endolymphatic hydrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkov, R.; Berman, A.; Jerin, C.; Krause, E. [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Dietrich, O.; Flatz, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); Keeser, D. [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Grosshadern Medical Centre, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innenstadtkliniken Medical Centre, Munich (Germany)

    2014-10-16

    We aimed to volumetrically quantify endolymph and perilymph spaces of the inner ear in order to establish a methodological basis for further investigations into the pathophysiology and therapeutic monitoring of Meniere's disease. Sixteen patients (eight females, aged 38-71 years) with definite unilateral Meniere's disease were included in this study. Magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography with a T2-SPACE sequence was combined with a Real reconstruction inversion recovery (Real-IR) sequence for delineation of inner ear fluid spaces. Machine learning and automated local thresholding segmentation algorithms were applied for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. Test-retest reliability was assessed by the intra-class coefficient; correlation of cochlear endolymph volume ratio with hearing function was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Endolymph volume ratios could be reliably measured in all patients, with a mean (range) value of 15 % (2-25) for the cochlea and 28 % (12-40) for the vestibulum. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intra-class coefficient of 0.99. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was significantly correlated with hearing loss (r = 0.747, p = 0.001). MR imaging after local contrast application and image processing, including machine learning and automated local thresholding, enable the volumetric quantification of endolymphatic hydrops. This allows for a quantitative assessment of the effect of therapeutic interventions on endolymphatic hydrops. (orig.)

  12. Wonderful Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  13. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  14. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  15. A SUBDIVISION SCHEME FOR VOLUMETRIC MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GhulamMustafa; LiuXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed. The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models. The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joy's. This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes of nonmanifold topology.

  16. Volumetric composition in composites and historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    guidance to the optimal combination of fibre content, matrix content and porosity content, in order to achieve the best obtainable properties. Several composite materials systems have been shown to be handleable with this model. An extensive series of experimental data for the system of cellulose fibres...... and polymer (resin) was produced in 1942 – 1944, and these data have been (re-)analysed by the volumetric composition model, and the property values for density, stiffness and strength have been evaluated. Good agreement has been obtained and some further observations have been extracted from the analysis....

  17. IMITATION OF STANDARD VOLUMETRIC ACTIVITY METAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhukouski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the specific character of problems in the field of ionizing radiation spectroscopy, the R&D and making process of standard volumetric activity metal samples (standard samples for calibration and verification of spectrometric equipment is not only expensive, but also requires the use of highly qualified experts and a unique specific equipment. Theoretical and experimental studies performed have shown the possibility to use imitators as a set of alternating point sources of gamma radiation and metal plates and their use along with standard volumetric activity metal samples for calibration of scintillation-based detectors used in radiation control in metallurgy. Response functions or instrumental spectra of such spectrometer to radionuclides like 137Cs, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 60Co, 54Mn, 232Th, 226Ra, 65Zn, 125Sb+125mTe, 106Ru+106Rh, 94Nb, 110mAg, 233U, 234U, 235U and 238U are required for calibration in a given measurement geometry. Standard samples in the form of a probe made of melt metal of a certain diameter and height are used in such measurements. However, the production of reference materials is costly and even problematic for such radionuclides as 94Nb, 125Sb+125mTe, 234U, 235U  etc. A recognized solution to solve this problem is to use the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Instrumental experimental and theoretical spectra obtained by using standard samples and their imitators show a high compliance between experimental spectra of real samples and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models, between spectra of real samples and the ones of their imitators and finally, between experimental spectra of real sample imitators and the theoretical ones of their Monte-Carlo models. They also have shown the adequacy and consistency of the approach in using a combination of metal scattering layers and reference point gamma-ray sources instead of standard volumetric activity metal samples. As for using several reference point gamma-ray sources

  18. Magnetic volumetric hologram memory with magnetic garnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Lim, Pang Boey; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2014-06-30

    Holographic memory is a promising next-generation optical memory that has a higher recording density and a higher transfer rate than other types of memory. In holographic memory, magnetic garnet films can serve as rewritable holographic memory media by use of magneto-optical effect. We have now demonstrated that a magnetic hologram can be recorded volumetrically in a ferromagnetic garnet film and that the signal image can be reconstructed from it for the first time. In addition, multiplicity of the magnetic hologram was also confirmed; the image could be reconstructed from a spot overlapped by other spots.

  19. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  20. Design and optimization of the low frequency eddy current technique for the volumetric inspection of austenitic small diameter tubes with a wall thickness up to 12 mm; Auslegung und Optimierung des Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahrens fuer die volumetrische Pruefung von austenitischen Neben- und Kleinleitungen mit Wandstaerken bis 12 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Bessert, S.; Disque, M.; Weiss, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The low-frequency eddy current technique discussed is a suitable external inspection technique detecting defects at the inner walls of small-diameter tubes and measuring their depths via the ligament. A testing system with optimized sensor lus software for image recording, evaluation, display and documentation is available. The current state of development of the system permits detection and measurement of defects up to 20 mm in size in austenitic inner walls 12.5 mm thick down to a depth of 3 mm. This applies both to the homogenous base metal and the weld with {delta} ferrite. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das vorgestellte Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahren ist geeignet, bei Pruefung von aussen Fehler an der Innenseite von Klein- und Nebenleitungen nachzuweisen und ueber das Ligament deren Tiefe zu bestimmen. Ein entsprechendes Pruefsystem mit optimiertem Sensor und der Software zur Aufnahme, Auswertung, Darstellung und Dokumentation der Wirbelstrom-Urdaten steht zur Verfuegung. Beim jetzigen Entwicklungsstand liegt die Nachweisgrenze fuer einen 20 mm langen Innenfehler in einer 12.5 mm dicken austenitischen Wandung bei einer Fehlertiefe von 3 mm. Dies gilt sowohl fuer den homogenen Grundwerkstoff als auch fuer Schweissgefuege mit {delta}-Ferrit. (orig./MM)

  1. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  2. Effects of bromopride on abdominal wall healing with induced peritoneal sepsis after segmental colectomy and colonic anastomosis in rats Efeitos da bromoprida na cicatrização da parede abdominal com sepse peritoneal induzida e submetidos à ressecção segmentar e anastomose do cólon esquerdo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Melo de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of bromopride on abdominal wall healing of rats with induced peritoneal sepsis after segmental colectomy and colonic anastomosis. METHODS: Forty rats underwent sectioning of the left colon and end-to-end anastomosis and were divided into two groups of 20 animals for the administration of bromopride (bromopride group - B or saline solution (control group - C. Each group was divided into subgroups of 10 animals each to be killed on the third (GB3 and GC3 or seventh postoperative day (GB7 and GC7. It was analyzed the following characteristics: breaking strength of the abdominal wall's wound; surgical and histopathological features of the abdominal wall; and clinical features of the rats. RESULTS: There was no difference between the groups in relation to the weight of the rats and the breaking strength of the abdominal wall's wound. The GB7 group presented less edema and less quantity of fibrin during histopathological evaluation compared to the GC7 group. CONCLUSION: Bromopride did not have harmful effects on the healing of abdominal wall in rats.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da bromoprida, na cicatrização da ferida operatória da parede abdominal de ratos com sepse peritoneal experimentalmente induzida e submetidos a ressecção segmentar e anastomose de cólon esquerdo. MÉTODOS: 40 ratos distribuídos em dois grupos contendo 20 animais, para administração de bromoprida (grupo bromoprida- B ou solução de NaCl 0,9% (grupo controle - C. Cada grupo foi dividido em subgrupos contendo 10 animais, para eutanásia no terceiro (GB3 e GC3 ou sétimo dia (GB7 e GE7 de pós-operatório. Os ratos foram submetidos à secção do cólon esquerdo e anastomose término-terminal. No dia da eutanásia foram avaliadas as características cirúrgicas da cavidade abdominal e clínicas dos ratos. Foram coletados segmentos da parede para a avaliação histopatológica e de resistência tênsil da ferida operatória. RESULTADOS: N

  3. Effects of prokinetic drugs on the abdominal wall wound healing of rats submitted to segmental colectomy and colonic anastomosis Efeitos de drogas procinéticas na cicatrização da parede abdominal de ratos submetidos à colectomia segmentar e anastomose no cólon esquerdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Alves de Morais

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the effect of prokinetic agents on abdominal wall wound healing in rats submitted to segmental colectomy and colonic anastomosis. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly allocated into three groups according to the agents they would receive in the postoperative period: M (metoclopramide; B (bromopride; and C (control, saline 0.9%. Surgical procedures were performed identically in all animals, and consisted of a midline laparotomy followed by resection of a 1-cm segment of large bowel with end-to-end anastomosis. The abdominal wall was closed in two layers with running stitches. Abdominal wall samples were collected on the 3rd or 7th postoperative day for measurement of breaking (tensile strength and histopathological assessment. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in tensile strength of the abdominal wall scar between groups M, B, and C, nor between the three and seven days after surgery subgroups. On histopathological assessment, there were no statistically significant between-group differences in collagen deposition or number of fibroblasts at the wound site CONCLUSION: Use of the prokinetic drugs metoclopramide or bromopride had no effect on abdominal wall healing in rats submitted to segmental colectomy and colonic anastomosis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do uso de drogas prócinéticas na cicatrização da parede abdominal de ratos submetidos à colectomia segmentar e anastomose no cólon esquerdo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos, alocados aleatoriamente em três grupos para receberem as seguintes medicações no período pós-operatório: M (metoclopramida; B (bromoprida e C (solução salina a 0,9%. Os procedimentos cirúrgicos foram idênticos em todos os animais. Foi realizada laparotomia mediana, seguida de colectomia segmentar de 1-cm e anastomose colônica. O fechamento da parede abdominal foi feito em dois planos de sutura contínua. No 3° ou no 7° dia pós-operatório foram coletadas

  4. Sigmoid Colon Migration of an Intrauterine Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Akpinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intrauterine devices (IUD are commonly used birth control methods. Colonic perforation is an infrequent but serious complication of IUD. Case. A 34-year-old woman with 2-years history of IUD, inserted at early puerperal period, presented to gynecologist with chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Radiological assessment revealed that there were two copper-T devices: one in uterine cavity and another in the colonic lumen. Attempts of retrieval with colonoscopy and laparoscopy were unsuccessful. Intrauterine device embedded in sigmoid colon wall was removed with resection of the involved segment and primary anastomosis was performed. Conclusion. Although there are cases in literature that are successfully managed with colonoscopy, in chronic cases, formation of granulation tissue complicates retrieval of an IUD by this intervention.

  5. Suppression of c-Myc is involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes' down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaojing [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Xu, Yonghong [Institute of Ophthalmological Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 430060 Wuhan (China); Meng, Xiangning [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical, Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Liu, Hudan, E-mail: hudanliu@hust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Chen, Xiao, E-mail: mornsmile@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a large family of integral membrane proteins that decrease cellular drug uptake and accumulation by active extrusion, is one of the major causes of cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR) that frequently leads to failure of chemotherapy. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based drug delivery devices hold great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. However, CNTs' effects on the ABC transporters remain under-investigated. In this study, we found that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reduced transport activity and expression of ABC transporters including ABCB1/Pgp and ABCC4/MRP4 in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Proto-oncogene c-Myc, which directly regulates ABC gene expression, was concurrently decreased in MWCNT-treated cells and forced over-expression of c-Myc reversed MWCNTs' inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC4 expression. MWCNT-cell membrane interaction and cell membrane oxidative damage were observed. However, antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-mecaptoethanol and dimethylthiourea failed to antagonize MWCNTs' down-regulation of ABC transporters. These data suggest that MWCNTs may act on c-Myc, but not through oxidative stress, to down-regulate ABC transporter expression. Our findings thus shed light on CNTs' novel cellular effects that may be utilized to develop CNTs-based drug delivery devices to overcome ABC transporter-mediated cancer chemoresistance.

  6. Coexistence of Colon Cancer and Diverticilutis Complicated with Diverticular Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of a diverticular abscess and colorectal cancer is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical presentation and the extension of a diverticular abscess could cause mis-staging of colon cancer. We are presenting an overstaged colon cancer due to a diverticular abscess penetrating into the abdominal wall. A 65-year-old male patient with a history of an enlarging mass in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen was admitted to our service. Diagnostic studies revealed a sigmoid tumor communicating with an abdominal wall mass. The patient was clinically staged as T4 N1. Exploration revealed a diverticular abscess penetrating into the abdominal wall and a sigmoid tumor. Histopathological examination reported an intermediately differentiated T3 N0 adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon. After an uneventful postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to chemotherapy. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(4.000: 231-233

  7. A Case report of pediatric colonic inflammatory pseudotumor

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghasemi; Alam, A

    2005-01-01

    In this report we introduce an 8 years old boy with Transverse colon inflammatory pseudotumor.The patient was admitted to Boo-Ali Sina Hospital with abdominal pain, fever and vomiting. In clinical examinations an abdominal mass in splenic flexure was palpated.Imaging study with CT-Scan revealed a calcified mass in transverse colon wall with lymphadenopathy and lymphoma was suggested. Histological study showed inflammatory pseudotumor.After surgical excision the patient was recovered. The rec...

  8. Colon distention induces persistent visceral hypersensitivity by mechanotranscription of pain mediators in colonic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, You-Min; Fu, Yu; Wu, Chester C; Xu, Guang-Yin; Huang, Li-Yen; Shi, Xuan-Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal pain and distention are major complaints in irritable bowel syndrome. Abdominal distention is mainly attributed to intraluminal retention of gas or solid contents, which may cause mechanical stress to the gut wall. Visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) may account for abdominal pain. We sought to determine whether tonic colon distention causes persistent VHS and if so whether mechanical stress-induced expression (mechanotranscription) of pain mediators in colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays a role in VHS. Human colonic SMCs were isolated and stretched in vitro to investigate whether mechanical stress upregulates expression of the pain mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Rat colon was distended with a 5-cm-long balloon, and gene expression of COX-2, visceromotor response (VMR), and sensory neuron excitability were determined. Static stretch of colonic SMCs induced marked expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in a force- and time-dependent manner. Subnoxious tonic distention of the distal colon at ∼30-40 mmHg for 20 or 40 min induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in colonic smooth muscle, but not in the mucosa layer. Lumen distention also increased VMR in a force- and time-dependent manner. The increase of VMR persisted for at least 3 days. Patch-clamp experiments showed that the excitability of colon projecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia was markedly augmented, 24 h after lumen distention. Administration of COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 partially but significantly attenuated distention-induced VHS. In conclusion, tonic lumen distention upregulates expression of COX-2 in colonic SMC, and COX-2 contributes to persistent VHS.

  9. Disentangling volumetric and hydrational properties of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshin, Vladimir P; Medvedev, Nikolai N; Smolin, Nikolai; Geiger, Alfons; Winter, Roland

    2015-02-05

    We used molecular dynamics simulations of a typical monomeric protein, SNase, in combination with Voronoi-Delaunay tessellation to study and analyze the temperature dependence of the apparent volume, Vapp, of the solute. We show that the void volume, VB, created in the boundary region between solute and solvent, determines the temperature dependence of Vapp to a major extent. The less pronounced but still significant temperature dependence of the molecular volume of the solute, VM, is essentially the result of the expansivity of its internal voids, as the van der Waals contribution to VM is practically independent of temperature. Results for polypeptides of different chemical nature feature a similar temperature behavior, suggesting that the boundary/hydration contribution seems to be a universal part of the temperature dependence of Vapp. The results presented here shine new light on the discussion surrounding the physical basis for understanding and decomposing the volumetric properties of proteins and biomolecules in general.

  10. All Photons Imaging Through Volumetric Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satat, Guy; Heshmat, Barmak; Raviv, Dan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Imaging through thick highly scattering media (sample thickness ≫ mean free path) can realize broad applications in biomedical and industrial imaging as well as remote sensing. Here we propose a computational “All Photons Imaging” (API) framework that utilizes time-resolved measurement for imaging through thick volumetric scattering by using both early arrived (non-scattered) and diffused photons. As opposed to other methods which aim to lock on specific photons (coherent, ballistic, acoustically modulated, etc.), this framework aims to use all of the optical signal. Compared to conventional early photon measurements for imaging through a 15 mm tissue phantom, our method shows a two fold improvement in spatial resolution (4db increase in Peak SNR). This all optical, calibration-free framework enables widefield imaging through thick turbid media, and opens new avenues in non-invasive testing, analysis, and diagnosis. PMID:27683065

  11. A Technique for Volumetric CSG Based on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new technique for volumetric CSG is presented. The technique requires the input volumes to correspond to solids which fulfill a voxelization suitability criterion. Assume the CSG operation is union. The volumetric union of two such volumes is defined in terms of the voxelization...

  12. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  13. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  14. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  15. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  16. Iatrogenic Colonic Perforation due to Computed Tomographic Colonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the complications of computed tomographic colonography (CTC are very rare, CTC is associated with potential risk of colonic perforation. In the present report we describe two cases of colonic perforation secondary to CTC. In the first case with ascending colonic carcinoma, insertion of a rigid double-balloon catheter caused direct rectal wall perforation. In the second case with obstructive colonic carcinoma, pneumoperitoneum developed due to automated carbon dioxide insufflation. Both patients were asymptomatic after examination and recovered without any complications. Based on the findings of the current cases, we recommend that a soft-tip catheter be used for CTC, and suggest that colonic perforation can occur even with automatic insufflation, depending on patient characteristics.

  17. LEAKAGE OF COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS AFTER COLON RESECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanellos I; Pramateftakis MG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To present the diagnosis and management of anastomotic leakage after colon resection. Methods Early diagnosis and urgent therapeutic intervention are required in order to avert life-threatening conditions that may be caused by anastomotic leakage. Results The diagnosis of anastomotic leakage is based on clinical features, peripheral blood investigations and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. Major leaks are defined by symptoms of peritonitis and septicaemia due to leakage. Major leaks should be managed operatively. Minor leaks can be managed conservatively with successful outcomes. Conclusion Leakage of colonic anastomosis remains the most serious complication after colon resection. It is a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required in order to detect early, nonspecific signs of a leakage and urgent surgical intervention is usually required to avert life-threatening events.

  18. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  19. Evaluation by computerized morphometry of histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit in rats Avaliação por morfometria computadorizada das alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vieira de Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit, by computer-assisted imaging, and to correlate these with the length of time diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal transit diversion by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups according to how long after the initial surgical procedure they were sacrificed: six, twelve and eighteen weeks. Colon segments with and without transit were subjected to histopathological study. The variables colon crypt length, mucosal ulceration, muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria, vascular congestion, number of caliciform cells, inflammatory grade and degree of inflammation, comparing the two colon segments in the different experimental groups were studied. Intestinal crypt length, muscle layer thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria and caliciform cells were measured by computer-assisted imaging method. Mean equality, variance analysis and correlation tests were used in the statistical analysis, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Comparison between segments with and without transit showed that the latter presented reduced length of colon crypts and increased muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. There were greater quantities of ulceration of the mucosal and greater degree of inflammation with increasing time without transit. Mucosal ulceration, submucosal vascular congestion, increased thickness of the submucosal and muscularis propria layers, presence of caliciform cells, inflammatory infiltrate and inflammatory grade correlated significantly with the length of time without transit. CONCLUSIONS: Histological alterations occurred in all layers of the colon wall, in the segments without intestinal transit. Ulcerations in the

  20. CT findings of colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  1. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  2. Cat scratch colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rebollo, M Lourdes; Velayos-Jiménez, Benito; Prieto de Paula, José María; Alvarez Quiñones, María; González Hernández, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term "cat scratch colon." This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  3. Cat Scratch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term “cat scratch colon.” This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  4. Colon cancer - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...

  6. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...

  7. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...

  8. 局部进展期直肠癌术前3DCRT或VMAT同期化疗后肠壁残余癌细胞分布比较%A comparative study of distribution of residual cancer cells in the bowel wall after preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy versus volumetric modulated arc therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in treatment of locally advanced rectum cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖林; 祝喻甲; 邱波; 肖巍巍; 余昕; 曾智帆; 刘孟忠; 高远红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution of residual cancer cells (RCC) in each layer of bowl wall after preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) versus volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy,and to investigate the effect of different radiotherapy techniques on the distribution of RCC.Methods A total of 334 patients with locally advanced rectum cancer (LARC) who were admitted to our hospital from May 2007 to April 2013 were enrolled as subjects.In those patients,172 received preoperative 3DCRT (46 Gy/23 F) with concurrent chemotherapy and 162 received VMAT (50 Gy/25 F) with concurrent chemotherapy.There was no significant difference in the distribution of clinical stage Ⅱ or Ⅲ between the 3DCRT group and VMAT group.All the RCCs in different layers of surgical specimens were evaluated pathologically.Between-group comparison of data was made by Pearson Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test.Results There were no significant differences in ypT,ypN,or ypTNM staging between the two groups (P values>0.05).In the 226 patients with ypT2-4 disease,the proportion of RCC in the mucosa,submucosa,muscularis propria,and subserosa/perirectal fat was 34.1%,43.8%,73.5%,and 69.0%,respectively.In patients with ypT2-4,pN+,cN+,or cT4 disease,compared with the VMAT group,the 3DCRT group had significantly higher proportion of RCCs in the mucosa (47.9% vs.18.1%,54.5% vs.17.2%,39.8% vs.15.3%,41.3% vs.14.3%;P=0.000,0.001,0.000,0.000) and submucosa (50.4% vs.36.2%,56.8% vs.27.6%,43.0% vs.26.6%,45.3% vs.27.5%;P=0.032,0.014,0.006,0.017).In patients with pN0 or cT3 disease,the 3DCRT group had a significantly higher proportion of RCCs in the mucosa than the VMAT group (28.1% vs.12.9%,P=0.002;29.5% vs.13.2%,P=0.015).In patients with ypT2-4,pN0/pN+,cT3/cT4,or cN0/cN+ disease,there were no significant differences in the proportion of RCCs in the muscularis propria or subserosa/perirectal fat

  9. Intra peritoneal ascending colon in parastomal hernial sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorat Singh Yadav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rate of parastomal hernia reported varies from 5% to 80%. It forms when the abdominal wall defect is continually stretched by the tangential forces applied along the circumference of the abdominal wall opening. The presence of parastomal hernia along with intraperitoneal ascending colon, caecum and terminal ileum along with ileal perforation is a rare entity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 786-788

  10. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  11. Translocation of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device: Incidental Finding in the Rectosigmoid Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilallonga, R.; Rodriguez, N.; Vilchez, M.; Armengol, M.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of an intrauterine device (IUD) within the colon is rare. Complications have been reported with IUDs among which uterine perforation. Translocation of IUDs to the uterine cavity, to the bladder and also through the wall of the bowel, and sigmoid colon has been reported. We believe there may be a case that surgeons should know the result of despite being a priori gynaecological complication. This paper reports on a case of colon perforation by an IUD. PMID:20613996

  12. Translocation of an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device: Incidental Finding in the Rectosigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vilallonga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of an intrauterine device (IUD within the colon is rare. Complications have been reported with IUDs among which uterine perforation. Translocation of IUDs to the uterine cavity, to the bladder and also through the wall of the bowel, and sigmoid colon has been reported. We believe there may be a case that surgeons should know the result of despite being a priori gynaecological complication. This paper reports on a case of colon perforation by an IUD.

  13. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  14. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieneke, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data.

  15. Diverticular disease of the right colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutross-Tadross Odette

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of colonic diverticular disease varies with national origin, cultural background and diet. The frequency of this disease increases with advancing age. Right-sided diverticular disease is uncommon and reported to occur in 1-2% of surgical specimens in European and American series. In contrast the disease is more prevalent and reported in 43-50% of specimens in Asian series. Various lines of evidence suggest this variation may represent hereditary differences. The aim of the study is to report all cases of right sided diverticular disease underwent surgical resection or identified during pathological examination of right hemicoloectomy specimens Methods A retrospective review of all surgical specimens with right sided colonic diverticular disease selected from a larger database of all colonic diverticulosis and diverticulitis surgical specimen reported between January 1993 and December 2010 at the Pathology Department McMaster University Medical Centre Canada. The clinical and pathological features of these cases were reviewed Results The review identified 15 cases of right colon diverticulosis. The clinical diagnoses of these cases were appendicitis, diverticulitis or adenocarcinoma. Eight cases of single congenital perforated diverticuli were identified and seven cases were incidental multiple acquired diverticuli found in specimen resected for right side colonic carcinomas/large adenomas. Laparotomy or laparoscopic assisted haemicolectomies were done for all cases. Pathological examination showed caecal wall thickening with inflammation associated with perforated diverticuli. Histology confirmed true solitary diverticuli that exhibited in two cases thick walled vessels in the submucosa and muscular layer indicating vascular malformation/angiodysplasia. Acquired diverticuli tend to be multiple and are mostly seen in specimens resected for neoplastic right colon diseases. Conclusion Single true diverticular

  16. Dimensioning of ducts for maximal volumetric heat transfer taking both laminar and turbulent flow possibilities into consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Alper

    2015-04-01

    It is intended to design compact heat exchangers which can transfer high heat flow for a given volume and temperature difference with high efficiency. This work presents the optimal design of heat exchangers for a given length or hydraulic diameter with a constraint of a certain pressure loss and constant wall temperature. Both volumetric heat transfer and heat transfer efficiency are taken into consideration for the design in laminar or turbulent flow regions. Equations are derived which easily enable optimal design for all shapes of ducts and for all Pr numbers. It is found that optimum conditions for turbulent flow is possible for all duct hydraulic diameters; however, it is possible to have optimum conditions till a certain dimensionless duct hydraulic diameter for laminar flow. Besides maximal volumetric heat flow, heat transfer efficiency should be taken into consideration in turbulent flow for optimum design.

  17. Application of three-dimensional volumetric ultrasonography in patients with bladder cancer and its mimickers: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sujin; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Various diseases of the urinary bladder can be demonstrated as being polypoid, a nodular bladder mass or as focal bladder wall thickening. This includes malignant or benign neoplasms, urinary stones, or other inflammatory bladder conditions. In daily practice many of these bladder diseases are easily confused with bladder cancer. On the other hand, ultrasonography (US) is safe and can be easily applied as a screening modality or an initial evaluating tool for urinary bladder disease. Furthermore, additional three-dimensional (3D) volumetric techniques can support more delicate delineation of these lesions. This study presents a 3D volumetric US for bladder lesions, and demonstrates various pathological conditions of the urinary bladder ranging from bladder cancer to other benign lesions.

  18. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  19. Hyperspectral image classification based on volumetric texture and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongjun; Sheng, Yehua; Du, Peijun; Chen, Chen; Liu, Kui

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach using volumetric texture and reduced-spectral features is presented for hyperspectral image classification. Using this approach, the volumetric textural features were extracted by volumetric gray-level co-occurrence matrices (VGLCM). The spectral features were extracted by minimum estimated abundance covariance (MEAC) and linear prediction (LP)-based band selection, and a semi-supervised k-means (SKM) clustering method with deleting the worst cluster (SKMd) bandclustering algorithms. Moreover, four feature combination schemes were designed for hyperspectral image classification by using spectral and textural features. It has been proven that the proposed method using VGLCM outperforms the gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) method, and the experimental results indicate that the combination of spectral information with volumetric textural features leads to an improved classification performance in hyperspectral imagery.

  20. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter reading systems based on ... damage and also provides the ability to control and manage consumption. ... existing infrastructure of the telecommunications is used in data transmission.

  1. Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme to

  2. Increasing the volumetric efficiency of Diesel engines by intake pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Hans

    1933-01-01

    Development of a method for calculating the volumetric efficiency of piston engines with intake pipes. Application of this method to the scavenging pumps of two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging and to four-stroke-cycle engines. The utility of the method is demonstrated by volumetric-efficiency tests of the two-stroke-cycle engines with crankcase scavenging. Its practical application to the calculation of intake pipes is illustrated by example.

  3. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely oc...

  4. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes......, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... in the apical membrane of distal colonic enterocytes. The directed focus therefore covers the role of the apical Ca2+ and cAMP-activated BK channel (KCa1.1) as the apparently only secretory K+ channel in the distal colon....

  5. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thorough evaluation by a surgeon qualified in laparoscopic colon resection in consultation with your primary ... Olympic Blvd., Suite 600 Los Angeles, CA 90064 Tel: (310) 437-0544 Fax: (310) 437- ...

  6. Serial volumetric registration of pulmonary CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Silvestre; Silva, Augusto; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2008-03-01

    Detailed morphological analysis of pulmonary structures and tissue, provided by modern CT scanners, is of utmost importance as in the case of oncological applications both for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In this case, a patient may go through several tomographic studies throughout a period of time originating volumetric sets of image data that must be appropriately registered in order to track suspicious radiological findings. The structures or regions of interest may change their position or shape in CT exams acquired at different moments, due to postural, physiologic or pathologic changes, so, the exams should be registered before any follow-up information can be extracted. Postural mismatching throughout time is practically impossible to avoid being particularly evident when imaging is performed at the limiting spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a method for intra-patient registration of pulmonary CT studies, to assist in the management of the oncological pathology. Our method takes advantage of prior segmentation work. In the first step, the pulmonary segmentation is performed where trachea and main bronchi are identified. Then, the registration method proceeds with a longitudinal alignment based on morphological features of the lungs, such as the position of the carina, the pulmonary areas, the centers of mass and the pulmonary trans-axial principal axis. The final step corresponds to the trans-axial registration of the corresponding pulmonary masked regions. This is accomplished by a pairwise sectional registration process driven by an iterative search of the affine transformation parameters leading to optimal similarity metrics. Results with several cases of intra-patient, intra-modality registration, up to 7 time points, show that this method provides accurate registration which is needed for quantitative tracking of lesions and the development of image fusion strategies that may effectively assist the follow-up process.

  7. Treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, James L. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a specific type of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in which the gantry speed, multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, and dose rate vary continuously during delivery. A treatment planning system for VMAT is presented. Methods: Arc control points are created uniformly throughout one or more arcs. An iterative least-squares algorithm is used to generate a fluence profile at every control point. The control points are then grouped and all of the control points in a given group are used to approximate the fluence profiles. A direct-aperture optimization is then used to improve the solution, taking into account the allowed range of leaf motion of the MLC. Dose is calculated using a fast convolution algorithm and the motion between control points is approximated by 100 interpolated dose calculation points. The method has been applied to five cases, consisting of lung, rectum, prostate and seminal vesicles, prostate and pelvic lymph nodes, and head and neck. The resulting plans have been compared with segmental (step-and-shoot) IMRT and delivered and verified on an Elekta Synergy to ensure practicality. Results: For the lung, prostate and seminal vesicles, and rectum cases, VMAT provides a plan of similar quality to segmental IMRT but with faster delivery by up to a factor of 4. For the prostate and pelvic nodes and head-and-neck cases, the critical structure doses are reduced with VMAT, both of these cases having a longer delivery time than IMRT. The plans in general verify successfully, although the agreement between planned and measured doses is not very close for the more complex cases, particularly the head-and-neck case. Conclusions: Depending upon the emphasis in the treatment planning, VMAT provides treatment plans which are higher in quality and/or faster to deliver than IMRT. The scheme described has been successfully introduced into clinical use.

  8. Postpolypectomy Electrocoagulation Syndrome: A Mimicker of Colonic Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Benson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpolypectomy electrocoagulation syndrome is a rare complication of polypectomy with electrocautery and is characterized by a transmural burn of the colon wall. Patients typically present within 12 hours after the procedure with symptoms mimicking colonic perforation. Presented is the case of a 56-year-old man who developed abdominal pain six hours after colonoscopy during which polypectomy was performed using snare cautery. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed circumferential thickening of the wall of the transverse colon without evidence of free air. The patient was treated conservatively as an outpatient and had resolution of his pain over the following four days. Recognition of the diagnosis and understanding of the treatment are important to avoid unnecessary exploratory laparotomy or hospitalization.

  9. Carbohydrate Markers in Colon Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Dariusz Szajda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp. If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases.

  10. Adenocarcinoma in Colonic Interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Grunner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female with dysphagia presented to our clinic. In childhood, she underwent colonic interposition due to anastomotic stricture after a previous proximal gastrectomy for gastric ulcer perforation. Imaging studies revealed a space-occupying lesion obstructing the distal interposed colon. At surgery, completion gastrectomy with segmental colectomy was carried out, and Roux-en-Y coloenterostomy and enteroenterostomy were performed.

  11. Visualization and volumetric structures from MR images of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, B.; Johnston, W.; Robertson, D.

    1994-03-01

    Pinta is a system for segmentation and visualization of anatomical structures obtained from serial sections reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging. The system approaches the segmentation problem by assigning each volumetric region to an anatomical structure. This is accomplished by satisfying constraints at the pixel level, slice level, and volumetric level. Each slice is represented by an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to regions and links correspond to the relations between regions. These regions are obtained by grouping pixels based on similarity and proximity. The slice level attributed graphs are then coerced to form a volumetric attributed graph, where volumetric consistency can be verified. The main novelty of our approach is in the use of the volumetric graph to ensure consistency from symbolic representations obtained from individual slices. In this fashion, the system allows errors to be made at the slice level, yet removes them when the volumetric consistency cannot be verified. Once the segmentation is complete, the 3D surfaces of the brain can be constructed and visualized.

  12. Soft bilateral filtering volumetric shadows using cube shadow maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatam H.; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal; Kolivand, Hoshang

    2017-01-01

    Volumetric shadows often increase the realism of rendered scenes in computer graphics. Typical volumetric shadows techniques do not provide a smooth transition effect in real-time with conservation on crispness of boundaries. This research presents a new technique for generating high quality volumetric shadows by sampling and interpolation. Contrary to conventional ray marching method, which requires extensive time, this proposed technique adopts downsampling in calculating ray marching. Furthermore, light scattering is computed in High Dynamic Range buffer to generate tone mapping. The bilateral interpolation is used along a view rays to smooth transition of volumetric shadows with respect to preserving-edges. In addition, this technique applied a cube shadow map to create multiple shadows. The contribution of this technique isreducing the number of sample points in evaluating light scattering and then introducing bilateral interpolation to improve volumetric shadows. This contribution is done by removing the inherent deficiencies significantly in shadow maps. This technique allows obtaining soft marvelous volumetric shadows, having a good performance and high quality, which show its potential for interactive applications. PMID:28632740

  13. Numerical analysis of radiation propagation in innovative volumetric receivers based on selective laser melting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Santiago, Sergio; Roccabruna, Mattia; Luque, Salvador; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Crema, Luigi; Romero, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Volumetric absorbers constitute one of the key elements in order to achieve high thermal conversion efficiencies in concentrating solar power plants. Regardless of the working fluid or thermodynamic cycle employed, design trends towards higher absorber output temperatures are widespread, which lead to the general need of components of high solar absorptance, high conduction within the receiver material, high internal convection, low radiative and convective heat losses and high mechanical durability. In this context, the use of advanced manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting, has allowed for the fabrication of intricate geometries that are capable of fulfilling the previous requirements. This paper presents a parametric design and analysis of the optical performance of volumetric absorbers of variable porosity conducted by means of detailed numerical ray tracing simulations. Sections of variable macroscopic porosity along the absorber depth were constructed by the fractal growth of single-cell structures. Measures of performance analyzed include optical reflection losses from the absorber front and rear faces, penetration of radiation inside the absorber volume, and radiation absorption as a function of absorber depth. The effects of engineering design parameters such as absorber length and wall thickness, material reflectance and porosity distribution on the optical performance of absorbers are discussed, and general design guidelines are given.

  14. [Coincidence of colonic lymphoma and gallstone ileus - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, M; Opatrný, V; Nosek, J; Geiger, J; Třeška, V; Boudová, L; Buriánek, V

    Primary colonic lymphoma is a very rare malignant disease of the gastrointestinal tract, accounting for 14% of all malignant diseases in this location. It is classified in the group of extranodal lymphomas; its long-term asymptomatic progression makes it different from common colorectal carcinomas making its diagnosis very difficult, more often accidental. Gallstone ileus is quite an uncommon complication of cholecystolithiasis diagnosed with difficulty. Up to 50% of cases are diagnosed during surgery. The obturated location depends on the size of the stone, location of the conjunction between the biliary and gastrointestinal tracts, and also on any preexisting stenosis due to another unknown pathology. We present a case of an 86-year-old man treated for acute diverticulitis with typical clinical symptoms. Following further examination (colonoscopy, computed tomography) revealed a tumour-like infiltration in the sigmoid colon wall and a voluminous polyp was suspected according to the colonoscopy. Computed tomography described an obstruction by a biliary stone tumbling through the cholecystocolonic fistula. Subsequent biopsy supported the suspected malignant etiology. The patient underwent resection of the sigmoid colon sec. Hartmann; an infiltration was found in the subhepatic space, which corresponded to the described fistulisation between the biliary tract and the colon. A large 40 mm gallstone was found in the resected sigmoid colon over the stenosis and the bowel wall showed diffuse thickening with several polyps; final histopathological assessment confirmed malignant lymphoma of the plasmocytoma type. No serious complications occurred in the postoperative period; after healing, the patient was transferred to hematooncology care. The article describes the presence of two rare diseases - colonic lymphoma and gallstone ileus. Clearly, without the biliary stone obstruction in the preexisting tumorous stenosis in the sigmoid colon, the malignant hematooncology

  15. Diverticulosis of the colon and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, D.; Farthmann, E.H.

    1983-12-01

    Colonic diverticula in reality are herniations of the mucosa through a thickened musculature of the bowel wall where it is penetrated by the vasa recta. Their prevalence increases with western food and with age. Low-residue diet and increased intraluminal pressure are considered to be etiologic factors. Diverticular disease is characterised by inflammatory and bleeding complications. Diverticulitis may lead to peridiverticulitis and pericolitis with frank peritonitis. Uncomplicated diverticulosis warrants observation only under dietary guidance. Repeated complications indicate elective operation by one-stage-resection. Perforation, abscess and massive bleeding necessitate immediate operative treatment aimed at elimination of the involved segment.

  16. Infected colonic duplication: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hye Seon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kang, Eugene; Oh, Yeon Kyun; Yun, Ki Jung [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine and Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    An enteric duplication is a relatively common congenital anomaly, which is rarely complicated by infection. We report the radiologic findings including ultrasound, barium enema and computed tomography (CT) of an infected colonic duplication that was confirmed by pathology. This case demonstrated a complex hypoechoic cystic mass with a thick wall and septa in the left lower quadrant of abdomen and increased the color flow on the Color Doppler ultrasonography. On CT images, the cystic mass contained multiple enhancing septa, infiltrated to the mesocolon and displaced the adjacent bowels. On exploration, a large cystic mass with an abscess attached to the mesocolic border adhering to the small bowel was found.

  17. Effect of volumetric concentration of MWCNTs on the stability and thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Wajid Ur; Bhat, A. H.; Suliamon, A. A.; Khan, Ihsan Ullah; Ullah, Hafeez

    2016-11-01

    Environmental concerns and running down of the fossil fuel deposits which are generally being used as base oil in Drilling Fluid/Mud have attended worldwide attention and thereby, researchers have focused on using environmentally friendly drilling fluids. This study demonstrates the preparation of drilling fluids and to explore the effect of increase in the volumetric concentration of nanoparticles on the stability and thermal conductivity of nanofluids. In this research, for the formation of nanofluids, Jatropha Seed Oil was used as the base oil with the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the nanoparticles using sonication technique. The raw multi-walled carbon nanotubes were characterized by using SEM for morphological examination. The prepared drilling fluid were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopic technique for analyzing the stability. Thermal Conductivity measurements were also carried out for heat transfer efficiency. It was observed that the heat transfer capability of the nanofluid ameliorates with the increase in the loading percentage of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  18. Improved volumetric imaging in tomosynthesis using combined multiaxial sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Jacob A; Wiant, David B; Best, Ryan C M; Bennett, Marcus C; Munley, Michael T; King, June D; McKee, Mahta M; Baydush, Alan H

    2010-09-03

    This study explores the volumetric reconstruction fidelity attainable using tomosynthesis with a kV imaging system which has a unique ability to rotate isocentrically and with multiple degrees of mechanical freedom. More specifically, we seek to investigate volumetric reconstructions by combining multiple limited-angle rotational image acquisition sweeps. By comparing these reconstructed images with those of a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of the reconstructions. In surgical situations, the described tomosynthesis-based system could provide high-quality volumetric imaging without requiring patient motion, even with rotational limitations present. Projections were acquired using the Digital Integrated Brachytherapy Unit, or IBU-D. A phantom was used which contained several spherical objects of varying contrast. Using image projections acquired during isocentric sweeps around the phantom, reconstructions were performed by filtered backprojection. For each image acquisition sweep configuration, a contrasting sphere is analyzed using two metrics and compared to a gold standard CBCT reconstruction. Since the intersection of a reconstructed sphere and an imaging plane is ideally a circle with an eccentricity of zero, the first metric presented compares the effective eccentricity of intersections of reconstructed volumes and imaging planes. As another metric of volumetric reconstruction fidelity, the volume of one of the contrasting spheres was determined using manual contouring. By comparing these manually delineated volumes with a CBCT reconstruction, we can gauge the volumetric fidelity of reconstructions. The configuration which yielded the highest overall volumetric reconstruction fidelity, as determined by effective eccentricities and volumetric contouring, consisted of two orthogonally-offset 60° L-arm sweeps and a single C-arm sweep which shared a pivot point with one the L-arm sweeps. When compared to a similar configuration that

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis: Correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hoi Soo; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Joung Sook; Cho, Woo Ho; Lim, Sung Jig; Lee, Jin Ho; Kim, Young Duk [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Soon Joo [Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Twenty nine patients with surgically (n=7) and radiographically (n=8) proven diverticulitis in the cecum and ascending colon for the past five years were included in this study, and they all underwent US due to right lower quadrant abdominal pain. US findings were analyzed by two radiologists with a special emphasis on: (1) the presence, size, and internal echo of hypoechoic lesion bulging out from the colonic wall (thickened diverticulum), (2) changes in the adjacent cecum and ascending colon, (3) changes in the adjacent mesentery, (4) accompanying fluid collection, and (5) the presence of lymphadenopathy. US finding of 18 surgically proven patients were correlated with pathologic findings. On US, 25 of 29 patients (86.2%0 were found to have thicken diverticulum with the greater dimension of 8-20 mm (mean,, 12 mm). Wall thickening of the adjacent cecum and ascending colon was seen in 28 patients (96.5%), and 22 (75.9%) of them had eccentrically thickened wall. Comparing US findings with pathologic findings in 18 surgically proven patients, all revealed to have inflamed diverticulum on surgery, but only 15 showed thickened diverticulum on US. In 12 patients, fecalith, purulent exudates, and hemorrhage were found within diverticulum on surgery. In case of diverticulitis containing fecalith, all of their echogenecities were increased. All patients showed wall thickening of the adjacent colon and increased echogenecity of the adjacent mesentery on US. Pathologic findings of these thickened walls contained nonspecific inflammatory change and hemorrhage while the mesentery with an increased echogenecity contained purulent or hemorrhagic exudates. Ultrasonography can diagnose the right-side colonic diverticulitis when there is the presence of thickened diverticulum in the area with the thickened right side colonic wall in patients with right

  20. Aspects of volumetric efficiency measurement for reciprocating engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Radivoje B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric efficiency significantly influences engine output. Both design and dimensions of an intake and exhaust system have large impact on volumetric efficiency. Experimental equipment for measuring of airflow through the engine, which is placed in the intake system, may affect the results of measurements and distort the real picture of the impact of individual structural factors. This paper deals with the problems of experimental determination of intake airflow using orifice plates and the influence of orifice plate diameter on the results of the measurements. The problems of airflow measurements through a multi-process Otto/Diesel engine were analyzed. An original method for determining volumetric efficiency was developed based on in-cylinder pressure measurement during motored operation, and appropriate calibration of the experimental procedure was performed. Good correlation between the results of application of the original method for determination of volumetric efficiency and the results of theoretical model used in research of influence of the intake pipe length on volumetric efficiency was determined. [Acknowledgments. The paper is the result of the research within the project TR 35041 financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia

  1. Congenital Pouch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gharpure

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Face The Examiner:QUESTIONS1. What are the diagnostic features of congenital pouch colon (CPC?Ans: A male patient with CPC often have a wide colovesical fistula and present with anorectal malformation and meconuria; on plain abdominal film, a single large bowel loop occupying more than 50% of the abdominal cavity is also a diagnostic sign. Girls (persistent cloaca/vestibular fistula/anteriorly placed anus etc. often present late with intractable constipation or multiple episodes of enterocolitis and persistent abdominal distension with common cloaca or anterior ectopic anus/ rectovestibular fistula. The congenital pouch colon can be identified as replacement of a part or entire colon in the configuration of pouch that lacks taenia coli, haustrations, appendices epiploicae, abnormal blood supply and a wide fistula with genitourinary system in a patient of anorectal malformation.

  2. Inflammation and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Janos; Grivennikov, Sergei; Karin, Eliad; Karin, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established and in the last decade has received a great deal of supporting evidence from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological data. Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms by which inflammation promotes cancer development are still being uncovered and could differ between colitis-associated and other forms of colorectal cancer. Recent work has elucidated the role of distinct immune cells, cytokines, and other immune mediators in virtually all steps of colon tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. These mechanisms, as well as new approaches to prevention and therapy, are discussed in this review.

  3. Recent trend of colonic diverticulosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yae Soon; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Chang Yul; Lee, Kwan Seh [Inje Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Colonic Diverticulosis is once thought to be a rare disease in Korea compared with western countries, but the incidence has been increasing with passage of time. Authors reviewed 151 cases of colon study with new double contrast method performed from November, 1986 to March, 1987 at Paik Hospital Inje college. The results were as follow: 1. The colonic diverticulosis was found in 39 cases out of 151 colon study (25.8%). 2. Colonic Diverticulosis were located at right and transvercolon in 54% and left and sigmoid colon in 18%. 3. Increasing occurrence in younger age group predilection; 4th decade was observed.

  4. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School; Mizutani, Masaru [and others

    1998-11-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  5. Mass-conserved volumetric lattice Boltzmann method for complex flows with willfully moving boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huidan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Zhiqiang; Deep, Debanjan; Lima, Everton; Zhao, Ye; Teague, Shawn D

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a mass-conserved volumetric lattice Boltzmann method (MCVLBM) for numerically solving fluid dynamics with willfully moving arbitrary boundaries. In MCVLBM, fluid particles are uniformly distributed in lattice cells and the lattice Boltzmann equations deal with the time evolution of the particle distribution function. By introducing a volumetric parameter P(x,y,z,t) defined as the occupation of solid volume in the cell, we distinguish three types of lattice cells in the simulation domain: solid cell (pure solid occupation, P=1), fluid cell (pure fluid occupation, P=0), and boundary cell (partial solid and partial fluid, 0Boltzmann equations are self-regularized through P and consist of three parts: (1) collision taking into account the momentum exchange between the willfully moving boundary and the flow; (2) streaming accompanying a volumetric bounce-back procedure in boundary cells; and (3) boundary-induced volumetric fluid migration moving the residual fluid particles into the flow domain when the boundary swipes over a boundary cell toward a solid cell. The MCVLBM strictly satisfies mass conservation and can handle irregular boundary orientation and motion with respect to the mesh. Validation studies are carried out in four cases. The first is to simulate fluid dynamics in syringes focusing on how MCVLBM captures the underlying physics of flow driven by a willfully moving piston. The second and third cases are two-dimensional (2D) peristaltic flow and three-dimensional (3D) pipe flow, respectively. In each case, we compare the MCVLBM simulation result with the analytical solution and achieve quantitatively good agreements. The fourth case is to simulate blood flow in human aortic arteries with a very complicated irregular boundary. We study steady flow in two dimensions and unsteady flow via the pulsation of the cardiac cycle in three dimensions. In the 2D case, both vector (velocity) and scalar (pressure) fields are compared to

  6. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  7. A high volume, high throughput volumetric sorption analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Y. C.; Beckner, M.; Romanos, J.; Wexler, C.; Pfeifer, P.; Buckley, P.; Clement, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this talk we will present an overview of our new Hydrogen Test Fixture (HTF) constructed by the Midwest Research Institute for The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology to test activated carbon monoliths for hydrogen gas storage. The HTF is an automated, computer-controlled volumetric instrument for rapid screening and manipulation of monoliths under an inert atmosphere (to exclude degradation of carbon from exposure to oxygen). The HTF allows us to measure large quantity (up to 500 g) of sample in a 0.5 l test tank, making our results less sensitive to sample inhomogeneity. The HTF can measure isotherms at pressures ranging from 1 to 300 bar at room temperature. For comparison, other volumetric instruments such as Hiden Isochema's HTP-1 Volumetric Analyser can only measure carbon samples up to 150 mg at pressures up to 200 bar. Work supported by the US DOD Contract # N00164-08-C-GS37.

  8. Volumetric (3D) compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we proposed a novel three-dimensional compressive sensing (CS) approach for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) volumetric image acquisition and reconstruction. Instead of taking a spectral volume whose size is the same as that of the volumetric image, our method uses a sub set of the original spectral volume that is under-sampled in all three dimensions, which reduces the amount of spectral measurements to less than 20% of that required by the Shan-non/Nyquist theory. The 3D image is recovered from the under-sampled spectral data dimension-by-dimension using the proposed three-step CS reconstruction strategy. Experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce the sampling rate required for a volumetric SD OCT image while preserving the image quality.

  9. Multiple sparse volumetric priors for distributed EEG source reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobbe, Gregor; van Mierlo, Pieter; De Vos, Maarten; Mijović, Bogdan; Hallez, Hans; Van Huffel, Sabine; López, José David; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2014-10-15

    We revisit the multiple sparse priors (MSP) algorithm implemented in the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM) for distributed EEG source reconstruction (Friston et al., 2008). In the present implementation, multiple cortical patches are introduced as source priors based on a dipole source space restricted to a cortical surface mesh. In this note, we present a technique to construct volumetric cortical regions to introduce as source priors by restricting the dipole source space to a segmented gray matter layer and using a region growing approach. This extension allows to reconstruct brain structures besides the cortical surface and facilitates the use of more realistic volumetric head models including more layers, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), compared to the standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models. We illustrated the technique with ERP data and anatomical MR images in 12 subjects. Based on the segmented gray matter for each of the subjects, cortical regions were created and introduced as source priors for MSP-inversion assuming two types of head models. The standard 3-layered scalp-skull-brain head models and extended 4-layered head models including CSF. We compared these models with the current implementation by assessing the free energy corresponding with each of the reconstructions using Bayesian model selection for group studies. Strong evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP approach compared to the MSP approach based on cortical patches for both types of head models. Overall, the strongest evidence was found in favor of the volumetric MSP reconstructions based on the extended head models including CSF. These results were verified by comparing the reconstructed activity. The use of volumetric cortical regions as source priors is a useful complement to the present implementation as it allows to introduce more complex head models and volumetric source priors in future studies.

  10. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeremiah D.

    2012-11-01

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  11. Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jeremiah D. [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45504 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

  12. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  13. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Ali, Elouer Mohamed; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome.

  14. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  15. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH. Purpose of This Summary This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of colon cancer. It is meant to inform and help ...

  16. Colo-colonic intussusception based on giant cecal leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Beristain-Hernandez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intussusception is the telescoping of a proximal bowel wall into the lumen of a distal segment. Although common in children, it is still a rare entity in adults and usually occurs secondarily to an underlying malignant neoplasia. Intussusception is relatively rare in adults. Here is reported the case of a 40-year-old woman with extensive colo-colonic intussuception of the right colon caused by a giant polypoid tumor that turned out to be a leiomyoma. The patient was successfully treated by reduction of the intussusception and then immediate hemicolectomy. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(3.000: 177-179

  17. Wall to Wall Optimal Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Doering, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The calculus of variations is employed to find steady divergence-free velocity fields that maximize transport of a tracer between two parallel walls held at fixed concentration for one of two constraints on flow strength: a fixed value of the kinetic energy or a fixed value of the enstrophy. The optimizing flows consist of an array of (convection) cells of a particular aspect ratio Gamma. We solve the nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations analytically for weak flows and numerically (and via matched asymptotic analysis in the fixed energy case) for strong flows. We report the results in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, a dimensionless measure of the tracer transport, as a function of the Peclet number Pe, a dimensionless measure of the energy or enstrophy of the flow. For both constraints the maximum transport Nu_{MAX}(Pe) is realized in cells of decreasing aspect ratio Gamma_{opt}(Pe) as Pe increases. For the fixed energy problem, Nu_{MAX} \\sim Pe and Gamma_{opt} \\sim Pe^{-1/2}, while for the fixed enstrophy scen...

  18. Carbohydrate Markers in Colon Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sławomir Dariusz Szajda; Anna Jankowska; Krzysztof Zwierz

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp). If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer) and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases. Incidence of colorectal cancer dramatically increases at 50–65 ye...

  19. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collection below explain colon cancer risk factors, screening tests, and treatments. There are also personal stories from ... Colon Cancer Risk Play Play Colon Cancer: Screening Tests Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Colonoscopy Play ...

  20. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A Resource for Patients Play Play Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Play Play Lowering Colon ...

  1. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Email Print What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  2. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ... Full Article What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade colonic enema surgery (ACE) or Malone antegrade ...

  3. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collection below explain colon cancer risk factors, screening tests, and treatments. There are also personal stories from ... Colon Cancer Risk Play Play Colon Cancer: Screening Tests Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Colonoscopy Play ...

  4. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  5. Localization of the sensory neurons and mechanoreceptors required for stretch-evoked colonic migrating motor complexes in mouse colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P Zagorodnyuk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pacemaker and pattern generator that underlies the cyclical generation of spontaneous colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs has recently been identified to lie within the myenteric plexus and/or muscularis externa. Neither the mucosa, nor the release of substances from the mucosa were found to be required for the spontaneous generation of CMMCs. However, it is known that stretch applied to the colonic wall can also evoke CMMCs and since stretch of the gut wall is known to stimulate the mucosa, it is not clear whether release of substances from the mucosa and/or submucosal plexus are required for stretch-evoked CMMCs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether circumferential stretch-evoked CMMCs require the presence of the mucosa and/or submucosal plexus in isolated mouse colon. Spontaneous CMMCs were recorded from full length sheet preparations of colon in vitro. Graded circumferential stretch (at a rate of 100μm/s applied to a 15mm segment of mid-distal colon reliably evoked a CMMC, which propagated to the oral recording site. Sharp dissection to remove the mucosa and submucosal plexus from the entire colon did not prevent spontaneous CMMCs and circumferential stretch-evoked CMMCs were still reliably evoked by circumferential stretch even at lower thresholds. In contrast, in intact preparations, direct stimulation of the mucosa (without accompanying stretch proved highly inconsistent and rarely evoked a CMMC. These observations lead to the inescapable conclusion that the sensory neurons activated by colonic stretch to initiate CMMCs lie in the myenteric plexus, while the mechanoreceptors activated by stretch, lie in the myenteric ganglia and/or muscularis externa. Stretch activation of these mechanoreceptors does not require release of any substance(s from the mucosa, or neural inputs arising from submucosal ganglia.

  6. The fate of chicory root pulp polysaccharides during fermentation in the TNO in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.; Venema, K.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor cell wall polysaccharide (CWPs) utilization during fermentation by the human colonic microbiota in the TNO in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2). Chicory root pulp (CRP) and treated (ensiled) CRP (ECRP) containing four times more soluble pectin than CRP, were ferme

  7. Space-Time Transfinite Interpolation of Volumetric Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mathieu; Fryazinov, Oleg; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a novel technique based on extension of a general mathematical method of transfinite interpolation to solve an actual problem in the context of a heterogeneous volume modelling area. It deals with time-dependent changes to the volumetric material properties (material density, colour, and others) as a transformation of the volumetric material distributions in space-time accompanying geometric shape transformations such as metamorphosis. The main idea is to represent the geometry of both objects by scalar fields with distance properties, to establish in a higher-dimensional space a time gap during which the geometric transformation takes place, and to use these scalar fields to apply the new space-time transfinite interpolation to volumetric material attributes within this time gap. The proposed solution is analytical in its nature, does not require heavy numerical computations and can be used in real-time applications. Applications of this technique also include texturing and displacement mapping of time-variant surfaces, and parametric design of volumetric microstructures.

  8. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm;

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...

  9. Automatic segmentation of pulmonary segments from volumetric chest CT scans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikxoort, E.M. van; Hoop, B. de; Vorst, S. van de; Prokop, M.; Ginneken, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Automated extraction of pulmonary anatomy provides a foundation for computerized analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. A completely automatic method is presented to segment the lungs, lobes and pulmonary segments from volumetric CT chest scans. The method starts with lung segmenta

  10. Volumetric T-spline Construction Using Boolean Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    15213, USA 2 Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA 3 Department of Civil and...and S. Yau. Volumetric harmonic map. Communications in Information and Systems, 3(3):191–202, 2003. 12. C.A.R. Guerra . Simultaneous untangling and

  11. Volumetric motion quantification by 3D tissue phase mapped CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Anja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was the quantification of myocardial motion from 3D tissue phase mapped (TPM CMR. Recent work on myocardial motion quantification by TPM has been focussed on multi-slice 2D acquisitions thus excluding motion information from large regions of the left ventricle. Volumetric motion assessment appears an important next step towards the understanding of the volumetric myocardial motion and hence may further improve diagnosis and treatments in patients with myocardial motion abnormalities. Methods Volumetric motion quantification of the complete left ventricle was performed in 12 healthy volunteers and two patients applying a black-blood 3D TPM sequence. The resulting motion field was analysed regarding motion pattern differences between apical and basal locations as well as for asynchronous motion pattern between different myocardial segments in one or more slices. Motion quantification included velocity, torsion, rotation angle and strain derived parameters. Results All investigated motion quantification parameters could be calculated from the 3D-TPM data. Parameters quantifying hypokinetic or asynchronous motion demonstrated differences between motion impaired and healthy myocardium. Conclusions 3D-TPM enables the gapless volumetric quantification of motion abnormalities of the left ventricle, which can be applied in future application as additional information to provide a more detailed analysis of the left ventricular function.

  12. Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography-based microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jingjiang; Qi, Xiaoli; Davis, Wyatt O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-04-01

    Video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (vOCT) is relatively young in the field of OCT imaging but has great potential in biomedical applications. Due to the recent development of the MHz range swept laser sources, vOCT has started to gain attention in the community. Here, we report the first in vivo video-rate volumetric OCT-based microangiography (vOMAG) system by integrating an 18-kHz resonant microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror with a 1.6-MHz FDML swept source operating at ˜1.3 μm wavelength. Because the MEMS scanner can offer an effective B-frame rate of 36 kHz, we are able to engineer vOMAG with a video rate up to 25 Hz. This system was utilized for real-time volumetric in vivo visualization of cerebral microvasculature in mice. Moreover, we monitored the blood perfusion dynamics during stimulation within mouse ear in vivo. We also discussed this system's limitations. Prospective MEMS-enabled OCT probes with a real-time volumetric functional imaging capability can have a significant impact on endoscopic imaging and image-guided surgery applications.

  13. Congenital pouch colon in female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin Y

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of 5-year (May 2000 to April 2005 29 patients of congenital pouch colon (CPC were managed by single pediatric surgeon in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of a tertiary hospital. Of these, 11 were girls (M: F: 1.6:1. Detailed anatomy could be studied in nine patients, were included in this study. Age of presentation in female subjects ranged 1 day to 8 years. On examination, eight of the nine patients had single perineal opening suggesting a very high incidence of association of cloaca in female subjects with CPC. Four had short urogenital sinus with colonic pouch opening in the posterior wall of urinary bladder. In other two patients, CPC terminated in short cloaca. Anomalies of mullerian structures such as uterus didelphus and septate vagina ware commonly encountered. Proximal diversion with or without pouch excision was done as the initial preliminary treatment for all those patients who presented in early life. Of the nine girls, two died after the preliminary surgery. Only five patients have undergone definitive surgery. Definitive surgery included abdomino-perineal pull-through of proximal normal colon ( n =2, tubularization of pouch with abdomino- posterior sagittal- pull through ( n =2 and abdomino-posterior sagittal urethra-vaginoanorectoplasty with pull through of tapered pouch colon in one patient. Two of these patients had concomitant bowel vaginoplasty. Three patients with tubularized pouches had constipation and spurious diarrhea. However, good pseudo-continence of bowel was achieved on regular bowel washes. The cosmetic appearance of perineum in all these three patients was acceptable. The patients in whom pouch excision was done had diarrhea and severe perineal excoriation resistant to conservative management.

  14. Analysis of Changing Swarm Rate using Volumetric Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, T.; Ogata, Y.; Kimura, K.; Maeda, K.; Kobayashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Near the eastern coast of Izu peninsula is an active submarine volcanic region in Japan, where magma intrusions have been observed many times. The forecast of earthquake swarm activities and eruptions are serious concern particularly in nearby hot spring resort areas. It is well known that temporal durations of the swarm activities have been correlated with early volumetric strain changes at a certain observation station of about 20 km distance apart. Therefore the Earthquake Research Committee (2010) investigated some empirical statistical relations to predict sizes of the swarm activity. Here we looked at the background seismicity rate changes during these swarm periods using the non-stationary ETAS model (Kumazawa and Ogata, 2013, 2014), and have found the followings. The modified volumetric strain data, by removing the effect of earth tides, precipitation and coseismic jumps, have significantly higher cross-correlations to the estimated background rates of the ETAS model than to the swarm rate-changes. Specifically, the background seismicity rate synchronizes clearer to the strain change by the lags around a half day. These relations suggest an enhanced prediction of earthquakes in this region using volumetric strain measurements. Hence we propose an extended ETAS model where the background rate is modulated by the volumetric strain data. We have also found that the response function to the strain data can be well approximated by an exponential functions with the same decay rate, but that their intersects are inversely proportional to the distances between the volumetric strain-meter and the onset location of the swarm. Our numerical results by the same proposed model show consistent outcomes for the various major swarms in this region.

  15. A comprehensive optical characterization of a porous open volumetric air receiver in a solar power tower

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Yu; He, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Ze-Dong

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive optical model for a solar power tower with an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR) was developed and validated in this work. Based on the model, the optical characteristics of the OVAR were studied. Firstly, the detailed distributions of the non-uniform solar flux (qsr) on the aperture and the solar source (Ssr) in the OVAR were studied. The incident flux was found to be relatively uniform across the aperture for a single OVAR. However the incident angle of the rays varies between 0o and 42o, which indicates that the parallel assumption of the rays is not appropriate at this condition. Furthermore, the Ssr in the absorber decreases from the inlet to the outlet, and the maximum source (Ssr,max) of 2.414X108 Wm-3 appears at the inlet. Moreover, the Ssr,max was found to appear at the region near the wall rather than the center of the receiver as usual for the combined effect of the non-parallel incident rays and the diffuse reflection on the wall. The revelation of this phenomenon could offer help...

  16. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis Causing a Highway to the Colon with Subsequent Road Closure: Pancreatic Colonic Fistula Presenting as a Large Bowel Obstruction Treated with Pancreatic Duct Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cochrane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Colonic complications associated with acute pancreatitis have a low incidence but carry an increased risk of mortality with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic colonic fistula is most commonly associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or abscess formation and rarely forms spontaneously. Classic clinical manifestations for pancreatic colonic fistula include diarrhea, hematochezia, and fever. Uncommonly pancreatic colonic fistula presents as large bowel obstruction. Case. We report a case of a woman with a history of recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis who presented with large bowel obstruction secondary to pancreatic colonic fistula. Resolution of large bowel obstruction and pancreatic colonic fistula was achieved with pancreatic duct stenting. Conclusion. Pancreatic colonic fistula can present as large bowel obstruction. Patients with resolved acute pancreatitis who have radiographic evidence of splenic flexure obstruction, but without evidence of mechanical obstruction on colonoscopy, should be considered for ERCP to evaluate for PCF. PCF not associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or peritoneal abscess can be treated conservatively with pancreatic duct stenting.

  17. MR colonography without colonic cleansing: a new strategy to improve patient acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, T; Holtmann, G; Schoenfelder, D; Bosk, S; Ruehm, S G; Debatin, J F

    2001-10-01

    MR colonography permits accurate detection of colonic polyps larger than 8 mm. Patient acceptance remains limited because of the need for bowel cleansing. The aim of this study was to develop and assess a strategy obviating colonic cleansing by performing MR colonography in conjunction with fecal tagging based on the oral administration of barium. Six healthy volunteers and six patients with suspected colorectal tumors, undergoing conventional colonoscopy within 1 week of MR imaging, were included in this study. For fecal tagging, 200 mL of a barium-containing contrast agent was ingested with each of four principal meals preceding the examination. For MR colonography, the colon was filled with a barium and water mixture while gadobenate dimeglumine (0.2 mmol/kg) was injected IV. The combination of fecal tagging and colonic filling with barium resulted in a homogeneously low signal throughout the colonic lumen in all 12 subjects. IV injection of gadolinium caused avid enhancement of the colonic wall. Similarly, lesions arising from the colonic wall enhanced avidly. In the six evaluated patients, MR colonography correctly identified two colonic carcinomas in two patients and one polyp in each of another two patients. Fecal tagging obviates bowel cleansing and should, therefore, enhance patient acceptance for MR colonoscopy. Barium used as the tagging agent is promising because it is inexpensive, commercially available, and characterized by an excellent safety profile.

  18. Nonobstructing Colonic Dilatation and Colon Perforations Following Renal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Baburao; Selby, Rick; O’Hair, Daniel P.; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Hakala, Thomas R.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonobstructing colonic dilatation has not been commonly reported following renal transplantation, and colon perforations carry a high morbidity and mortality in this population. During a 7-year period, nonobstructing colonic dilatation developed in 13 adults 1 to 13 days after renal transplantation. Twelve (92%) of the 13 had poorly functioning allografts. Five (83%) of the 6 with and 2 (29%) of the 7 without colonoscopy had resolution of nonobstructing colonic dilatation. Of the seven right-sided colon perforations during this period, six were associated with nonobstructing colonic dilatation. An additional 4 patients had diverticular perforations in the left colon. Of a total of 11 patients with colon perforation, 7 had surgery within 24 hours of the perforation and 6 (86%) of these survived. Only 1 (25%) of the 4 having surgery more than 24 hours later survived. Six of the survivors retained functioning allografts. Nonobstructing colonic dilatation seems to be a potential complication of poor graft function after renal transplantation, and colonoscopy is effective in its treatment. In patients with colon perforations, early surgery and reduced immunosuppression are essential in decreasing mortality. PMID:2331220

  19. Giant colon lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, İsmail; Derici, Hayrullah; Demirpolat, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Colon lipomas are rare, non-epithelial tumors. They are generally smaller than two centimeters and asymptomatic, they are incidentally diagnosed and do not require treatment. Large and symptomatic colon lipomas are rather rare. Its differential diagnosis is generally made by histopathological examination of the resected specimen. A fifty-year-old female patient presented with the symptoms of abdominal pain, swelling in the abdomen and loss of weight. During colonoscopy, there was a submucosal mass of 8×6 cm, which almost completely obstructed the lumen in the hepatic flexure and was covered by a mucosa that was sporadically ulcerated and necrotic in nature. In magnetic resonance imaging, an ovoid mass with a diameter of 8.5 cm at its widest dimension was detected, which had signal intensity similar to that of adipose tissue. Since the patient was symptomatic and differential diagnosis could not be made, she underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. A submucosal lipoma was detected on histopathological examination of the specimen. The patient was discharged without any problems on post-operative day 7. Definite diagnosis of lipomas before surgery is challenging; they may be mistaken for malignancy, especially if the lesion is large and ulcerated. For large and symptomatic colon lipomas, surgery is required to both prevent complications and rule out malignancy.

  20. Neoplasia de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de colon es un tumor que se desarrolla por degeneración maligna de las células del intestino grueso, desde la válvula ileocecal hasta la flexura recto sigmoidea. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino, de 75 años, con astenia anorexia y pérdida de peso; al examen físico: mucosas hipocoloreadas, abdomen blando no doloroso a la palpación superficial ni profunda. Se palpa aumento de volumen a nivel de la fosa ilíaca derecha, fija, de consistencia dura, ruidos hidroaereos normales. Se realizaron exámenes hematológicos, radiológicos y endoscópicos para el diagnóstico. Se tuvo la confirmación diagnóstica por anatomía patológica de adenocarcinoma de colon derecho, bien diferenciado. Se aplicó tratamiento primario, consistente en una amplia resección quirúrgica del cáncer del colon y el drenaje linfático regional, posteriormente se aplicó quimioterapia. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente

  1. A Case report of pediatric colonic inflammatory pseudotumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we introduce an 8 years old boy with Transverse colon inflammatory pseudotumor.The patient was admitted to Boo-Ali Sina Hospital with abdominal pain, fever and vomiting. In clinical examinations an abdominal mass in splenic flexure was palpated.Imaging study with CT-Scan revealed a calcified mass in transverse colon wall with lymphadenopathy and lymphoma was suggested. Histological study showed inflammatory pseudotumor.After surgical excision the patient was recovered. The recurrence was not seen after one year follow up.This case showed that in differential diagnosis of pediatric colonic mass, inflammatory pseudotumor should be considered in order to prevent unneccesary and harmful chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  2. Veno-occlusive disease of the colon - CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademaker, J. [Department of Radiology I, Medical School Hannover (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    Venous occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic bowel disease and is usually brought about by thrombosis that may occur as a complication of systemic disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus, Behcet disease or Churg-Strauss syndrome. This report describes a patient with veno-occlusive disease of the colon caused by lymphocytic phlebitis. Typical CT findings included homogeneous bowel wall thickening and vascular engorgement. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  3. Novel Enzymes for Targeted Hydrolysis of Algal Cell Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel

    are incapable of breaking the complex polysaccharides found in seaweed cell walls. Therefore, new enzymes are needed for degradation of seaweed biomass. Bacteria that colonize the surfaces of seaweed secrete enzymes that allow them to degrade and utilize seaweed polysaccharides as energy. In addition, sea...... urchins are known algae-eaters and may therefore be inhabited by endosymbiotic bacteria that help in degradation of algal cell wall constituents. This thesis work investigated bacteria associated with seaweed, seagrass and sea urchins for their enzymatic activities against algal cell wall polysaccharides...

  4. Constitutive modeling of the passive inflation-extension behavior of the swine colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh; Chen, Huan; Ahuja, Aashish; Krieger, Joshua F; Noblet, Jillian; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2017-08-31

    In the present work, we propose the first structural constitutive model of the passive mechanical behavior of the swine colon that is validated against physiological inflation-extension tests, and accounts for residual strains. Sections from the spiral colon and the descending colon were considered to investigate potential regional variability. We found that the proposed constitutive model accurately captures the passive inflation-extension behavior of both regions of the swine colon (coefficient of determination R(2)=0.94±0.02). The model revealed that the circumferential muscle layer does not provide significant mechanical support under passive conditions and the circumferential load is actually carried by the submucosa layer. The stress analysis permitted by the model showed that the colon tissue can distend up to 30% radially without significant increase in the wall stresses suggesting a highly compliant behavior of the tissue. This is in-line with the requirement for the tissue to easily accommodate variable quantities of fecal matter. The analysis also showed that the descending colon is significantly more compliant than the spiral colon, which is relevant to the storage function of the descending colon. Histological analysis showed that the swine colon possesses a four-layer structure similar to the human colon, where the longitudinal muscle layer is organized into bands called taeniae, a typical feature of the human colon. The model and the estimated parameters can be used in a Finite Element framework to conduct simulations with realistic geometry of the swine colon. The resulting computational model will provide a foundation for virtual assessment of safe and effective devices for the treatment of colonic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulse sequence for dynamic volumetric imaging of hyperpolarized metabolic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles H.; Chen, Albert P.; Lustig, Michael; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Lupo, Janine; Xu, Duan; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Pauly, John M.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization and dissolution of a 13C-labeled substrate enables the dynamic imaging of cellular metabolism. Spectroscopic information is typically acquired, making the acquisition of dynamic volumetric data a challenge. To enable rapid volumetric imaging, a spectral-spatial excitation pulse was designed to excite a single line of the carbon spectrum. With only a single resonance present in the signal, an echo-planar readout trajectory could be used to resolve spatial information, giving full volume coverage of 32 × 32 × 16 voxels every 3.5 s. This high frame rate was used to measure the different lactate dynamics in different tissues in a normal rat model and a mouse model of prostate cancer.

  6. Nonrigid registration of volumetric images using ranked order statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennakoon, Ruwan; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza; Cao, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Non-rigid image registration techniques using intensity based similarity measures are widely used in medical imaging applications. Due to high computational complexities of these techniques, particularly for volumetric images, finding appropriate registration methods to both reduce the computation...... burden and increase the registration accuracy has become an intensive area of research. In this paper we propose a fast and accurate non-rigid registration method for intra-modality volumetric images. Our approach exploits the information provided by an order statistics based segmentation method, to find...... the important regions for registration and use an appropriate sampling scheme to target those areas and reduce the registration computation time. A unique advantage of the proposed method is its ability to identify the point of diminishing returns and stop the registration process. Our experiments...

  7. Volumetric characterization of delamination fields via angle longitudinal wave ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, John; Wallentine, Sarah; Welter, John; Dierken, Josiah; Aldrin, John

    2017-02-01

    The volumetric characterization of delaminations necessarily precedes rigorous composite damage progression modeling. Yet, inspection of composite structures for subsurface damage remains largely focused on detection, resulting in a capability gap. In response to this need, angle longitudinal wave ultrasound was employed to characterize a composite surrogate containing a simulated three-dimensional delamination field with distinct regions of occluded features (shadow regions). Simple analytical models of the specimen were developed to guide subsequent experimentation through identification of optimal scanning parameters. The ensuing experiments provided visual evidence of the complete delamination field, including indications of features within the shadow regions. The results of this study demonstrate proof-of-principle for the use of angle longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection for volumetric characterization of three-dimensional delamination fields. Furthermore, the techniques developed herein form the foundation of succeeding efforts to characterize impact delaminations within inhomogeneous laminar materials such as polymer matrix composites.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Image Segmentation and its Volumetric Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul R. Ambalkar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Image processing techniques make it possible to extract meaningful information from medical images. Magnetic resonance (MR imaging has been widely applied in biological research and diagnostics because of its excellent soft tissue contrast, non-invasive character, high spatial resolution and easy slice selection at any orientation. The MRI-based brain volumetric is concerned with the analysis of volumes and shapes of the structural components of the human brain. It also provides a criterion, by which we recognize the presence of degenerative diseases and characterize their rates of progression to make the diagnosis and treatments as a easy task. In this paper we have proposed an automated method for volumetric measurement of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and used Self Organized Map (SOM clustering method for their segmentations. We have used the MRI data set of 61 slices of 256×256 pixels in DICOM standard format

  9. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  10. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2015-01-01

    . This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° x 90° field-of-view was achieved. Data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 x 32 elements 2-D phased array......Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological...... transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak- temporal...

  11. COMPARISON OF VOLUMETRIC REGISTRATION ALGORITHMS FOR TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalon, Julio; Joshi, Anand A.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear registration of brain MRI scans is often used to quantify morphological differences associated with disease or genetic factors. Recently, surface-guided fully 3D volumetric registrations have been developed that combine intensity-guided volume registrations with cortical surface constraints. In this paper, we compare one such algorithm to two popular high-dimensional volumetric registration methods: large-deformation viscous fluid registration, formulated in a Riemannian framework, and the diffeomorphic “Demons” algorithm. We performed an objective morphometric comparison, by using a large MRI dataset from 340 young adult twin subjects to examine 3D patterns of correlations in anatomical volumes. Surface-constrained volume registration gave greater effect sizes for detecting morphometric associations near the cortex, while the other two approaches gave greater effects sizes subcortically. These findings suggest novel ways to combine the advantages of multiple methods in the future. PMID:26925198

  12. Volumetric 3D display using a DLP projection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we describe a volumetric 3D display system based on the high speed DLPTM (Digital Light Processing) projection engine. Existing two-dimensional (2D) flat screen displays often lead to ambiguity and confusion in high-dimensional data/graphics presentation due to lack of true depth cues. Even with the help of powerful 3D rendering software, three-dimensional (3D) objects displayed on a 2D flat screen may still fail to provide spatial relationship or depth information correctly and effectively. Essentially, 2D displays have to rely upon capability of human brain to piece together a 3D representation from 2D images. Despite the impressive mental capability of human visual system, its visual perception is not reliable if certain depth cues are missing. In contrast, volumetric 3D display technologies to be discussed in this article are capable of displaying 3D volumetric images in true 3D space. Each "voxel" on a 3D image (analogous to a pixel in 2D image) locates physically at the spatial position where it is supposed to be, and emits light from that position toward omni-directions to form a real 3D image in 3D space. Such a volumetric 3D display provides both physiological depth cues and psychological depth cues to human visual system to truthfully perceive 3D objects. It yields a realistic spatial representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them.

  13. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivancev, K.; Fork, T.; Haegerstrand, I.; Ivarsson, S.; Kullendorff, C.M.

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.).

  14. Using surface heave to estimate reservoir volumetric strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanayakkara, A.S.; Wong, R.C.K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed numerical tool for estimating reservoir volumetric strain distribution using surface vertical displacements and solving an inverse problem. Waterflooding, steam injection, carbon dioxide sequestration and aquifer storage recovery are among the subsurface injection operations that are responsible for reservoir dilations which propagate to the surrounding formations and extend to the surface resulting in surface heaves. Global positioning systems and surface tiltmeters are often used to measure the characteristics of these surface heaves and to derive valuable information regarding reservoir deformation and flow characteristics. In this study, Tikhonov regularization techniques were adopted to solve the ill-posed inversion problem commonly found in standard inversion techniques such as Gaussian elimination and least squares methods. Reservoir permeability was then estimated by inverting the volumetric strain distribution. Results of the newly developed numerical tool were compared with results from fully-coupled finite element simulation of fluid injection problems. The reservoir volumetric strain distribution was successfully estimated along with an approximate value for reservoir permeability.

  15. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  16. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C.; Sheridan, John T.; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale. PMID:28059149

  17. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haoyu; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve spatially multiplexed discrete and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  18. Volumetric Light-field Encryption at the Microscopic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Guo, Changliang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Schroeder, Bryce C; Sheridan, John T; Jia, Shu

    2017-01-06

    We report a light-field based method that allows the optical encryption of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric information at the microscopic scale in a single 2D light-field image. The system consists of a microlens array and an array of random phase/amplitude masks. The method utilizes a wave optics model to account for the dominant diffraction effect at this new scale, and the system point-spread function (PSF) serves as the key for encryption and decryption. We successfully developed and demonstrated a deconvolution algorithm to retrieve both spatially multiplexed discrete data and continuous volumetric data from 2D light-field images. Showing that the method is practical for data transmission and storage, we obtained a faithful reconstruction of the 3D volumetric information from a digital copy of the encrypted light-field image. The method represents a new level of optical encryption, paving the way for broad industrial and biomedical applications in processing and securing 3D data at the microscopic scale.

  19. Locally advanced colon cancer with cutaneous invasion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro, Nádia; Ferreira, Cátia; Silva, Silvia; Marques, Rita; Ribeiro, Artur; Sousa, Paulo Jorge; Luís, Fernando Próspero

    2017-03-01

    Locally advanced colon cancer with direct abdominal wall and skin invasion is an extremely rare finding with most data being derived from case reports, historical autopsy-based or single-center retrospective studies. We present a unique case of a colon cancer with direct cutaneous invasion and colocutaneous fistulization. Eighty-six year old Caucasian female with multiple comorbidities, referred to Surgical Consultation due to ulcerated skin lesion in the abdomen. She had a long-standing large umbilical hernia but with no previous episodes of incarceration or occlusive symptoms. She denied any digestive or constitutional symptoms. Physical examination showed a large non-reducible umbilical hernia, with an associated painless firm mass within the hernia sac and cutaneous ulcerated growth. Colonoscopy revealed transverse colon cancer (endoscopic biopsy of the tumor and skin punch biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma of the colon). Computed tomography showed a tumoral mass within the umbilical hernia, with cutaneous infiltration and enlarged regional lymph nodes. Rapid local progression led to colocutaneous fistula with total fecal diversion. We performed an extended right hemicolectomy with en bloc excision of the hernia sac and infiltrating cutaneous mass. In the current era of widespread use of screening colonoscopies, initial diagnosis of locally advanced colon cancer is decreasing. However, this unique case presented an opportunity to recall the advantages of multivisceral resections.

  20. Comparative study of Trombe wall, water wall and trans wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodha, M.S.; Bansal, N.K.; Singh, S.; Ram, S.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal performances of three systems viz. Trombe wall: (1) without; and (2) with vents (forced air circulation), water wall and Transwall have been studied analytically interms of heat flux entering the living space (Maintained at 20/sup 0/C) corresponding to the meteriological data on January 19, 1981 at New Delhi (India), a typical cold winter day. Subsequent parametric studies using the simulation indicated that the Transwall system is the more efficient system for the passive heating of buildings.

  1. Sigmoid Resection with Primary Anastomosis for Uncomplicated Giant Colonic Diverticulum : a Report of two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, J; Mansvelt, B; Veys, E

    2014-01-01

    Giant colonic diverticulum (GCD) is a rare complication of colonic diverticulosis. A small number of cases has been reported in the literature. Patients with GCD have often few non-specific symptoms. Unfortunately, severe complications exist and may lead to surgical acute abdomen. Therefore, this complication of the diverticular disease must be known and properly treated. There is no gold standard diagnostic test, but an air-fluid or air-filled, rounded, pseudocystic image in relation with the colonic wall in a patient with colonic diverticula should suggest this diagnosis to the clinician. We report two cases of a 70-year-old male patient and a 44-year-old female patient having a giant sigmoid diverticulum. The treatment of choice of an uncomplicated GCD is an elective colonic resection, including the giant -diverticulum, with primary anastomosis ; while in case of complicated GCD (peritonitis, abscess or complex fistula), a two-stage resection should be considered.

  2. COLONIC ADENOCARCINOMA WITH MALAKOPLAKIA OF COLON - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrawati Bal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site for malakoplakia outside the urinary tract. A variety of conditions co - exists with malakoplakia including inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, immunodeficiency and tuberculosis. Rarely, it is associated with colonic ad enocarcinoma or adenomas. We report a case of malakoplakia in association with colonic adenocarcinoma.

  3. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location......” and based on the recurring cabinet discussions, Welles understood that “Great Britain, Denmark and perhaps other powers would take them [the black population].” Since at least 1860, Denmark had encouraged the American government to send the “quite uncivilized (…) Africans liberated” from slave ships to St...... and the United States signed an act on July 19, 1862, wherein the U.S. Navy agreed to unload “all negroes, mulattoes, or persons of color, delivered from on board vessels seized in the prosecution of the slave trade.” Yet, despite the two countries’ mutual interests in employing “laborers of African Extraction...

  4. Malacoplaquia intestinal Colonic malakoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  5. Carbohydrate markers in colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Jankowska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneously mutated multiple oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes in colon epithelial cell and its progeny, may cause proliferation out of control and create benign colon neoplasm (colon polyp). If additional mutations involve genes responsible for cell adhesion and movement, aberrant epithelial cells may become malignant (colon cancer) and invade surrounding and remote tissues, creating secondary tumors called metastases. Incidence of colorectal cancer dramatically increases at 50-65 year of age. In Europe in 2006 colorectal cancer consisted 12.9% of all cancers and caused 207,400 deaths. To laboratory detection and monitoring of colon cancer are used tumor markers. Tumor markers are substances produced by the body in response to cancer, or by cancer tissue itself. Glycoconjugate markers for colon cancer include aberrant: mucins covering the surface of the colon epithelial cells, cadherins, selectins and Ig-like adhesion molecules mediating cell-cell adhesion, integrins and integral membrane proteoglycans responsible for adhesion of colon epithelial cells to extracellular matrix, glycoconjugate components of ECM, as well as lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and exoglycosidases. Detection of colon cancer at early non malignant stage is crucial in its prevention and eradication. As colon cancer is the effect of accumulation many somatic mutations in oncogens, supressors, mismatch repair genes and many genes responsible for posttranslational modifications of proteins, multidirectional approach should be applied for its detection. A glycobiological approach to diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer should be directed to detection changes in glycosylation accompanying every step of colon cancer progression, and correlation between changes in glycosylation and tumor progression.

  6. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis with caecal and colonic dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to describe the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings of caecal and colonic dilatation in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. A total number of forty buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20 and diseased group (n = 20. Diseased buffalo were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University-Egypt. Each of the diseased animals was subjected to clinical, rectal, laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations. Clinically, buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed reduced appetite, distended right abdomen, abdominal pain and tensed abdomen. Rectal examination indicated empty rectum with the presence of mucus and dilated loop of caecum and/or colon. Buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed significant (P < 0.05 hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALK. Ultrasonographically, the dilated caecum and proximal loop of colon occupied the last right three intercostal space (ICSs particularly their ventral part, intertangled with the liver dorsally in these ICSs. Dilated colon did not hinder the visibility of the liver. The dilated caecum/colon also filled the whole right flank region, with hiding of right kidney, loops and peristaltic movement of the small intestines. The closest wall of the dilated caecum and proximal loop of the colon was imaged as thick semi-circular echogenic line. The furthest wall and contents of dilated caecum/colon were not imaged. In conclusion, buffalo with caecal and/or colonic dilatation have non-specific clinical and laboratory findings; however the affected animals show characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  7. Exteriorized colon anastomosis for unprepared bowel: An alternative to routine colostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami K Asfar; Hilal M Al-Sayer; Talib H Juma

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To see the possibility of avoiding routine colostomy in patients presenting with unprepared bowel.METHODS: The cohort is composed of 103 patients,of these, 86 patients presented as emergencies (selfinflected and iatrogenic colon injuries, stab wounds and blast injury of the colon, volvulus sigmoid, obstructing left colon cancer, and strangulated ventral hernia).Another 17 patients were managed electively for other colon pathologies. During laparotomy, the involved segment was resected and the two ends of the colon were brought out via a separate colostomy wound.One layer of interrupted 3/0 silk was used for colon anastomosis. The exteriorized segment was immediately covered with a colostomy bag. Between the 5th and 7th postoperative day, the colon was easily dropped into the peritoneal cavity. The defect in the abdominal wall was closed with interrupted nonabsorbable suture. The skin was left open for secondary closure.RESULTS: The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 11.5 ±2.6 d (8-20 d). The exteriorized colon was successfully dropped back into the peritoneal cavity in all patients except two. One developed a leak from oesophagojejunostomy and from the exteriorized colon. She subsequently died of sepsis and multiple organ failure(MOF). In a second patient the colon proximal to the exteriorized anastomosis prolapsed and developed severe serositis, an elective ileo-colic anastomosis (to the left colon) was successfully performed.CONCLUSION: Exteriorized colon anastomosis is simple, avoids the inconvenience of colostomy and can be an alternative to routine colostomy. It is suitable where colostomy is socially unacceptable or the facilities and care is not available.

  8. Domain Walls on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2009-01-01

    We describe domain walls that live on $A_2$ and $A_3$ singularities. The walls are BPS if the singularity is resolved and non--BPS if it is deformed and fibered. We show that these domain walls may interpolate between vacua that support monopoles and/or vortices.

  9. The Lamportian cell wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  10. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  11. Explant cultures of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barrett, L.A.; Jackson, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium has been cultured as explants in a chemically defined medium for periods of 1 to 20 days. The viability of the explants was shown by the preservation of the ultrastructural features of the colonic epithelial cells and by active incorporation of radioactive precursors into...

  12. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  13. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains the most commonly ... re like most people, the thought of getting colon cancer or even going for a colon cancer test ...

  14. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... are also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  15. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... are also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  16. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  17. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How. Colon Cancer Treatments Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: What You Need to Know Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: Colostomies Play Play Advantages of Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery ...

  18. Right colonic diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu

    2010-08-01

    Although right colonic diverticultis (RCD) has been reported to be a rare disease in Western countries, RCD is a common diagnosis, with an incidence per 2.9-17 case of appendicitis, in Korea. Many Western studies have reported that it is difficult to differentiate the presenting symptoms of RCD from those of appendicitis before surgery because the signs and symptoms are similar. However, performing a computed tomography scan after the application of the diagnostic criteria for RCD has increased the preoperative RCD diagnostic rate. Treatment strategies have been difficult to define for this condition due to its low preoperative diagnosis rate. However, recent reports have shown that conservative medical treatment of uncomplicated RCD can be recommended and that such treatment is effective due to the benign and self-limited natural history of RCD. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the controversies surrounding RCD management.

  19. Volumetric CT-images improve testing of radiological image interpretation skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J., E-mail: C.J.Ravesloot@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Schaaf, Marieke F. van der, E-mail: M.F.vanderSchaaf@uu.nl [Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, Jan P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Cate, Olle Th.J. ten, E-mail: T.J.tenCate@umcutrecht.nl [Center for Research and Development of Education at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Gijp, Anouk van der, E-mail: A.vanderGijp-2@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P., E-mail: C.Mol@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Vincken, Koen L., E-mail: K.Vincken@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Rationale and objectives: Current radiology practice increasingly involves interpretation of volumetric data sets. In contrast, most radiology tests still contain only 2D images. We introduced a new testing tool that allows for stack viewing of volumetric images in our undergraduate radiology program. We hypothesized that tests with volumetric CT-images enhance test quality, in comparison with traditional completely 2D image-based tests, because they might better reflect required skills for clinical practice. Materials and methods: Two groups of medical students (n = 139; n = 143), trained with 2D and volumetric CT-images, took a digital radiology test in two versions (A and B), each containing both 2D and volumetric CT-image questions. In a questionnaire, they were asked to comment on the representativeness for clinical practice, difficulty and user-friendliness of the test questions and testing program. Students’ test scores and reliabilities, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 2D and volumetric CT-image tests were compared. Results: Estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) were higher for volumetric CT-image scores (version A: .51 and version B: .54), than for 2D CT-image scores (version A: .24 and version B: .37). Participants found volumetric CT-image tests more representative of clinical practice, and considered them to be less difficult than volumetric CT-image questions. However, in one version (A), volumetric CT-image scores (M 80.9, SD 14.8) were significantly lower than 2D CT-image scores (M 88.4, SD 10.4) (p < .001). The volumetric CT-image testing program was considered user-friendly. Conclusion: This study shows that volumetric image questions can be successfully integrated in students’ radiology testing. Results suggests that the inclusion of volumetric CT-images might improve the quality of radiology tests by positively impacting perceived representativeness for clinical practice and increasing reliability of the test.

  20. Personalized heterogeneous deformable model for fast volumetric registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weixin; Liao, Xiangyun; Wang, Qiong; Heng, Pheng Ann

    2017-02-20

    Biomechanical deformable volumetric registration can help improve safety of surgical interventions by ensuring the operations are extremely precise. However, this technique has been limited by the accuracy and the computational efficiency of patient-specific modeling. This study presents a tissue-tissue coupling strategy based on penalty method to model the heterogeneous behavior of deformable body, and estimate the personalized tissue-tissue coupling parameters in a data-driven way. Moreover, considering that the computational efficiency of biomechanical model is highly dependent on the mechanical resolution, a practical coarse-to-fine scheme is proposed to increase runtime efficiency. Particularly, a detail enrichment database is established in an offline fashion to represent the mapping relationship between the deformation results of high-resolution hexahedral mesh extracted from the raw medical data and a newly constructed low-resolution hexahedral mesh. At runtime, the mechanical behavior of human organ under interactions is simulated with this low-resolution hexahedral mesh, then the microstructures are synthesized in virtue of the detail enrichment database. The proposed method is validated by volumetric registration in an abdominal phantom compression experiments. Our personalized heterogeneous deformable model can well describe the coupling effects between different tissues of the phantom. Compared with high-resolution heterogeneous deformable model, the low-resolution deformable model with our detail enrichment database can achieve 9.4× faster, and the average target registration error is 3.42 mm, which demonstrates that the proposed method shows better volumetric registration performance than state-of-the-art. Our framework can well balance the precision and efficiency, and has great potential to be adopted in the practical augmented reality image-guided robotic systems.

  1. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  2. Three-dimensional radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy using a spiral water phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Miura, Hideharu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Niwa, Yasue; Takada, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2013-11-01

    We validated 3D radiochromic film dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using a newly developed spiral water phantom. The phantom consists of a main body and an insert box, each of which has an acrylic wall thickness of 3 mm and is filled with water. The insert box includes a spiral film box used for dose-distribution measurement, and a film holder for positioning a radiochromic film. The film holder has two parallel walls whose facing inner surfaces are equipped with spiral grooves in a mirrored configuration. The film is inserted into the spiral grooves by its side edges and runs along them to be positioned on a spiral plane. Dose calculation was performed by applying clinical VMAT plans to the spiral water phantom using a commercial Monte Carlo-based treatment-planning system, Monaco, whereas dose was measured by delivering the VMAT beams to the phantom. The calculated dose distributions were resampled on the spiral plane, and the dose distributions recorded on the film were scanned. Comparisons between the calculated and measured dose distributions yielded an average gamma-index pass rate of 87.0% (range, 91.2-84.6%) in nine prostate VMAT plans under 3 mm/3% criteria with a dose-calculation grid size of 2 mm. The pass rates were increased beyond 90% (average, 91.1%; range, 90.1-92.0%) when the dose-calculation grid size was decreased to 1 mm. We have confirmed that 3D radiochromic film dosimetry using the spiral water phantom is a simple and cost-effective approach to VMAT dose verification.

  3. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  4. Volumetric hemispheric ratio as a useful tool in personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Wagner, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Weber, Bernd; Quesada, Carlos M

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigates the link between volumetric hemispheric ratios (VHRs) and personality measures in N=267 healthy participants using Eysenck's Personality Inventory-Revised (EPQ-R) and the BIS/BAS scales. A robust association between extraversion and VHRs was observed for gray matter in males but not females. Higher gray matter volume in the left than in the right hemisphere was associated with higher extraversion in males. The results are discussed in the context of positive emotionality and laterality of the human brain.

  5. AN ATTRIBUTION OF CAVITATION RESONANCE: VOLUMETRIC OSCILLATIONS OF CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Zhi-gang; LI Sheng-cai; LIU Shu-hong; LI Shuang; CHEN Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to further verify the proposed theory of cavitation resonance, as well as to proceed the investigations into microscopic level, a series of studies are being carried out on the Warwick venturi. The analysis of the oscillation characteristics of the cavitation resonance has conclusively verified the macro-mechanism proposed through previous studies on other cavitating flows by the authors. The initial observations using high-speed photographic approach have revealed a new attribution of cavitation resonance. That is, the volumetric oscillation of cavitation cloud is associated with the cavitation resonance, which is a collective behaviour of the bubbles in the cloud.

  6. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  7. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Alberto; Panduro, Marco A.; Del Rio Bocio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction. PMID:24701150

  8. Estimation of volumetric breast density for breast cancer risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.; Boyd, Norman F.; Jong, Roberta A.

    2000-04-01

    Mammographic density (MD) has been shown to be a strong risk predictor for breast cancer. Compared to subjective assessment by a radiologist, computer-aided analysis of digitized mammograms provides a quantitative and more reproducible method for assessing breast density. However, the current methods of estimating breast density based on the area of bright signal in a mammogram do not reflect the true, volumetric quantity of dense tissue in the breast. A computerized method to estimate the amount of radiographically dense tissue in the overall volume of the breast has been developed to provide an automatic, user-independent tool for breast cancer risk assessment. The procedure for volumetric density estimation consists of first correcting the image for inhomogeneity, then performing a volume density calculation. First, optical sensitometry is used to convert all images to the logarithm of relative exposure (LRE), in order to simplify the image correction operations. The field non-uniformity correction, which takes into account heel effect, inverse square law, path obliquity and intrinsic field and grid non- uniformity is obtained by imaging a spherical section PMMA phantom. The processed LRE image of the phantom is then used as a correction offset for actual mammograms. From information about the thickness and placement of the breast, as well as the parameters of a breast-like calibration step wedge placed in the mammogram, MD of the breast is calculated. Post processing and a simple calibration phantom enable user- independent, reliable and repeatable volumetric estimation of density in breast-equivalent phantoms. Initial results obtained on known density phantoms show the estimation to vary less than 5% in MD from the actual value. This can be compared to estimated mammographic density differences of 30% between the true and non-corrected values. Since a more simplistic breast density measurement based on the projected area has been shown to be a strong indicator

  9. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  10. Large-scale volumetric pressure from tomographic PTV with HFSB tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Caridi, Giuseppe C. A.; Sciacchitano, Andrea; Scarano, Fulvio

    2016-11-01

    The instantaneous volumetric pressure in the near-wake of a truncated cylinder is measured by use of tomographic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using helium-filled soap bubbles (HFSB) as tracers. The measurement volume is several orders of magnitude larger than that reported in tomographic experiments dealing with pressure from particle image velocimetry (PIV). The near-wake of a truncated cylinder installed on a flat plate ( Re D = 3.5 × 104) features both wall-bounded turbulence and large-scale unsteady flow separation. The instantaneous pressure is calculated from the time-resolved 3D velocity distribution by invoking the momentum equation. The experiments are conducted simultaneously with surface pressure measurements intended for validation of the technique. The study shows that time-averaged pressure and root-mean-squared pressure fluctuations can be accurately measured both in the fluid domain and at the solid surface by large-scale tomographic PTV with HFSB as tracers, with significant reduction in manufacturing complexity for the wind-tunnel model and circumventing the need to install pressure taps or transducers. The measurement over a large volume eases the extension toward the free-stream regime, providing a reliable boundary condition for the solution of the Poisson equation for pressure. The work demonstrates, in the case of the flow past a truncated cylinder, the use of HFSB tracer particles for pressure measurement in air flows in a measurement volume that is two orders of magnitude larger than that of conventional tomographic PIV.

  11. Volumetric three-dimensional reconstruction and segmentation of spectral-domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, Grant D; Gracia, Luis; Myung, Jane S; Borcherding, Vanessa; Banfelder, Jason R; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2011-07-01

    Despite advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT), three-dimensional (3D) renderings of OCT images remain limited to scanning consecutive two-dimensional (2D) OCT slices. The authors describe a method of reconstructing 2D OCT data for 3D retinal analysis and visualization in a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE). Using customized signal processing software, raw data from 2D slice-based spectral-domain OCT images were rendered into high-resolution 3D images for segmentation and quantification analysis. Reconstructed OCT images were projected onto a four-walled space and viewed through stereoscopic glasses, resulting in a virtual reality perception of the retina. These 3D retinal renderings offer a novel method for segmentation and isolation of volumetric images. The ability to manipulate the images in a virtual reality environment allows visualization of complex spatial relationships that may aid our understanding of retinal pathology. More importantly, these 3D retinal renderings can be viewed, manipulated, and analyzed on traditional 2D monitors independent of the CAVE.

  12. Floating volumetric image formation using a dihedral corner reflector array device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Noboru; Maeda, Yuki; Yamamoto, Siori; Mukai, Takaaki; Maekawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A volumetric display system using an optical imaging device consisting of numerous dihedral corner reflectors placed perpendicular to the surface of a metal plate is proposed. Image formation by the dihedral corner reflector array (DCRA) is free from distortion and focal length. In the proposed volumetric display system, a two-dimensional real image is moved by a mirror scanner to scan a three-dimensional (3D) space. Cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed in accordance with the position of the image plane. A volumetric image is observed as a stack of the cross-sectional images. The use of the DCRA brings compact system configuration and volumetric real image generation with very low distortion. An experimental volumetric display system including a DCRA, a galvanometer mirror, and a digital micro-mirror device was constructed to verify the proposed method. A volumetric image consisting of 1024×768×400 voxels was formed by the experimental system.

  13. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  14. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Chul Chung; Hye-Kang Kim; Jin Young Yoo; Jeong Rok Lee; Kang-Moon Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; U-Im Jang; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system.Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease.Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment,resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain,bleeding,intussusceptions.We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia,which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polyperctomy.

  15. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. PMID:25797264

  16. Diverticulosis of colon: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Yul [Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    The authors reports 2 cases of diverticulosis involving the sacending colon and cecum: one, 55 year old, 85 kg Korean male admitted to Paik Hospital because of abdominal palm, constipation and tenderness in the right lower abdomen. The other, 48 year old, 78 kg male visited to our hospital for the routine examination. According to late European and American statistics, the colonic diverticulosis was discovered in late middle life about 20%, however, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is rare in Korea. This paper presents a brief review of literature on the etiology, incidence and symptom.

  17. Space Colonization: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krichevskiy S. V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Space colonization is the top priority of mankind and the strategic target of manned cosmonautics. It is necessary to comprehend the outcome of human space flights and to give a new impulse to space expansion, scientific and practical solving the problem of space colonization by human beings. The attention is also paid to key issues, potentials, restrictions, forecasts, and prospects of space colonization as well as to the transformation of a man into "a man of the future", "homo cosmicus", and "a universal man", to the formation of "space mankind".

  18. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  19. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua

    2001-06-01

    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  20. Myocardial kinematics based on tagged MRI from volumetric NURBS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.

    2004-04-01

    We present current research in which left ventricular deformation is estimated from tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging using volumetric deformable models constructed from nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS). From a set of short and long axis images at end-diastole, the initial NURBS model is constructed by fitting two surfaces with the same parameterization to the set of epicardial and endocardial contours from which a volumetric model is created. Using normal displacements of the three sets of orthogonal tag planes as well as displacements of both tag line and contour/tag line intersection points, one can solve for the optimal homogeneous coordinates, in a least squares sense, of the control points of the NURBS model at a later time point using quadratic programming. After fitting to all time points of data, lofting the NURBS model at each time point creates a comprehensive 4-D NURBS model. From this model, we can extract 3-D myocardial displacement fields and corresponding strain maps, which are local measures of non-rigid deformation.

  1. Volumetric breast density affects performance of digital screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Johanna O P; Holland, Katharina; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Mann, Ritse M; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-02-01

    To determine to what extent automatically measured volumetric mammographic density influences screening performance when using digital mammography (DM). We collected a consecutive series of 111,898 DM examinations (2003-2011) from one screening unit of the Dutch biennial screening program (age 50-75 years). Volumetric mammographic density was automatically assessed using Volpara. We determined screening performance measures for four density categories comparable to the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density categories. Of all the examinations, 21.6% were categorized as density category 1 ('almost entirely fatty') and 41.5, 28.9, and 8.0% as category 2-4 ('extremely dense'), respectively. We identified 667 screen-detected and 234 interval cancers. Interval cancer rates were 0.7, 1.9, 2.9, and 4.4‰ and false positive rates were 11.2, 15.1, 18.2, and 23.8‰ for categories 1-4, respectively (both p-trend density categories: 85.7, 77.6, 69.5, and 61.0% for categories 1-4, respectively (p-trend density, automatically measured on digital mammograms, impacts screening performance measures along the same patterns as established with ACR breast density categories. Since measuring breast density fully automatically has much higher reproducibility than visual assessment, this automatic method could help with implementing density-based supplemental screening.

  2. Volumetric properties of human islet amyloid polypeptide in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovchenko, I; Andrews, M N; Oleinikova, A

    2010-04-28

    The volumetric properties of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in water were studied in a wide temperature range by computer simulations. The intrinsic density rho(p) and the intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient alpha(p) of hIAPP were evaluated by taking into account the difference between the volumetric properties of hydration and bulk water. The density of hydration water rho(h) was found to decrease almost linearly with temperature upon heating and its thermal expansion coefficient was found to be notably higher than that of bulk water. The peptide surface exposed to water is more hydrophobic and its rho(h) is smaller in conformation with a larger number of intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The two hIAPP peptides studied (with and without disulfide bridge) show negative alpha(p), which is close to zero at 250 K and decreases to approximately -1.5 x 10(-3) K(-1) upon heating to 450 K. The analysis of various structural properties of peptides shows a correlation between the intrinsic peptide volumes and the number of intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The obtained negative values of alpha(p) can be attributed to the shrinkage of the inner voids of the peptides upon heating.

  3. Volumetric verification of multiaxis machine tool using laser tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Sergio; Samper, David; Santolaria, Jorge; Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space.

  4. The Volumetric Rate of Superluminous Supernovae at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Prajs, S; Smith, M; Levan, A; Karpenka, N V; Edwards, T D P; Walker, C R; Wolf, W M; Balland, C; Carlberg, R; Howell, A; Lidman, C; Pain, R; Pritchet, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z~1, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically-identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et.al. (2010) and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91 (+76/-36) SNe/Yr/Gpc^3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z=1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2 (+1.8/-0.9) x10^-4 of the volumetric core collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formati...

  5. Solar heating wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1983-08-16

    A solar heating wall is disclosed including a water pipe circulation system having a plurality of separate tubes, each formed as a loop, connected between a water supply and a return. The separate tubes are arranged in a single vertical plane at the approximate center of the wall. The wall is formed within a frame which is packed with a material suited for use as a thERMAL RESERVOIR, SUCH AS concrete. The frame provides extra support by having a series of horizontally disposed cross supports on one surface of the wall and a series of vertically disposed cross supports on the opposite surface A pressure relief valve may be provided between the water supply to the separate tubes and the water supply to the building or structure containing the solar wall, so that the solar wall can be adapted for use with a city water system.

  6. Incarcerated incisional hernia of the sigmoid colon after appendectomy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyong Wha Choi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Although incisional hernia of the colon after appendectomy is extremely rare and preoperative diagnosis by physical examination is difficult, CT is a useful method to make the correct diagnosis, avoiding unnecessary invasive intervention, particularly in patients with an unusual abdominal wall mass.

  7. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectal Carcinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamshidhar Vootla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, uterine fibroids and hypercholesterolemia presenting with a 2-week history of intermittent abdominal pain, mainly in the right upper quadrant. She had no family history of cancers. Physical examination was significant for pallor. Laboratory findings showed microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.6 g/dl. CT abdomen showed circumferential wall thickening in the ascending colon near the hepatic flexure and pulmonary nodules. Colonoscopy showed hepatic flexure mass and rectal nodule which were biopsied. Pathology showed a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon (hepatic flexure mass and a low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm (carcinoid of rectum. The patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and chemotherapy. In patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, carcinoids could be missed due to their submucosal location, multicentricity and indolent growth pattern. Studies suggest a closer surveillance of the GI tract for noncarcinoid synchronous malignancy when a carcinoid tumor is detected and vice versa.

  8. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectal Carcinoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootla, Vamshidhar; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Niazi, Masooma; Balar, Bhavna; Nayudu, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, uterine fibroids and hypercholesterolemia presenting with a 2-week history of intermittent abdominal pain, mainly in the right upper quadrant. She had no family history of cancers. Physical examination was significant for pallor. Laboratory findings showed microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.6 g/dl. CT abdomen showed circumferential wall thickening in the ascending colon near the hepatic flexure and pulmonary nodules. Colonoscopy showed hepatic flexure mass and rectal nodule which were biopsied. Pathology showed a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon (hepatic flexure mass) and a low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm (carcinoid of rectum). The patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and chemotherapy. In patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, carcinoids could be missed due to their submucosal location, multicentricity and indolent growth pattern. Studies suggest a closer surveillance of the GI tract for noncarcinoid synchronous malignancy when a carcinoid tumor is detected and vice versa. PMID:27920648

  9. Cell Wall Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  10. Staggered domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoelbling, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We construct domain wall fermions with a staggered kernel and investigate their spectral and chiral properties numerically in the Schwinger model. In some relevant cases we see an improvement of chirality by more than an order of magnitude as compared to usual domain wall fermions. Moreover, we present first results for four-dimensional quantum chromodynamics, where we also observe significant reductions of chiral symmetry violations for staggered domain wall fermions.

  11. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  12. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor.However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown...

  13. The Combination of Gastroschisis, Jejunal Atresia, and Colonic Atresia in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Bauman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a rare case of gastroschisis associated with jejunal atresia and colonic atresia. In our case, the jejunal atresia was not discovered for 27 days after the initial abdominal wall closure. The colonic atresia was not discovered for 48 days after initial repair of the gastroschisis secondary to the rarity of the disorder. Both types of atresia were repaired with primary hand-sewn anastomoses. Other than the prolonged parenteral nutrition and hyperbilirubinemia, our patient did very well throughout his hospital course. Based on our case presentation, small bowel atresia and colonic atresia must be considered in patients who undergo abdominal wall closure for gastroschisis with prolonged symptoms suggestive of bowel obstruction. Our case report also demonstrates primary enteric anastomosis as a safe, well-tolerated surgical option for patients with types of intestinal atresia.

  14. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  15. Spontaneous Perforation of Rectosigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Haj Sheikholeslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the sigmoid colon or rectom is definedas a sudden perforation of the colon in the absence of diseasessuch as tumors, diverticulosis or external injury. It is avery rare finding, and if neglected, results in severe peritonitisand high mortality. The causes of this rare condition are numerous,and in this case it might be due to the chronic constipationinduced by an anticholinergic antipsychotic.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 339-341.

  16. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de; Jedrzejczyk, M.; Ignee, A. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis.

  17. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-04

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  18. Hypoxic conditions and iron restriction affect the cell-wall proteome of Candida albicans grown under vagina-simulative conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosinska, G.J.; de Groot, P.W.J.; Teixeira De Mattos, M.J.; Dekker, H.L.; de Koster, C.G.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Klis, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins that are covalently linked to the skeletal polysaccharides of the cell wall of Candida albicans play a major role in the colonization of the vaginal mucosal surface, which may result in vaginitis. Here we report on the variability of the cell-wall proteome of C. albicans as a function of

  19. [Intestinal occlusion due to a colonic lipoma. Apropos 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, B

    1993-09-30

    Lipomas occur through the intestinal tract, from the hypopharynx to the rectum, the colon having the highest incidence, where lipomata are the commonest benign neoplasm after adenomata. Nevertheless they are uncommon. CASE REPORT. 1) A 68-year-old man presented as an emergency with abdominal pain associated with bowel obstruction. He had a 2 to 3 month history of intermittent right-sided abdominal pain, constipation spontaneously resolved. At laparotomy there was a mass of the transverse colon, next hepatic flexure. A right hemicolectomy was performed. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Histologic examination showed a lipoma of the submucosal plane. 2) A 65-year-old man presented as an emergency with lower abdominal pain associated with a prolapsed rectal polyp. He had 1 month history of passing fresh blood per rectum. Ap ast colonoscopy revealed a large polypoid lesion in the descending colon. Transanal examination revealed a polypoid lesion with a maximum diameter of 4 cm, acting as an intussuseptum. Transanal polypectomy was performed. At laparotomy there was an intussuseptum of the descending colon into the rectum: a left hemicolectomy was performed. Histology showed the polyp to be a submucosal lipoma. DISCUSSION. Lipomas are the most common benign nonepithelial tumors of the colon. Lipomata of the large bowel are reported as incidental findings in 0.3-0.5% of cases in large series of autopsies. In the wall of the intestine most lie in the submucosal plane, less frequently they are found in the subserosal plane. The commonest site for symptomatic solitary large bowel lipoma is the ascending colon, including the caecum, followed by the transverse colon, including both hepatic and splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. The peak incidence for lipomata of the large bowel is in fifth-sixth decade. Colonic lipomas are generally asymptomatic but occasionally patients may have intermittent crampy abdominal pain secondary to intussusception

  20. Unusual metachronous isolated inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parodo Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to describe an unusual case of metachronous isolated inguinal lymph nodes metastasis from sigmoid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man was referred to our department because of an obstructing sigmoid carcinoma. Colonoscopy showed the obstructing lesion at 30 cm from the anal verge and abdominal CT revealed a sigmoid lesion infiltrating the left lateral abdominal wall. The patient underwent a colonic resection extended to the abdominal wall. Histology showed an adenocarcinoma of the colon infiltrating the abdominal wall with iuxtacolic nodal involvement. Thirty three months after surgery abdominal CT and PET scan revealed a metastatic left inguinal lymph node involvement. The metastatic lymph node was found strictly adherent to the left iliac-femoral artery and encompassing the origin of the left inferior epigastric artery. Histology showed a metachronous nodal metastasis from colonic adenocarcinoma. Despite metastastic involvement of inguinal lymph node from rectal cancer is a rare but well known clinical entity, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inguinal metastasis from a carcinoma of the left colon. Literature review shows only three other similar reported cases: two cases of inguinal metastasis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the cecum and one case of axillary metastasis from left colonic carcinoma. A metastatic pathway through superficial abdominal wall lymphatic vessels could be possible through the route along the left inferior epigastric artery. The solitary inguinal nodal involvement from rectal carcinoma could have a more favorable prognosis. In the case of nodal metastasis to the body surface lymph nodes from colonic carcinoma, following the small number of such cases reported in the literature, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  1. Thoracic cavity segmentation algorithm using multiorgan extraction and surface fitting in volumetric CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, JangPyo [Interdisciplinary Program, Bioengineering Major, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744, South Korea and Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namkug, E-mail: namkugkim@gmail.com; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Chan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a semiautomatic segmentation method for thoracic cavity volumetry and mediastinum fat quantification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The thoracic cavity region was separated by segmenting multiorgans, namely, the rib, lung, heart, and diaphragm. To encompass various lung disease-induced variations, the inner thoracic wall and diaphragm were modeled by using a three-dimensional surface-fitting method. To improve the accuracy of the diaphragm surface model, the heart and its surrounding tissue were segmented by a two-stage level set method using a shape prior. To assess the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, the algorithm results of 50 patients were compared to the manual segmentation results of two experts with more than 5 years of experience (these manual results were confirmed by an expert thoracic radiologist). The proposed method was also compared to three state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The metrics used to evaluate segmentation accuracy were volumetric overlap ratio (VOR), false positive ratio on VOR (FPRV), false negative ratio on VOR (FNRV), average symmetric absolute surface distance (ASASD), average symmetric squared surface distance (ASSSD), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD). Results: In terms of thoracic cavity volumetry, the mean ± SD VOR, FPRV, and FNRV of the proposed method were (98.17 ± 0.84)%, (0.49 ± 0.23)%, and (1.34 ± 0.83)%, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the thoracic wall were 0.28 ± 0.12, 1.28 ± 0.53, and 23.91 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. The ASASD, ASSSD, and MSSD for the diaphragm surface were 1.73 ± 0.91, 3.92 ± 1.68, and 27.80 ± 10.63 mm, respectively. The proposed method performed significantly better than the other three methods in terms of VOR, ASASD, and ASSSD. Conclusions: The proposed semiautomatic thoracic cavity segmentation method, which extracts multiple organs (namely, the rib, thoracic wall, diaphragm, and heart

  2. Rapid mapping of volumetric machine errors using distance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krulewich, D.A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to maping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) models the relationship between volumetric error and the current state of the machine, (2) acquiring error data based on distance measurements throughout the work volume; and (3)fitting the error model using the nonlinear equation for the distance. The error model is formulated from the kinematic relationship among the six degrees of freedom of error an each moving axis. Expressing each parametric error as function of position each is combined to predict the error between the functional point and workpiece, also as a function of position. A series of distances between several fixed base locations and various functional points in the work volume is measured using a Laser Ball Bar (LBB). Each measured distance is a non-linear function dependent on the commanded location of the machine, the machine error, and the location of the base locations. Using the error model, the non-linear equation is solved producing a fit for the error model Also note that, given approximate distances between each pair of base locations, the exact base locations in the machine coordinate system determined during the non-linear filling procedure. Furthermore, with the use of 2048 more than three base locations, bias error in the measuring instrument can be removed The volumetric errors of three-axis commercial machining center have been mapped using this procedure. In this study, only errors associated with the nominal position of the machine were considered Other errors such as thermally induced and load induced errors were not considered although the mathematical model has the ability to account for these errors. Due to the proprietary nature of the projects we are

  3. Evaluation of air lime and clayish earth mortars for earthen wall renders

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Paulina; Silva, Vitor; Jamú, Naila; Dias, Inês; Gomes, M. Idália

    2013-01-01

    CIAV2013 – International Conference on Vernacular Architecture, 7º ATP, VerSus, 16-20 october 2013 An experimental rammed earth wall was traditionally made with local earth and characterized in terms of superficial hardness, compactness, thermal conductivity and water absorption, in exterior environmental conditions. Two mortars were made with an air lime and a mixture of three washed graduated siliceous sands, with volumetric proportions of 1:2 and 1:3 (air lime:sand). A clayish earth was...

  4. The surface rhamnopolysaccharide epa of Enterococcus faecalis is a key determinant of intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Madec, Clément; Navickas, Albertas; Matos, Renata C; Akary-Lepage, Elodie; Mistou, Michel-Yves; Serror, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium of the human intestine and a major opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised and elderly patients. The pathogenesis of E. faecalis infection relies in part on its capacity to colonize the gut. Following disruption of intestinal homeostasis, E. faecalis can overgrow, cross the intestinal barrier, and enter the lymph and bloodstream. To identify and characterize E. faecalis genes that are key to intestinal colonization, our strategy consisted in screening mutants for the following phenotypes related to intestinal lifestyle: antibiotic resistance, overgrowth, and competition against microbiota. From the identified colonization genes, epaX encodes a glycosyltransferase located in a variable region of the enterococcal polysaccharide antigen (epa) locus. We demonstrated that EpaX acts on sugar composition, promoting resistance to bile salts and cell wall integrity. Given that EpaX is enriched in hospital-adapted isolates, this study points to the importance of the epa variability as a key determinant for enterococcal intestinal colonization.

  5. Endoscopic Resection of Asymptomatic, Colonic, Polypoid Arteriovenous Malformations: Two Case Reports and a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Hee; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Gil, Sanghyun; Kim, Young-Shin; Cho, Minjung; Seo, Kyung-Jin; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Cho, Young-Seok

    2017-01-01

    A colonic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a significant vascular lesion of the gastrointestinal tract and a common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. AVMs are usually identified endoscopically as bright red, flat lesions. AVMs with a polypoid appearance are extremely rare in the large intestine. We present two cases of colonic polypoid AVM, which were detected incidentally during screening colonoscopy. Both the patients had no history of gastrointestinal bleeding such as melena or hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed pedunculated polyps overlaid by hyperemic mucosa in the ascending colon and proximal sigmoid colon. Microscopic examination showed aberrant vessels with thickened, hypertrophic walls in the mucosa and the submucosa, and arteries were directly connected to veins without capillary beds. These features were compatible with a diagnosis of AVM with a polypoid appearance. No immediate or delayed bleeding was noted after polypectomy. PMID:28139503

  6. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  7. Domain wall filters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, O; Neuberger, H; Witzel, O; Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  8. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  9. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  10. Hard and soft walls

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2011-01-01

    In a continuing effort to understand divergences which occur when quantum fields are confined by bounding surfaces, we investigate local energy densities (and the local energy-momentum tensor) in the vicinity of a wall. In this paper, attention is largely confined to a scalar field. If the wall is an infinite Dirichlet plane, well known volume and surface divergences are found, which are regulated by a temporal point-splitting parameter. If the wall is represented by a linear potential in one coordinate $z$, the divergences are softened. The case of a general wall, described by a potential of the form $z^\\alpha$ for $z>0$ is considered. If $\\alpha>2$, there are no surface divergences, which in any case vanish if the conformal stress tensor is employed. Divergences within the wall are also considered.

  11. Abdominal wall actinomycosis associated with an IUD. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, A; Kleiner, G J; Bezahler, G H; Greston, W M; Friedland, G H

    1985-02-01

    Abdominal wall actinomycosis without pelvic organ involvement in users of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) has not been reported on previously. We encountered one such patient, whose uterine cervix was colonized superficially with Actinomyces. We suggest that systemic actinomycosis be included in the differential diagnosis of pain in IUD users when Actinomyces is found on Papanicolaou smears or in endocervical curettings. Such patients should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, especially prior to any surgical intervention.

  12. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  13. Optimization approaches to volumetric modulated arc therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C DK-8000 (Denmark); Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Bokrantz, Rasmus [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm SE-111 34 (Sweden); Chen, Danny [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Men, Chunhua [Department of Research, Elekta, Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043 (United States); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Papp, Dávid [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Romeijn, Edwin [H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Salari, Ehsan [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has found widespread clinical application in recent years. A large number of treatment planning studies have evaluated the potential for VMAT for different disease sites based on the currently available commercial implementations of VMAT planning. In contrast, literature on the underlying mathematical optimization methods used in treatment planning is scarce. VMAT planning represents a challenging large scale optimization problem. In contrast to fluence map optimization in intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for static beams, VMAT planning represents a nonconvex optimization problem. In this paper, the authors review the state-of-the-art in VMAT planning from an algorithmic perspective. Different approaches to VMAT optimization, including arc sequencing methods, extensions of direct aperture optimization, and direct optimization of leaf trajectories are reviewed. Their advantages and limitations are outlined and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  14. Volumetric properties of water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changfei; He, Wei; Yin, Tianxiang; Shen, Weiguo

    2014-12-23

    The densities of AOT/isooctane micelles and water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions with the molar ratios R of water to AOT being 2, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, and 40 were measured at 303.15 K. The apparent specific volumes of AOT and the quasi-component water/AOT at various concentrations were calculated and used to estimate the volumetric properties of AOT and water in the droplets and in the continuous oil phase, to discuss the interaction between the droplets, and to determine the critical micelle concentration and the critical microemulsion concentrations. A thermodynamic model was proposed to analysis the stability boundary of the microemulsion droplets, which confirms the maximum value of R being about 65 for the stable AOT/water/isooctane microemulsion droplets.

  15. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  16. In-line hologram segmentation for volumetric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzó, László; Göröcs, Zoltán; Fehér, András; Tőkés, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    We propose a fast, noniterative method to segment an in-line hologram of a volumetric sample into in-line subholograms according to its constituent objects. In contrast to the phase retrieval or twin image elimination algorithms, we do not aim or require to reconstruct the complex wave field of all the objects, which would be a more complex task, but only provide a good estimate about the contribution of the particular objects to the original hologram quickly. The introduced hologram segmentation algorithm exploits the special inner structure of the in-line holograms and applies only the estimated supports and reconstruction distances of the corresponding objects as parameters. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated and analyzed experimentally both on synthetic and measured holograms. We discussed how the proposed algorithm can be efficiently applied for object reconstruction and phase retrieval tasks.

  17. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Restoration by Structural Fat Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi C.; Consorti, Giuseppe; Elia, Giovanni; Galié, Manlio; Tieghi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The use of adipose tissue transfer for correction of maxillofacial defects was reported for the first time at the end of the 19th century. Structural fat grafting (SFG) was introduced as a way to improve facial esthetics and in recent years has evolved into applications in craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Several techniques have been proposed for harvesting and grafting the fat. However, owing to the damage of many adipocytes during these maneuvers, the results have not been satisfactory and have required several fat injection procedures for small corrections. The author's (L.C.) overview the application of SFG in the management of volumetric deficit in the craniomaxillofacial in patients treated with a long-term follow-up. PMID:24624259

  18. Semi-automatic volumetrics system to parcellate ROI on neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Ichimiya, Tetsuya; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2002-05-01

    A template-based and semi-automatic volumetrics system--BrainVol is build to divide the any given patient brain to neo-cortical and sub-cortical regions. The standard region is given as standard ROI drawn on a standard brain volume. After normalization between the standard MR image and the patient MR image, the sub-cortical ROIs' boundary are refined based on gray matter. The neo-cortical ROIs are refined by sulcus information that is semi-automatically marked on the patient brain. Then the segmentation is applied to 4D PET image of same patient for calculation of TAC (Time Activity Curve) by co-registration between MR and PET.

  19. Out-of-core clustering of volumetric datasets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRANBERG Carl J.; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for dividing and clustering large volumetric scalar out-of-core datasets. This work is based on the Ordered Cluster Binary Tree (OCBT) structure created using a top-down or divisive clustering method. The OCBT structure allows fast and efficient sub volume queries to be made in combination with level of detail (LOD) queries of the tree. The initial partitioning of the large out-of-core dataset is done by using non-axis aligned planes calculated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A hybrid OCBT structure is also proposed where an in-core cluster binary tree is combined with a large out-of-core file.

  20. Volumetric Survey Speed: A Figure of Merit for Transient Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Time-domain surveys can exchange sky coverage for revisit frequency, complicating the comparison of their relative capabilities. By using different revisit intervals, a specific camera may execute surveys optimized for discovery of different classes of transient objects. We propose a new figure of merit, the instantaneous volumetric survey speed, for evaluating transient surveys. This metric defines the trade between cadence interval and snapshot survey volume and so provides a natural means of comparing survey capability. The related metric of areal survey speed imposes a constraint on the range of possible revisit times: we show that many modern time-domain surveys are limited by the amount of fresh sky available each night. We introduce the concept of "spectroscopic accessibility" and discuss its importance for transient science goals requiring followup observing. We present an extension of the control time algorithm for cases where multiple consecutive detections are required. Finally, we explore how surv...

  1. Volumetric optical coherence microscopy enabled by aberrated optics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Siyang; Adie, Steven G.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an interferometric imaging technique that enables high resolution, non-invasive imaging of 3D cell cultures and biological tissues. Volumetric imaging with OCM suffers a trade-off between high transverse resolution and poor depth-of-field resulting from defocus, optical aberrations, and reduced signal collection away from the focal plane. While defocus and aberrations can be compensated with computational methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) or computational adaptive optics (CAO), reduced signal collection must be physically addressed through optical hardware. Axial scanning of the focus is one approach, but comes at the cost of longer acquisition times, larger datasets, and greater image reconstruction times. Given the capabilities of CAO to compensate for general phase aberrations, we present an alternative method to address the signal collection problem without axial scanning by using intentionally aberrated optical hardware. We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic spectral domain (SD-)OCM imaging system to enable single-acquisition volumetric OCM in 3D cell culture over an extended depth range, compared to a non-aberrated SD-OCM system. The transverse resolution of the non-aberrated and astigmatic imaging systems after application of CAO were 2 um and 2.2 um, respectively. The depth-range of effective signal collection about the nominal focal plane was increased from 100 um in the non-aberrated system to over 300 um in the astigmatic system, extending the range over which useful data may be acquired in a single OCM dataset. We anticipate that this method will enable high-throughput cellular-resolution imaging of dynamic biological systems over extended volumes.

  2. Marginal Space Deep Learning: Efficient Architecture for Volumetric Image Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesu, Florin C; Krubasik, Edward; Georgescu, Bogdan; Singh, Vivek; Yefeng Zheng; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2016-05-01

    Robust and fast solutions for anatomical object detection and segmentation support the entire clinical workflow from diagnosis, patient stratification, therapy planning, intervention and follow-up. Current state-of-the-art techniques for parsing volumetric medical image data are typically based on machine learning methods that exploit large annotated image databases. Two main challenges need to be addressed, these are the efficiency in scanning high-dimensional parametric spaces and the need for representative image features which require significant efforts of manual engineering. We propose a pipeline for object detection and segmentation in the context of volumetric image parsing, solving a two-step learning problem: anatomical pose estimation and boundary delineation. For this task we introduce Marginal Space Deep Learning (MSDL), a novel framework exploiting both the strengths of efficient object parametrization in hierarchical marginal spaces and the automated feature design of Deep Learning (DL) network architectures. In the 3D context, the application of deep learning systems is limited by the very high complexity of the parametrization. More specifically 9 parameters are necessary to describe a restricted affine transformation in 3D, resulting in a prohibitive amount of billions of scanning hypotheses. The mechanism of marginal space learning provides excellent run-time performance by learning classifiers in clustered, high-probability regions in spaces of gradually increasing dimensionality. To further increase computational efficiency and robustness, in our system we learn sparse adaptive data sampling patterns that automatically capture the structure of the input. Given the object localization, we propose a DL-based active shape model to estimate the non-rigid object boundary. Experimental results are presented on the aortic valve in ultrasound using an extensive dataset of 2891 volumes from 869 patients, showing significant improvements of up to 45

  3. The volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae at z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Levan, A.; Karpenka, N. V.; Edwards, T. D. P.; Walker, C. R.; Wolf, W. M.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R.; Howell, D. A.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2017-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z ˜ 1.0, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et al. and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91^{+76}_{-36} SNe yr-1 Gpc-3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z = 1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2^{+1.8}_{-0.9}× 10^{-4} of the volumetric core-collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formation history. We also estimate the rate of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts based on the events discovered by the Swift satellite, and show that it is comparable to the rate of SLSNe, providing further evidence of a possible connection between these two classes of events. We also examine the host galaxies of the SLSNe discovered in SNLS, and find them to be consistent with the stellar-mass distribution of other published samples of SLSNe.

  4. Volumetric analysis of corticocancellous bones using CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Linde, Astrid von; Rosenberger, Ralf; Blauth, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Glodny, Bernhard; Niederwanger, Christian [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology I, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    To present a method for an automated volumetric analysis of corticocancellous bones such as the superior pubic ramus using CT data and to assess the reliability of this method. Computed tomography scans of a consecutive series of 250 patients were analyzed. A Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholding-based reconstruction technique (''Vessel Tracking,'' GE Healthcare) was used. A contiguous space of cancellous bone with similar HU values between the starting and end points was automatically identified as the region of interest. The identification was based upon the density gradient to the adjacent cortical bone. The starting point was defined as the middle of the parasymphyseal corticocancellous transition zone on the axial slice showing the parasymphyseal superior pubic ramus in its maximum anteroposterior width. The end point was defined as the middle of the periarticular corticocancellous transition zone on the axial slice showing the quadrilateral plate as a thin cortical plate. The following parameters were automatically obtained on both sides: length of the center line, volume of the superior pubic ramus between the starting point and end point, minimum, maximum and mean diameter perpendicular to the center line, and mean cross-sectional area perpendicular to the center line. An automated analysis without manual adjustments was successful in 207 patients (82.8%). The center line showed a significantly greater length in female patients (67.6 mm vs 65.0 mm). The volume was greater in male patients (21.8 cm{sup 3} vs 19.4 cm{sup 3}). The intersite reliability was high with a mean difference between the left and right sides of between 0.1% (cross-sectional area) and 2.3% (volume). The method presented allows for an automated volumetric analysis of a corticocancellous bone using CT data. The method is intended to provide preoperative information for the use of intramedullary devices in fracture fixation and percutaneous cement augmentation techniques

  5. An Analysis Methodology for Stochastic Characteristic of Volumetric Error in Multiaxis CNC Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches about error modeling and analysis of machine tool few consider the probability characteristics of the geometric error and volumetric error systematically. However, the individual geometric error measured at different points is variational and stochastic, and therefore the resultant volumetric error is aslo stochastic and uncertain. In order to address the stochastic characteristic of the volumetric error for multiaxis machine tool, a new probability analysis mathematical model of volumetric error is proposed in this paper. According to multibody system theory, a mean value analysis model for volumetric error is established with consideration of geometric errors. The probability characteristics of geometric errors are obtained by statistical analysis to the measured sample data. Based on probability statistics and stochastic process theory, the variance analysis model of volumetric error is established in matrix, which can avoid the complex mathematics operations during the direct differential. A four-axis horizontal machining center is selected as an illustration example. The analysis results can reveal the stochastic characteristic of volumetric error and are also helpful to make full use of the best workspace to reduce the random uncertainty of the volumetric error and improve the machining accuracy.

  6. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, C.J.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, JPJ

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional imag

  7. Unusual Primary Subepithelial Tumors of the Colon: Multimodality Imaging Findings with Endoscopic and Pathologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Young; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Ha, Dong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kang, Eun Ju [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dong A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hoon [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Dong A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The colonoscopy has been used to diagnose various colonic lesions. However, this method has its limitations in diagnosing and differentiating subepithelial tumors. For this reason, the role of cross-sectional radiologic imaging is important for the diagnosis of colonic subepithelial tumors. Moreover, although these tumors are associated with a wide range of radiologic features, they may have unique radiologic features that suggest a specific diagnosis. Hemangiomas typically show transmural colonic wall thickening with phleboliths in intramural or extracolic areas. Colonic lymphangiomas manifest as a multilocular cystic mass at CT and sonography. Colonic lipomas are well demonstrated by CT because the masses were present with characteristic fatty density. Schwannomas usually appear as well circumscribed, homogeneous masses with low attenuation at CT. The primary form of colonic lymphoma has a wide variety of radiologic types, including a polypoid mass, circumferential mural mass, and a cavitary mass. Small gastrointestinal stromal tumors are usually homogeneous, whereas larger tumors tend to have a heterogeneous appearance with central necrosis at contrast-enhanced CT scans. Neuroendocrine tumors of the colon are most frequently observed in the rectum and are typically small incidental lesions. Familiarity with these imaging features can help distinguish particular disease entities.

  8. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora. PMID:26920068

  9. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H L; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora.

  10. Enfermedad Diverticular del Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo López Escobar

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los divertículos del colon han sido reconocidos por varios observadores desde hace más de un siglo, pero en su mayor parte se trataba de casos aislados, hoy se la considera como la enfermedad del siglo XX, la de la era moderna y de los países industrializados y de avanzada tecnología (5,18,33.

    Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (11, divertículo, del latín, diverticulum, quiere decir desviación de un camino; y desde el punto de vista anatómico, apéndice hueco y terminado en fondo de saco. (Gráfica No. 1.

    Goligher (17 lo define como la “posada al borde del camino, probablemente un lugar, a menudo, de mala reputación”.

    Historia

    Según Hackford (18, el proceso fué descrito brevemente por Littre a comienzos del siglo XVIII; pero se le atribuye a Cruveilhier la primera descripción como proceso patológico en 1849, quien, además, mencionó: “encontramos, no rara vez, en el sigmoide, entre las bandas de fibras musculares longitudinales, una serie de pequeños tumores piriformes oscuros, que están formados por hernias de la mucosa a través de brechas en la capa muscular” (17.

    Fleischman en 1815 hizo la primera observación de la enfermedad y empleó el término divertículo (45.

    Rokitansky en 1.849, habló de una enfermedad adquirida y consideró que su causa consistía en la constipación (45.

    Virchowen 1853 describió la perisigmoiditis (45.

    En 1859 Sidney Jones informó de una fístula colo-vesical debida a diverticulitis (5,45.

    Loomis en 1870 describe una peritonitis como resultante de una diverticulitis (45.

    En 1877 Ball describió la anatomía patológica de la enfermedad y presentó dos casos de fístula colovesical debidas a diverticulitis (9. Cripps en 1.888 popularizó la colostomía de desviación como tratamiento para la fístula colovesical(18...

  11. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as stabilizing agents in red phosphorus Li-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Smajic, Jasmin

    2017-08-16

    Phosphorus boasts extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities but suffers from poor electrochemical stability with significant capacity loss immediately after the first cycle. We propose to circumvent this issue by mixing amorphous red phosphorus with single-walled carbon nanotubes. Employing a non-destructive sublimation–deposition method, we have synthesized composites where the synergetic effect between red phosphorus and single-walled carbon nanotubes allows for a considerable improvement in the electrochemical stability of battery anodes. In contrast to the average 40% loss of capacity after 50 cycles for other phosphorus–carbon composites in the literature, our material shows losses of just 22% under analogous cycling conditions.

  12. High Volumetric Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Scrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Thangavel, Ranjith; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Chandra Das, Nayan; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-07-12

    The low volumetric energy density of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrodes limits its application in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices that require high-performance energy storage capacities in small volumes. The volumetric energy density of rGO-based electrode materials is very low due to their low packing density. A supercapacitor with enhanced packing density and high volumetric energy density is fabricated using doped rGO scrolls (GFNSs) as the electrode material. The restacking of rGO sheets is successfully controlled through synthesizing the doped scroll structures while increasing the packing density. The fabricated cell exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 49.66 Wh/L with excellent cycling stability (>10 000 cycles). This unique design strategy for the electrode material has significant potential for the future supercapacitors with high volumetric energy densities.

  13. Global segmentation and curvature analysis of volumetric data sets using trivariate B-spline functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldea, Octavian; Elber, Gershon; Rivlin, Ehud

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a method to globally segment volumetric images into regions that contain convex or concave (elliptic) iso-surfaces, planar or cylindrical (parabolic) iso-surfaces, and volumetric regions with saddle-like (hyperbolic) iso-surfaces, regardless of the value of the iso-surface level. The proposed scheme relies on a novel approach to globally compute, bound, and analyze the Gaussian and mean curvatures of an entire volumetric data set, using a trivariate B-spline volumetric representation. This scheme derives a new differential scalar field for a given volumetric scalar field, which could easily be adapted to other differential properties. Moreover, this scheme can set the basis for more precise and accurate segmentation of data sets targeting the identification of primitive parts. Since the proposed scheme employs piecewise continuous functions, it is precise and insensitive to aliasing.

  14. The duct selective volumetric receiver: potential for different selectivity strategies and stability issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Casals, X. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas-ICAI, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fluidos y Calor; Ajona, J.I. [Departamento de Energia Solar, Viessemann, Poligono Industrial San Marcos, Getafe (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Recently much theoretical and experimental work has been conducted on volumetric receivers. However, not much attention has been paid to the possibilities of using different selectivity mechanisms to minimize radiation thermal losses, which are the main ones at high operating temperature. In this paper we present a duct volumetric receiver model and its results, which allow the evaluation of different selectivity strategies such as: conventional {epsilon}/{alpha}, geometry, frontal absorption and diffuse/specular reflection. We propose a new concept of selective volumetric receivers based on a solar-specular/infrared-diffuse radiative behaviour and evaluate its potential for efficiency improvement. In recent work on volumetric receivers based on simplified models, it has been concluded that the duct volumetric receiver is inherently unstable when working with high solar flux. We didn't find any unstable receiver behaviour even at very high solar fluxes, and conclude that a substantial potential for efficiency improvement exists if selectivity mechanisms are properly combined. (author)

  15. Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Nankivil, Derek; Shen, Liangbo; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Viet, Du Tran; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Current-generation software for rendering volumetric OCT data sets based on ray casting results in volume visualizations with indistinct tissue features and sub-optimal depth perception. Recent developments in hand-held and microscope-integrated intrasurgical OCT designed for real-time volumetric imaging motivate development of rendering algorithms which are both visually appealing and fast enough to support real time rendering, potentially from multiple viewpoints for stereoscopic visualization. We report on an enhanced, real time, integrated volumetric rendering pipeline which incorporates high performance volumetric median and Gaussian filtering, boundary and feature enhancement, depth encoding, and lighting into a ray casting volume rendering model. We demonstrate this improved model implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU) hardware for real-time volumetric rendering of OCT data during tissue phantom and live human surgical imaging. We show that this rendering produces enhanced 3D visualizations of pathology and intraoperative maneuvers compared to standard ray casting.

  16. [Colonic gallstone ileus: a rare cause of colonic obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazine, Khalid; Barsotti, Pierre; Elbouhaddouti, Hicham; Taleb, Khalid Ait

    2017-01-01

    Bile ileus with migration of the gallstone into the colon through cholecystocolonic fistula is rare. The diagnosis is difficult and often late. We here report the case of a 89-year old patient with a history of sigmoid diverticular disease presenting with colonic obstruction associated with bile ileus caused by migration of a large gallstone through cholecystocolonic fistula. Abdominal CT scan allowed the diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical extraction of the gallstone with sigmoidotomy followed by sigmoidostomy with subsequent recovery of the digestive continuity. The cholecystocolonic fistula wasn't identified.

  17. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, Cécile J; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2015-05-01

    In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional images. This study aimed to investigate and compare knowledge and skills used for interpretation of volumetric versus 2D images. Twenty radiology clerks were asked to think out loud while reading four or five volumetric computed tomography (CT) images in stack mode and four or five 2D CT images. Cases were presented in a digital testing program allowing stack viewing of volumetric data sets and changing views and window settings. Thoughts verbalized by the participants were registered and coded by a framework of knowledge and skills concerning three components: perception, analysis, and synthesis. The components were subdivided into 16 discrete knowledge and skill elements. A within-subject analysis was performed to compare cognitive processes during volumetric image readings versus 2D cross-sectional image readings. Most utterances contained knowledge and skills concerning perception (46%). A smaller part involved synthesis (31%) and analysis (23%). More utterances regarded perception in volumetric image interpretation than in 2D image interpretation (Median 48% vs 35%; z = -3.9; P Cognitive processes in volumetric and 2D cross-sectional image interpretation differ substantially. Volumetric image interpretation draws predominantly on perceptual processes, whereas 2D image interpretation is mainly characterized by synthesis. The results encourage the use of volumetric images for teaching and testing perceptual skills. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RARE CASE OF COLONIC METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is the second most common type of cancer in females and the third in males worldwide. The most common sites of colon cancer metastasis are the regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, bone and brain. In this case report, an extremely rare case of colon adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the philtrum with extensive peritoneal and bowel involvement is presented. A 44 year old male presented with a change in bowel habits, melena and weight loss . Diagnosed to have carcinoma rectum underwent Abdominoperenial resection (APR two y ears back. Biopsies were consistent with the diagnosis of invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Now presented with swelling over philtrum . Fine needle aspiration (FNAC was done suggestive of adenocarcinoma. This case presented for its uncommon presentation.

  19. Automatic Segmentation of Colon in 3D CT Images and Removal of Opacified Fluid Using Cascade Feed Forward Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gayathri Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Colon segmentation is an essential step in the development of computer-aided diagnosis systems based on computed tomography (CT images. The requirement for the detection of the polyps which lie on the walls of the colon is much needed in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Methods. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic colon segmentation algorithm from abdominal slices consisting of colons, partial volume effect, bowels, and lungs. The challenge lies in determining the exact colon enhanced with partial volume effect of the slice. In this work, adaptive thresholding technique is proposed for the segmentation of air packets, machine learning based cascade feed forward neural network enhanced with boundary detection algorithms are used which differentiate the segments of the lung and the fluids which are sediment at the side wall of colon and by rejecting bowels based on the slice difference removal method. The proposed neural network method is trained with Bayesian regulation algorithm to determine the partial volume effect. Results. Experiment was conducted on CT database images which results in 98% accuracy and minimal error rate. Conclusions. The main contribution of this work is the exploitation of neural network algorithm for removal of opacified fluid to attain desired colon segmentation result.

  20. "I Climbed the Great Wall"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  1. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim E Cutler

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the

  2. Medullary carcinoma of the colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Grauslund, Morten; Glenthøj, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the colon is a rare variant of colorectal cancer claimed to have a more favorable prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. The histopathologic appearance may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic...... differences in CK20 (p = 0.005) expression and in the rate of BRAF mutations (p = 0.0035). In conclusion, medullary carcinomas of the colon are difficult to discriminate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma even with the help of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. This raises the question whether...

  3. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  4. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008303 MicroRNA expression profiling in hydrox-ycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line by microarray.TONG Jinlu(童锦禄), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Renji Hosp, Med Sch, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai Instit Dig Dis, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Dig 2008;28(4):246-249.Objective To explore the role of a novel regulatory molecule-microRNA in the hydroxycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line SW1116/HCPTin order to provide a new reversal target for multidrug resistance.

  5. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett's neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fre; Faber, Dirk J; de Bruin, Daniel M; Weusten, Bas L; Meijer, Sybren L; Bergman, Jacques J; Curvers, Wouter L; van Leeuwen, Ton G

    2017-08-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is difficult to detect. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) incorporates optical coherence tomography, providing a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers. The attenuation coefficient (μVLE) quantifies decay of detected backscattered light versus depth, and could potentially improve BE neoplasia detection. The aim is to investigate feasibility of μVLE for identification of early BE neoplasia. In vivo and ex vivo VLE scans with histological correlation from BE patients ± neoplasia were used. Quantification by μVLE was performed manually on areas of interest (AoIs) to differentiate neoplasia from nondysplastic (ND)BE. From ex vivo VLE scans from 16 patients (13 with neoplasia), 68 AoIs were analyzed. Median μVLE values (mm−1) were 3.7 [2.1 to 4.4 interquartile range (IQR)] for NDBE and 4.0 (2.5 to 4.9 IQR) for neoplasia, not statistically different (p=0.82). Fourteen in vivo scans were used: nine from neoplastic and five from NDBE patients. Median μVLE values were 1.8 (1.5 to 2.6 IQR) for NDBE and 2.1 (1.9 to 2.6 IQR) for neoplasia, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no significant difference in μVLE values in VLE scans from early neoplasia versus NDBE. Future studies with a larger sample size should explore other quantitative methods for detection of neoplasia during BE surveillance.

  6. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  7. Gastric Duplication: A Rare Cause of Massive Lower Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage, Chest Wall Mass, and Enterocutaneous Fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Emeka B. Kesieme; Dongo, Andrew E; Osime, Clement O.; Olomu, Sylvia C.; Awe, Oluwafemi O.; Gerald I Eze; Sylvester U. Eluehike

    2012-01-01

    Gastric duplications are uncommon developmental abnormality reported to present with different clinical scenarios. We present a 2-1/2-year-old Nigerian female who started having intermittent massive lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage at 5 months of age. She subsequently developed a lower chest wall mass and enterocutaneous fistula. She was found to have gastric duplication with fistulous communication with the descending colon, spleen, and lower chest wall. To the best of our knowledge, this...

  8. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  9. Volumetric Spectroscopic Imaging of Glioblastoma Multiforme Radiation Treatment Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N. Andres [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Maudsley, Andrew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Gupta, Rakesh K. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Ishkanian, Fazilat; Huang, Kris [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Walker, Gail R. [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core Resource, Sylvester Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Padgett, Kyle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Roy, Bhaswati [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Panoff, Joseph; Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Stoyanova, Radka, E-mail: RStoyanova@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) are used almost exclusively in radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), despite their well-recognized limitations. MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can identify biochemical patterns associated with normal brain and tumor, predominantly by observation of choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) distributions. In this study, volumetric 3-dimensional MRSI was used to map these compounds over a wide region of the brain and to evaluate metabolite-defined treatment targets (metabolic tumor volumes [MTV]). Methods and Materials: Volumetric MRSI with effective voxel size of ∼1.0 mL and standard clinical MR images were obtained from 19 GBM patients. Gross tumor volumes and edema were manually outlined, and clinical target volumes (CTVs) receiving 46 and 60 Gy were defined (CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}, respectively). MTV{sub Cho} and MTV{sub NAA} were constructed based on volumes with high Cho and low NAA relative to values estimated from normal-appearing tissue. Results: The MRSI coverage of the brain was between 70% and 76%. The MTV{sub NAA} were almost entirely contained within the edema, and the correlation between the 2 volumes was significant (r=0.68, P=.001). In contrast, a considerable fraction of MTV{sub Cho} was outside of the edema (median, 33%) and for some patients it was also outside of the CTV{sub 46} and CTV{sub 60}. These untreated volumes were greater than 10% for 7 patients (37%) in the study, and on average more than one-third (34.3%) of the MTV{sub Cho} for these patients were outside of CTV{sub 60}. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of whole-brain MRSI for radiation therapy planning of GBM and revealed that areas of metabolically active tumor are not covered by standard RT volumes. The described integration of MTV into the RT system will pave the way to future clinical trials investigating outcomes in patients treated based on

  10. Volumetric capnography for the evaluation of chronic airways diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronez L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Liliani de Fátima Veronez,1 Monica Corso Pereira,2 Silvia Maria Doria da Silva,2 Luisa Affi Barcaui,2 Eduardo Mello De Capitani,2 Marcos Mello Moreira,2 Ilma Aparecida Paschoalz2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Votuporanga (Educational Foundation of Votuporanga, Votuporanga, 2Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, BrazilBackground: Obstructive lung diseases of different etiologies present with progressive peripheral airway involvement. The peripheral airways, known as the silent lung zone, are not adequately evaluated with conventional function tests. The principle of gas washout has been used to detect pulmonary ventilation inhomogeneity and to estimate the location of the underlying disease process. Volumetric capnography (VC analyzes the pattern of CO2 elimination as a function of expired volume.Objective: To measure normalized phase 3 slopes with VC in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCB and in bronchitic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in order to compare the slopes obtained for the groups.Methods: NCB and severe COPD were enrolled sequentially from an outpatient clinic (Hospital of the State University of Campinas. A control group was established for the NCB group, paired by sex and age. All subjects performed spirometry, VC, and the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT. Two comparisons were made: NCB group versus its control group, and NCB group versus COPD group. The project was approved by the ethical committee of the institution. Statistical tests used were Wilcoxon or Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered to be a statistically significant difference.Results: Concerning the NCB group (N=20 versus the control group (N=20, significant differences were found in body mass index and in several functional variables (spirometric, VC, 6MWT with worse results observed in the NCB group. In the comparison between

  11. Widespread Volumetric Brain Changes following Tooth Loss in Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Friedel, Miriam; Lerch, Jason P.; Moayedi, Massieh; Davis, Karen D.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Tooth loss is associated with altered sensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions. These changes vary highly in the population and are accompanied by structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating these functions. It is unclear to what extent this variability in behavior and function is caused by genetic and/or environmental determinants and which brain regions undergo structural plasticity that mediates these changes. Thus, the overall goal of our research program is to identify genetic variants that control structural and functional plasticity following tooth loss. As a step toward this goal, here our aim was to determine whether structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) is sensitive to detect quantifiable volumetric differences in the brains of mice of different genetic background receiving tooth extraction or sham operation. We used 67 adult female mice of 7 strains, comprising the A/J (A) and C57BL/6J (B) strains and a randomly selected sample of 5 of the 23 AXB-BXA strains (AXB1, AXB4, AXB24, BXA14, BXA24) that were produced from the A and B parental mice by recombinations and inbreeding. This panel of 25 inbred strains of genetically diverse inbred strains of mice is used for mapping chromosomal intervals throughout the genome that harbor candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variance of any trait under study. Under general anesthesia, 39 mice received extraction of 3 right maxillary molar teeth and 28 mice received sham operation. On post-extraction day 21, post-mortem whole-brain high-resolution sMRI was used to quantify the volume of 160 brain regions. Compared to sham operation, tooth extraction was associated with a significantly reduced regional and voxel-wise volumes of cortical brain regions involved in processing somatosensory, motor, cognitive and emotional functions, and increased volumes in subcortical sensorimotor and temporal limbic forebrain regions including the amygdala. Additionally, comparison of the 10 BXA14

  12. Hepatosplenic volumetric assessment at MDCT for staging liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Malecki, Kyle; Hunt, Oliver F; Beaumont, Claire; Kloke, John; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Lubner, Meghan G

    2017-07-01

    To investigate hepatosplenic volumetry at MDCT for non-invasive prediction of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatosplenic volume analysis in 624 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 311 M/313 F) at MDCT was performed using dedicated software and compared against pathological fibrosis stage (F0 = 374; F1 = 48; F2 = 40; F3 = 65; F4 = 97). The liver segmental volume ratio (LSVR) was defined by Couinaud segments I-III over segments IV-VIII. All pre-cirrhotic fibrosis stages (METAVIR F1-F3) were based on liver biopsy within 1 year of MDCT. LSVR and total splenic volumes increased with stage of fibrosis, with mean(±SD) values of: F0: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 215.1 ± 88.5 mm(3); F1: 0.25 ± 0.08 and 294.8 ± 153.4 mm(3); F2: 0.331 ± 0.12 and 291.6 ± 197.1 mm(3); F3: 0.39 ± 0.15 and 509.6 ± 402.6 mm(3); F4: 0.56 ± 0.30 and 790.7 ± 450.3 mm(3), respectively. Total hepatic volumes showed poor discrimination (F0: 1674 ± 320 mm(3); F4: 1631 ± 691 mm(3)). For discriminating advanced fibrosis (≥F3), the ROC AUC values for LSVR, total liver volume, splenic volume and LSVR/spleen combined were 0.863, 0.506, 0.890 and 0.947, respectively. Relative changes in segmental liver volumes and total splenic volume allow for non-invasive staging of hepatic fibrosis, whereas total liver volume is a poor predictor. Unlike liver biopsy or elastography, these CT volumetric biomarkers can be obtained retrospectively on routine scans obtained for other indications. • Regional changes in hepatic volume (LSVR) correlate well with degree of fibrosis. • Total liver volume is a very poor predictor of underlying fibrosis. • Total splenic volume is associated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis. • Hepatosplenic volume assessment is comparable to elastography for staging fibrosis. • Unlike elastography, volumetric analysis can be performed retrospectively.

  13. Volumetric and MGMT parameters in glioblastoma patients: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliadis Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study several tumor-related volumes were assessed by means of a computer-based application and a survival analysis was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre- and postoperative volumetric data in patients harboring glioblastomas. In addition, MGMT (O6-methylguanine methyltransferase related parameters were compared with those of volumetry in order to observe possible relevance of this molecule in tumor development. Methods We prospectively analyzed 65 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GBM who underwent radiotherapy with concomitant adjuvant temozolomide. For the purpose of volumetry T1 and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR sequences were used, acquired both pre- and postoperatively (pre-radiochemotherapy. The volumes measured on preoperative MR images were necrosis, enhancing tumor and edema (including the tumor and on postoperative ones, net-enhancing tumor. Age, sex, performance status (PS and type of operation were also included in the multivariate analysis. MGMT was assessed for promoter methylation with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA, for RNA expression with real time PCR, and for protein expression with immunohistochemistry in a total of 44 cases with available histologic material. Results In the multivariate analysis a negative impact was shown for pre-radiochemotherapy net-enhancing tumor on the overall survival (OS (p = 0.023 and for preoperative necrosis on progression-free survival (PFS (p = 0.030. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis confirmed the importance of PS in PFS and OS of patients. MGMT promoter methylation was observed in 13/23 (43.5% evaluable tumors; complete methylation was observed in 3/13 methylated tumors only. High rate of MGMT protein positivity (> 20% positive neoplastic nuclei was inversely associated with pre-operative tumor necrosis (p = 0.021. Conclusions Our findings implicate that volumetric parameters may have a significant role in

  14. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... factors, screening tests, and treatments. There are also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & ... Cancer: Don't Ignore Your Symptoms Play Play Personal Story: Lex Gilbert Play Play Personal Story: Karen ...

  15. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

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    Full Text Available ... Contrast Barium Enema(DCBE) Play Play Colon Cancer Treatments Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: What You Need ... Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  16. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  17. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

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    Full Text Available ... FOBT/FIT Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Play Play Colon Cancer Screening Tests: Double ... Select A Hope Lodge Close Please share your thoughts about your cancer.org website experience. If you ...

  18. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A Resource ... Cancer About Colorectal Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment ...

  19. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contrast Barium Enema(DCBE) Play Play Colon Cancer Treatments Play Play Colon Cancer Surgery: What You Need ... Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  20. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A Resource ... Cancer About Colorectal Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment ...

  1. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  2. Vaginal agenesis: Experience with sigmoid colon neovaginoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Jiledar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of this study is to report our experience with sigmoid vaginoplasty in adolescents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children with vaginal atresia and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. The sigmoid segment was used for vaginoplasty in all the cases. Results: Eight children were studied over a period of 7 years. The postoperative complications were ileus in 2, mucosal prolapse of the neovagina in 1, and minor wound infection in 1 patient. Seven patients are on regular follow-up. All the neovaginas were patent and functional. One patient had unacceptable perineal appearance, that is, badly scarred perineum as a late complication. None of the patients had vaginal stenosis or excessive mucus discharge, during follow-up visits. Out of the 7 patients, 2 patients are sexually active and satisfied. Conclusions: Sigmoid vaginoplasty is a safe and acceptable procedure for vaginal agenesis with good cosmetic results and acceptable complications rate. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty is the treatment of choice because of its large lumen, thick walls resistant to trauma, adequate secretion allowing lubrication, not necessitating prolonged dilatation, and short recovery time.

  3. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidija; Klampfer

    2014-01-01

    Calcitriol, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3), the most active form of vitamin D, is a pleotropic hormone with a wide range of biological activities. Due to its ability to regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, 1,25D3 plays a major role in bone health. In addition, 1,25D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor and thereby regulates the expression of a number of genes which control growth, differentiation and survival of cancer cells. In agreement, the levels of vitamin D3 appear to be an essential determinant for the development and progression of colon cancer and supplementation with vitamin D3 is effective in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in animal models. Vitamin D3 has been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%, which is consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. Several studies confirmed that increasing vitamin D3 lowers colon cancer incidence, reduces polyp recurrence, and that sufficient levels of vitamin D3 are associated with better overall survival of colon cancer patients. Vitamin D regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by modulating the oncogenic Wnt signaling pathway and by inhibiting tumor-promoting inflammation. Both activities contribute to the ability of 1,25D3 to prevent the development and progression of colon cancer.

  4. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010344 Serotonin transporter expression in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.SUN Chengcheng(孙程程),et al. Dept Gastroenterol,Peking Univ 1st Hosp,Beijing 100034.World Chin J Digestol 2010;18(14):1428-33. Objective To determine whether colonic serotonin transporter (SERT) expression is altered in rats with visceral hypersensitivity and to explore the

  5. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting for Palliation of Patients with Malignant Colonic Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisner, Søren; González-Huix, Ferran; Vandervoort, Jo G;

    2012-01-01

    Background. Self-expanding metal stents can alleviate malignant colonic obstruction in incurable patients and avoid palliative stoma surgery. Objective. Evaluate stent effectiveness and safety on palliation of patients with malignant colorectal strictures. Design. Two prospective, one Spanish...... and one global, multicenter studies. Settings. 39 centers (22 academic, 17 community hospitals) from 13 countries. Patients. A total of 257 patients were enrolled, and 255 patients were treated with a WallFlex uncovered enteral colonic stent. Follow-up was up to 12 months or until death or retreatment...

  6. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Review and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon capsule endoscopy utilizing PillCam COLON 2 capsule allows for visualization potentially of the entire colon and is currently approved for patients who cannot withstand the rigors of traditional optical colonoscopy (OC and associated sedation as well as those that had an OC that was incomplete for technical reasons other than a poor preparation. We will then describe the prior experience and current status of colon capsule endoscopy.

  7. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  8. Determination of fibrin glue with antibiotics on collagen production in colon anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fibrin glue is used as a matrix for local application of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether application of fibrin glue in combination with antibiotics can strengthen collagen production, prevent dehiscence of colon anastomoses due to infection, and reduce frequency of mortality and morbidity comparing to the control group and the group with fibrin glue application. Methods. The adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in the experiment. The group 1 was the control one (after partial colon resection, colonic anastomoses performed were not treated, while to the group 2 and the group 3 were applied fibrin glue and fibrin glue with antibiotics (clindamycin and ceftriaxon on the site of anastomoses, respectively. Quality of colonic anastomoses were estimated by means of determination of collagen (L-hydroxyproline amount in the collon wall with anastomoses and histological analysis of this colon segment using light and electronic microscope on the days 5, 7 and 13 postoperatively. Results. The highest morbidity rate was registered in the group 1 (30%, then in the group 2 (13.3% and the lowest one in the group 3 (3.33%; p < 0,05 vs group 1. Mortality rate was significantly higher in the group 1 than in the group 3 (20% and 0%, respectively; p < 0,05. In the postoperative course, the highest concentrations of collagen in the colon wall on the site of anastomoses, which was confirmed by both light and electronic microscopy, were found in the group 3. Conclusion. The application of fibrin glue with antibiotics on colon anastomoses reduces the number of dehiscence, provides good mechanical protection and shorten the time of anastomoses healing.

  9. Are sugarcane leaf-detritus well colonized by aquatic macroinvertebrates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Aparecida Leite-Rossi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to compare the kinetics of decomposition and the colonization of leaf litter of two plant species, the native Talauma ovata (pinha-do-brejo and the exotic Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane, by aquatic macroinvertebrates; METHODS: From each substrate, three recipients of colonization were taken from a stream, and the specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level on days 7, 15, 34, 44, 61 and 75. The debris was weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment and determined their cell wall fractions; RESULTS: The coefficients of mineralization indicated higher velocity decay of organic matter refractory in T. ovata. There was no difference in taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates, between the two substrates, but the community exhibited distinct functional feeding groups in the peak of colonization, with a greater number of shredders in T. ovata. The successive states of decomposition of the two plant detritus showed distinct macroinvertebrate densities; CONCLUSIONS: The amount and state of the plant biomass were important factors influencing the density and diversity of the macroinvertebrate fauna throughout the process of organic decomposition.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLUMETRIC STRAINS IN POROUS MATERIALS IN TERMS OF WATER FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the differential analysis of volumetric strain (DAVS. The method allows measurements of volumetric deformations of capillary-porous materials caused by water-ice phase change. The VSE indicator (volumetric strain effect, which under certain conditions can be interpreted as the minimum degree of phase change of water contained in the material pores, is proposed. The test results (DAVS for three materials with diversified microstructure: clinker brick, calcium-silicate brick and Portland cement mortar were compared with the test results for pore characteristics obtained with the mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  11. Is there a role for the use of volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bois, A H; Kardachi, B; Bartold, P M

    2012-03-01

    Volumetric computed cone beam tomography offers a number of significant advantages over conventional intraoral and extraoral panoramic radiography, as well as computed tomography. To date, periodontal diagnosis has relied heavily on the assessment of both intraoral radiographs and extraoral panoramic radiographs. With emerging technology in radiology there has been considerable interest in the role that volumetric cone beam computed tomography might play in periodontal diagnostics. This narrative reviews the current evidence and considers whether there is a role for volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics.

  12. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  13. Volumetric Analysis of Regional Cerebral Development in Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Shelli R.; Ment, Laura R.; Vohr, Betty; Pajot, Sarah K.; Schneider, Karen C.; Katz, Karol H.; Ebbitt, Timothy B.; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is frequently associated with both neuropathologic and cognitive sequelae. This study examined cortical lobe, subcortical, and lateral ventricle development in association with perinatal variables and cognitive outcome. High-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and quantified using advanced image processing techniques. Seventy-three preterm and 33 term control children ages 7.3-11.4 years were included in the study. Results indicated disproportionately enlarged parietal and frontal gray matter, occipital horn, and ventricular body, as well as reduced temporal and subcortical gray volumes in preterm children compared with control subjects. Birth weight was negatively correlated with parietal and frontal gray, as well as occipital horn volumes. Intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with reduced subcortical gray matter. Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was negatively correlated with subcortical gray matter volumes but not with white matter volumes. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of cognitive function in the preterm group. Preterm birth appears to be associated with disorganized cortical development, possibly involving disrupted synaptic pruning and neural migration. Lower birth weight and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage may increase the risk for neuroanatomic abnormality. PMID:15519112

  14. Volumetric microscale particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianqi; Aramideh, Soroush; Ardekani, Arezoo M.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2016-11-01

    The steady-state flow through refractive-index-matched glass bead microchannels is measured using microscopic particle tracking velocimetry (μPTV). A novel technique is developed to volumetrically reconstruct particles from oversampled two-dimensional microscopic images of fluorescent particles. Fast oversampling of the quasi-steady-state flow field in the lateral direction is realized by a nano-positioning piezo stage synchronized with a fast CMOS camera. Experiments at different Reynolds numbers are carried out for flows through a series of both monodispersed and bidispersed glass bead microchannels with various porosities. The obtained velocity fields at pore-scale (on the order of 10 μm) are compared with direct numerical simulations (DNS) conducted in the exact same geometries reconstructed from micro-CT scans of the glass bead microchannels. The developed experimental method would serve as a new approach for exploring the flow physics at pore-scale in porous media, and also provide benchmark measurements for validation of numerical simulations.

  15. Buoyancy Driven Mixing with Continuous Volumetric Energy Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtor, Adam J.; Jebrail, Farzaneh F.; Dennisen, Nicholas A.; Andrews, Malcolm J.; Gore, Robert A.

    2014-11-01

    An experiment involving a miscible fluid pair is presented which transitioned from a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) stable to RT unstable configuration through continuous volumetric energy deposition (VED) by microwave radiation. Initially a light, low microwave absorbing fluid rested above a heavier, more absorbing fluid. The alignment of the density gradient with gravity made the system stable, and the Atwood number (At) for the initial setup was approximately -0.12. Exposing the fluid pair to microwave radiation preferentially heated the bottom fluid, and caused its density to drop due to thermal expansion. As heating of the bottom fluid continued, the At varied from negative to positive, and after the system passed through the neutral stability point, At = 0, buoyancy driven mixing ensued. Continuous VED caused the At to continue increasing and further drive the mixing process. Successful VED mixing required careful design of the fluid pair used in the experiment. Therefore, fluid selection is discussed, along with challenges and limitations of data collection using the experimental microwave facility. Experimental and model predictions of the neutral stability point, and onset of buoyancy driven mixing, are compared, and differences with classical, constant At RT driven turbulence are discussed.

  16. FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Bahr, Detlef; Bezecny, Daniel; Homann, Dennis; Oltmann, Klaas; Oltmann, Krischan; Guill, Christian; Rieper, Elisabeth; Ardey, Goetz

    2002-05-01

    The FELIX 3D display belongs to the class of volumetric displays using the swept volume technique. It is designed to display images created by standard CAD applications, which can be easily imported and interactively transformed in real-time by the FELIX control software. The images are drawn on a spinning screen by acousto-optic, galvanometric or polygon mirror deflection units with integrated lasers and a color mixer. The modular design of the display enables the user to operate with several equal or different projection units in parallel and to use appropriate screens for the specific purpose. The FELIX 3D display is a compact, light, extensible and easy to transport system. It mainly consists of inexpensive standard, off-the-shelf components for an easy implementation. This setup makes it a powerful and flexible tool to keep track with the rapid technological progress of today. Potential applications include imaging in the fields of entertainment, air traffic control, medical imaging, computer aided design as well as scientific data visualization.

  17. Toward a Philosophy and Theory of Volumetric Nonthermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal processes for food preservation have been under intensive investigation for about the past quarter century, with varying degrees of success. We focus this discussion on two volumetrically acting nonthermal processes, high pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric fields (PEF), with emphasis on scientific understanding of each, and the research questions that need to be addressed for each to be more successful in the future. We discuss the character or "philosophy" of food preservation, with a question about the nature of the kill step(s), and the sensing challenges that need to be addressed. For HPP, key questions and needs center around whether its nonthermal effectiveness can be increased by increased pressures or pulsing, the theoretical treatment of rates of reaction as influenced by pressure, the assumption of uniform pressure distribution, and the need for (and difficulties involved in) in-situ measurement. For PEF, the questions include the rationale for pulsing, difficulties involved in continuous flow treatment chambers, the difference between electroporation theory and experimental observations, and the difficulties involved in in-situ measurement and monitoring of electric field distribution.

  18. Optical artefact characterization and correction in volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Hui, Cheukkai; Archambault, Louis; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to characterize the optical artefacts affecting measurement accuracy in a volumetric liquid scintillator detector, and (2) to develop methods to correct for these artefacts. The optical artefacts addressed were photon scattering, refraction, camera perspective, vignetting, lens distortion, the lens point spread function, stray radiation, and noise in the camera. These artefacts were evaluated by theoretical and experimental means, and specific correction strategies were developed for each artefact. The effectiveness of the correction methods was evaluated by comparing raw and corrected images of the scintillation light from proton pencil beams against validated Monte Carlo calculations. Blurring due to the lens and refraction at the scintillator tank-air interface were found to have the largest effect on the measured light distribution, and lens aberrations and vignetting were important primarily at the image edges. Photon scatter in the scintillator was not found to be a significant source of artefacts. The correction methods effectively mitigated the artefacts, increasing the average gamma analysis pass rate from 66% to 98% for gamma criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement. We conclude that optical artefacts cause clinically meaningful errors in the measured light distribution, and we have demonstrated effective strategies for correcting these optical artefacts.

  19. An MRI-based semiautomated volumetric quantification of hip osteonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizos, K.N.; Siafakas, M.S.; Karachalios, T.S. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Univ. of Thessalia, Larissa (Greece); Fotiadis, D.I. [Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Soucacos, P.N. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    Objective: To objectively and precisely define the spatial distribution of osteonecrosis and to investigate the influence of various factors including etiology. Design: A volumetric method is presented to describe the size and spatial distribution of necrotic lesions of the femoral head, using MRI scans. The technique is based on the definition of an equivalent sphere model for the femoral head. Patients: The gender, age, number of hips involved, disease duration, pain intensity, limping disability and etiology were correlated with the distribution of the pathologic bone. Seventy-nine patients with 122 hips affected by osteonecrosis were evaluated. Results: The lesion size ranged from 7% to 73% of the sphere equivalent. The lateral octants presented considerable variability, ranging from wide lateral lesions extending beyond the lip of the acetabulum, to narrow medial lesions, leaving a lateral supporting pillar of intact bone. Patients with sickle cell disease and steroid administration presented the largest lesions. The extent of the posterior superior medial octant involvement correlated with the symptom intensity, a younger age and male gender. Conclusion: The methodology presented here has proven a reliable and straightforward imaging tool for precise assessment of necrotic lesions. It also enables us to target accurately the drilling and grafting procedures. (orig.)

  20. Illustration-inspired depth enhanced volumetric medical visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svakhine, Nikolai A; Ebert, David S; Andrews, William M

    2009-01-01

    Volume illustration can be used to provide insight into source data from CT/MRI scanners in much the same way as medical illustration depicts the important details of anatomical structures. As such, proven techniques used in medical illustration should be transferable to volume illustration, providing scientists with new tools to visualize their data. In recent years, a number of techniques have been developed to enhance the rendering pipeline and create illustrative effects similar to the ones found in medical textbooks and surgery manuals. Such effects usually highlight important features of the subject while subjugating its context and providing depth cues for correct perception. Inspired by traditional visual and line-drawing techniques found in medical illustration, we have developed a collection of fast algorithms for more effective emphasis/de-emphasis of data as well as conveyance of spatial relationships. Our techniques utilize effective outlining techniques and selective depth enhancement to provide perceptual cues of object importance as well as spatial relationships in volumetric datasets. Moreover, we have used illustration principles to effectively combine and adapt basic techniques so that they work together to provide consistent visual information and a uniform style.

  1. Connectivity network measures predict volumetric atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Talia M; Jahanshad, Neda; Toga, Arthur W; Bernstein, Matt A; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cortical atrophy and disrupted anatomic connectivity, and leads to abnormal interactions between neural systems. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and graph theory can be used to evaluate major brain networks and detect signs of a breakdown in network connectivity. In a longitudinal study using both DWI and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we assessed baseline white-matter connectivity patterns in 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mean age 71.8 ± 7.5 years, 18 males and 12 females) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Using both standard MRI-based cortical parcellations and whole-brain tractography, we computed baseline connectivity maps from which we calculated global "small-world" architecture measures, including mean clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. We evaluated whether these baseline network measures predicted future volumetric brain atrophy in MCI subjects, who are at risk for developing AD, as determined by 3-dimensional Jacobian "expansion factor maps" between baseline and 6-month follow-up anatomic scans. This study suggests that DWI-based network measures may be a novel predictor of AD progression.

  2. Femoral head osteonecrosis: Volumetric MRI assessment and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassounas, Athanasios E. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, GR 711 10 (Greece); Fotiadis, Dimitrios I. [Unit of Medical Technology and Intelligent Information Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Ioannina and Biomedical Research Institute-FORTH, GR 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Malizos, Konstantinos N. [Orthopaedic Department, Medical School, University of Thessalia, GR 412 22 Larissa (Greece)]. E-mail: kmalizos@otenet.gr

    2007-07-15

    Effective treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis (FHON) requires early diagnosis and accurate assessment of the disease severity. The ability to predict in the early stages the risk of collapse is important for selecting a joint salvage procedure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts in relation to preoperative MR imaging volumetry. We studied 58 patients (87 hips) with FHON. A semi-automated octant-based lesion measurement method, previously described, was performed on the T1-w MR images. The mean time of postoperative follow-up was 7.8 years. Sixty-three hips were successful and 24 failed and converted to total hip arthroplasty within a period of 2-4 years after the initial operation. The rate of failures for hips of male patients was higher than in female patients. The mean lesion size was 28% of the sphere equivalent of the femoral head, 24 {+-} 12% for the successful hips and 37 {+-} 9% for the failed (p < 0.001). The most affected octants were antero-supero-medial (58 {+-} 26%) and postero-supero-medial (54 {+-} 31%). All but postero-infero-medial and postero-infero-lateral octants, showed statistically significant differences in the lesion size between patients with successful and failed hips. In conclusion, the volumetric analysis of preoperative MRI provides useful information with regard to a successful outcome in patients treated with vascularized fibular grafts.

  3. Three-dimensional volumetric quantification of fat loss following cryolipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibyan, Lilit; Sipprell, William H; Jalian, H Ray; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew; Anderson, R Rox

    2014-02-01

    Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive and well-tolerated treatment for reduction of localized subcutaneous fat. Although several studies demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this procedure, volumetric fat reduction from this treatment has not been quantified. This prospective study investigated the change in volume of fat after cryolipolysis treatment using three-dimensional (3D) photography. A prospective study of subjects treated with cryolipolysis on the flank (love handle) was performed at Massachusetts General Hospital. Volume measurements were performed with a Canfield Scientific Vectra three-dimensional camera and software to evaluate the amount of post procedure volume change. Clinical outcomes were assessed with caliper measurements, subject surveys, and blinded physician assessment of photographs. Eleven subjects were enrolled in this study. Each subject underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to one flank. The untreated flank served as an internal control. The follow-up time after treatment was 2 months. The mean amount of calculated absolute fat volume loss using 3D photography from baseline to 2 months follow-up visit was 56.2 ± 25.6 from the treatment site and 16.6 ± 17.6 cc from the control (P fat removal methodology that on average leads to 39.6 cc of fat loss of the treated flank at 2 months after a single treatment cycle. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D

    2015-04-30

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual hull reconstruction, resulting in a first 3D approximation of the target, followed by a region-of-interest estimation, tasked with identifying features of interest, which in turn are used to locally refine the voxel grid and extract a higher-resolution surface representation for those regions. This approach is illustrated for the reconstruction of avatars for use in tele-immersion environments, where head and hand regions are of higher interest. To allow reproducability and direct comparison a publicly available data set for human visual hull reconstruction is used. This paper shows that region-of-interest reconstruction of the target is faster and visually comparable to higher resolution focused visual hull reconstructions. This approach reduces the amount of data generated through the reconstruction, allowing faster post processing, as rendering or networking of the surface voxels. Reconstruction speeds support smooth interactions between the avatar and the virtual environment, while the improved resolution of its facial region and hands creates a higher-degree of immersion and potentially impacts the perception of body language, facial expressions and eye-to-eye contact. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  6. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  7. Where are the Walls?

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Keith A; Peterson, Adam J

    2012-01-01

    The reported spatial variation in the fine-structure constant at high redshift, if physical, could be due to the presence of dilatonic domains, and one or more domain walls inside our horizon. An absorption spectrum of an object in a different domain from our own would be characterized by a different value of alpha. We show that while a single wall solution is statically comparable to a dipole fit, and is a big improvement over a weighted mean (despite adding 3 parameters), a two-wall solution is a far better fit (despite adding 3 parameters over the single wall solution). We derive a simple model accounting for the two-domain wall solution. The goodness of these fits is however dependent on the extra random error which was argued to account for the large scatter in most of the data. When this error is omitted, all the above solutions are poor fits to the data. When included, the solutions that exhibit a spatial dependence agree with the data much more significantly than the Standard Model; however, the Stand...

  8. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  9. Mobile Right Colon Syndrome: Obscure Cause of Lower Right Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bains

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context The mobile right colon is a developmental aberration. During the development and rotation of the gut, the cecum and ascending colon are the last to take their final position and fuse with the posterior abdominal wall. Evidence Acquisition Though a mobile right colon may be present in 20% - 30% of the population but causes symptoms in very few. The patients present intermittent colicky right lower quadrant abdominal pain with associated abdominal distention and symptomatic relief after passing flatus or having a bowel movement. Results Non fixation along with heavy load of the right colon drags the cecum and ascending colon down and leads to stasis, obstruction or volvulus. The diagnosis of this entity is very difficult as radiological studies are not conclusive. Conclusions The mobile colon syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain from obscure causes. A proper detailed history is a must to consider this as differential diagnosis. Laparoscopy offers diagnostic and therapeutic treatment. Colopexy provides dramatic relief in carefully selected patients.

  10. Characterization of the motor inhibitory role of colonic mucosa under chemical stimulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cano, Francisco E; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2014-04-01

    The main roles of the colonic mucosa are the absorption of water and electrolytes and the barrier function that preserves the integrity of the colonic wall. The mediators and mechanisms to accomplish these functions are under continuous investigation, but little attention has been paid to a possible control of colonic motility by the mucosa that would fine tune the relationship between absorption and motility. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of the mucosa in the control of induced colonic contractility. Young ICR-CD1 mice (3-5 mo old) were studied. Isometric tension transducers were used to record contractility in full-thickness (FT) and mucosa-free (MF) strips from proximal colon. Proximal FT strips showed lower KCl- and bethanechol-induced responses than MF strips. The difference was not due to mechanical artefacts since the contractile response of FT strips to electrical field stimulation was around 50% lower than in MF. The inhibitory effects of the mucosa on FT strips were mimicked by immersion of separate strips of mucosa in the organ bath but not by addition of mucosal extract, suggesting gaseous molecules as mediators of this effect. Incubation of MF strips with synthase inhibitors of nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide abolished the inhibition caused by addition of the mucosal strip, indicating that mucosal gasotransmitters are the mediators of these effects. This suggests that the control of colonic motility exerted by the mucosa could fine tune the balance between transit and absorption.

  11. Congenital pouch colon and segmental dilatation of the colon: A report of two unusual cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Puri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes two unusual cases of anorectal malformation. The first had a type III congenital pouch colon with a colovesical fistula. In the other very similar case, segmental dilatation of the colon was present along with penoscrotal hypospadias and, distally, a length of normal colon ending in a rectourethral fistula. In both patients, the appendix was short, stubby and a Y-shaped duplication of the normal colon was present just proximal to the dilated segment of colon.

  12. Spatial colonization of microbial cells on the rhizoplane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Xavier; Eickhorst, Thilo; Nunan, Naoise; Kaiser, Christina; Woebken, Dagmar; Schmidt, Hannes

    2017-04-01

    other features of the root (e.g. root cell walls). For all the images analysed, we found that microbial cell distributions were not distributed randomly and strongly associated to root cell walls. The spatial organization of root cell walls could be used to simulate microbial cell distribution that have similar spatial properties compared to the microscopic data. Root cell walls thus appear as a strong determinant for microbial cell colonization of the rhizoplane.

  13. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  14. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  15. On the Uncertain Future of the Volumetric 3D Display Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.

    2017-06-01

    Volumetric displays permit electronically processed images to be depicted within a transparent physical volume and enable a range of cues to depth to be inherently associated with image content. Further, images can be viewed directly by multiple simultaneous observers who are able to change vantage positions in a natural way. On the basis of research to date, we assume that the technologies needed to implement useful volumetric displays able to support translucent image formation are available. Consequently, in this paper we review aspects of the volumetric paradigm and identify important issues which have, to date, precluded their successful commercialization. Potentially advantageous characteristics are outlined and demonstrate that significant research is still needed in order to overcome barriers which continue to hamper the effective exploitation of this display modality. Given the recent resurgence of interest in developing commercially viable general purpose volumetric systems, this discussion is of particular relevance.

  16. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  17. Inkjet printing-based volumetric display projecting multiple full-colour 2D patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a method to construct a full-colour volumetric display is presented using a commercially available inkjet printer. Photoreactive luminescence materials are minutely and automatically printed as the volume elements, and volumetric displays are constructed with high resolution using easy-to-fabricate means that exploit inkjet printing technologies. The results experimentally demonstrate the first prototype of an inkjet printing-based volumetric display composed of multiple layers of transparent films that yield a full-colour three-dimensional (3D) image. Moreover, we propose a design algorithm with 3D structures that provide multiple different 2D full-colour patterns when viewed from different directions and experimentally demonstrate prototypes. It is considered that these types of 3D volumetric structures and their fabrication methods based on widely deployed existing printing technologies can be utilised as novel information display devices and systems, including digital signage, media art, entertainment and security.

  18. Effect of consolidation pressure on volumetric composition and stiffness of unidirectional flax fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmood, S.; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Unidirectional flax/polyethylene terephthalate composites are manufactured by filament winding, followed by compression moulding with low and high consolidation pressure, and with variable flax fibre content. The experimental data of volumetric composition and tensile stiffness are analysed with ...

  19. Mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of short fiber-reinforced resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of a short fiber-reinforced resin composite (SFRC) were investigated in this study and compared to both a bulk fill resin composite (BFRC) and conventional glass/ceramic-filled resin composite (CGRC). Fracture toughness, flexural properties, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure of the SFRC, BFRC and CGRC were measured. SFRC had significantly higher fracture toughness than BFRCs and CGRCs. The flexural properties of SFRC were comparable with BFRCs and CGRCs. SFRC showed significantly lower volumetric shrinkage than the other tested resin composites. The depth of cure of the SFRC was similar to BFRCs and higher than CGRCs. The data from this laboratory investigation suggests that SFRC exhibits improvements in fracture toughness, volumetric shrinkage and depth of cure when compared with CGRC, but depth of cure of SFRC was similar to BFRC.

  20. Review of prospects and challenges of eye tracking in volumetric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venjakob, Antje C; Mello-Thoms, Claudia R

    2016-01-01

    While eye tracking research in conventional radiography has flourished over the past decades, the number of eye tracking studies that looked at multislice images lags behind. A possible reason for the lack of studies in this area might be that the eye tracking methodology used in the context of conventional radiography cannot be applied one-on-one to volumetric imaging material. Challenges associated with eye tracking in volumetric imaging are particularly associated with the selection of stimulus material, the detection of events in the eye tracking data, the calculation of meaningful eye tracking parameters, and the reporting of abnormalities. However, all of these challenges can be addressed in the design of the experiment. If this is done, eye tracking studies using volumetric imaging material offer almost unlimited opportunity for perception research and are highly relevant as the number of volumetric images that are acquired and interpreted is rising.

  1. Automatic colonic polyp detection using multi-objective evolutionary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Huang, Adam; Yao, Jianhua; Bitter, Ingmar; Petrick, Nicholas; Summers, Ronald M.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Choi, J. Richard

    2006-03-01

    Colonic polyps appear like elliptical protrusions on the inner wall of the colon. Curvature based features for colonic polyp detection have proved to be successful in several computer-aided diagnostic CT colonography (CTC) systems. Some simple thresholds are set for those features for creating initial polyp candidates, sophisticated classification scheme are then applied on these polyp candidates to reduce false positives. There are two objective functions, the number of missed polyps and false positive rate, that need to be minimized when setting those thresholds. These two objectives conflict and it is usually difficult to optimize them both by a gradient search. In this paper, we utilized a multiobjective evolutionary method, the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), to optimize those thresholds. SPEA2 incorporates the concept of Pareto dominance and applies genetic techniques to evolve individual solutions to the Pareto front. The SPEA2 algorithm was applied to colon CT images from 27 patients each having a prone and a supine scan. There are 40 colonoscopically confirmed polyps resulting in 72 positive detections in CTC reading. The results obtained by SPEA2 were compared with those obtained by our old system, where an appropriate value was set for each of those thresholds by a histogram examination method. If we keep the sensitivity the same as that of our old system, the SPEA2 algorithm reduced false positive rate by 76.4% from average false positive 55.6 to 13.3 per data set. If the false positive rate is kept the same for both systems, SPEA2 increased the sensitivity by 13.1% from 53 to 61 among 72 ground truth detections.

  2. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  3. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  4. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated are therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgia, Nicolini; Antonella, Fogliata; Alessandro, Clivio; Eugenio, Vanetti; Luca, Cozzi

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated are therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (0) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, Dv = 98% [%]= 92.5 +/- 0.9 and 68.5 +/- 3

  5. Planning strategies in volumetric modulated arc therapy for breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In breast radiotherapy with intensity modulation, it is a well established practice to extend the dose fluence outside the limit of the body contour to account for small changes in size and position of the target and the rest of the tissues due to respiration or to possible oedema. A simple approach is not applicable with RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy not being based on a fixed field fluence delivery. In this study, a viable technical strategy to account for this need is presented. RapidArc (RA) plans for six breast cancer patients (three right and three left cases), were optimized (PRO version III) on the original CT data set (O) and on an alternative CT (E) generated with an artificial expansion (and assignment of soft-tissue equivalent HU) of 10 mm of the body in the breast region and of the PTV contours toward the external direction. Final dose calculations for the two set of plans were performed on the same original CT data set O, normalizing the dose prescription (50 Gy) to the target mean. In this way, two treatment plans on the same CT set O for each patient were obtained: the no action plan (OO) and the alternative plan based on an expanded optimization (EO). Fixing MU, these two plans were then recomputed on the expanded CT data set and on an intermediate one (with expansion = 5 mm), to mimic, possible changes in size due to edema during treatment or residual displacements due to breathing not properly controlled. Aim of the study was to quantify the robustness of this planning strategy on dose distributions when either the OO or the EO strategies were adopted. For all the combinations, a DVH analysis of all involved structures is reported. I. The two optimization approaches gave comparable dose distributions on the original CT data set. II. When plans were evaluated on the expanded CTs (mimicking the presence of edema), the EO approach showed improved target coverage if compared to OO: on CT_10 mm, DV = 98% [%] = 92.5 ± 0

  6. Polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V R; Kumria, R

    2001-08-14

    Natural polysaccharides are now extensively used for the development of solid dosage forms for delivery of drug to the colon. The rationale for the development of a polysaccharide based delivery system for colon is the presence of large amounts of polysaccharidases in the human colon as the colon is inhabited by a large number and variety of bacteria which secrete many enzymes e.g. beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, beta-D-xylosidase, dextranase, etc. Various major approaches utilizing polysaccharides for colon-specific delivery are fermentable coating of the drug core, embedding of the drug in biodegradable matrix, formulation of drug-saccharide conjugate (prodrugs). A large number of polysaccharides have already been studied for their potential as colon-specific drug carrier systems, such as chitosan, pectin, chondroitin sulphate, cyclodextrin, dextrans, guar gum, inulin, amylose and locust bean gum. Recent efforts and approaches exploiting these polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery are discussed.

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Tetrachloromethane CCl4 + CHCl3 Trichloromethane (VMSD1212, LB4576_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Determination of ferrous iron in rock and mineral samples by three volumetric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saikkonen, R.J.; Rautiainen, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrous iron was determined by three volumetric methods in 13 in-house reference rock samples and in 31 international geological reference samples. The methods used were Amonette & Scott' s oxidimetric method, Wilson's oxidimetric method and Pratt's method. The results for FeO by these volumetric methods in 13 in-house rock samples were compared to the results obtained in other analytical laboratories in Finland. The results for FeO in the international samples were compared with published da...

  9. FEMUR SHAPE RECOVERY FROM VOLUMETRIC IMAGES USING 3-D DEFORMABLE MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new scheme for femur shape recovery from volumetric images using deformable models was proposed. First, prior 3-D deformable femur models are created as templates using point distribution models technology. Second, active contour models are employed to segment the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric images of the tibial and femoral joints and the deformable models are initialized based on the segmentation results. Finally, the objective function is minimized to give the optimal results constraining the surface of shapes.

  10. Understanding Volumetric and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption Trade-off in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Wang, Timothy C; García-Holley, Paula; Sawelewa, Ruth M; Argueta, Edwin; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Yildirim, Taner; Farha, Omar K

    2017-04-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials that are promising for adsorption-based, on-board storage of hydrogen in fuel-cell vehicles. Volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen capacities are the key factors that determine the size and weight of the MOF-filled tank required to store a certain amount of hydrogen for reasonable driving range. Therefore, they must be optimized so the tank is neither too large nor too heavy. Because the goals of maximizing MOF volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen adsorption loadings individually are incompatible, an in-depth understanding of the trade-off between MOF volumetric and gravimetric loadings is necessary to achieve the best compromise between these properties. Here we study, both experimentally and computationally, the trade-off between volumetric and gravimetric cryo-adsorbed hydrogen deliverable capacity by taking an isoreticular series of highly stable zirconium MOFs, NU-1101, NU-1102, and NU-1103 as a case study. These MOFs were studied under recently proposed operating conditions: 77 K/100 bar →160 K/5 bar. We found the difference between highest and lowest measured deliverable capacity in the MOF series to be ca. 40% gravimetrically, but only ca. 10% volumetrically. From our molecular simulation results, we found hydrogen "monolayer" adsorption to be proportional to the surface area, whereas hydrogen "pore filling" adsorption is proportional to the pore volume. Thus, we found that the higher variability in gravimetric deliverable capacity in contrast to the volumetric capacity, occurs due to the proportional relation between gravimetric surface area and pore volume in the NU-110x series in contrast to the inverse relation between volumetric surface area and void fraction. Additionally, we find better correlations with geometric surface areas than with BET areas. NU-1101 presents the highest measured volumetric performance with 46.6 g/L (9.1 wt %), whereas NU-1103 presents the highest gravimetric one

  11. Optimization of volumetric breast density estimation in digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Katharina; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mann, Ritse M; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-05-07

    Fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density can be estimated in unprocessed mammograms using a physics-based method, which relies on an internal reference value representing the projection of fat only. However, pixels representing fat only may not be present in dense breasts, causing an underestimation of density measurements. In this work, we investigate alternative approaches for obtaining a tissue reference value to improve density estimations, particularly in dense breasts. Two of three investigated reference values (F1, F2) are percentiles of the pixel value distribution in the breast interior (the contact area of breast and compression paddle). F1 is determined in a small breast interior, which minimizes the risk that peripheral pixels are included in the measurement at the cost of increasing the chance that no proper reference can be found. F2 is obtained using a larger breast interior. The new approach which is developed for very dense breasts does not require the presence of a fatty tissue region. As reference region we select the densest region in the mammogram and assume that this represents a projection of entirely dense tissue embedded between the subcutaneous fatty tissue layers. By measuring the thickness of the fat layers a reference (F3) can be computed. To obtain accurate breast density estimates irrespective of breast composition we investigated a combination of the results of the three reference values. We collected 202 pairs of MRI's and digital mammograms from 119 women. We compared the percent dense volume estimates based on both modalities and calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients. With the references F1-F3 we found respectively a correlation of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Best results were obtained with the combination of the density estimations ([Formula: see text]). Results show that better volumetric density estimates can be obtained with the hybrid method, in particular for dense

  12. Semiautomatic segmentation of liver metastases on volumetric CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jiayong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, 101 Yingkou Road, Yang Pu District, Shanghai 200093 (China); Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: bz2166@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and quantification of liver metastases on CT images are critical to surgery/radiation treatment planning and therapy response assessment. To date, there are no reliable methods to perform such segmentation automatically. In this work, the authors present a method for semiautomatic delineation of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced volumetric CT images. Methods: The first step is to manually place a seed region-of-interest (ROI) in the lesion on an image. This ROI will (1) serve as an internal marker and (2) assist in automatically identifying an external marker. With these two markers, lesion contour on the image can be accurately delineated using traditional watershed transformation. Density information will then be extracted from the segmented 2D lesion and help determine the 3D connected object that is a candidate of the lesion volume. The authors have developed a robust strategy to automatically determine internal and external markers for marker-controlled watershed segmentation. By manually placing a seed region-of-interest in the lesion to be delineated on a reference image, the method can automatically determine dual threshold values to approximately separate the lesion from its surrounding structures and refine the thresholds from the segmented lesion for the accurate segmentation of the lesion volume. This method was applied to 69 liver metastases (1.1–10.3 cm in diameter) from a total of 15 patients. An independent radiologist manually delineated all lesions and the resultant lesion volumes served as the “gold standard” for validation of the method’s accuracy. Results: The algorithm received a median overlap, overestimation ratio, and underestimation ratio of 82.3%, 6.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, and a median average boundary distance of 1.2 mm. Conclusions: Preliminary results have shown that volumes of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced CT images can be accurately estimated by a semiautomatic segmentation

  13. Blockwise conjugate gradient methods for image reconstruction in volumetric CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, W; Titley-Peloquin, D; Soleimani, M

    2012-11-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables volumetric image reconstruction from 2D projection data and plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Filtered back projection is still the most frequently used algorithm in applications. The algorithm discretizes the scanning process (forward projection) into a system of linear equations, which must then be solved to recover images from measured projection data. The conjugate gradients (CG) algorithm and its variants can be used to solve (possibly regularized) linear systems of equations Ax=b and linear least squares problems minx∥b-Ax∥2, especially when the matrix A is very large and sparse. Their applications can be found in a general CT context, but in tomography problems (e.g. CBCT reconstruction) they have not widely been used. Hence, CBCT reconstruction using the CG-type algorithm LSQR was implemented and studied in this paper. In CBCT reconstruction, the main computational challenge is that the matrix A usually is very large, and storing it in full requires an amount of memory well beyond the reach of commodity computers. Because of these memory capacity constraints, only a small fraction of the weighting matrix A is typically used, leading to a poor reconstruction. In this paper, to overcome this difficulty, the matrix A is partitioned and stored blockwise, and blockwise matrix-vector multiplications are implemented within LSQR. This implementation allows us to use the full weighting matrix A for CBCT reconstruction without further enhancing computer standards. Tikhonov regularization can also be implemented in this fashion, and can produce significant improvement in the reconstructed images.

  14. Application of AAPM TG 119 to volumetric arc therapy (VMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynampati, Dinesh Kumar; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Hong, Linda; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Mah, Dennis

    2012-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to create AAPM TG 119 benchmark plans for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and to compare VMAT plans with IMRT plan data. AAPM TG 119 proposes a set of test clinical cases for testing the accuracy of IMRT planning and delivery system. For these test cases, we generated two treatment plans, the first plan using 7-9 static dMLC IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing one- or two-arc VMAT technique. Dose optimization and calculations performed using 6 MV photons and Eclipse treatment planning system. Dose prescription and planning objectives were set according to the TG 119 goals. Plans were scored based on TG 119 planning objectives. Treatment plans were compared using conformity index (CI) for reference dose and homogeneity index (HI) (for D(5)-D(95)). For test cases prostate, head-and-neck, C-shape and multitarget prescription dose are 75.6 Gy, 50.4 Gy, 50 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively. VMAT dose distributions were comparable to dMLC IMRT plans. Our planning results matched TG 119 planning results. For treatment plans studied, conformity indices ranged from 1.05-1.23 (IMRT) and 1.04-1.23 (VMAT). Homogeneity indices ranged from 4.6%-11.0% (IMRT) and 4.6%-10.5% (VMAT). The ratio of total monitor units necessary for dMLC IMRT to that of VMAT was in the range of 1.1-2.0. AAPM TG 119 test cases are useful to generate VMAT benchmark plans. At preclinical implementation stage, plan comparison of VMAT and IMRT plans of AAPM TG 119 test case allowed us to understand basic capabilities of VMAT technique.

  15. Mammographic density estimation with automated volumetric breast density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2014-01-01

    To compare automated volumetric breast density measurement (VBDM) with radiologists' evaluations based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to identify the factors associated with technical failure of VBDM. In this study, 1129 women aged 19-82 years who underwent mammography from December 2011 to January 2012 were included. Breast density evaluations by radiologists based on BI-RADS and by VBDM (Volpara Version 1.5.1) were compared. The agreement in interpreting breast density between radiologists and VBDM was determined based on four density grades (D1, D2, D3, and D4) and a binary classification of fatty (D1-2) vs. dense (D3-4) breast using kappa statistics. The association between technical failure of VBDM and patient age, total breast volume, fibroglandular tissue volume, history of partial mastectomy, the frequency of mass > 3 cm, and breast density was analyzed. The agreement between breast density evaluations by radiologists and VBDM was fair (k value = 0.26) when the four density grades (D1/D2/D3/D4) were used and moderate (k value = 0.47) for the binary classification (D1-2/D3-4). Twenty-seven women (2.4%) showed failure of VBDM. Small total breast volume, history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density were significantly associated with technical failure of VBDM (p = 0.001 to 0.015). There is fair or moderate agreement in breast density evaluation between radiologists and VBDM. Technical failure of VBDM may be related to small total breast volume, a history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density.

  16. Effect of Tangweian Jianji on the Biomechanical and Morphometric Remodeling of Colon and Rectum in STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Hong; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Gui-Fang

    2012-01-01

    was computed. Circumferential and longitudinal stresses and strains were computed from the length, diameter and pressure data and from the zero-stress state geometry for the colonic segment. RESULTS: The glucose and insulin levels did not differ among DM, TH and TL groups. Wet weight, wall thickness, cross...

  17. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  18. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  19. Colonic perforation in Behcet's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine M Dowling; Arnold DK Hill; Carmel Malone; John J Sheehan; Shona Tormey; Kieran Sheahan; Enda McDermott; Niall J O'Higgins

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for headache, the differential diagnosis of which included Behcet's syndrome (BS). He developed an acute abdomen and was found to have air under the diaphragm on erect chest X-ray. Subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple perforations throughout the colon. This report describes an unusual complication of Behcets syndrome occurring at the time of presentation and a review of the current literature of reported cases.

  20. Colonic perforation in Behcet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Catherine-M; Hill, Arnold-Dk; Malone, Carmel; Sheehan, John-J; Tormey, Shona; Sheahan, Kieran; McDermott, Enda; O'Higgins, Niall-J

    2008-11-14

    A 17-year-old gentleman was admitted to our hospital for headache, the differential diagnosis of which included Behcet's syndrome (BS). He developed an acute abdomen and was found to have air under the diaphragm on erect chest X-ray. Subsequent laparotomy revealed multiple perforations throughout the colon. This report describes an unusual complication of Behcets syndrome occurring at the time of presentation and a review of the current literature of reported cases.

  1. [Gallstone ileus of the colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlund, Tue Højslev; Thomsen, Henrik

    2011-12-12

    Gallstone is a rare cause of large bowel obstruction. The condition is mainly reported in elderly women with considerable comorbidity and hence with high morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 75 year-old woman, with known gallbladder stone, presenting with symptoms of large bowel obstruction. Computed tomography of the abdomen confirmed a large gallstone obstructing the colon. The gallstone was subsequent removed by cololithotomi and the patient made a full recovery.

  2. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut Rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lum...

  3. Primary lymphoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauro Leo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the colon is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and comprises only 0.2-1.2% of all colonic malignancies. The most common variety of colonic lymphoma is non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL. The GI tract is the most frequently involved site, accounting for 30-40% of all extra nodal lymphomas, approximately 4-20% of which are NHL. The stomach is the most common location of GI lymphomas, followed by the small intestine. Early diagnosis may prevent intestinal perforation; however, the diagnosis is often delayed in most cases. Therapeutic approaches described in two subsets include: Radical tumor resection (hemicolectomy plus multi-agent chemotherapy (polychemotherapy in early stage patients, biopsy plus multidrug chemotherapy in advanced stage patients. Radiotherapy is reserved for specific cases; surgery alone can be considered as an adequate treatment for patients with low-grade NHL disease that does not infiltrate beyond the sub mucosa. Although resection plays an important role in the local control of the disease and in preventing bleeding and/or perforation, it rarely eradicates the lymphoma by itself. Those with limited stage disease may enjoy prolonged survival when treated with aggressive chemotherapy.

  4. Laparoscopic colonic and rectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, P M

    1993-12-01

    The technology that has permitted the rapid advance of minimal access surgery has now made it feasible to perform laparoscopically assisted colon resections safely. As the instrumentation improves, specimen removal problems are solved, surgeons' sewing skills improve, and other anastomotic methods are devised, an increasing amount of colonic surgery will be done using laparoscopy. It is clear that the techniques now in use are evolving, and will be substantially different a few years hence. Previously accepted surgical principles may continue to be challenged by new techniques, which must be evaluated under strict protocol before being widely accepted. These operations should be performed by surgeons who are able to achieve the same level of radical operation that they would achieve through a laparotomy. Special training in advanced laparoscopic techniques including microsurgical suturing is a distinct advantage in performing these operations successfully. It may be best for surgeons to start with palliative procedures or operations for benign diseases of the colon, to avoid the risk of jeopardizing an operation for cancer.

  5. Medical management of urethral and colonic perforation associated with urinary catheterization in a kitten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Zucca, Lynda

    2003-09-15

    A 6-week-old male kitten was evaluated because of stranguria and possible urethral blockage; a urinary catheter placed during general anesthesia penetrated the urethral and colonic walls and entered the colon. Treatment was conservative, with fluids administered i.v., administration of piperacillin, and supportive care. The kitten never became febrile or clinically ill and continued to thrive. There was no development of clinical signs consistent with stricture, diverticulum, or fistula formation. Complications from urethral perforation include infection and urethral stricture. Reconstructive surgery is considered the treatment of choice for traumatic urethral-colonic perforation. However, surgery may not be feasible or may be cost-prohibitive in certain situations. In such instances, medical management may provide a reasonable alternative to euthanasia.

  6. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  7. On the Relationship Between the Colonizers and the Colonized in“Shooting an Elephant”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Li

    2015-01-01

    George Orwell’s“Shooting an Elephant”is reputed as one of his best works for its artistry and keenness. In this essay, the relationship between the colonizers and the colonized is interesting and worth researching. The author of this thesis holds the opinion that besides the common fact that the colonizers dominate the colonized, the colonized, in reverse, also dominate the British colonizers in the text. And this kind of domination is through two aspects, namely the weakness of human nature and the imperialistic creed.

  8. Malakoplakia of the colon associated with colonic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in colonic biopsies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Malakoplakia, typically involving the urinary tract, is an uncommon form of chronic inflammation caused by chronic nfections and characterized by accumulation of macrophages. It has also been found in many other sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, lymph Snodes, skin, respiratory tract, adrenal gland, vagina and brain. We present a case of a 64-year-old man referred to our hospital with cachexia and radiologic evidence of metastatic tumor of the liver.Colonoscopy revealed a large malignant-appearing polypoid mass of the ascending colon and multiple distinct polyps throughout the rest of the colon. Biopsies of the ascending colon mass confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.Histological examination of two of the other polyps revealed malakoplakia which was characterized by aggregates of granular histiocytes with Michaelis-Gutmann bodies and histochemically confirmed with periodic acid-Schiff and von Kossa stains. This is a rare case diagnosed on endoscopic samples. The majority of reported cases were found in surgical specimens. In addition, the endoscopic appearance of multiple polyps is unusual in malakoplakia.

  9. Enterococcal surface protein Esp does not facilitate intestinal colonization or translocation of Enterococcus faecalis in clindamycin-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultz, Nicole J; Shankar, Nathan; Baghdayan, Arto S; Donskey, Curtis J

    2005-01-15

    Enterococcal surface protein (Esp) is a cell wall-associated protein of Enterococcus faecalis that has been identified as a potential virulence factor. We used a mouse model to examine whether Esp facilitates intestinal colonization or translocation of E. faecalis to mesenteric lymph nodes. After clindamycin treatment, similar levels of high-density colonization were established after orogastric inoculation of an E. faecalis isolate containing the esp gene within a large pathogenicity island and an isogenic mutant created by allelic replacement of the esp gene with a chloramphenicol resistance cassette (P=0.7); translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes was detected in 3 of 12 (25%) mice in both groups. Isogenic mutants of FA2-2 (a plasmid-free derivative of E. faecalis strain JH2) with or without the esp gene failed to establish colonization of clindamycin-treated mice. These results suggest that Esp does not facilitate intestinal colonization or translocation of E. faecalis.

  10. Basidiobolomycosis of the Colon Masquerading as Stenotic Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ezzedien Rabie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basidiobolus ranarum is a widespread saprophyte fungus with pathogenic potential. It affects mainly the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk and limbs. Relatively recently, occasional reports of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis appeared in the literature. Due to the rarity of the condition and the nonspecific presenting features, the correct diagnosis is usually hard to reach. In this paper, we describe the clinical course of an otherwise healthy female, who presented with a colonic mass. She received subtotal colectomy followed by oral itraconazole, with successful outcome.

  11. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei; Cai, Jing; Zhang, You; Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique to generate on-board volumetric-cine MRI (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI. Methods One phase of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4D-MRI based on principal-component-analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from four real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using Volume-Percent-Difference(VPD), Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest(ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Results Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was on average 8.43±1.52% and the COMS was on average 0.93±0.58mm across all time-steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against noise levels up to SNR=20. For patient data, average tracking errors were less than 2 mm in all directions for all patients. Conclusions Preliminary studies demonstrated the

  12. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei; Cai, Jing; Zhang, You; Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a techique to generate on-board volumetric cine-magnetic resonance imaging (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling, and on-board 2-dimensional cine MRI. One phase of a 4-dimensional MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. Three major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4-dimensional MRI based on principal-component analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2-dimensional cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both digital extended-cardiac torso (XCAT) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from 4 real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using volume-percent-difference (VPD), center-of-mass-shift (COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change, and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between normalized profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was, on average, 8.43 ± 1.52% and the COMS was, on average, 0.93 ± 0.58 mm across all time steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against noise levels up to SNR = 20. For

  13. Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Lynch, Kyle P.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2015-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional (3D), three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique based on volume illumination and light field imaging with a single plenoptic camera is described. A plenoptic camera uses a densely packed microlens array mounted near a high resolution image sensor to sample the spatial and angular distribution of light collected by the camera. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) computed tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct a volumetric intensity field from individual snapshots and a cross-correlation algorithm is used to estimate the velocity field from a pair of reconstructed particle volumes. This work provides an introduction to the basic concepts of light field imaging with a plenoptic camera and describes the unique implementation of MART in the context of plenoptic image data for 3D/3C PIV measurements. Simulations of a plenoptic camera using geometric optics are used to generate synthetic plenoptic particle images, which are subsequently used to estimate the quality of particle volume reconstructions at various particle number densities. 3D reconstructions using this method produce reconstructed particles that are elongated by a factor of approximately 4 along the optical axis of the camera. A simulated 3D Gaussian vortex is used to test the capability of single camera plenoptic PIV to produce a 3D/3C vector field, where it was found that lateral displacements could be measured to approximately 0.2 voxel accuracy in the lateral direction and 1 voxel in the depth direction over a 300× 200× 200 voxel volume. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated experimentally using a home-built plenoptic camera based on a 16-megapixel interline CCD camera and a 289× 193 array of microlenses and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. 3D/3C measurements were performed in the wake of a low Reynolds number circular cylinder and compared with measurements made using a conventional 2D/2C PIV system. Overall, single camera

  14. Transient refractory material dissolution by a volumetrically-heated melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jean Marie, E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ratel, Gilles [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Combeau, Hervé [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Lorraine University, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gaus-Liu, Xiaoyang; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe a test investigating ceramic dissolution by a molten non-eutectic melt. • The evolution of the interface temperature between melt and refractory is measured. • A theoretical model describing dissolution kinetics is proposed. • When dissolution stops, interface temperature is the liquidus temperature of the melt. - Abstract: The present work addresses the question of corium–ceramic interaction in a core catcher during a core-melt accident in a nuclear power plant. It provides an original insight into transient aspects concerning dissolution of refractory material by a volumetrically heated pool. An experiment with simulant material (LIVECERAM) is presented. Test results clearly show that dissolution of solid refractory material can occur in a non-eutectic melt at a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the refractory material. During the dissolution transient, the interface temperature rises above the liquidus temperature, corresponding to the instantaneous average composition of the melt pool. With constant power dissipation in the melt and external cooling of the core-catcher, a final steady-state situation is reached. Dissolution stops when the heat flux (delivered by the melt to the refractory) can be removed by conduction through the residual thickness of the ceramic, with T{sub interface} = T{sub liquidus} (calculated for the average composition of the final liquid pool). The final steady state corresponds to a uniform pool composition and uniform interface temperature distribution. Convection in the pool is governed by natural thermal convection and the heat flux distribution is therefore similar to what would be obtained for a single component pool. An interpretation of the experiment with two model-based approaches (0D and 1D) is presented. The mass transfer kinetics between the interface and the bulk is controlled by a diffusion sublayer within the boundary layer. During the dissolution transient

  15. Volumetric Forest Change Detection Through Vhr Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Devrim; Stylianidis, Efstratios; Smagas, Konstantinos; Hofer, Martin; Poli, Daniela; Gruen, Armin; Sanchez Martin, Victor; Altan, Orhan; Walli, Andreas; Jimeno, Elisa; Garcia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Quick and economical ways of detecting of planimetric and volumetric changes of forest areas are in high demand. A research platform, called FORSAT (A satellite processing platform for high resolution forest assessment), was developed for the extraction of 3D geometric information from VHR (very-high resolution) imagery from satellite optical sensors and automatic change detection. This 3D forest information solution was developed during a Eurostars project. FORSAT includes two main units. The first one is dedicated to the geometric and radiometric processing of satellite optical imagery and 2D/3D information extraction. This includes: image radiometric pre-processing, image and ground point measurement, improvement of geometric sensor orientation, quasiepipolar image generation for stereo measurements, digital surface model (DSM) extraction by using a precise and robust image matching approach specially designed for VHR satellite imagery, generation of orthoimages, and 3D measurements in single images using mono-plotting and in stereo images as well as triplets. FORSAT supports most of the VHR optically imagery commonly used for civil applications: IKONOS, OrbView - 3, SPOT - 5 HRS, SPOT - 5 HRG, QuickBird, GeoEye-1, WorldView-1/2, Pléiades 1A/1B, SPOT 6/7, and sensors of similar type to be expected in the future. The second unit of FORSAT is dedicated to 3D surface comparison for change detection. It allows users to import digital elevation models (DEMs), align them using an advanced 3D surface matching approach and calculate the 3D differences and volume changes between epochs. To this end our 3D surface matching method LS3D is being used. FORSAT is a single source and flexible forest information solution with a very competitive price/quality ratio, allowing expert and non-expert remote sensing users to monitor forests in three and four dimensions from VHR optical imagery for many forest information needs. The capacity and benefits of FORSAT have been tested in

  16. Improving plan quality for prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katrina; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet; Barry, Tamara; Bernard, Anne; Brown, Elizabeth; Lehman, Margot; Pryor, David

    2017-08-04

    We critically evaluated the quality and consistency of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate planning at a single institution to quantify objective measures for plan quality and establish clear guidelines for plan evaluation and quality assurance. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 34 plans generated on the Pinnacle(3) version 9.4 and 9.8 treatment planning system to deliver 78 Gy in 39 fractions to the prostate only using VMAT. Data were collected on contoured structure volumes, overlaps and expansions, planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk volumes and relationship, dose volume histogram, plan conformity, plan homogeneity, low-dose wash, and beam parameters. Standard descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Despite a standardized planning protocol, we found variability was present in all steps of the planning process. Deviations from protocol contours by radiation oncologists and radiation therapists occurred in 12% and 50% of cases, respectively, and the number of optimization parameters ranged from 12 to 27 (median 17). This contributed to conflicts within the optimization process reflected by the mean composite objective value of 0.07 (range 0.01 to 0.44). Methods used to control low-intermediate dose wash were inconsistent. At the PTV rectum interface, the dose-gradient distance from the 74.1 Gy to 40 Gy isodose ranged from 0.6 cm to 2.0 cm (median 1.0 cm). Increasing collimator angle was associated with a decrease in monitor units and a single full 6 MV arc was sufficient for the majority of plans. A significant relationship was found between clinical target volume-rectum distance and rectal tolerances achieved. A linear relationship was determined between the PTV volume and volume of 40 Gy isodose. Objective values and composite objective values were useful in determining plan quality. Anatomic geometry and overlap of structures has a measurable impact on the plan quality achieved for prostate patients

  17. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  18. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  19. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, M; Biederer, J; Jochens, A; Bornemann, L; Soza, G; Heller, M; Bolte, H

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible image evaluation. The current standard is one-dimensional measurement (e.g. RECIST) with inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is discussed as an alternative for therapy monitoring of lung and liver metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of semi-automated volumetric analysis of artificial lymph node metastases in a phantom study. Fifty artificial lymph nodes were produced in a size range from 10 to 55mm; some of them enhanced using iodine contrast media. All nodules were placed in an artificial chest phantom (artiCHEST®) within different surrounding tissues. MDCT was performed using different collimations (1-5 mm) at varying reconstruction kernels (B20f, B40f, B60f). Volume and RECIST measurements were performed using Oncology Software (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) and were compared to reference volume and diameter by calculating absolute percentage errors. The software performance allowed a robust volumetric analysis in a phantom setting. Unsatisfying segmentation results were frequently found for native nodules within surrounding muscle. The absolute percentage error (APE) for volumetric analysis varied between 0.01 and 225%. No significant differences were seen between different reconstruction kernels. The most unsatisfactory segmentation results occurred in higher slice thickness (4 and 5 mm). Contrast enhanced lymph nodes showed better segmentation results by trend. The semi-automated 3D-volumetric analysis software tool allows a reliable and convenient segmentation of artificial lymph nodes in a phantom setting. Lymph nodes adjacent to tissue of similar density cause segmentation problems. For volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases in clinical routine a slice thickness of ≤3mm and a medium soft reconstruction kernel (e.g. B40f for Siemens scan systems) may be a suitable compromise for semi-automated volumetric analysis. Copyright

  20. Synthesis and Hydrogen Storage in Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized by a hydrogen arc discharge method. A high yield of gram quantity of SWNTs per hour was achieved. Tow kinds of SWNT products: web-like substance and thin films in large slices were obtained. Results of resonant Raman scattering measurements indicate that the SWNTs prepared have a wider diameter distribution and a larger mean diameter. Hydrogen uptake measurements of the two kinds of SWNT samples (both as prepared and pretreated) were carried out using a high pressure volumetric method,respectively. And a hydrogen storage capacity of 4 wt pct could be repeatedly achieved for the suitably pretreated SWNTs, which indicates that SWNTs may be a promising hydrogen storage material.

  1. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caroline H; Dejea, Christine M; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T; Santidrian, Antonio F; Felding, Brunhilde H; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; White, James R; Patti, Gary J; Sears, Cynthia L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-06-02

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine in both biofilm-positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm-negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression.

  2. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caroline H.; Dejea, Christine M.; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T.; Santidrian, Antonio F.; Felding, Brunhilde H.; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A.; Pardoll, Drew M.; White, James R.; Patti, Gary J.; Sears, Cynthia L.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N1, N12-diacetylspermine in both biofilm positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N1, N12-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome, to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression. PMID:25959674

  3. Recent changes of colonic diverticulosis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Lee, Kwan Seh; Choi, Sun Seob; Song, In Sup [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-09-15

    Colonic diverticulosis in Korea was considered as a rare disease, but recently increasing tendency of colonic diverticulosis were reported, and right side preponderance was also noted compared with left side preponderance of western country. Authors reviewed 818 cases of colon study performed from Jan. 1st 1982 to May 31th, 1984 at the Department of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital. The results were as follows. 1. Diverticuli of colon were observed in 45 cases (5.5%) out of 818 colon study. 2. Male is more frequently affected (32 out of 441, 7.2%) than female (13 out of 377, 3.5%). 3. 5th decade is the predilection age group but occurrence in younger age group is increasing. 4. Diverticulosis may occur single or multiple with variable size in entire colon except rectum but right side preponderance is remarkable. 5. Complication were observed in 6 cases (13.3%)

  4. Complications of acromegaly: thyroid and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Shimon, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    In acromegaly the long-term exposure to high growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels may result in specific complications in different human organs, including the thyroid gland and the colon. We will review here the evidence available regarding the characteristic thyroid and colon complications in acromegaly. This review summarizes the published data observing noncancerous structural abnormalities (thyroid nodules, colonic polyps) and thyroid and colon cancer in patients diagnosed with acromegaly. Thyroid micro-carcinomas are probably over-diagnosed among acromegalic patients. In regard to colon cancer, there is no sufficient data to suggest that colon cancer risk is higher in acromegaly compared to the general population.

  5. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkera, Parag J; Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus.

  6. A comparison of 1D and 1.5D arrays for imaging volumetric flaws in small bore pipework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    1.5D arrays can be seen as a potentially ideal compromise between 1D arrays and 2D matrix arrays in terms of focusing capability, element density, weld coverage and data processing time. This paper presents an initial study of 1D and 1.5D arrays for high frequency (15MHz) imaging of volumetric flaws in small-bore (30-60mm outer diameter) thin-walled (3-8mm) pipework. A combination of 3D modelling and experimental work is used to determine Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement with a strong relationship between SNR and the longer dimension of element size observed. Similar behavior is demonstrated experimentally rendering a 1mm diameter Flat Bottom Hole (FBH) in Copper-Nickel alloy undetectable using a larger array element. A 3-5dB SNR increase is predicted when using a 1.5D array assuming a spherical reflector and a 2dB increase was observed on experimental trials with a FBH. It is argued that this improvement is likely to be a lower bound estimate due to the specular behavior of a FBH with future trials planned on welded samples with realistic flaws.

  7. Live dynamic OCT imaging of cardiac structure and function in mouse embryos with 43 Hz direct volumetric data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Singh, Manmohan; Lopez, Andrew L.; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Schill, Alexander; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient phenotyping of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos has significant implications on understanding of early mammalian heart development and congenital cardiac defects. Recent studies established optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a powerful tool for live embryonic heart imaging in various animal models. However, current four-dimensional (4D) OCT imaging of the beating embryonic heart largely relies on gated data acquisition or postacquisition synchronization, which brings errors when cardiac cycles lack perfect periodicity and is time consuming and computationally expensive. Here, we report direct 4D OCT imaging of the structure and function of cardiac dynamics in live mouse embryos achieved by employing a Fourier domain mode-locking swept laser source that enables ~1.5 MHz A-line rate. Through utilizing both forward and backward scans of a resonant mirror, we obtained a ~6.4 kHz frame rate, which allows for a direct volumetric data acquisition speed of ~43 Hz, around 20 times of the early-stage mouse embryonic heart rate. Our experiments were performed on mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.5. Time-resolved 3D cardiodynamics clearly shows the heart structure in motion. We present analysis of cardiac wall movement and its velocity from the primitive atrium and ventricle. Our results suggest that the combination of ultrahigh-speed OCT imaging with live embryo culture could be a useful embryonic heart phenotyping approach for mouse mutants modeling human congenital heart diseases.

  8. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional oppositio......This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...... oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...

  9. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... were removed in some of the elements to simulate damaged vapour barriers. The condition of the wind barriers of elements with intact vapour barriers was inspected from the inside after four years of exposure. This paper presents results with emphasis on the moisture conditions behind the wind barrier....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  10. Space, composition, vertical wall ...

    OpenAIRE

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska

    2016-01-01

    The space in which it is an integral segment of our life is nourished with many functional and decorative elements. One aspect for consideration of vertical walls or The vertical gardens and their aesthetic impact in space called function. Vertical gardens bordering the decoration to totally functional garden in areas where there is little oxygen and space, ideal for residential buildings and public spaces where missing greenery, special place occupies in interior design where their expres...

  11. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  12. Toward a definition of colonic inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Giuseppe de Roberto; Luca Sediari; Antonio Morelli

    2004-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a relatively frequent symptom; among its subtypes, the so called-colonic inertia represents a disease condition that is often considered for surgery. However, to date, there has been no agreement on definition of colonic inertia, and a literature review showed that this definition was given to numerous entities that differ from each other.In this paper these concepts are reviewed and a more stringent definition of colonic inertia is proposed.

  13. Robotic surgery: colon and rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seong Kyu; Carmichael, Joseph C; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Although robotic technology aims to obviate some of the limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery, the role of robotics in colorectal surgery is still largely undefined and different with respect to its application in abdominal versus pelvic surgery. This review aims to elucidate current developments in colorectal robotic surgery.In colon surgery, robotic techniques are associated with longer operative times and higher costs compared with laparoscopic surgery. However, robotics provides a stable camera platform and articulated instruments that are not subject to human tremors. Because of these advantages, robotic systems can play a role in complex procedures such as the dissection of lymph nodes around major vessels. In addition robot-assisted hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomoses can be easily performed by the surgeon, without a substantial need for a competent assistant. At present, although the short-term outcomes and oncological adequacy of robotic colon resection have been observed to be acceptable, the long-term outcomes of robotic colon resection remain unknown.In rectal surgery, robotic-assisted surgery for rectal cancer can be carried out safely and in accordance with current oncological principles. However, to date, the impact of robotic rectal surgery on the long-term oncological outcomes of minimally invasive total mesorectal excision remains undetermined. Robotic total mesorectal excision may allow for better preservation of urinary and sexual functions, and robotic surgery may attenuate the learning curve for laparoscopic rectal resection. However, a major drawback to robotic rectal surgery is the high cost involved.Large-scale prospective randomized clinical trials such as the international randomized trial ROLARR are required to establish the benefits of robotic rectal surgery.

  14. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  15. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  16. Colonic Angiodysplasia with a Huge Submucosal Hematoma in the Sigmoid Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Koike, Daisuke; Nomura, Yukihiro; Ooe, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Colonic angiodysplasia (AD) with bleeding as a comorbidity in the aging population is being increasingly reported. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on colonic AD accompanied by a huge hematoma. Herein, we report a case of colonic AD with a huge submucosal hematoma. A 75-year-old man with sudden melena was referred to our hospital. Helical computed tomographic angiography (CTA) revealed bleeding from the sigmoid colon. Additionally, colonoscopy showed a huge submucosal hematoma with bleeding in the sigmoid colon. As endoscopic hemostasis was difficult, sigmoidectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was colonic AD. The present case indicates that colonic AD should be considered in the differential diagnosis for melena. In addition, the case shows that helical CTA, which is a noninvasive imaging modality, is useful for the diagnosis of colonic AD and is as effective as colonoscopy and angiography for diagnosis.

  17. Intestinal spirochetosis and colon diverticulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcus Aurelho de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of intestinal spirochetosis in a 62-year-old white male is reported. The condition was characterized by chronic flatulence and episodes of intestinal hemorrhage, in addition to the evidence of hypotonic diverticular disease, with a large number of slender organisms in the colon epithelium and cryptae. Spirochetes were demonstrated by Whartin-Starry stain. The serologic tests for syphilis and HIV were positive. Spirochetosis was treated with penicillin G, and the patient remains free of intestinal complaints 20 months later.

  18. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  19. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  20. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  1. Cell Wall Biology: Perspectives from Cell Wall Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  2. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  3. Colopexy as a treatment option for the management of acute transverse colon volvulus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Transverse colon volvulus is an uncommon acute surgical presentation associated with a higher rate of mortality than volvulae at other locations along the colon. Surgical resection or correction is the only treatment, and various methods have been described in case report literature to relieve the volvulus and prevent recurrence. Case presentation We present the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted with a three-day history of abdominal pain, absolute constipation and abdominal distension. Subsequent radiographic and computed tomography imaging revealed right-sided colonic dilatation suggestive of a volvulus. An emergency laparotomy was performed during which the dilated proximal bowel was decompressed and colopexy executed by using the greater omentum to fix the transverse colon at the hepatic and splenic flexures. Conclusions Volvulus of the transverse colon is rare but must form part of the clinician's differential diagnosis when encountering a patient with suspected bowel obstruction, especially in younger patients with no previous surgical history. Laparotomy is the treatment of choice and the technique of using the greater omentum as a fixing point for redundant bowel to the lateral abdominal wall is an option that may be considered especially when the bowel appears viable.

  4. Submucosal lipoma of the large intestine masquerading as a colonic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Pe; Teemul, T; Dent, B; Henderson, D; Crabbe, R; Garud, T

    2011-02-01

    Lipomas of the alimentary tract are rare tumours that can mimic malignant lesions. They are often small and asymptomatic although larger tumours can present with intusussception or as abdominal masses. We present a case of a transverse colon submucosal lipoma masquerading as a colonic adenocarcinoma leading to resection. A 74 year-old-man was referred urgently for assessment with altered bowel habits, and lower abdominal discomfort along with a positive Faecal-Occult-Blood sample. Colonoscopy demonstrated a large polypoidal lesion at the hepatic flexure with ulceration. Biopsies were inconclusive. A staging CT scan confirmed a 3.3 x 4.3 x 3.4cm Polyp with colonic wall thickening suspicious of malignancy. An extended right hemi-colectomy was performed. Histology showed a large submucosal lipoma with 12 reactive lymph nodes. Colonic lipoma often present as incidental findings detected on either imaging or endoscopically whilst investigating other symptoms. Their appearances can mimic colonic malignancy and surgical resection may be required.

  5. The effects of dimensional mould sizes on volumetric shrinkage strain of lateritic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engbonye SANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional influences of specimen size on the volumetric shrinkage strain values of a lateritic soil for waste containment system have not been researched upon. Therefore, this paper presents the result of a laboratory study on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS of lateritic soil at three different dimensional sizes of mould (split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL, West African standard (WAS and British standard heavy (BSH respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2% to +6% optimum moisture content (OMC. At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS suggested by Tay et al., (2001. Based on the VSS values obtained if the CBR mould can be used to model site condition it is recommended for use to simulate site condition for Volumetric shrinkage strain for all molding water content and compactive effort.

  6. Semi-automated volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases during follow-up--initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabel, Michael; Bolte, H; von Tengg-Kobligk, H; Bornemann, L; Dicken, V; Delorme, S; Kauczor, H-U; Heller, M; Biederer, J

    2011-04-01

    Quantification of tumour burden in oncology requires accurate and reproducible evaluation. The current standard is RECIST measurement with its inherent disadvantages. Volumetric analysis is an alternative for therapy monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of volumetric analysis of lymph node metastases using a software prototype in a follow-up setting. MSCT was performed in 50 patients covering the chest, abdomen and pelvis. A total of 174 suspicious lymph nodes were evaluated by two radiologists regarding short axis diameters and volumetric analysis using semi-automated software. Quality of segmentation, time, maximum diameter and volume were documented. Variability of the derived change rates was computed as the standard deviation of the difference of the obtained respective change rates. The software performance provides robust volumetric analysis. Quality of segmentation was rated acceptable to excellent in 76-79% by each reader. Mean time spent per lesion was 38 s. The variability of change in effective diameters was 10.6%; for change rates of RECIST maximum diameter variability was 27.5%. Semi-automated volumetric analysis allows fast and convenient segmentation of most lymph node metastases. Compared with RECIST the inter-observer-variability in baseline and follow-up is reduced. This should principally allow subtle changes to be subclassified within the RECIST stable range as minor response [-15% to +10%].

  7. Temperature gradient-induced fluid pumping inside a single-wall carbon nanotube: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Fahim; Rajabpour, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the fluid transport inside a single-wall carbon nanotube induced by a temperature gradient along the tube length, focusing on the effect of fluid-wall interaction strength. It is found that the fluid moves from the hot side of the nanotube towards the cold side. By increasing the fluid-wall interaction strength, the fluid volumetric flux assumes a maximum, increases, and then decreases. Fluid transport is pressure-driven in weak interactions; in contrast, in strong interactions, the fluid is broken into two parts in the radial direction. Fluid transport in the central regions of the tube is pressure-driven, while it is surface-driven in the areas close to the wall.

  8. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  9. Mechanisms of motility change on trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-induced colonic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Gab Jin; Cui, Yuan; Yeon, Dong-Soo; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Byong-Gon

    2012-12-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by recurrent episodes of colonic inflammation and tissue degeneration in human or animal models. The contractile force generated by the smooth muscle is significantly attenuated, resulting in altered motility leading to diarrhea or constipation in IBD. The aim of this study is to clarify the altered contractility of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers in proximal colon of trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse. Colitis was induced by direct injection of TNBS (120 mg/kg, 50% ethanol) in proximal colon of ICR mouse using a 30 G needle anesthetized with ketamin (50 mg/kg), whereas animals in the control group were injected of 50% ethanol alone. In TNBS-induced colitis, the wall of the proximal colon is diffusely thickened with loss of haustration, and showed mucosal and mucular edema with inflammatory infiltration. The colonic inflammation is significantly induced the reduction of colonic contractile activity including spontaneous contractile activity, depolarization-induced contractility, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated contractile response in circular muscle layer compared to the longitudinal muscle layer. The inward rectification of currents, especially, important to Ca(2+) and Na(+) influx-induced depolarization and contraction, was markedly reduced in the TNBS-induced colitis compared to the control. The muscarinic acetylcholine-mediated contractile responses were significantly attenuated in the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle strips induced by the reduction of membrane expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel isoforms from the proximal colon of the TNBS-induced colitis mouse than the control.

  10. Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Stephan; Barnett, Timothy C; Rivera-Hernandez, Tania; Rohde, Manfred; Walker, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a human-adapted pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of disease. GAS can cause relatively mild illnesses, such as strep throat or impetigo, and less frequent but severe life-threatening diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. GAS is an important public health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The main route of GAS transmission between humans is through close or direct physical contact, and particularly via respiratory droplets. The upper respiratory tract and skin are major reservoirs for GAS infections. The ability of GAS to establish an infection in the new host at these anatomical sites primarily results from two distinct physiological processes, namely bacterial adhesion and colonization. These fundamental aspects of pathogenesis rely upon a variety of GAS virulence factors, which are usually under strict transcriptional regulation. Considerable progress has been made in better understanding these initial infection steps. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of GAS adhesion and colonization. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Eosinophilic venulitis of colon presenting as ileocecal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhar, Faripour; Rustagi, Tarun; Lamea, Leela

    2011-01-01

    Reports of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon causing obstruction are few. It is even less common to find associated extensive intestinal venulitis, which is similar to and lumped together with so called Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive Disease (MIVOD) or Self-Limited Intestinal Venulitis. Eosinophilic necrotizing lymphadenitis, such as what we report here, has never been reported in association with this disease. A 41-year-old female presented with cramping lower abdominal pain, hematochezia, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed the presence of the mass and thickening of the illeocecal wall. Endoscopy confirmed a cecal mass with surface ulceration suggestive of cecal adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy with the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Microscopic examination of the resected bowel showed an ulcerated mass in the cecum composed of markedly edematous tissue showing transmural eosinophilic infiltration and extensive eosinophilic and lymphocytic venulitis with and without thrombosis. This was associated with a necrotizing lymphadenitis.

  12. Primary lymphoma of the colon Linfoma primario de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pascual

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: primary colorectal lymphoma is a very rare disease, representing less than 0.5 % of all primary colorectal neoplasms. The gastrointestinal tract is the most frequently involved site of all extranodal lymphomas, the most common type of that is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Early diagnosis is often difficult because of unspecific symptoms. Therapeutic approaches have classically included radical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Materials and methods: we present our experience in the management of primary colorectal lymphomas over a 17-year period (1994-20011. Results: in this period 7 cases of primary colorectal lymphoma were diagnosed in our institution. Abdominal pain and change in bowel habit were the most frequent symptoms. Five patients underwent emergency surgery because of bleeding or bowel obstruction. All primary intestinal lymphomas studied were of the B-cell phenotype. Patients were followed up for a median of 59 months (range 1-180. Three of them are alive with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: combination treatment with chemotherapy and surgery can obtain good remission rate. Surgery can resolve complications such bleeding or intestinal perforation that are implicated in lymphoma mortality.Introducción: el linfoma primario de colon y recto es una patología poco prevalente, representa tan solo el 0,5 % de todas las neoplasias primarias de colon y recto. El tracto gastrointestinal es el lugar donde asientan la gran mayoría de los linfomas extranodales, siendo el más frecuente el tipo linfoma no-Hodking. El diagnóstico precoz es siempre difícil debido a que la sintomatología es muy poco específica. Los algoritmos terapéuticos han incluido clásicamente la resección radical, el tratamiento con quimioterapia y con radioterapia. Materiales y métodos: presentamos nuestra experiencia en el manejo de los linfomas primarios de colon en un periodo de 17 años (1994-2011. Resultados: en dicho periodo en nuestro

  13. VOLUMETRIC MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT BETWEEN SLAG AND METAL IN COMBINED BLOWING CONVERTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.H. Wu; Z.S. Zou; W. Wu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of operation parameters of combined blowing converter on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient between slag and steel are studied with a cold model with water simulating steel, oil simulating slag and benzoic acid as the transferred substance between water and oil. The results show that, with lance level of 2.Im and the top blowing rate of 25000Nm3/h, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient changes most significantly when the bottom blowing rate ranges from 384 to 540Nm3/h. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient reaches its maximum when the lance level is 2. lm, the top blowing rates is 30000Nm3/h, and the bottom blowing rate is 384Nrr3/h with tuyeres located symmetrically at 0.66D of the converter bottom.

  14. Control and design of volumetric composition in pultruded hybrid fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hashemi, Fariborz; Tahir, Paridah

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composites consist of two of more fibre phases in a common matrix phase. This is a challenge for the control and design of the volumetric composition and microstructural uniformity of such composites. In the present study, a model is presented for the prediction of the complete volumetric...... composition (i.e. volume fractions of fibres, matrix and porosity) in hybrid fibre composites. The model is based on a constant local fibre volume fraction criterion. Good agreement is found between model predictions and experimental data of pultruded hybrid kenaf/glass fibre composites with variable hybrid...... fibre weight mixing ratios. To demonstrate the suitability of the model, simulations are performed for four different cases of volumetric composition in hybrid kenaf/glass composites....

  15. NDE Technology Development Program for Non-Visual Volumetric Inspection Technology; Sensor Effectiveness Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Traci L.; Larche, Michael R.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Glass, Samuel W.

    2017-08-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, hosted and administered Sensor Effectiveness Testing that allowed four different participants to demonstrate the NDE volumetric inspection technologies that were previously demonstrated during the Technology Screening session. This document provides a Sensor Effectiveness Testing report for the final part of Phase I of a three-phase NDE Technology Development Program designed to identify and mature a system or set of non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for Hanford DST primary liner bottom inspection. Phase I of the program will baseline the performance of current or emerging non-visual volumetric NDE technologies for their ability to detect and characterize primary liner bottom flaws, and identify candidate technologies for adaptation and maturation for Phase II of the program.

  16. Ultrahigh volumetric capacitance and cyclic stability of fluorine and nitrogen co-doped carbon microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junshuang; Lian, Jie; Hou, Li; Zhang, Junchuan; Gou, Huiyang; Xia, Meirong; Zhao, Yufeng; Strobel, Timothy A.; Tao, Lu; Gao, Faming

    2015-09-01

    Highly porous nanostructures with large surface areas are typically employed for electrical double-layer capacitors to improve gravimetric energy storage capacity; however, high surface area carbon-based electrodes result in poor volumetric capacitance because of the low packing density of porous materials. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of 521 F cm-3 in aqueous electrolytes for non-porous carbon microsphere electrodes co-doped with fluorine and nitrogen synthesized by low-temperature solvothermal route, rivaling expensive RuO2 or MnO2 pseudo-capacitors. The new electrodes also exhibit excellent cyclic stability without capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles in both acidic and basic electrolytes at a high charge current of 5 A g-1. This work provides a new approach for designing high-performance electrodes with exceptional volumetric capacitance with high mass loadings and charge rates for long-lived electrochemical energy storage systems.

  17. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  18. Single step full volumetric reconstruction optical coherence tomography utilizing compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoyang; Liu, Jiansheng; cheng, Jiangtao; Liu, Haitao; Zhou, Hongwen

    2017-03-01

    3D optical coherence tomography imaging (OCT) combined with compressive sensing (CS) has been proved to be an attractive and effective tool in a variety of fields, such as medicine and biology. To achieve high quality imaging while using as less CS sampling rate as possible is the goal of this approach. Here we present an innovative single step fully 3D CS-OCT volumetric image recovery method, in which 3D OCT volumetric image of the object is compressively sampled via our proposed CS coding strategies in all three dimensions while its sparsity is simultaneously taken into consideration in every direction. The object can be directly recovered as the whole volume reconstruction via our advanced full 3D CS reconstruction algorithm. The numerical simulations of a human retina OCT volumetric image reconstruction by our method demonstrate a PSNR of as high as 38dB at a sampling rate of less than 10%.

  19. Seeding optimization for instantaneous volumetric velocimetry. Application to a jet in crossflow

    CERN Document Server

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Every volumetric velocimetry measurements based on tracer (particles, bubbles, etc.) detection can be strongly influenced by the optical screening phenomenon. It has to be taken into account when the the statistical properties associated to the performances of the particle detection and tracking algorithms are significantly affected. It leads to a maximum concentration of particles in the images thus limiting the final spatial resolution of the instantaneous three-dimensional three-components (3D3C) velocity fields. A volumetric velocimetry system based on Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry is used to show that above a critical visual concentration of particles in the images, the concentration and accuracy of the final instantaneous raw velocity vector field drop. The critical concentration depends on physical parameters as well as on the processing algorithms. Three distinct regimes are identified. In the first regime, the concentration is well adapted to volumetric velocimetry, the largest concent...

  20. Holographic Imaging Reveals the Mechanism of Wall Entrapment in Swimming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Silvio; Saglimbeni, Filippo; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Self-propelled particles, both biological and synthetic, are stably trapped by walls and develop high concentration peaks over bounding surfaces. In swimming bacteria, like E. coli, the physical mechanism behind wall entrapment is an intricate mixture of hydrodynamic and steric interactions with a strongly anisotropic character. The building of a clear physical picture of this phenomenon demands direct and full three-dimensional experimental observations of individual wall entrapment events. Here, we demonstrate that, by using a combination of three-axis holographic microscopy and optical tweezers, it is possible to obtain volumetric reconstructions of individual E. coli cells that are sequentially released at a controlled distance and angle from a flat solid wall. We find that hydrodynamic couplings can slow down the cell before collision, but reorientation only occurs while the cell is in constant contact with the wall. In the trapped state, all cells swim with the average body axis pointing into the surface. The amplitude of this pitch angle is anticorrelated to the amplitude of wobbling, thus indicating that entrapment is dominated by near-field couplings between the cell body and the wall. Our approach opens the way to three-dimensional quantitative studies of a broad range of fast dynamical processes in motile bacteria and eukaryotic cells.

  1. Effect of the selected seismic energy dissipation capacity on the materials quantity for reinforced concrete walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Benjumea Royero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regarding their design of reinforced concrete structural walls, the Colombian seismic design building code allows the engineer to select one of the three seismic energy dissipation capacity (ordinary, moderate, and special depending on the seismic hazard of the site. Despite this, it is a common practice to choose the minor requirement for the site because it is thought that selecting a higher requirement will lead to larger structural materials amounts and, therefore, cost increments.  Method: In this work, an analytical study was performed in order to determine the effect of the selected energy dissipation capacity on the quantity of materials and ductility displacement capacity of R/C walls. The study was done for a region with low seismic hazard, mainly because this permitted to explore and compare the use of the three seismic energy dissipations capacities. The effect of different parameters such as the wall total height and thickness, the tributary loaded area, and the minimum volumetric steel ratio were studied. Results: The total amount of steel required for the walls with moderate and special energy dissipation capacity corresponds, on average, to 77% and 89%, respectively, of the quantity required for walls with minimum capacity. Conclusions: it is possible to achieve reductions in the total steel required weight when adopting either moderated or special seismic energy dissipation instead of the minimum capacity.  Additionally, a significant increment in the seismic ductility displacements capacity of the wall was obtained.

  2. Holographic Imaging Reveals the Mechanism of Wall Entrapment in Swimming Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-propelled particles, both biological and synthetic, are stably trapped by walls and develop high concentration peaks over bounding surfaces. In swimming bacteria, like E. coli, the physical mechanism behind wall entrapment is an intricate mixture of hydrodynamic and steric interactions with a strongly anisotropic character. The building of a clear physical picture of this phenomenon demands direct and full three-dimensional experimental observations of individual wall entrapment events. Here, we demonstrate that, by using a combination of three-axis holographic microscopy and optical tweezers, it is possible to obtain volumetric reconstructions of individual E. coli cells that are sequentially released at a controlled distance and angle from a flat solid wall. We find that hydrodynamic couplings can slow down the cell before collision, but reorientation only occurs while the cell is in constant contact with the wall. In the trapped state, all cells swim with the average body axis pointing into the surface. The amplitude of this pitch angle is anticorrelated to the amplitude of wobbling, thus indicating that entrapment is dominated by near-field couplings between the cell body and the wall. Our approach opens the way to three-dimensional quantitative studies of a broad range of fast dynamical processes in motile bacteria and eukaryotic cells.

  3. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    -plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... be altered to fit the surrounding boundary conditions. The effective cohesive law will then become a function of the investigated structural geometry. A simplified approach for the latter topic was used to predict the load capacity of concrete beams in shear. Results obtained were acceptable, but the model...

  4. Axions from wall decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  5. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies.

  6. Volumetric Concentration Maximum of Cohesive Sediment in Waters: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisun Byun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cohesive sediment has different characteristics compared to non-cohesive sediment. The density and size of a cohesive sediment aggregate (a so-called, floc continuously changes through the flocculation process. The variation of floc size and density can cause a change of volumetric concentration under the condition of constant mass concentration. This study investigates how the volumetric concentration is affected by different conditions such as flow velocity, water depth, and sediment suspension. A previously verified, one-dimensional vertical numerical model is utilized here. The flocculation process is also considered by floc in the growth type flocculation model. Idealized conditions are assumed in this study for the numerical experiments. The simulation results show that the volumetric concentration profile of cohesive sediment is different from the Rouse profile. The volumetric concentration decreases near the bed showing the elevated maximum in the cases of both current and oscillatory flow. The density and size of floc show the minimum and the maximum values near the elevation of volumetric concentration maximum, respectively. This study also shows that the flow velocity and the critical shear stress have significant effects on the elevated maximum of volumetric concentration. As mechanisms of the elevated maximum, the strong turbulence intensity and increased mass concentration are considered because they cause the enhanced flocculation process. This study uses numerical experiments. To the best of our knowledge, no laboratory or field experiments on the elevated maximum have been carried out until now. It is of great necessity to conduct well-controlled laboratory experiments in the near future.

  7. The colon shuffle : A modified urinary diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R. P.; Mertens, L. S.; Meinhardt, W.; Verwaal, V. J.; Dik, P.; Horenblas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the results of a urinary diversion in patients who already have a colostomy or simultaneously require a (rectum) colon resection. The diversion is created from the distal part of the transected colon with a simultaneously created new colostomy contra-laterally (if necessary). This proc

  8. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  9. Immunosurveillance against tetraploidization-induced colon tumorigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boileve, A.; Senovilla, L.; Vitale, I.; Lissa, D.; Martins, I.; Metivier, D.; van den Brink, S.; Clevers, H.; Galluzzi, L.; Castedo, M.; Kroemer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence suggests that colon carcinogenesis can ensue the transient tetraploidization of (pre-)malignant cells. In line with this notion, the tumor suppressors APC and TP53, both of which are frequently inactivated in colon cancer, inhibit tetraploidization in vitro and in vivo. Here,

  10. Reversible projection technique for colon unfolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhua; Chowdhury, Ananda S; Aman, Javed; Summers, Ronald M

    2010-12-01

    Colon unfolding provides an efficient way to navigate the colon in computed tomographic colonography (CTC). Most existing unfolding techniques only compute forward projections. When radiologists find abnormalities or conduct measurements on the unfolded view (which is often quicker and easier), it is difficult to locate the corresponding region on the 3-D view for further examination (which is more accurate and reliable). To address this, we propose a reversible projection technique for colon unfolding. The method makes use of advanced algorithms including rotation-minimizing frames, recursive ring sets, mesh skinning, and cylindrical projection. Both forward and reverse mapping can be computed for points on the colon surface. Therefore, it allows for detecting and measuring polyps on the unfolded view and mapping them back to the 3-D surface. We generated realistic colon simulation data incorporating most colon characteristics, such as curved centerline, variable distention, haustral folds, teniae coli, and colonic polyps. Our method was tested on both simulated data and data from 110 clinical CTC studies. The results showed submillimeter accuracy in simulated data and -0.23 ± 1.67 mm in the polyp measurement using clinical CTC data. The major contributions of our technique are: 1) the use of a recursive ring set method to solve the centerline and surface correspondence problem; 2) reverse transformation from the unfolded view to the 3-D view; and 3) quantitative validation using a realistic colon simulation and clinical CTC polyp measurement.

  11. Colon Cleansing: Is It Helpful or Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because your digestive system and bowel already eliminate waste material and bacteria from your body. During a colon cleanse, large amounts of water — sometimes up to 16 gallons (about 60 liters) — and possibly other substances, such as herbs or coffee, are flushed through the colon. This is done ...

  12. Inguinal lymph node metastasis of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane McGraw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of adenocarcinoma of colon with unusual metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes. Our patient is a young male with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy, bone pains, and jaundice who presented as carcinoma of unknown primary. He was diagnosed as widely metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon for which he received chemotherapy and has had a good response to the treatment.

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Andersen, Fahimeh; Fischer, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in several tumors, but it has not been elucidated in colon cancer. The present phase II trial addressed the issue in high-risk patients selected by computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colon cancer...

  14. Adenosquamous Carcinoma of Colon and Rectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ In colon and rectum, adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare. 6 patients with adenosquamous carcinoma of colon and rectum were identified by Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital from Jan. 1967 to Dec. 1997. 2 male and 4 female had a median age of 48 (range, 40- 60) years. All patients were treated surgically.

  15. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation ...

  16. Effects of volumetric allocation on heave response of semisubmersible in deep sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The configuration of semisubmersibles consisting of pontoons and columns and their corresponding heave motion response in incident progressive waves are examined. The purpose of the present study is to provide a theoretical approach to estimating the effects of volumetric allocation on natural period and response amplitude operator (RAO) in heave motion. We conclude that the amplitude of heave motion response can be considerably suppressed by appropriately adjusting volumetric allocation so that the natural heave period keeps away from the range of wave energy. The theoretical formulae are found in good agreement with the corresponding computational results by WAMIT.

  17. Volumetric Diffuse Optical Tomography for Small Animals Using a CCD-Camera-Based Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Jing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D volumetric diffuse optical tomography for small animal imaging by using a CCD-camera-based imaging system with a newly developed depth compensation algorithm (DCA. Our computer simulations and laboratory phantom studies have demonstrated that the combination of a CCD camera and DCA can significantly improve the accuracy in depth localization and lead to reconstruction of 3D volumetric images. This approach may present great interests for noninvasive 3D localization of an anomaly hidden in tissue, such as a tumor or a stroke lesion, for preclinical small animal models.

  18. DIRECT VOXEL-PROJECTION FOR VOLUMETRIC DATA RENDERING IN MEDICAL IMAGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忆松; 陈亚珠; 郭玉红

    2002-01-01

    The volumetric rendering of 3-D medical image data is very effective method for communication about radiological studies to clinicians. Algorithms that produce images with artifacts and inaccuracies are not clinically useful. This paper proposed a direct voxel-projection algorithm to implement volumetric data rendering. Using this algorithm, arbitrary volume rotation, transparent and cutaway views are generated satisfactorily. Compared with the existing raytracing methods, it improves the projection image quality greatly. Some experimental results about real medical CT image data demonstrate the advantages and fidelity of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Prediction of porous walls thermal protection by effusion or transpiration cooling: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Y.H. [Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphouet-Boigny, Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast); Lips, B. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2003-10-01

    The study is about the thermal control of porous walls submitted to severe heat fluxes. The numerical approach model of heat transfer, developed, is based on energy balance equation. The governing parameters are the volumetric heat transfer coefficient, the equivalent thermal conductivity of the material and fluid flow characteristics. The interactive effects of these parameters on heat transfer are presented to permit to understand the relative importance of varied phenomena occurring. The validity of the results is verified in a thermal behavior study of a porous plate submitted to a heat flux up to 3500 K and cooled by a refrigerant fluid. Good agreement with the previsions is obtained. (author)

  20. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  1. Duplication Cyst of the Sigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Domajnko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male with developmental delay presented with abdominal pain of two days' duration. He was afebrile and his abdomen was soft with mild diffuse tenderness. There were no peritoneal signs. Plain x-ray demonstrated a large air-filled structure in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 9×8 cm structure adjacent to the hepatic flexure containing an air-fluid level. It did not contain oral contrast and had no apparent communication with the colon. At operation, the cystic lesion was identified as a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon that was adherent to the right upper quadrant. The cyst was excised with a segment of the sigmoid colon and a stapled colo-colostomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. Final pathology was consistent with a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon. The cyst was attached to the colon but did not communicate with the lumen.

  2. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Strategies for Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease of the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaioli, Eleonora; Colecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Giovanni; Schiumerini, Ramona; Festi, Davide

    2016-03-01

    Colonic diverticulosis imposes a significant burden on industrialized societies. The current accepted causes of diverticula formation include low fiber content in the western diet with decreased intestinal content and size of the lumen, leading to the transmission of muscular contraction pressure to the wall of the colon, inducing the formation of diverticula usually at the weakest point of the wall where penetration of the blood vessels occurs. Approximately 20 % of the patients with colonic diverticulosis develop abdominal symptoms (i.e., abdominal pain and discomfort, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea), a condition which is defined as symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). The pathogenesis of SUDD symptoms remains uncertain and even less is known about how to adequately manage bowel symptoms. Recently, low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors leading to symptom development, thus changing and improving the therapeutic approach. In this review, a comprehensive search of the literature regarding on SUDD pathogenetic hypotheses and pharmacological strategies was carried out. The pathogenesis of SUDD, although not completely clarified, seems to be related to an interaction between colonic microbiota alterations, and immune, enteric nerve, and muscular system dysfunction (Cuomo et al. in United Eur Gastroenterol J 2:413-442, 2014). Greater understanding of the inflammatory pathways and gut microbiota composition in subjects affected by SUDD has increased therapeutic options, including the use of gut-directed antibiotics, mesalazine, and probiotics (Bianchi et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 33:902-910, 2011; Comparato et al. in Dig Dis Sci 52:2934-2941, 2007; Tursi et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 38:741-751, 2013); however, more research is necessary to validate the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.

  4. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  5. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  6. Computed tomography (CT) of acute diverticulitis of the cecum and ascending colon; Computertomographie bei akuter rechtsseitiger Kolondivertikulitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferstl, F.J.; Obert, R. [St. Theresienkrankenhaus Nuernberg (DE). Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinisches Zentrum (RNZ)

    2004-09-01

    Acute diverticulitis of the cecum and ascending colon, also called right-sided diverticulitis, represents a relatively rare disorder in the western hemisphere. Pseudodiverticula and, less frequently, solitary congenital diverticula are regarded as the underlying causes of acute diverticulitis. We report the helical CT findings in four patients with acute right-sided colonic diverticulitis. The CT was performed with a collimation of 8 mm, a pitch of 1.5 and an increment of 8 mm, and with variable administration of intravenous, oral and rectal contrast material. In two of the four patients, the acute diverticulitis was detected in the cecum and ascending colon, respectively. In two patients, the diagnosis could be confirmed during surgery and subsequent histologic examination of the resected specimen. On the initial CT studies, acute diverticulitis was correctly diagnosed in two patients and suspected in one patient without identifying and inflamed diverticulum. In one patient, the offending diverticulum in the ascending colon caused an inflammatory pseudotumor at the level of the ileocecal region. This process was initially mistaken as Crohn's disease. The CT diagnosis of a right-sided colonic diverticulitis is based on an inflamed diverticulum in the center of pericolic inflammatory changes and a preserved wall enhancement (target sign). Other CT findings, such as fatty pericolic infiltration and colon wall thickening, are rather non-specific and can also be found in a number of different ileocolic disorders, especially in colon cancer. In selected cases, the diagnosis can only be established by follow up CT after the pericolic infiltration has markedly subsided and an offending diverticulum has emerged. (orig.)

  7. Diffused vs. Focused Flow - Metaproteogenomic Insights into Effects of Hydrothermal Fluid Flow on Metal-Sulfide Chimney Colonizing Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjevac, P.; Markert, S.; Richter, M.; Gruber-Vodicka, H.; Schweder, T.; Amann, R.; Meyerdierks, A.

    2014-12-01

    At many sites of hydrothermal discharge in the deep-sea, the deposition of metal sulfides from hydrothermal fluids leads to the formation of geological structures known as hydrothermal chimneys. The mixing of reduced hydrothermal fluids with oxygenated seawater leads to the formation of steep redox gradients within the chimney walls. These gradients facilitate the co-existence of metabolically diverse microorganisms in the narrow habitable zone of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, the overall composition of chimney-associated microbial community is usually of low complexity and represents an environment suitable for metaomic-based studies. We used metagenomic and metaproteomic tools to compare microbial communities colonizing two metal-sulfide chimneys from the Manus Basin back-arc spreading center in the Bismarck Sea off Papua New Guinea. These chimneys were supplied by the same source hydrothermal fluids, but exhibited different fluid flow regimes. One chimney (RMR5) had a focused venting edifice, while the other (RMR-D) displayed diffuse fluid efflux on its entire outer surface. Although the microbial diversity of both chimneys is similar and dominated by mesophilic Epsilonproteobacteria, our results indicate a strong structuring effect of hydrothermal fluid flow regime on chimney-associated biofilms. The microbial community composition indicates a homogeneous colonization of the diffuse chimney walls. In contrast, the walls of the focused venting chimney appear to be colonized in layers reflecting different temperature tolerances of the dominant microorganisms. Sulfide-oxidation is likely the key metabolism in both chimneys, which is in line with the high sulfide content of the source hydrothermal fluid. However, preliminary metaproteome analysis indicates high activity of low-abundant methanotrophic Bacteria in the diffuser chimney walls. This finding is particularly interesting in light of the very low methane content of the source hydrothermal fluid

  8. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  9. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  10. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...... been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned...

  11. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-01

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  12. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-15

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  13. Correlation Between Liver Volumetric Computed Tomography Results and Measured Liver Weight: A Tool for Preoperative Planning of Liver Transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, L.J.; Hol, J.C.; Monshouwer, R.; Prokop, M.; Klein, W.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Before liver transplant, it is necessary to know the size of the organ in advance of the procedure. We studied the correlation between liver volumetric computed tomography results and liver weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postmortem volumetric computed tomography was conducted on cadavers

  14. Asymptotic Dynamics of Monopole Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R

    2015-01-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  15. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Toyozato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25], we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space–time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009 [23].

  16. Deep endometriosis of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Świder-Musielak, Joanna; Wójcicka, Małgorzata; Łyczywek, Anna; Skrzypek, Maciej; Waliszewski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a case of deep intestinal endometriosis in a 27-year-old woman who complained of dysmenorrhea and infertility. The diagnostic process included ultrasonography as well as colonoscopy, barium enema and CT imaging. Because of the presence of two distant changes which involved nearly the full thickness of the rectal wall and the major part of its circumference, the decision to perform an anterior rectal resection with a simultaneous retroperitoneal colorectostomy was made. The Knight technique was implemented. The surgery involved the anterior rectal resection, the transverse rectal stump closure by use of a stapling device (TA50), and the creation of colorectal circular anastomosis with the CEEA 31 stapler.

  17. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-08-02

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Colon targeted curcumin delivery using guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Edwin J; Anil, Singhal; Ahmad, Showkat; Daud, Anwar

    2010-06-01

    Curcumin is used in the treatment of colon cancer, but its very poor absorption in the upper part of the GIT is a major concern. As a site for drug delivery, the colon offers a near neutral pH, reduced digestive enzymatic activity, a long transit time and an increased responsiveness to absorption enhancers. The aim of the present study was to identify a suitable polymer (guar gum) based matrix tablet for curcumin with sufficient mechanical strength and promising in vitro mouth-to-colon release profile. Three formulations of curcumin were prepared using varying concentrations of guar gum containing 50 mg curcumin by the wet granulation method. Tablets were subjected to evaluation by studying parameter like hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, and in-vitro drug release. In vitro drug release was evaluated using simulated stomach, intestinal and colonic fluids. The susceptibility of guar gum to colonic bacteria was also assessed by a drug release study with rat caecal contents. The 40% guar gum containing formulation (F-1) showed better drug release (91.1%) after 24 hours in the presence of rat caecal contents in comparison with the 50% guar gum containing formulation (F-2) (82.1%). Curcumin could, thus, be positively delivered to the colon for effective colon cancer treatment using guar gum.

  19. Matching colonic polyps using correlation optimized warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Yao, Jianhua; Petrick, Nicholas; Summers, Ronald M.

    2010-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) combined with a computer aided detection system has the potential for improving colonic polyp detection and increasing the use of CTC for colon cancer screening. In the clinical use of CTC, a true colonic polyp will be confirmed with high confidence if a radiologist can find it on both the supine and prone scans. To assist radiologists in CTC reading, we propose a new method for matching polyp findings on the supine and prone scans. The method performs a colon registration using four automatically identified anatomical salient points and correlation optimized warping (COW) of colon centerline features. We first exclude false positive detections using prediction information from a support vector machine (SVM) classifier committee to reduce initial false positive pairs. Then each remaining CAD detection is mapped to the other scan using COW technique applied to the distance along the centerline in each colon. In the last step, a new SVM classifier is applied to the candidate pair dataset to find true polyp pairs between supine and prone scans. Experimental results show that our method can improve the sensitivity to 0.87 at 4 false positive pairs per patient compared with 0.72 for a competing method that uses the normalized distance along the colon centerline (p<0.01).

  20. Two-dimensional and volumetric airway changes after bimaxillary surgery for class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Toraj; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Eshghpour, Majid; Kermani, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    Any change in maxilla and mandible position can alter the upper airway, and any decrease in the upper airway can cause sleep disorders. Thus, it is necessary to assess airway changes after repositioning of the maxilla and mandible during orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear and volumetric changes in the upper airway after bimaxillary surgery to correct class III malocclusion via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to identify correlations between linear and volumetric changes. This was a prospective cohort study. CBCTs from 10 class III patients were evaluated before surgery and three months after. The Wilcoxon one-sample test was used to evaluate the differences in measurements before and after surgery. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between linear and volumetric changes. The results show that the nasopharyngeal space increased significantly, and that this increase correlated with degree of maxillary advancement. No significant changes were found in volumes before and after surgery. A correlation was found between linear and volumetric oropharyngeal changes. Bimaxillary surgical correction of class III malocclusion did not cause statistically significant changes in the posterior airway space.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DETERMINATION OF VOLUMETRIC OUTPUT OF LUMBER FROM LOGS, CONTAINING SEVERAL QUALITY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikryukova E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we present a method of cutting logs, containing several quality areas. For this method, a mathematical model was developed to determine the volumetric output of lumber, which allows to determine the geometric dimensions of the lumber cut from the different quality areas separated concentric circles, depending on size and quality characteristics of logs

  2. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Duan, Jianghui [Medical School, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei [Department of Respiration Internal Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  3. Transplantation and Perfusion of Microvascular Fragments in a Rodent Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    options are available for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML). An important consideration that needs to be addressed for the development ...fibroblasts that underwent vascular and myogenic development in vitro resulted in substantial tissue perfusion when implanted in an abdominal defect...Greene AS (2000) Development of an implantable muscle stimulator: measurement of stimulated angiogenesis and poststimulus vessel regression

  4. Optical Addressing of Multi-Colour Photochromic Material Mixture for Volumetric Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuji; Shiraki, Atsushi; Naruse, Makoto; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to demonstrate that colour transformations in the volume of a photochromic material (PM) are induced at the intersections of two control light channels, one controlling PM colouration and the other controlling decolouration. Thus, PM colouration is induced by position selectivity, and therefore, a dynamic volumetric display may be realised using these two control lights. Moreover, a mixture of multiple PM types with different absorption properties exhibits different colours depending on the control light spectrum. Particularly, the spectrum management of the control light allows colour-selective colouration besides position selectivity. Therefore, a PM-based, full-colour volumetric display is realised. We experimentally construct a mixture of two PM types and validate the operating principles of such a volumetric display system. Our system is constructed simply by mixing multiple PM types; therefore, the display hardware structure is extremely simple, and the minimum size of a volume element can be as small as the size of a molecule. Volumetric displays can provide natural three-dimensional (3D) perception; therefore, the potential uses of our system include high-definition 3D visualisation for medical applications, architectural design, human–computer interactions, advertising, and entertainment.

  5. VOLUMETRIC METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF BEACHES VARIABILITY BASED ON GIS-TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dolotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In frame of cadastral beach evaluation the volumetric method of natural variability index is proposed. It base on spatial calculations with Cut-Fill method and volume accounting ofboththe common beach contour and specific areas for the each time.

  6. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S.; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where C

  7. Exploration of volumetric cerebral changes, with de micro-MRi, due to psychomotor exercise in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moës, Florian; Plenevaux, Alain; Becker, Guillaume; Tirelli, Ezio; Lespine, Louis-Ferdinand

    2015-01-01

    It's well know that exercise is good for health .In addition exercise has postive effects on cognition ,neurodegenerative disease and on mood. Some studies show that exercise has effect on brain so the aim of this study is to see if there are volumetric changes due to exercise or not.

  8. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual prospect

  9. Empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient for a rectangular internal-loop airlift bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...

  10. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI): are breath-hold and volumetric radiation therapy techniques useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.; Osman, S.O.; Hol, S.; Donkers, T.; Poortmans, P.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a selective group of patients accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) might be applied after conservative breast surgery to reduce the amount of irradiated healthy tissue. The role of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and voluntary moderately deep inspiration breath-hold (

  11. The NCS code of practice for the quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, Anton; Schuring, Danny; Arends, Mark P.; Vugts, Cornelia A. J. M.; Wolthaus, Jochem W. H.; Lotz, Heidi T.; Admiraal, Marjan; Louwe, Rob J. W.; Ollers, Michel C.; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the NCS (Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry) installed a subcommittee to develop guidelines for quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments. The report (published in 2015) has been written by Dutch medical physicists and has therefore, ine

  12. Development, Construction, and Operation of a Multisample Volumetric Apparatus for the Study of Gas Adsorption Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rui P. P. L.; Silva, Ricardo J. S.; Esteves, Isabel A. A. C.; Mota, Jose´ P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a simple volumetric adsorption apparatus is highlighted. The setup is inexpensive and provides a clear demonstration of gas phase adsorption concepts. The topic is suitable for undergraduate chemistry and chemical engineering students. Moreover, this unit can also provide quantitative data that can be used by young researchers…

  13. Real-time volumetric deformable models for surgery simulation using finite elements and condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Cotin, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of SD solid volumetric Finite Element models to surgery simulation. In particular it introduces three new ideas for solving the problem of achieving real-time performance for these models. The simulation system we have developed is described and we demonstrate...

  14. Automated volumetric grid generation for finite element modeling of human hand joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K.; Underhill, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rainsberger, R. [XYZ Scientific Applications, Inc., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We are developing techniques for finite element analysis of human joints. These techniques need to provide high quality results rapidly in order to be useful to a physician. The research presented here increases model quality and decreases user input time by automating the volumetric mesh generation step.

  15. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S.; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where

  16. Follow-up after gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: volumetric and axial control rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, F.C.A.; Hanssens, P.E.; Haren, A.E. van; Overbeeke, J.J. van; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prospective long-term follow-up study was conducted to evaluate the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. Both axial and volumetric measurements are used to determine tumor size during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Individual

  17. Species-specific contribution of volumetric growth and tissue convergence to posterior body elongation in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Ben; Duarte, Fernando; Lagadec, Ronan; Mazan, Sylvie; Nicolas, Jean-François; Hirsinger, Estelle

    2016-05-15

    Posterior body elongation is a widespread mechanism propelling the generation of the metazoan body plan. The posterior growth model predicts that a posterior growth zone generates sufficient tissue volume to elongate the posterior body. However, there are energy supply-related differences between vertebrates in the degree to which growth occurs concomitantly with embryogenesis. By applying a multi-scalar morphometric analysis in zebrafish embryos, we show that posterior body elongation is generated by an influx of cells from lateral regions, by convergence-extension of cells as they exit the tailbud, and finally by a late volumetric growth in the spinal cord and notochord. Importantly, the unsegmented region does not generate additional tissue volume. Fibroblast growth factor inhibition blocks tissue convergence rather than volumetric growth, showing that a conserved molecular mechanism can control convergent morphogenesis through different cell behaviours. Finally, via a comparative morphometric analysis in lamprey, dogfish, zebrafish and mouse, we propose that elongation via posterior volumetric growth is linked to increased energy supply and is associated with an overall increase in volumetric growth and elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290473683; van der Kleij, L A; Spijkerman, J M; Biessels, G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; Hendrikse, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266590268; Petersen, E T

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were perform

  19. Ni foam cathode enables high volumetric H2 production in a microbial electrolysis cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Valuable, “green” H2 can be produced with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To achieve a high volumetric production rate of high purity H2, a continuous flow MEC with an anion exchange membrane, a flow through bioanode and a flow through Ni foam cathode was constructed. At an electrical energy in

  20. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Thunnissen, E. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartemink, K.J. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R{sup 2} = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)