WorldWideScience

Sample records for volumes remained significantly

  1. On the volume of cremated remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722.......Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722....

  2. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty leads to significant biomechanical changes in the remaining rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perka Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective After reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA external and internal rotation will often remain restricted. A postoperative alteration of the biomechanics in the remaining cuff is discussed as a contributing factor to these functional deficits. Methods In this study, muscle moment arms as well as origin-to-insertion distance (OID were calculated using three-dimensional models of the shoulder derived from CT scans of seven cadaveric specimens. Results Moment arms for humeral rotation are significantly smaller for the cranial segments of SSC and all segments of TMIN in abduction angles of 30 degrees and above (p ≤ 0.05. Abduction moment arms were significantly decreased for all segments (p ≤ 0.002. OID was significantly smaller for all muscles at the 15 degree position (p ≤ 0.005, apart from the cranial SSC segment. Conclusions Reduced rotational moment arms in conjunction with the decrease of OID may be a possible explanation for the clinically observed impaired external and internal rotation.

  3. New discovery of submerged forest remains in Shenhu bay,Fujian Province, and its environmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianqiu; LIN Wenqun; ZHAO Xitao; WAN Shaohong; YU Mingtong

    2003-01-01

    The authors have made a further investigation on the tidal-zone paleoforest remains found in the Shenhu bay, Fujian Province. By surveying (scale of 1 : 500) and numbering of the remains, 65 tree trunks were found. They are relatively concentrated in three different regions from south to north. Their growing ages ranged from 45 a to 100 a.22 ancient trunks' sections with low degree of carbonization show that the paleoforest was composed of Keteleeria Carr.,Morus L. and Gleditsia L. 14C dating shows that the paleoforest was living in 9 420 6760 aBP. Later it stopped developing and was buried by the alluvial aggradation caused by the sea level rise.

  4. Digital forensic osteology: morphological sexing of skeletal remains using volume-rendered cranial CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Kettner, Mattias; Gehl, Axel; Verhoff, M A

    2010-02-25

    Because of the increasing lack of recent bone collections, ethical issues concerning maceration procedures, and progress in radiological imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) scans offer an alternative to traditional anthropological bone collection. The present study examined volume-rendered cranial CT (CCT) scans from 50 crania to morphologically evaluate sex characteristics. CCT scans were performed and scored by two teams (Teams A and B) of two examiners each (2x50=100 examinations) to evaluate the occurrence and/or absence of morphological traits. Altogether, 60 of 100 crania (31 Team A+29 Team B) crania were determined to be male, and 40 (19 Team A+21 Team B) were determined to be female when using the scoring system adapted from Knussmann. These results imply a sex determination accuracy rate of 96%. Only in one case was recalculation of weighting factors necessary to determine one additional correct classification. As a single parameter, arcus superciliaris evaluation permitted the most accurate sex determination (female, 84.2%; male, 85.5%). No significant difference in accuracy rates was observed between the two sexes (p<0.65, chi(2)=0.39, Fisher's exact test). Interobserver bias rates for both teams were very low (kappa=0.83). The present study shows that volume-rendered CCT images are suitable for the collection of data concerning morphologic sex determination of skulls. Thus, this method may be helpful in both actual forensic casework and the systematic reevaluation and improvement of classical anthropological methods and their adaptation to changing populations.

  5. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  6. On the volume of cremated remains - a comparative study of archaeologically recovered cremated bone volume as measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography and by Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, L.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Weight but occasionally also the volume of cremated human remains may often be the primary basis for interpreting the many stages involved in past cremation ceremonies. However, methods used for describing volume for cremated remains are extremely varying and biased by many factors. Here we...... bodies probably are represented more often than discussed in osteoarchaeology. Hence, this contests many suppositions on ritual selection of cremated human remains in prehistoric and early historical archaeology. A simple descriptive Fragmentation Index for cremated remains is further suggested....... evaluate different methods for calculating and describing volume and propose a method for estimating the original prehistoric post-cremation weight. Our data suggests that low cremation weights reported for archaeologically recovered cremated remains are markedly underestimated, and that whole cremated...

  7. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions.

  8. The significance of caudate volume for age-related associative memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E; Toepper, M; Gebhardt, H; Gallhofer, B; Sammer, G

    2015-10-05

    Aging comes along with reduced gray matter (GM) volume in several cerebral areas and with cognitive performance decline in different cognitive domains. Moreover, regional GM volume is linked to specific cognitive sub processes in older adults. However, it remains unclear which regional changes in older individuals are directly associated with decreased cognitive performance. Moreover, most of the studies on this topic focused on hippocampal and prefrontal brain regions and their relation to memory and executive functioning. Interestingly, there are only a few studies that reported an association between striatal brain volume and cognitive performance. This is insofar surprising that striatal structures are (1) highly affected by age and (2) involved in different neural circuits that serve intact cognition. To address these issues, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze GM volume in 18 younger and 18 older adults. Moreover, several neuropsychological tests from different neuropsychological test batteries were applied to assess a broad range of cognitive domains. Older adults showed less GM volume than younger adults within frontal, striatal, and cerebellar brain regions. In the group of older adults, significant correlations were found between striatal GM volume and memory performance and between prefrontal/temporal GM volume and executive functioning. The only direct overlap between brain regions associated with regional atrophy and cognitive performance in older adults was found for the right caudate: older adults showed reduced caudate volume relative to younger adults. Moreover, caudate volume was positively correlated with associative memory accuracy in older adults and older adults showed poorer performances than younger adults in the respective associative memory task. Taken together, the current findings indicate the relevance of the caudate for associative memory decline in the aging brain.

  9. Assessing high altitude glacier volume change and remaining thickness using cost-efficient scientific techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperature and change in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to an additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier volume losses and on current ice thickness. We show how volume changes can be accurately estimated in remote areas using readily available low-cost digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. They were used for estimating the volume changes over the Coropuna glacier (Peru from 1955 to 2002. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a georadar coupled with Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regressions techniques. Computers were modified to resists to high altitude (6500 m temperatures and low pressure conditions. The results delineated a significant glacier volume loss and provided an estimate of the remaining ice. It provided the scientific evidence needed by local Peruvian NGO, COPASA, and the German Cooperation Program in order to alert local governments and communities and for enforcing new climate change adaptation policies.

  10. The United States Remains Unprepared for Oil Import Disruptions. Volume II. Detailed Review of Current Emergency Programs and Alternative Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-29

    Conservation Act ERA Economic Regulatory Administration ERDO Emergency Reserve Drawdown Obligation ESS Emergency Sharing System ESSD Emergency Strategies and...a fraction of the base period volume. Each prime supplier (a refiner or wholesaler who first transports gasoline into a State) generally must use a...that State. Each prime supplier must set aside 5 percent of supply for this purpose. 1/See U.S. General Accounting Office, "Gasoline Allocation A Chaotic

  11. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.; Isaacs, S.; Fraser, R.C.; Commerford, P.J.; Uys, C.J.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Barnard, C.N.

    1985-02-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts.

  12. Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation: a broad impact parasitological disease that still remains a significant challenge for the egg-laying industry in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigognault Flochlay, Annie; Thomas, Emmanuel; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations. The main objective of the current work was to review the factors contributing to this growing threat and to discuss their recent development in Europe. We conclude that effective and sustainable treatment approach to control poultry red mite infestation is urgently required, included integrated pest management.

  13. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator “a”. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator “a” can reflect intracranial conditions. Methods Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20–25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter “a”. Results The overall mean for indicator “a” was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of “a” in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (phydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator “a” is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume pressure indicator. PMID:27723794

  14. Plant crop remains from the outer burial pit of the Han Yangling Mausoleum and their significance to Early Western Han agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoYan; LIU ChangJiang; ZHANG JianPing; YANG WuZhan; ZHANG XiaoHu; L(U) HouYuan

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of carbonized plant remains were discovered in one of the outer burial pits of the Han Yangling Mausoleum, which was built more than 2000 years ago for the Jing Emperor, Liu, Qi (188-141 cal a BC), the fourth emperor of the Western Han Dynasty. The remains are identified by phytolith analysis and macrofossil morphological features. Seeds from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), rice (Oryza sativa) and chenopod (possible Chenopodium giganteum) are identified, suggesting that these four crops might have been the staple plant foods in the capital area (Guanzhong area), Shaanxi Province during the Early Western Han Dynasty. Chenopods were often considered as weeds since they have only been rarely found as carbonized seeds in prehistoric sites. This is the first time such a large amount of seeds has been found at a site, which provides strong material evidence for chenopod cultivation with a long history in China. Wheat was thought to be promoted and popularized in the Guanzhong area since the Wu Emporor, Liu, Che (156-87 cal a BC), the fifth emperor of the Western Han Dynasty. No wheat was found at this site, which supports the historical document record that wheat was still secondary in the diet and agrarian economy before the Wu Emperor's reign.

  15. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  16. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Illinois: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Illinois. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Illinois oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Illinois and the nation as a whole.

  17. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Texas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Texas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Texas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Texas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Texas and the nation as a whole.

  18. Estimation of clinically significant prostate volumes by digital rectal examination: a comparative prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2011-12-01

    Reliable quantification of prostate volume is important to correctly select patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) most likely to benefit from medical therapy [e.g. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs)] and in selecting appropriate surgical approach. We aim to determine the reliability of digital rectal examination (DRE) in estimation of prostate volume which may be helpful in patient selection for 5-ARIs therapy.

  19. VARIATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF C-MYC PROTEIN IN RAT CARDIAC VOLUME-OVERLOAD HYP ERTROPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华胜; 马爱群; 王一理; 刘勇; 李恒力; 田红燕

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of c-myc protein, which was chosen as the response indicator to volume-overload. Methods The time and spatial course of c-myc protein expressi on on the model of rat cardiac volume-overload hyper trophy was examined by immunohistochemical study. Results The immunohistochemica l study indicated the expression of c-myc protein was increased obviously at 4 -6 hours (62.73%) than that of control (45.41%, P<0.01) after the volume-o verload, then decreased gradually along with development of volume-overload hyp ertrophy and was decreased extremely at 5 months(r=-0.514,P<0.01).Conclusion There are disorders in the signal transduction pathways governing the hypertrophic respon se of cardiomyocytes in hypertrophic myocardium. C-myc gene and the product of it may be only the promoter gene of myocardial hypertrophy. Once switching on, c-myc gene and the product of it do not act anymore;While it may be that c-my c gene and the product of it increased following with myocardial hypertrophy, an d have not direct relation to the occurrence and development of myocardial hyper trophy.

  20. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS).

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved; Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993: Volume 12, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  2. Paradoxical Heart Failure Precipitated by Profound Dehydration: Intraventricular Dynamic Obstruction and Significant Mitral Regurgitation in a Volume-Depleted Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin; Mun, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Eun Young

    2013-01-01

    Occurrence of dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is not infrequent in critically ill patients, and it is associated with potential danger. Here, we report a case of transient heart failure with hemodynamic deterioration paradoxically induced by extreme dehydration. This article describes clinical features of the patient and echocardiographic findings of dynamic LVOT obstruction and significant mitral regurgitation caused by systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in a volume-depleted heart. PMID:23709446

  3. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lorraine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993: Volume 12, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Significant correlation between spleen volume and thrombocytopenia in liver transplant patients: a concept for predicting persistent thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masahiro; Ishifuro, Minoru; Ide, Kentaro; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy with or without ribavirin treatment is well established as a standard antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, susceptibility to thrombocytopenia is a major obstacle for initiating or continuing this therapy, particularly in liver transplant (LTx) recipients with HCV. Studies have reported that splenectomy performed concurrently with LTx is a feasible strategy for conditioning patients for anti-HCV IFN therapy. However, the relationship between the severity of splenomegaly and alterations in the blood cytopenia in LTx recipients remains to be clarified. Here, we analyzed the relationship between spleen volume (SV) and thrombocytopenia in 45 patients who underwent LTx at Hiroshima University Hospital. The extent of pre-LTx splenomegaly [the SV to body surface area (BSA) ratio in an individual] was inversely correlated with both the post-LTx white blood cell count and platelet (PLT) count (P or= 400), persistent thrombocytopenia is predictable after LTx.

  6. Moderate Intensity Resistance Training Significantly Elevates Testosterone following Upper Body and Lower Body Bouts When Total Volume is Held Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rietjens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is unknown whether resistance training intensity or total volume of work affects the acute testosterone response to a greater extent. Purpose: Therefore, the circulating testosterone response was investigated following four resistance training protocols where total volume of work was held constant: moderate intensity (70% 1RM upper body (bench press, bent barbell row, and military press, moderate intensity lower body (squat and deadlift, high intensity (90% 1RM upper body, high intensity lower body. Methods: Total volume of work performed by each participant between protocols was maintained by adjusting the number of sets and or repetitions performed. Ten healthy, resistance trained men volunteered, and performed exercise protocols on separate days in a counterbalanced order. Capillary blood was obtained via finger stick at baseline (pre, immediately following the exercise session (post, and 1h post for the determination of testosterone concentration. Data were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA and significance was accepted at p≤ 0.05. Results: Both moderate intensity resistance protocols (upper and lower body significantly increased testosterone concentration (p=0.026, and p=0.024 respectively, whereas the high intensity protocols elevated testosterone but failed to achieve significance (upper p=0.272, lower p=0.658. No difference was noted in post session testosterone concentration between upper and lower body protocols for either moderate (p=0.248 or high intensity (p=0.990. Conclusion: This may be useful for novice resistance trained individuals because it provides evidence that moderate intensity is sufficient to increase testosterone compared to high intensity protocols that could be associated with a greater risk of injury. Keywords: hormone response, equal total work, high intensity protocol

  7. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-05-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s(-1) and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures.

  8. Improving CCTA-based lesions' hemodynamic significance assessment by accounting for partial volume modeling in automatic coronary lumen segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, Moti; Nickisch, Hannes; Prevrhal, Sven; Schmitt, Holger; Vembar, Mani; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Donnelly, Patrick; Goshen, Liran

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the potential added benefit of accounting for partial volume effects (PVE) in an automatic coronary lumen segmentation algorithm that is used to determine the hemodynamic significance of a coronary artery stenosis from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Two sets of data were used in our work: (a) multivendor CCTA datasets of 18 subjects from the MICCAI 2012 challenge with automatically generated centerlines and 3 reference segmentations of 78 coronary segments and (b) additional CCTA datasets of 97 subjects with 132 coronary lesions that had invasive reference standard FFR measurements. We extracted the coronary artery centerlines for the 97 datasets by an automated software program followed by manual correction if required. An automatic machine-learning-based algorithm segmented the coronary tree with and without accounting for the PVE. We obtained CCTA-based FFR measurements using a flow simulation in the coronary trees that were generated by the automatic algorithm with and without accounting for PVE. We assessed the potential added value of PVE integration as a part of the automatic coronary lumen segmentation algorithm by means of segmentation accuracy using the MICCAI 2012 challenge framework and by means of flow simulation overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and the receiver operated characteristic (ROC) area under the curve. We also evaluated the potential benefit of accounting for PVE in automatic segmentation for flow simulation for lesions that were diagnosed as obstructive based on CCTA which could have indicated a need for an invasive exam and revascularization. Our segmentation algorithm improves the maximal surface distance error by ~39% compared to previously published method on the 18 datasets from the MICCAI 2012 challenge with comparable Dice and mean surface distance. Results with and without accounting for PVE were comparable. In contrast

  9. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  10. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  11. Prognostic significance of metabolic tumor volume measured by {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in operable primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jahae; Yoo, Su Woong; Kang, Sae Ryung; Cho, Sang Geon; Oh, Jong Ryool; Chong, Ari; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung; Yoon, Jung Han; Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    We investigated whether PET indices measured by {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can predict prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer. We reviewed 53 patients with operable primary breast cancer who underwent pretreatment FDG PET/CT. PET indices, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV), were measured in the primary breast tumor (P), metastatic lymph nodes (N) and total tumor (T). The cox proportional hazards model was used with age, tumor size, clinical lymph node status, method od of surgery, presence or absence of neoadjuvant chemo therapy, histological type, histological grade, hormone grade, hormone receptors and HER2 status to predict disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow up period was 50 months (range, 17 73 months), during which 17 patients had recurrent disease and nine of whom died. The univariate analysis showed that high SUV of N (N{sup SUV,} =0.011), MTV of N (N{sup MTV,} =0.011) and MTV of T (T{sup MTV,} =0.045) as well as high histological grade (=0.008), negative estrogen ( =0.045) and negative progesterone ( =0.029) receptor status were associated with shorter DFS. High N{sup SUV(}=0.035) and N{sup MTV(} =0.035) and T{sup MTV(}=0.035)as well as high histological grade (=0.012) and negative estrogen receptor status ( =0.009)were associated with shorted OS. N{sup SUV,} N{sup MTVa}nd T{sup MTw}ere found to be significantly associated with high histological grade ( =0.005). However, those failed to be statistically significant prognostic factors on multivariate analysis PET indices seem to be useful in the preoperative evaluation of prognosis in patients with operable primary breast cancer, N{sup SUV,} N{sup MTVa}nd T{sup MTVm}ight be considerable factors associated with patient outcome in operable breast cancer.

  12. Prognostic significance of standardized uptake value and metabolic tumour volume on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Won; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV) measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers. However, their prognostic significance in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been investigated in only a few studies and with small cohorts. In the present study we evaluated the ability of SUV, MTV, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict recurrence and survival outcomes in OPSCC. The study included 221 patients with OPSCC who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging and received definitive treatment at our tertiary referral centre. The PET imaging parameters SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were measured in primary tumours with focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Clinical and imaging variables significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Overall 5-year OS and DFS rates were 72.0 % and 79.5 %, respectively, during a median follow-up of 61 months (range 18 - 122 months). The cut-off values of tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG for prediction of DFS were 7.55, 6.80, 11.06 mL and 78.56 g, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that age >60 years, advanced tumour stage, and high tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were significantly associated with decreased OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each). Age, tumour SUV{sub max} and MTV remained independent variables for OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each) in the multivariate analyses. SUV{sub max} and MTV measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be useful in predicting the clinical outcomes in OPSCC patients. This study investigated the clinical prognostic value of imaging parameters from pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in 221 patients who underwent definitive treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. High maximum standardized

  13. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  14. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  15. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public

  16. The Compositional Legacy : Significant, contemporary, compositional techniques as lateral drivers to new creativity, evidenced within a substantial portfolio of original compositions : Volume 1 of 2 volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Scanlon, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis cites the identification of significant, contemporary, compositional techniques and their use as lateral drivers in developing new creativity. The process involves the preliminary definition of a position of contributory perspective and thus, of a standpoint and outlook which guides the subsequent re-interpretations, transformations, fusions and manipulations of the selected techniques. The consequent explorations, shaped by new developments, current context, practic...

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  19. Paradoxical Heart Failure Precipitated by Profound Dehydration: Intraventricular Dynamic Obstruction and Significant Mitral Regurgitation in a Volume-Depleted Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongmin; Mun, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Eun Young; Moon, Jeonggeun

    2013-01-01

    Occurrence of dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is not infrequent in critically ill patients, and it is associated with potential danger. Here, we report a case of transient heart failure with hemodynamic deterioration paradoxically induced by extreme dehydration. This article describes clinical features of the patient and echocardiographic findings of dynamic LVOT obstruction and significant mitral regurgitation caused by systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve i...

  20. Significant Reduction in Mitral Regurgitation Volume Is the Main Contributor for Increase in Systolic Forward Flow in Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Hemodynamic Analysis Using Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Yuji; Shibayama, Kentaro; Mihara, Hirotsugu; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Berdejo, Javier; Arsanjani, Reza; Siegel, Robert; Chakravarty, Tarun; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Makkar, Raj R; Shiota, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Reduction in mitral regurgitation (MR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has previously been reported. However, the hemodynamic effects of TAVR in patients with MR have not been previously evaluated. We analyzed 571 patients who underwent TAVR from December 2010 to December 2013. We studied 20 patients with moderate or severe preprocedural functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) who also had a follow-up transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination between 90 and 360 days (median 213 days) after TAVR (Significant FMR Group). We also studied age- and gender-matched 20 patients with mild or lesser MR (Nonsignificant MR Group). Left ventricular functional measurements were assessed using echocardiography before and after TAVR. Left ventricular outflow tract stroke volume measurements using pulsed-wave Doppler (SVLVOT ) were calculated as a representative of systolic forward flow, and stroke volume by the Simpson's method (SVSimpson ) was calculated as a parameter of degree of LV contraction. MR grade improved in 22 of 40 patients after TAVR. In both groups, BNP level decreased, left ventricular ejection fraction increased, and SVLVOT increased after TAVR. SVSimpson increased in the Nonsignificant MR Group and remained unchanged in the Significant FMR Group. Vena contracta width of MR (MRVC) decreased in the Significant FMR Group. Using multivariable analysis in the Significant FMR Group, the increase in SVLVOT significantly correlated with the decrease in MRVC (P FMR. In these patients, increase in SVLVOT after TAVR was associated with decrease in severity of MR. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, January--June 1997; Volume 16, Number 1, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January--June 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  7. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  8. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  9. Differential expression and prognostic significance of GLUT1 according to histologic type of non-small-cell lung cancer and its association with volume-dependent parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Seong Yong

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression, together with volume-based(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) parameters, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and examined the prognostic significance of those parameters according to its histologic subtype. A total of 269 patients, who underwent surgical resection for NSCLC, were reviewed retrospectively. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) values were measured by preoperative (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography. GLUT1 and CAIX expression was evaluated using immunohistochemical method. The mean MTV and TLG values were 30.0±57.1 and 165.4±361.3, respectively, and were significantly higher in patients with squamous cell carcinoma than with adenocarcinoma (p=0.047 for MTV; p=0.042 for TLG). GLUT1 expression was identified in 99% of squamous cell carcinoma and 50% of adenocarcinoma patients. MTV and TLG values were significantly higher in GLUT1-positive than GLUT-negative adenocarcinomas; however, CAIX expression did not show this pattern. GLUT1-positive adenocarcinoma patients had a lower OS than GLUT1-negative patients (p<0.001), whereas CAIX-positive and CAIX-negative patients showed similar OS rates (p=0.226). Patients with high MTV and TLG values showed lower OS rates than those with low MTV and TLG values. Multivariate analysis showed that GLUT1 positivity was an independent risk factor for a lower OS rate in lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio=2.574, p=0.016). GLUT1 expression was associated with micropapillary/solid histology, lymphovascular invasion, and advanced pTNM stage. MTV and TLG values, and GLUT1 expression, significantly differed between patients with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. High GLUT1 expression levels were significantly associated with MTV and TLG values and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma. Copyright

  10. Organic Chemicals Remain High Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early April 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish, and with the restart of phenol/acetone units in Sinopec Beijing Yanhua Petrochemical being ahead of schedule, there were few trading actions in the market, and the price of phenol dropped considerably afterwards.

  11. Alarms Remain,Efforts Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ China must come to terms with the fact that it has quality problems in at least 1% of its products.Though there is no country in the world that can completely avoid problems,given the responsible role China plays on the intemational stage,China should stop to take a look at itself and find ways to improve.China must examine herself carefully,when looking at the production chain;we have to keep aware that some alarms still remain.

  12. Prognostic significance and predictive performance of volume-based parameters of F-18 FDG PET/CT in squamous cell head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Sager

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metabolic tumor volume (MTV represents tumor burden, which shows F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and has a potential value in predicting short-term outcome and disease-free survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

  13. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  14. [Significance of extravascular lung water index, pulmonary vascular permeability index, and in- trathoracic blood volume index in the differential diagnosis of burn-induced pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Li; Jiajun, Sheng; Guangyi, Wang; Kaiyang, Lyu; Jing, Qin; Gongcheng, Liu; Bing, Ma; Shichu, Xiao; Shihui, Zhu

    2015-06-01

    To appraise the significance of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI), and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) in the differential diagnosis of the type of burn-induced pulmonary edema. The clinical data of 38 patients, with severe burn hospitalized in our burn ICU from December 2011 to September 2014 suffering from the complication of pulmonary edema within one week post burn and treated with mechanical ventilation accompanied by pulse contour cardiac output monitoring, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into lung injury group ( L, n = 17) and hydrostatic group (H, n = 21) according to the diagnosis of pulmonary edema. EVLWI, PVPI, ITBVI, oxygenation index, and lung injury score ( LIS) were compared between two groups, and the correlations among the former four indexes and the correlations between each of the former three indexes and types of pulmonary edema were analyzed. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson correlation test, and accuracy test [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve]. There was no statistically significant difference in EVLWI between group L and group H, respectively (12.9 ± 3.1) and (12.1 ± 2.1) mL/kg, U = 159.5, P > 0.05. The PVPI and LIS of patients in group L were respectively 2.6 ± 0.5 and (2.1 ± 0.6) points, and they were significantly higher than those in group H [1.4 ± 0.3 and (1.0 ± 0.6) points, with U values respectively 4.5 and 36.5, P values below 0.01]. The ITBVI and oxygenation index of patients in group L were respectively (911 197) mL/m2 and (136 ± 69) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), which were significantly lower than those in group H [(1,305 ± 168) mL/m2 and (212 ± 60) mmHg, with U values respectively 21.5 and 70.5, P values below 0.01]. In group L, there was obviously positive correlation between EVLWI and PVPI, or EVLWI and ITBVI (with r values respectively 0.553 and 0.807, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and

  15. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  16. Hidradenitis suppurativa: a disease of the absent sebaceous gland? Sebaceous gland number and volume are significantly reduced in uninvolved hair follicles from patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, S; Fiehn, A M; Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup;

    2011-01-01

    in paraffin and stained with haematoxylin and eosin prior to volume estimation using the Cavalieri principle. RESULTS: Sebaceous gland tissue could be visualized in only 10 of 15 suitable hair follicle biopsies from patients with HS but was present in all biopsies from healthy controls (P = 0·05) and the mean...

  17. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  18. Significance and clinical value of the transitional zone volume (TZV or index (TZI in assessing the degree of lower urinary tract obstruction: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Ghoneimy

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Estimating the transition zone volume during TRUS is a reasonable way to obtain the required information about the TZI. Calculating the TZI could not be directly correlated with any of the different parameters, making the clinical value of such an index questionable. The observation that the obstructed and the retention groups both had a TZI above 0.5 deserves further research that can help in the classification of patients into obstructed and non-obstructed.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail.

  20. A novel, volumizing cosmetic formulation significantly improves the appearance of target Glabellar lines, nasolabial folds, and crow's feet in a double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Patricia K; Edison, Brenda L; Weinkauf, Ronni L; Green, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    Facial lines and wrinkles are caused by many factors including constant exposure to external elements, such as UV rays, as well as the dynamic nature of facial expression. Many cosmetic products and procedures provide global improvement to aging skin, whereas injectable therapies are frequently utilized to diminish specific, target wrinkles. Despite their broad availability, some patients are unwilling to undergo injectables and would benefit from an effective topical option. A noninvasive option to volumize target wrinkle areas could also extend benefits of commonly used cosmetic anti-aging products. To this end, a two-step formulation containing the novel, cosmetic anti-aging ingredient, N-acetyl tyrosinamide, was developed for use on targeted wrinkle areas. The tolerability and efficacy of the serum plus cream were tested for 16 weeks in women with moderate facial photodamage on predetermined wrinkle areas (glabellar lines, nasolabial folds, under eye lines, and lateral canthal (crow's feet) wrinkles) in a single-center, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, clinical trial. Seventy women (47 Active group, 23 Vehicle group) completed the study. Digital photography, clinical grading, ultrasound and self-assessment scores confirmed improvement to wrinkle areas. The topical cosmetic formulation was statistically superior (Pcosmetic formulation reduced the appearance of wrinkles and increased skin elasticity thus providing an effective anti-aging option for target wrinkle areas. This study suggests that in addition to its use as monotherapy for reducing targeted lines and wrinkles this cosmetic formulation may be also serve as an adjuvant to injectable therapies.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995. Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995: Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  6. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  7. Mammalian Remains from Indian Sites on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY, of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde at Leiden, entrusted me with the identification of some animal remains collected from Indian sites on Aruba by Professor J. P. B. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG in 1923. These remains relate for the most part to marine turtles (Che

  8. Obtaining Copyright Permission to Digitize Published Works Remains a Significant Barrier. A review of: George, Carole A. “Testing the Barriers to Digital Libraries: A Study Seeking Copyright Permission to Digitize Published Works.” New Library World 106.1214/1215 (2005: 332-42.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Haigh

    2006-06-01

    , while 46% granted permission. (Note: these percentage figures appear to be erroneously reversed in Table 1 of George’s article. Therefore, of the overall working sample of 273 titles, permission to digitize was obtained for only 24% of the titles. A substantial portion of the permissions (41 of 66, or 62% carried some restriction. This represents 15% of the total working sample. Only a few restriction requests were deemed too great to make use of the permission. Commercial publishers who made up 58% of the working sample granted permission at the lowest rate (13%. Response time averaged three months from the time the initial letter was sent until a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response was received. Negative responses averaged a bit longer than positive responses (101 days to 124 days. However, some of this time was attributable to delays in issuing follow-up or redirected request letters (a step required in 60% of cases, owing to the limited staff resources at Carnegie Mellon. The copyright ownership had changed in 23% of the sample, requiring more than one and up to three different addresses to be contacted before a response was received or the effort was terminated. Conclusions – The study concluded that the permission rate would remain low unless additional efforts were made in the permission-seeking process (e.g., personal contacts in addition to letters and emails, or unless more selective approaches were employed (e.g., targeting non-commercial publishers. It also concluded that the process to seek copyright permissions was neither quick nor easy, suggesting the need for dedicated staff time and a readily accessible database of publisher contact information. As a result, subsequent projects have improved their permission seeking process, focusing on more noncommercial publishers or older publication dates, and asking publishers for blanket consent for all of their out-of-print titles.

  9. Copper Scrap Industry Remained in Cold Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2012,domestic copper scrap enterprises entered"winter"period,this year the situation further worsened.According to survey,most medium to small sized copper scrap trading enterprises have either closed down,transferred to other businesses,or reduced trading volume,though large trading

  10. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  11. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-07-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  12. Coastal structural remains on the east coast of India: Evidence of maritime activities and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    such as dockyards, jetties, lighthouses, wharves and warehouses related to maritime activities of India. Lighthouses, warehouses and wharves have been located at Poompuhar, Arikamedu, Dharanikota, Chilika and Mahabalipuram on the east coast of India. Similarly...

  13. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  14. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  15. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  16. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  17. The case for fencing remains intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  18. Removing the remaining ridges in fingerprint segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; ZHANG Jian-ming; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min; HU Chun-feng

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint segmentation is an important step in fingerprint recognition and is usually aimed to identify non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions and exclude them as background so as to reduce the time expenditure of image processing and avoid detecting false features. In high and in low quality ridge regions, often are some remaining ridges which are the afterimages of the previously scanned finger and are expected to be excluded from the foreground. However, existing segmentation methods generally do not take the case into consideration, and often, the remaining ridge regions are falsely classified as foreground by segmentation algorithm with spurious features produced erroneously including unrecoverable regions as foreground. This paper proposes two steps for fingerprint segmentation aimed at removing the remaining ridge region from the foreground. The non-ridge regions and unrecoverable low quality ridge regions are removed as background in the first step, and then the foreground produced by the first step is further analyzed for possible remove of the remaining ridge region. The proposed method proved effective in avoiding detecting false ridges and in improving minutiae detection.

  19. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  20. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  1. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  2. Mass Remaining During Evaporation of Sessile Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    to> \\fyj Greek Symbols P Contact angle of sessile drop . n Droplet shape factor = h/d 6 Non-dimensional time = t/i V Air kinematic viscosity...factor n, = h / d (where h = maximum height of the drop ), which can also be directly related to the contact angle (P) of the drop , that is r| = (l-cos(P...three drop size (initial mass or volume) conditions with all other conditions the same. These runs have a constant contact angle , (3 = 16.5° ± 1.5

  3. Remaining Phosphorus Estimate Through Multiple Regression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. E. ALVES; A. LAVORENTI

    2006-01-01

    The remaining phosphorus (Prem), P concentration that remains in solution after shaking soil with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 containing 60 μg mL-1 P, is a very useful index for studies related to the chemistry of variable charge soils. Although the Prem determination is a simple procedure, the possibility of estimating accurate values of this index from easily and/or routinely determined soil properties can be very useful for practical purposes. The present research evaluated the Premestimation through multiple regression analysis in which routinely determined soil chemical data, soil clay content and soil pH measured in 1 mol L-1 NaF (pHNaF) figured as Prem predictor variables. The Prem can be estimated with acceptable accuracy using the above-mentioned approach, and PHNaF not only substitutes for clay content as a predictor variable but also confers more accuracy to the Prem estimates.

  4. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observ.......2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis....

  5. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  6. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  7. Why do some cores remain starless ?

    CERN Document Server

    Anathpindika, S

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditions that could render a core starless(in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. The density profile of a typical core extracted from an earlier simulation developed to study core-formation in a molecular cloud was used for the purpose. We demonstrate - (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of $\\sim 10^{5}$ years. Those that remained starless did briefly acquire a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the density profile of a unstable Bonnor Ebert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three of our test cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16 and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. On the contrary B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other cores viz. B68, ...

  8. Protection of the remaining Rainwater Basins Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report begins with a review of the significant waterfowl values of the Basins wetlands, and it points out how those values have been degraded significantly by...

  9. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  10. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  11. Bioequivalence accomplishments, ongoing initiatives, and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M N

    2014-02-01

    Although bioequivalence (BE) concepts date back to the late 1960s, there has been a steady evolution in the tools applied to the assessment of product comparability. Despite these advancements, we continue to face a multitude of unresolved challenges. Several of these challenges are unique to veterinary medicine due to issues such as multiple species approvals, unique dosage forms (e.g., intramammary infusion and medicated premixes), physiological challenges (e.g., limitations in blood volume and stress reactions), and the need to evaluate product equivalence for products intended to release drug over a duration of months. Thus, while in some instances, we can adopt advancements implemented by our human health counterparts but in other situations, we need to pioneer our own method for resolving these challenges. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an update on recent advances, achievements, and ongoing initiatives associated with the assessment of product BE in veterinary medicine. This review reflects the highlights of a presentation given at the 2012 meeting of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. Published (2013). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  13. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus: Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ali Yousef Hussein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral orchidectomy (UO is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05. The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I (where the scrotum was left opened revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The testis showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  15. Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL - Probabilistic Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Suhir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability evaluations and assurances cannot be delayed until the device (system is fabricated and put into operation. Reliability of an electronic product should be conceived at the early stages of its design; implemented during manufacturing; evaluated (considering customer requirements and the existing specifications, by electrical, optical and mechanical measurements and testing; checked (screened during manufacturing (fabrication; and, if necessary and appropriate, maintained in the field during the product’s operation Simple and physically meaningful probabilistic predictive model is suggested for the evaluation of the remaining useful lifetime (RUL of an electronic device (system after an appreciable deviation from its normal operation conditions has been detected, and the increase in the failure rate and the change in the configuration of the wear-out portion of the bathtub has been assessed. The general concepts are illustrated by numerical examples. The model can be employed, along with other PHM forecasting and interfering tools and means, to evaluate and to maintain the high level of the reliability (probability of non-failure of a device (system at the operation stage of its lifetime.

  16. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  17. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  18. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  19. Turbidite plays` immaturity means big potential remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettingill, H.S. [Repsol Exploracion SA, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-05

    The international exploration and production industry is increasingly focusing on deepwater plays. Turbidites are not the only reservoir type that occurs in deepwater frontiers, but they are the primary reservoir type of those plays. A worldwide data base assembled from published information on 925 fields and discoveries with deepwater clastic reservoirs (turbidites sensu lato) has been employed to investigate the large-scale exploration and production trends. Coverage of the Former Soviet Union, China, and the Indian subcontinent has been minor, but with the large data base of fields and discoveries from the rest of the world, the broad conclusions should remain valid. This article describes the global turbidite play in terms of: (1) basins of the world where turbidite fields have been discovered; (2) the five largest basins in terms of total discovered resources; and (3) a summary of trap type, which is a critical geological factor in turbidite fields. The second article will summarize a population of the world`s 43 largest turbidite fields and discoveries.

  20. Working conditions remain stable in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Hooftman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant changes in the national questionnaires on work and health, the quality of work as well as health complaints in the Netherlands appear to be relatively stable. Pace of work seems to be on the increase again and more people are working in excess of their contractual hours. Notwiths

  1. Fossil remains of fungi, algae and other organisms from Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fungal remains and other fossils from Cainophytic strata of Jamaica have been compared with species described in mycological and algological publications. Only in a few cases morphologically related taxons have been encountered. The stratigraphie significance of these Jamaican fossils is unknown as

  2. Remaining phosphorus estimated by pedotransfer function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Cagliari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the determination of remaining phosphorus (Prem is simple, accurate values could also be estimated with a pedotransfer function (PTF aiming at the additional use of soil analysis data and/or Prem replacement by an even simpler determination. The purpose of this paper was to develop a pedotransfer function to estimate Prem values of soils of the State of São Paulo based on properties with easier or routine laboratory determination. A pedotransfer function was developed by artificial neural networks (ANN from a database of Prem values, pH values measured in 1 mol L-1 NaF solution (pH NaF and soil chemical and physical properties of samples collected during soil classification activities carried out in the State of São Paulo by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC. Furthermore, a pedotransfer function was developed by regressing Prem values against the same predictor variables of the ANN-based PTF. Results showed that Prem values can be calculated more accurately with the ANN-based pedotransfer function with the input variables pH NaF values along with the sum of exchangeable bases (SB and the exchangeable aluminum (Al3+ soil content. In addition, the accuracy of the Prem estimates by ANN-based PTF were more sensitive to increases in the experimental database size. Although the database used in this study was not comprehensive enough for the establishment of a definitive pedotrasnfer function for Prem estimation, results indicated the inclusion of Prem and pH NaF measurements among the soil testing evaluations as promising ind order to provide a greater database for the development of an ANN-based pedotransfer function for accurate Prem estimates from pH NaF, SB, and Al3+ values.

  3. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  4. Alteration and Reformation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs and Prediction of Remaining Potential Resources in Superimposed Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Hong; PANG Xiongqi; YANG Haijun; LIN Changsong; MENG Qingyang; WANG Huaijie

    2010-01-01

    Complex hydrocarbon reservoirs developed widely in the superimposed basins of China formed from multiple structural alterations,reformation and destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages.They are characterized currently by trap adjustment,component variation,phase conversion,and scale reformation.This is significant for guiding current hydrocarbon exploration by revealing evolution mechanisms after hydrocarbon reservoir formation and for predicting remaining potential resources.Based on the analysis of a number of complex hydrocarbon reservoirs,there are four geologic features controlling the degree of destruction of hydrocarbon reservoirs formed at early stages:tectonic event intensity,frequency,time and caprock sealing for oil and gas during tectonic evolution.Research shows that the larger the tectonic event intensity,the more frequent the tectonic event,the later the last tectonic event,the weaker the caprock sealing for oil and gas,and the greater the volume of destroyed hydrocarbons in the early stages.Based on research on the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoir destruction mechanisms,a geological model of tectonic superimposition and a mathematical model evaluating potential remaining complex hydrocarbon reservoirs have been established.The predication method and technical procedures were applied in the Tazhong area of Tarim Basin,where four stages of hydrocarbon accumulation and three stages of hydrocarbon alteration occurred.Geohistorical hydrocarbon accumulation reached 3.184billion tons,of which 1.271 billion tons were destroyed.The total volume of remaining resources available for exploration is~1.9 billion tons.

  5. 引导组织再生术的应用体会及龈沟液的检测意义%Significance of determining gingival crevicular fluid volume in guided tissue regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤莉; 吴小芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价引导组织再生术在垂直性骨缺损治疗中的临床效果及龈沟液的检测意义.方法:选取60例垂直性骨缺损牙周病患牙随机分为两组,A组为引导组织再生术组( GTR),植入Bio-oss多孔骨后覆盖Bio-gide胶原膜;B组为对照组(OFD),行常规翻瓣术.术前、术后3、6、12个月观察牙周袋深度(PD)、附着丧失(AL)、牙松动度(TM)、龈沟液(GCF)量及X线片牙槽骨的变化.结果:术后3个月两组各项均较术前减少,A组X线片骨高度和密度轻度增加.术后12个月A组较B组PD、AL、TM及X线片骨高度和密度差异均有显著性,两组GCF无明显差异.结论:引导组织再生术在垂直性骨缺损治疗中的临床效果良好,Bio-oss多孔骨和Bio-gide胶原膜能有效恢复牙周垂直性骨缺损,改善临床指标,促进牙周新附着的形成;龈沟液流量可作为术后炎症的观测指标.%Objective:To observe the clinical effects of guided tissue regeneration ( GTR) in treatment of the vertical bone defect with determination of gmgival crevicular fluid. Methods: Sixty cases with intrabony per-iodontal bone defects were randomized into two groups. Croup A received treatment of GTR with graft of deproteinized bovine bone mineral ( Bio-oas) and collagen barrier membrane( Bio-gide) and group B.the control group, were treated by open-flap debridement ( OFD ) . The two groups were observed before the operation and at the 3rd ,6th and 12th month after the procedure regarding the periodonlal pocket depth ( PPD), attachment toss ( AL) .tooth mobility ( TM ) ,gingival crevicular fluid ( GCF) volume and the defects of alveolar bone on radiograms. Results: By three months of therapy, the four parameters were reduced as compared with pre-operation, and the alveolar bone height and density on radiograms were increased slightly in group A, By the 12th month after operation, PPD, AL,TM and the alveolar bone height and density on radiograms were significantly

  6. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  7. Prognostic significance of preoperative metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, In Sun; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korean Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers; yet few studies have investigated their clinical and prognostic significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present retrospective study evaluated the utility of pretreatment MTV and TLG measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict survival and occult metastasis (OM) in OSCC. Of 162 patients with OSCC evaluated preoperatively by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, 105 who underwent definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy were eligible. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), MTV and TLG were measured. For calculation of MTV, 3-D regions of interest were drawn and a SUV threshold of 2.5 was used for defining regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with OM, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The median (range) SUV{sub max}, MTV and TLG were 7.3 (0.7-41.9), 4.5 ml (0.7-115.1 ml) and 18.3 g (2.4-224.1 g), respectively. Of 53 patients with clinically negative lymph nodes, OM was detected in 19 (36 %). By univariate and multivariate analyses, MTV (P = 0.018) and TLG (P = 0.011) were both independent predictive factors for OM, although they were not independent of each other. The 4-year DFS and OS rates were 53.0 % and 62.0 %, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that MTV (P = 0.001) and TLG (P = 0.006), with different cut-off levels, were both independent predictive factors for DFS, although they were not independent of each other, and MTV (P = 0.001), TLG (P = 0.002) and the involved resection margin (P = 0.007) were independent predictive factors for OS. Pretreatment MTV and TLG may be useful in stratifying the likelihood of survival and predicting OM in OSCC. (orig.)

  8. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  10. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  11. Comparison of the Remaining Tooth Structure and Fracture Resistance between Labial and Lingual Access Cavities in Permanent Anterior Teeth with Labial Caries: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar B.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Labial access cavity preparation is a conventional method in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth, but in some conditions labial cavity preparation is recommended.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare labial and lingual access cavity preparation in the permanent anterior teeth with labial caries in terms of the remaining tooth structure and fracture resistance. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 150 intact permanent human anterior teeth were selected in 5 groups each with 30 teeth including the maxillary central, maxillary lateral, maxillary canine, mandibular incisors and mandibular canine. A class V cavity with similar ratios to dimensions of each tooth was prepared on the labial surface of all specimens. The volumes of each of these teeth were measured by Penta Pycnometer before and after class V cavity preparation (V1, V2. Each group was randomly divided into 2 equal subgroups (n=15. Access cavities were prepared labially in subgroup A and lingually in subgroup B; then, the remained volume of each tooth was measured again (V3. The mean proportional volume loss of each tooth was calculated through access preparation (V2-V3/V1. Then, the specimens were embedded in acrylic resin blocks and subjected to load with a universal testing machine.Results: The differences of mean of theremained volume and fracture resistance of the two subgroups were statistically significant in all groups ( p <0.05 and those teeth with labial access showed more remained volume and fracture resistance than lingual access. Conclusion: Labial access cavity preparation can enhance the remained volume and fracture resistance as compared to lingual access in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth with labial caries especially in mandibular incisors.

  12. The Effects of Soil Texture on the Ability of Human Remains Detection Dogs to Detect Buried Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Wescott, Daniel J; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    Despite technological advances, human remains detection (HRD) dogs still remain one of the best tools for locating clandestine graves. However, soil texture may affect the escape of decomposition gases and therefore the effectiveness of HDR dogs. Six nationally credentialed HRD dogs (three HRD only and three cross-trained) were evaluated on novel buried human remains in contrasting soils, a clayey and a sandy soil. Search time and accuracy were compared for the clayey soil and sandy soil to assess odor location difficulty. Sandy soil (p < 0.001) yielded significantly faster trained response times, but no significant differences were found in performance accuracy between soil textures or training method. Results indicate soil texture may be significant factor in odor detection difficulty. Prior knowledge of soil texture and moisture may be useful for search management and planning. Appropriate adjustments to search segment sizes, sweep widths and search time allotment depending on soil texture may optimize successful detection. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us.

  14. Mineral content of the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, H K; Beeley, J A; Stevenson, A G

    1995-01-01

    Although the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal appears sound by normal clinical criteria, no definitive evidence has yet been obtained to confirm that the dentine surface is in fact mineralised. The aim of this study was to use backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) to ascertain the level of mineralisation of the dentine remaining in cavities prepared by this technique. Carious dentine was removed from carious lesions by means of N-monochloro-DL-2-aminobutyric acid (NMAB) or NMAB containing 2 mol/l urea. Sections of teeth in which caries removal was complete by normal clinical criteria were examined by EPMA and BSE. Dentine adjacent to the pulp was found to be less mineralised than the surrounding dentine. Although the superficial layer of dentine remaining on the cavity floors frequently appeared to have a slightly reduced mineral content, the results clearly indicated that there was no significant difference between this dentine and the underlying sound dentine.

  15. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  16. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  17. Predictors of prostate volume reduction following neoadjuvant cytoreductive androgen suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan R. Jethwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Limited duration cytoreductive neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT is used prior to definitive radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer to decrease prostate volume. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of NHT on prostate volume before permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB, and determine associated predictive factors. Material and methods : Between June 1998 and April 2012, a total of 1,110 patients underwent PPB and 207 patients underwent NHT. Of these, 189 (91.3% underwent detailed planimetric transrectal ultrasound before and after NHT prior to PPB. Regression analysis was used to assess predictors of absolute and percentage change in prostate volume after NHT. Results: The median duration of NHT was 4.9 months with inter quartile range (IQR, 4.2-6.6 months. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA reduced by a median of 97% following NHT. The mean prostate volume before NHT was 62.5 ± 22.1 cm 3 (IQR: 46-76 cm 3 , and after NHT, it was 37.0 ± 14.5 cm 3 (IQR: 29-47 cm 3 . The mean prostate volume reduction was 23.4 cm 3 (35.9%. Absolute prostate volume reduction was positively correlated with initial volume and inversely correlated with T-stage, Gleason score, and NCCN risk group. In multivariate regression analyses, initial prostate volume (p < 0.001 remained as a significant predictor of absolute and percent prostate volume reduction. Total androgen suppression was associated with greater percent prostate volume reduction than luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa alone (p = 0.001. Conclusions : Prostate volume decreased by approximately one third after 4.9 months of NHT, with total androgen suppression found to be more efficacious in maximizing cytoreduction than LHRHa alone. Initial prostate volume is the greatest predictor for prostate volume reduction.

  18. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  19. Remaining teeth, cardiovascular morbidity and death among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Gamborg, M

    2008-01-01

    disease was increased by 50% (HR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.02-2.19). Risk for coronary heart disease was increased by 31%, but was not significant, after the adjustment for education, age, smoking, diabetes, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (HR= 1.31; 95% CI: 0.74-2.31). Associations were...... trends in and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) in 1987-88 and 1993-94. Subjects were followed in Danish registers for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease or stroke. RESULTS: Tooth loss was strongly associated with incidence of stroke, and to a lesser extent......, incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease, during averagely 7.5 years of follow-up. Compared to those with most teeth remaining, the edentulous suffered >3-fold increased Hazard (HR) of developing stroke (HR=3.25; 95% CI: 1.48-7.14), whereas the risk of developing any cardiovascular...

  20. Mining Cancer Transcriptomes: Bioinformatic Tools and the Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Thomas; Wilhelm, Brian T

    2017-02-22

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has had a profound impact on the field of cancer genomics. With the enormous quantities of data being generated from tumor samples, researchers have had to rapidly adapt tools or develop new ones to analyse the raw data to maximize its value. While much of this effort has been focused on improving specific algorithms to get faster and more precise results, the accessibility of the final data for the research community remains a significant problem. Large amounts of data exist but are not easily available to researchers who lack the resources and experience to download and reanalyze them. In this article, we focus on RNA-seq analysis in the context of cancer genomics and discuss the bioinformatic tools available to explore these data. We also highlight the importance of developing new and more intuitive tools to provide easier access to public data and discuss the related issues of data sharing and patient privacy.

  1. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  2. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  3. The 2009 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use and reliance upon computers in both the public and private sector has led to enormous numbers of computers being disposed of at the end of their useful life within an organisation. As the cost of computers has dropped, their use in the home has also continued to increase. In most organisations, computers have a relatively short life and are replaced on a regular basis with the result that, if not properly cleansed of data, they are released into the public domain containing data that can be relatively up to date. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing popularity and use of smart phones, which also contain significant storage capacity. From the results of the research it remains clear that the majority of organisations and private individuals that are using these computers still remain ignorant or misinformed of the potential volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks contained within these systems. The evidence of the research is that neither organisations nor individuals have considered, or are aware of, the potential impact of the information that is contained in the disks from these systems becoming available to an unintended third party.This is the fifth study in an ongoing research programme being conducted into the levels and types of information that remain on computer hard disks that have been offered for sale on the second hand market. This ongoing research series has been undertaken to gain an understanding of the level and types of information that remains on these disks, to determine the damage that could potentially be caused if the information was misused, and to determine whether there are any developing trends. The disks used have been purchased in a number of countries.The rationale for this was to determine whether there are any national or regional differences in the way that computer disks are disposed of and to compare the results for any regional or temporal trends. The

  4. The 2007 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, increasingly use computers and other devices that contain computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Individual home users also increasingly use computers and other devices containing computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their private, personal affairs. It continues to be clear that the majority of organisations and individual home users still remain ignorant or misinformed of the volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks that these devices contain and have not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or to people with criminal intent.This is the third study in an ongoing research effort that is being conducted into the volume and type of information that remains on computer hard disks offered for sale on the second hand market.  The purpose of the research has been to gain an understanding of the information that remains on the disk and to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information fell into the wrong hands.  The study examines disks that have been obtained in a number of countries to determine whether there is any detectable national or regional variance in the way that the disposal of computer disks is addressed and to compare the results for any other detectable regional or temporal trends.The first study was carried out in 2005 and was repeated in 2006 with the scope extended to include additional countries. The studies were carried out by British Telecommunications, the University of Glamorgan in the UK and Edith Cowan University in Australia. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand computer disks from various sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a

  5. A STUDY ON MORPHOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF VOLUME OF ACETABULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Khobragade,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip joint represents an unique functional unit and has complex biomechanical construction. In today’s era where total hip replacement surgeries have made their way it has become imperative for the anatomists to know the variations in acetabular dimensions. Reconstruction of acetabulum in patients with significant acetabular bone deficiency remains a challenge. Hence the present study was carried out with the aim to study the morphometric measurement of volume of acetabulum in both the sexes. Materials and Methods: Material of the study consisted of 110 human hip bones (60 males and 50 females. Volume of Acetabulum (VA was measured on these hip bones on both the sides. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: The mean volume of acetabulum in male was 23.13 ml and female was 17.88 ml. The mean volume of acetabulum on right side was 20.55 ml and left side was 20.91 ml. Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females and the differences were statistically significant. Volume was greater on the left side as compared to the right side but the difference was statistically non significant. Discussion: Analysing the differences on human acetabulum is helpful in understanding not only morphological but also medicolegal aspects. Conclusion: Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females.

  6. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  7. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    regression model. Analysis of variance was used to determine whether the absolute log proportional error differed by the intended injection volume. Interindividual and intraindividual deviation from the intended injection volume was also characterized. As the intended injection volumes decreased, the absolute log proportional injection volume error increased (analysis of variance, P injection volumes between physicians and pediatric PACU nurses; however, the difference in absolute bias was significantly higher for nurses with a 2-sided significance of P = .03. Clinically significant dose variation occurs when injecting volumes ≤0.5 mL. Administering small volumes of medications may result in unintended medication administration errors.

  8. High CJD infectivity remains after prion protein is destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Emmerling, Kaitlin; Manuelidis, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis that host prion protein (PrP) converts into an infectious prion form rests on the observation that infectivity progressively decreases in direct proportion to the decrease of PrP with proteinase K (PK) treatment. PrP that resists limited PK digestion (PrP-res, PrP(sc)) has been assumed to be the infectious form, with speculative types of misfolding encoding the many unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent strains. Recently, a PK sensitive form of PrP has been proposed as the prion. Thus we re-evaluated total PrP (sensitive and resistant) and used a cell-based assay for titration of infectious particles. A keratinase (NAP) known to effectively digest PrP was compared to PK. Total PrP in FU-CJD infected brain was reduced to ≤0.3% in a 2 h PK digest, yet there was no reduction in titer. Remaining non-PrP proteins were easily visualized with colloidal gold in this highly infectious homogenate. In contrast to PK, NAP digestion left 0.8% residual PrP after 2 h, yet decreased titer by >2.5 log; few residual protein bands remained. FU-CJD infected cells with 10× the infectivity of brain by both animal and cell culture assays were also evaluated. NAP again significantly reduced cell infectivity (>3.5 log). Extreme PK digestions were needed to reduce cell PrP to report on maximal PrP destruction and titer. It is likely that one or more residual non-PrP proteins may protect agent nucleic acids in infectious particles.

  9. A prospective study of differences in duodenum compared to remaining small bowel motion between radiation treatments: Implications for radiation dose escalation in carcinoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahab Sasha H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose As a foundation for a dose escalation trial, we sought to characterize duodenal and non-duodenal small bowel organ motion between fractions of pancreatic radiation therapy. Patients and methods Nine patients (4 women, 5 men undergoing radiation therapy were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients had up to four weekly CT scans performed during their course of radiation therapy. Pancreas, duodenum and non-duodenal small bowel were then contoured for each CT scan. On the initial scan, a four-field plan was generated to fully cover the pancreas. This plan was registered to each subsequent CT scan. Dose-volume histogram (DVH analyses were performed for the duodenum, non-duodenal small bowel, large bowel, and pancreas. Results With significant individual variation, the volume of duodenum receiving at least 80% of the prescribed dose was consistently greater than the remaining small bowel. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of non-duodenal small bowel irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 1% to 20%. In the patient with the largest inter-fraction variation, the fractional volume of duodenum irradiated to at least the 80% isodose line ranged from 30% to 100%. Conclusion The volume of small bowel irradiated during four-field pancreatic radiation therapy changes substantially between fractions. This suggests dose escalation may be possible. However, dose limits to the duodenum should be stricter than for other segments of small bowel.

  10. A mongoose remain (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments, Myanmar and its significance in evolutionary history of Asian herpestids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Naoko; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Maung-Maung; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Ogino, Shintaro; Takai, Masanaru

    2011-11-01

    A tooth of a mongoose (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae) was discovered from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments in central Myanmar. The age of the fauna is not older than the mid-Pliocene. It is identified as a right first upper molar of a small species of Urva (formally included in the genus Herpestes) based on its size and shape. The present specimen is the first carnivoran from the Upper Irrawaddy sediments and is the first record of mongooses in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Asia. It confirms that mongooses had already dispersed into Southeast Asia by the late Pliocene, being consistent with the previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. The fossil may belong to one of the extant species, but an assignment to a specific species is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the specimen and the small interspecific differences in dental shape among the Asian mongooses. The size of the tooth suggests that the Irrawaddy specimen is within or close to the clade of Urva auropunctata + javanica + edwardsii, and this taxonomic assignment agrees with the geographical distribution.

  11. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  12. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  13. Implementation of patient blood management remains extremely variable in Europe and Canada: the NATA benchmark project: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Philippe; Hardy, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Preoperative anaemia is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patient blood management (PBM) is advocated to improve patient outcomes. NATA, the 'Network for the advancement of patient blood management, haemostasis and thrombosis', initiated a benchmark project with the aim of providing the basis for educational strategies to implement optimal PBM in participating centres. Prospective, observational study with online data collection in 11 secondary and tertiary care institutions interested in developing PBM. Ten European centres (Austria, Spain, England, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Romania, Greece, France, and Germany) and one Canadian centre participated between January 2010 and June 2011. A total of 2470 patients undergoing total hip (THR) or knee replacement, or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), were registered in the study. Data from 2431 records were included in the final analysis. Primary outcome measures were the incidence and volume of red blood cells (RBC) transfused. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with RBC transfusions. The incidence of transfusion was significantly different between centres for THR (range 7 to 95%), total knee replacement (range 3 to 100%) and CABG (range 20 to 95%). The volume of RBC transfused was significantly different between centres for THR and CABG. The incidence of preoperative anaemia ranged between 3 and 40% and its treatment between 0 and 40%, the latter not being related to the former. Patient characteristics, evolution of haemoglobin concentrations and blood losses were also different between centres. Variables independently associated with RBC transfusion were preoperative haemoglobin concentration, lost volume of RBC and female sex. Implementation of PBM remains extremely variable across centres. The relative importance of factors explaining RBC transfusion differs across institutions, some being patient related whereas others are related to

  14. Differentiation between decomposed remains of human origin and bigger mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, E; Loix, S; Develter, W; Van de Voorde, W; Cuypers, E; Tytgat, J

    2017-08-01

    This study is a follow-up study in the search for a human specific marker in the decomposition where the VOC-profile of decomposing human, pig, lamb and roe remains were analyzed using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer in a laboratory environment during 6 months. The combination of 8 previously identified human and pig specific compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide and pyridine) was also seen in these analyzed mammals. However, combined with 5 additional compounds (hexane, heptane, octane, N-(3-methylbutyl)- and N-(2-methylpropyl)acetamide) human remains could be separated from pig, lamb and roe remains. Based on a higher number of remains analyzed, as compared with the pilot study, it was no longer possible to rely on the 5 previously proposed esters to separate pig from human remains. From this follow-up study reported, it was found that pyridine is an interesting compound specific to human remains. Such a human specific marker can help in the training of cadaver dogs or in the development of devices to search for human remains. However, further investigations have to verify these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  16. Foreign Food Technology of Military Significance. Volume 5, Number 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-18

    VOL 5-No. 1 18 December 1981 Table I. Raw Material Preparation Product Preparation Note Mango slices Raw mangoes , washed, peeled , cut into After... Mango slices Fully ripe mangoes , peeled and sliced (ripe) 5 to 6 mm thick, 6 to 10 cm long. Dipped for 5 minutes in a solution of 0.4% CaC1 2 and 1.5...of Simple Solar Dehydrators for Drying Fruit and Vegetable Products Researchers at the Central Mango Research Station, Indian Institute of

  17. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162339.html Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often ... HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans who attempted suicide and wound up in the emergency room has ...

  18. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  19. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  20. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  1. Repatriation of human remains following death in international travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Ruairi; Prendiville, Richard; Cusack, Denis; Flaherty, Gerard

    2017-03-01

    Death during international travel and the repatriation of human remains to one's home country is a distressing and expensive process. Much organization is required involving close liaison between various agencies. A review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed database. Search terms included: 'repatriation of remains', 'death', 'abroad', 'tourism', 'travel', 'travellers', 'travelling' and 'repatriation'. Additional articles were obtained from grey literature sources and reference lists. The local national embassy, travel insurance broker and tour operator are important sources of information to facilitate the repatriation of the deceased traveller. Formal identification of the deceased's remains is required and a funeral director must be appointed. Following this, the coroner in the country or jurisdiction receiving the repatriated remains will require a number of documents prior to providing clearance for burial. Costs involved in repatriating remains must be borne by the family of the deceased although travel insurance may help defray some of the costs. If the death is secondary to an infectious disease, cremation at the site of death is preferred. No standardized procedure is in place to deal with the remains of a migrant's body at present and these remains are often not repatriated to their country of origin. Repatriation of human remains is a difficult task which is emotionally challenging for the bereaving family and friends. As a travel medicine practitioner, it is prudent to discuss all eventualities, including the risk of death, during the pre-travel consultation. Awareness of the procedures involved in this process may ease the burden on the grieving family at a difficult time.

  2. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Brooke Adair; Kimberly Miller; Elizabeth Ozanne; Catherine Said; Nick Santamaria; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  3. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  4. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Goring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  5. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  8. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Ebola vaccine 2014:remained problems to be answered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri; Wiwanitkit; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreak in Africa in 2014 is a big global issue.The vaccine is the hope for management of the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection.There are several ongoing researches on new Ebola vaccine.In this short manuscript,we discuss and put forward specific remained problems to be answered on this specific issue.Lack for complete knowledge on the new emerging virus,concern from pharmaceutical company and good trial of new vaccine candidates are the remained problem to be further discussed in vaccinology.

  11. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  12. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  13. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  14. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  15. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  16. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  17. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  18. Iontophoresis generates an antimicrobial effect that remains after iontophoresis ceases.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, C P; Wagle, N; M. D. Anderson(University of Glasgow); Warren, M M

    1992-01-01

    Iontophoresis required chlorine-containing compounds in the medium for effective microbial population reduction and killing. After iontophoresis ceased, the antimicrobial effect generated by iontophoresis remained but slowly decreased. Antimicrobial effects of iontophoresis may be related to the generation of short-lived chlorine-containing compounds.

  19. The Remains of the Day Under the Perspective of Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    The Remains of the Day is a Booker-winner novel by Kazuo Ishiguro. Stevens is both the protagonist and the narrator of the novel who restrains his feelings and has to live a life of regret and loss. This article provides a glimpse of its character and theme under the perspective of linguistic adaptation.

  20. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.E. King (Turi E.); G.G. Fortes (Gloria Gonzalez); P. Balaresque (Patricia); M.G. Thomas (Mark); D.J. Balding (David); P.M. Delser (Pierpaolo Maisano); R. Neumann (Rita); W. Parson (Walther); M. Knapp (Michael); S. Walsh (Susan); L. Tonasso (Laure); J. Holt (John); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); J. Appleby (Jo); P. Forster (Peter); D. Ekserdjian (David); M. Hofreiter (Michael); K. Schürer (Kevin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the

  1. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  2. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  3. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  4. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  5. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... in Greenland either fossil or extant. The fossil fauna includes the weevil Rutidosoma globulus which is at present extremely rare in Greenland. Its rarity might indicate that it is a recent immigrant, but the fossil finds provide a minimum date for its arrival at around 5840 cal. years B. P. Other remains...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  6. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  7. Comprehensive analysis of microorganisms accompanying human archaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Anna; Stolarek, Ireneusz; Kuczkowska, Bogna; Juras, Anna; Handschuh, Luiza; Piontek, Janusz; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2017-07-01

    Metagenome analysis has become a common source of information about microbial communities that occupy a wide range of niches, including archaeological specimens. It has been shown that the vast majority of DNA extracted from ancient samples come from bacteria (presumably modern contaminants). However, characterization of microbial DNA accompanying human remains has never been done systematically for a wide range of different samples. We used metagenomic approaches to perform comparative analyses of microorganism communities present in 161 archaeological human remains. DNA samples were isolated from the teeth of human skeletons dated from 100 AD to 1200 AD. The skeletons were collected from 7 archaeological sites in Central Europe and stored under different conditions. The majority of identified microbes were ubiquitous environmental bacteria that most likely contaminated the host remains not long ago. We observed that the composition of microbial communities was sample-specific and not correlated with its temporal or geographical origin. Additionally, traces of bacteria and archaea typical for human oral/gut flora, as well as potential pathogens, were identified in two-thirds of the samples. The genetic material of human-related species, in contrast to the environmental species that accounted for the majority of identified bacteria, displayed DNA damage patterns comparable with endogenous human ancient DNA, which suggested that these microbes might have accompanied the individual before death. Our study showed that the microbiome observed in an individual sample is not reliant on the method or duration of sample storage. Moreover, shallow sequencing of DNA extracted from ancient specimens and subsequent bioinformatics analysis allowed both the identification of ancient microbial species, including potential pathogens, and their differentiation from contemporary species that colonized human remains more recently. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University

  8. Middle Paleolithic and Uluzzian human remains from Fumane Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Bailey, Shara E; Peresani, Marco; Mannino, Marcello A; Romandini, Matteo; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The site of Fumane Cave (western Lessini Mountains, Italy) contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic. During excavations from 1989 to 2011, four human teeth were unearthed from the Mousterian (Fumane 1, 4, 5) and Uluzzian (Fumane 6) levels of the cave. In this contribution, we provide the first morphological description and morphometric analysis of the dental remains. All of the human remains, except for Fumane 6, are deciduous teeth. Based on metric data (crown and cervical outline analysis, and lateral enamel thickness) and non-metric dental traits (e.g., mid-trigonid crest), Fumane 1 (lower left second deciduous molar) clearly belongs to a Neandertal. For Fumane 4 (upper right central deciduous incisor), the taxonomic attribution is difficult due to heavy incisal wear. Some morphological features observed in Fumane 5 (lower right lateral deciduous incisor), coupled with the large size of the tooth, support Neandertal affinity. Fumane 6, a fragment of a permanent molar, does not show any morphological features useful for taxonomic discrimination. The human teeth from Fumane Cave increase the sample of Italian fossil remains, and emphasize the need to develop new methods to extract meaningful taxonomic information from deciduous and worn teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. After 3 years of starvation: duodenum swallowed remaining stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Waidner, Uta; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Maria Wolf, Anna; Buttenschoen, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    A 42-year-old morbidly obese patient (BMI 44.1 kg/m(2)) was admitted to our emergency room with upper abdominal pain, nausea, and cholestasis. Nine years ago, a vertical banded gastroplasty had been performed (former BMI 53.5 kg/m(2)) with a subsequent weight loss to BMI 33.0 kg/m(2). After regaining weight up to a BMI of 47.6 kg/m(2), 5 years ago a conversion to a gastric bypass was realized. A computed tomography of the abdomen showed an invagination of the remaining stomach into the duodenum causing obstruction of the orifice of common bile duct. The patient underwent an open desinvagination of the intussusception and resection of the remaining stomach. Gastroduodenal intussusception is rare and mostly secondary to gastric lipoma. To prevent this rare but serious complication, the remaining stomach could be fixed at the crura of the diaphragm, tagged to the anterior abdominal wall by temporary gastrostomy tube, or resected.

  10. Remaining useful tool life predictions in turning using Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep M. Karandikar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tool wear is an important factor in determining machining productivity. In this paper, tool wear is characterized by remaining useful tool life in a turning operation and is predicted using spindle power and a random sample path method of Bayesian inference. Turning tests are performed at different speeds and feed rates using a carbide tool and MS309 steel work material. The spindle power and the tool flank wear are monitored during cutting; the root mean square of the time domain power is found to be sensitive to tool wear. Sample root mean square power growth curves are generated and the probability of each curve being the true growth curve is updated using Bayes’ rule. The updated probabilities are used to determine the remaining useful tool life. Results show good agreement between the predicted tool life and the empirically-determined true remaining life. The proposed method takes into account the uncertainty in tool life and the growth of the root mean square power at the end of tool life and is, therefore, robust and reliable.

  11. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  12. Reduced amygdala volume in newly admitted psychiatric in-patients with unipolar major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Regen, Francesca; Deuschle, Michael; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Structural neuroimaging studies investigating amygdala volumes in patients suffering from major depression have yielded variable results. Discrepant findings across studies may be attributable in part to heterogeneity with respect to antidepressant medication and to lack of adequate control for the effects of total brain volume and age. Here, 24 unipolar depressed in-patients newly admitted to a psychiatric unit and 14 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, and years of education underwent quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) toward the end of a one-week washout period. Saliva cortisol was measured at 08.00 and at 16.00h in patients during washout. Absolute amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in the patient group (by 13% in left amygdala and 12% in right amygdala). The effect of reduced amygdala volumes in patients remained significant after correction for brain volume (BV) and age. Furthermore, amygdala volume measurements in the patient sample showed a significant inverse relationship to the number of preceding depressive episodes. In patients, severity of disease (baseline HAMD scores) and baseline cortisol levels were not related to amygdala volume. This study of a sample of unmedicated depressed in-patients adds to the small, yet growing, body of evidence linking untreated major depression to reduced amygdala volume.

  13. Socialization of prosocial behavior: Gender differences in the mediating role of child brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Rianne; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2017-06-18

    Evidence has been accumulating for the impact of normal variation in caregiving quality on brain morphology in children, but the question remains whether differences in brain volume related to early caregiving translate to behavioral implications. In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 162), moderated mediation was tested for the relation between parental sensitivity and child prosocial behavior via brain volume, in boys and girls. Both maternal and paternal sensitivity were repeatedly observed between 1 and 4 years of age. Brain volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging measurements at age 8, and self-reported prosocial behavior of children was assessed at 9 years of age. Parental sensitivity was positively related to child brain volume, and to child prosocial behavior at trend level. Child brain volume was negatively related to child prosocial behavior. A significant gender-by-brain interaction was found, illustrating that daughters of sensitive parents were more prosocial and that less prosocial behavior was reported for girls with a larger total brain volume. Child gender significantly moderated the indirect effect of parental sensitivity on prosocial behavior via total brain volume. A significant indirect pathway was found only in girls. The results warrant replication but indicate the importance of considering gender when studying the behavioral implications of differences in brain volume related to early caregiving experiences.

  14. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  15. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  16. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  17. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  18. How Long Do Numerical Chaotic Solutions Remain Valid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, T. [Department of Mathematical Sciences , George Mason University , Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Sauer, T.; Yorke, J.A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Grebogi, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik , Universitaet Potsdam , PF 601553, D-14415 Potsdam (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Dynamical conditions for the loss of validity of numerical chaotic solutions of physical systems are already understood. However, the fundamental questions of {open_quotes}how good{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}for how long{close_quotes} the solutions are valid remained unanswered. This work answers these questions by establishing scaling laws for the shadowing distance and for the shadowing time in terms of physically meaningful quantities that are easily computable in practice. The scaling theory is verified against a physical model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. The Unreliable Narrator in the Remains of the Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳

    2012-01-01

    Kazuo Ishiguro is an immigration contemporary British literature writer.He received "the typical British middle-class education" in England,so he can skillfully use the standard and beautiful English to write novels.His The Remains of the day won Booker Prize,which is the highest prize for novel in England.The present thesis is aimed at the analysis of the unreliability of the narrator,Stevens,and tries to prove that a large part of his narration goes against the reality or covers his own emotions.

  20. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  1. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  2. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  3. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  4. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  7. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  8. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  9. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  10. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  11. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  12. Does indigestible food remains in the scats of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Carnivora: Ursidae represent actual contribution of various diet items?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of diet items in the food of sloth bears is estimated solely based on the dry weight or volume of indigestible food remains found in the scats, assuming that the ratio of digestible versus indigestible matters is equal in all diet items. However, this is not true in reality. The implication of this assumption is that the species that contribute a larger bulk of digestible matters are underestimated, while that of less digestible parts get overestimated and consequently are portrayed as important food sources. This study experimentally converts the percent contribution of important fruit items estimated using ‘indigestible fruit remains’ in the scats into percent contribution by ‘digestible fruit content’ using known dry weight of digestible fruit contents per volume of indigestible items (estimated using fresh fruit samples from the field. The percent composition of various fruit items obtained using digestible fruit content is significantly different from that derived using indigestible fruit remains in the scats. Future studies could adopt the dry weight of digestible matter as this method estimates the contribution of various food items to the diet of bears more accurately.

  13. OX40: Structure and function - What questions remain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jane; Griffiths, Jordana; Tews, Ivo; Cragg, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    OX40 is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein, reported nearly 30 years ago as a cell surface antigen expressed on activated T cells. Since its discovery, it has been validated as a bone fide costimulatory molecule for T cells and member of the TNF receptor family. However, many questions still remain relating to its function on different T cell sub-sets and with recent interest in its utility as a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy, there is a growing need to gain a better understanding of its biology. Here, we review the expression pattern of OX40 and its ligand, discuss the structure of the receptor:ligand interaction, the downstream signalling it can elicit, its function on different T cell subsets and how antibodies might engage with it to provide effective immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Structure Analysis of Human Remains from Khitan Noble Necropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA was extracted from 13 skeletal remains from the burial groups of Khitan nobles, which were excavated in northeast China. The hypervariable segment I sequences ( HVS Ⅰ ) of the mitochondrial DNA control region, in the 13 individuals, were used as genetic markers to determine the genetic relationships between the individuals and the genetic affinity to other interrelated populations by using the known database of mtDNA. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of these ancient DNA sequences, the genetic structures of two Khitan noble kindreds were obtained, including the Yel Yuzhi's kindred and the Xiao He's kindred. Furthermore, the relationships between the Khitan nobles and some modern interrelated populations were analyzed. On the basis of the result of the analysis, the gene flows of the ancient Khitans and their demographic expansion in history was deduced.

  15. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  16. Clinical management of acute HIV infection: best practice remains unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sigall K; Little, Susan J; Rosenberg, Eric S

    2010-10-15

    Best practice for the clinical management of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains unknown. Although some data suggest possible immunologic, virologic, or clinical benefit of early treatment, other studies show no difference in these outcomes over time, after early treatment is discontinued. The literature on acute HIV infection is predominantly small nonrandomized studies, which further limits interpretation. As a result, the physician is left to grapple with these uncertainties while making clinical decisions for patients with acute HIV infection. Here we review the literature, focusing on the potential advantages and disadvantages of treating acute HIV infection outlined in treatment guidelines, and summarize the presentations on clinical management of acute HIV infection from the 2009 Acute HIV Infection Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts.

  17. Evaluating the remaining strength factor for repaired pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, J.L.F.; Vieira, R.D [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Diniz, J.L.A. [Fluke Engenharia Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses and brings experimental evidence to the application of the remaining strength factor (RSF) to pipeline that has undergone metal thickness loss due to erosion, corrosion or grinding. The RSF is defined as the ratio between pressures that plastically collapse pipeline segments with and without metal loss (damage), and it may also be extended to damaged pipes that have been repaired with composite sleeves. Data from burst tests performed on undamaged, damaged and damage-repaired pipe specimens are utilized to back up the use of the RSF concept, allowing better insight into the safety factor derived from the application of standard fitness-for-purpose methodologies. The paper concludes by showing that the RSF may be used to establish a quantitative measurement of the effectiveness of a specific repair system applied to damaged pipes. (author)

  18. Determining postmortem interval using glycoproteinous adhesion deposits by Balanus improvisus on human skeletal and dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Joan A; Pustilnik, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    An anthropological analysis was conducted on skeletal and dental remains brought to the Galveston County Medical Examiner's office. The skeletal remains were dry, fragmented, and absent of typical fluvial characteristics. During microscopic examination, semitransparent, circular objects were discovered on the dentition, the mandible, tibial plateau, and distal femur. The objects were glycoproteinous adhesions deposited by the acorn barnacle, Balanus improvisus. B. improvisus is an intertidal barnacle found in estuaries in Galveston Bay. Basal diameter of the adhesions on the dentition were significantly smaller than those found on the postcranial bones (p = 0.010), indicating two consecutive cohorts adhered to the bone and dentition. As settlement typically occurs once a year, this would indicate that the remains were in the fluvial environment for at least 375-410 days. It is important in geographic areas that have prevalent fluvial environments that human remains, particularly dentition, are microscopically examined for marine life evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Prehistoric Agricultural Communities in West Central Alabama. Volume 2. Studies of Material Remains from the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    grape (Vitis sp.), two gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), four sedge family ( Cyperaceae ), one sage (Salvia sp.), and one prickly poppy (Argemone sp.). Sixty...present. Passionflower, Chenopodium. sedge , .aygrass, and sage seeds were also identified from this feature; also present 0- ".’ T.: " . - .:.1

  20. Reduced striatal volumes in Parkinson’s disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitcher Toni L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence and extent of structural changes in the brain as a consequence of Parkinson’s disease (PD is still poorly understood. Methods High-resolution 3-tesla T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images in sixty-five PD and 27 age-matched healthy control participants were examined. Putamen, caudate, and intracranial volumes were manually traced in the axial plane of 3D reconstructed images. Striatal nuclei volumes were normalized to intracranial volume for statistical comparison. Disease status was assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. Cognitive status was assessed using global status tests and detailed neuropsychological testing. Results Both caudate and putamen volumes were smaller in PD brains compared to controls after adjusting for age and gender. Caudate volumes were reduced by 11% (p = 0.001 and putamen volumes by 8.1% (p = 0.025. PD striatal volumes were not found to be significantly correlated with cognitive or motor decline. Conclusion Small, but significant reductions in the volume of both the caudate and putamen occur in PD brains. These reductions are independent of the effects of age and gender, however the relation of these reductions to the functional loss of dopamine, which is characteristic of PD, remains unclear.

  1. Analysis of Information Remaining on Hand Held Devices Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ownership and use of mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants and other hand held devices is now ubiquitous both for home and business use. The majority of these devices have a high initial cost, a relatively short period before they become obsolescent and a relatively low second hand value.  As a result of this, when the devices are replaced, there are indications that they tend to be discarded.  As technology has continued to develop, it has led to an increasing diversity in the number and type of devices that are available, and the processing power and the storage capacity of the digital storage in the device. All organisations, whether in the public or private sector increasingly use hand held devices that contain digital media for the storage of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Similarly, individual private users increasingly use hand held devices containing digital media for the storage of information relating to their private lives.The research revealed that a significant number of organisations and private users are ignorant or misinformed about the volume and type of information that is stored on the hand held devices and the media on which it is stored.  It is apparent that they have either not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or those with criminal intent.This main purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the volume and type of information that may remain on hand held devices that are offered for sale on the second hand market.  A second aim of the research was to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information that remains on the devices fell into the wrong hands.  The study examined a number of hand held devices that had been obtained from sources in the UK and Australia that ranged from internet auction sites, to private sales and commercial

  2. Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1997-05-20

    This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The top and sides of this rectangular source was covered with earth of density 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} to a thickness of 15.24 cm (6 in). This soil is modeled as 40% void space. The source consisted of earth of the same density with the void spaces filled with

  3. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  4. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  5. The remaining challenges of pneumococcal disease in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ludwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease can be divided into invasive disease, i.e. when bacteria are detected in normally sterile body fluids, and noninvasive disease. Pneumococcal disease occurs more frequently in younger children and older adults. It is estimated that, in 2050, 30.3% of the European population will be ≥65 yrs old, compared with 15.7% in 2000. Preventive medicine, including vaccination, is essential for the promotion of healthy ageing. Uptake rates for influenza vaccination in the elderly are generally low, despite recommendations in many countries. In addition, it has been reported that influenza infections can make people more susceptible to pneumococcal infections. Despite pneumococcal vaccination, case fatality rates for patients hospitalised with invasive pneumococcal disease have remained at around 12% since the 1950s. Even when effective antibiotic therapy is administered, mortality can be high amongst immunocompetent patients in intensive care. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease and identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome is essential to ensure that adequate treatment, including hospitalisation when necessary, is implemented as early as possible. Improved diagnostic techniques and more efficacious treatments may help to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, but preventive measures, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, should be promoted in order to avoid preventable disease, particularly in the elderly.

  6. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  7. Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Johnson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs] in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrP(Sc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrP(Sc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrP(Sc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrP(Sc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrP(Sc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrP(Sc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.

  8. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized.

  9. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  10. Analysis of Data Remaining on Second Hand ADSL Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Szewczyk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In theory an ADSL router is capable of providing immense security capabilities including but not limited to wireless encryption, denial of service prevention through firewall rule sets, and logging facilities for review or analysis of network events. However, most laymen may be unaware of the intricacies of the security measures available to them. As a result a vast array of information could remain on ADSL routers once the device is sold, including the users’ approach to security, Internet usage habits, or more importantly confidential user or account information. This paper presents the findings of data acquired from second hand ADSL routers purchased during the first quarter of 2011. The outcomes demonstrate that individuals are not removing their identity adequately and are leaving confidential data which may lead to detrimental outcomes if misused. The paper also demonstrates that the overall security of these devices is alarmingly low, and thus many consumers may fall victim to new and emergent Internet based crimes.

  11. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  12. [Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, J-M; Lepargneur, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal affections. It results from a deep imbalance of the vaginal ecosystem whose mechanisms remain mysterious, even if recent progress were accomplished in their comprehension: if the flora implied in the bacterial vaginosis is recognized like polymorphic, it appears that Gardnerella vaginalis plays a major part with two genomically different forms: a commensal form (slightly adhesive to the epithelial cells), and a pathogenic one (strongly adhesive to the epithelial cells); the changes in lactobacilli are also to take into account: L. iners could be a marker of the vaginal flora imbalance whereas L. crispatus is generally met in the normal vaginal flora. These findings could influence the composition of coming probiotics; it is recognized that bacterial vaginosis is involved in the risk of prematurity but molecular quantification of G. vaginalis (and of Atopobium vaginae) is more sensitive for the diagnosis of BV what could improve the detection of high-risk pregnant women. The isolated antibiotic treatments are not very effective on the prevention of recurrences. The rebalancing of the vaginal flora is essential. In this field, the local estrogens showed some effectiveness. The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  14. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Whitlock

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells and representations of azimuth (head direction cells. Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze vs. an open field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009, the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  15. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  16. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  17. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  18. Plantar pressures in diabetic patients with foot ulcers which have remained healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Owings; J. Apelqvist; A. Stenstrom; M. Becker; S.A. Bus; A. Kalpen; J.S. Ulbrecht; P.R. Cavanagh

    2009-01-01

    Aims The recurrence of foot ulcers is a significant problem in people with diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to measure in-shoe plantar pressures and other characteristics in a group of neuropathic patients with diabetes who had prior foot ulcers which had remained healed. Methods T

  19. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  20. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  1. Reduced anterior cingulate gyrus volume correlates with executive dysfunction in men with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeszko, P R; Bilder, R M; Lencz, T; Ashtari, M; Goldman, R S; Reiter, G; Wu, H; Lieberman, J A

    2000-06-16

    Although frontal lobe structural and functional abnormalities have been identified in schizophrenia, their relationship remains elusive. Because the frontal lobes are both structurally and functionally heterogeneous, it is possible that some measures of frontal lobe structure may not have accurately identified relevant frontal lobe subregions. The authors hypothesized that the volumes of two dorsal, 'archicortical' subregions (i.e. superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus), but not a ventral, 'paleocortical' subregion (i.e. orbital frontal region) would be significantly and selectively correlated with executive and motor dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia as previously reported for the anterior hippocampal region. Volumes of these frontal lobe subregions were measured from magnetic resonance images based on sulcal anatomy in 20 men and 15 women with first-episode schizophrenia. All patients completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery while clinically stabilized that encompassed six domains of functioning: attention, executive, motor, visuospatial, memory and language. Findings indicated that reduced anterior cingulate gyrus volume was significantly correlated with worse executive functioning in men; among women, there were no significant correlations. Among men, anterior cingulate gyrus volume was significantly more strongly correlated with executive functioning than with attention, visuospatial, memory, language and general intellectual functioning. Neither executive nor motor functioning was significantly more strongly correlated with the dorsal 'archicortical' volumes than with orbital frontal volume. These findings suggest a link between executive deficits and dysfunction of the dorsal 'archicortical' system and implicate sex differences in their relationship in first-episode schizophrenia.

  2. The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73–100] “broad spectrum revolution” (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet. PMID:15210984

  3. Fertility remains high in Guatemala despite increasing use of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    With a total fertility rate of 5.1, Guatemala has one of the highest levels of fertility in Latin America, according to findings from the 1995 DHS survey in Guatemala (Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil--ENSMI-95). Fertility is lower among educated women, urban women, and Ladino women. The differences are most striking by education: on average, women with no formal education will have 7 children, compared with 2 or 3 children among women with at least some secondary education. Contraceptive use among currently married women increased from 23% in 1987 to 32% in 1995; however, this level of use is still low compared with other countries in the region. Almost half of contraceptive users (15%) rely on female sterilization; relatively few use the pill (4%) or the IUD (3%). It is estimated that 24% of married women want to space or limit their births but are not using a contraceptive method. The survey indicates that there have been improvements in most indicators of maternal and child health, but many challenges remain. Only about half of the women receive antenatal care and just one-third receive assistance at delivery from trained medical personnel. Less than half of the children aged 12-23 months have received all the recommended vaccinations, and half of the children under 5 years are malnourished (stunted). At the same time, infant mortality has shown a steady decline. In the 5-year period preceding the survey the infant mortality rate was 51/1000 live births (under-five mortality was 68/1000). The ENSMI-95 was implemented by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. A total of 12,403 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed. The final report and summary report are available in Spanish.

  4. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content ...

  5. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline.

  6. 浅析2010年版《中国药典》(一部)增修订情况及其临床指导意义%Analysis of the Additional and Revised Description of 2010 Edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(Volume Ⅰ) and Its Clinical Guiding Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧华; 高素强; 傅得兴

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To sum up the additional and revised description of 2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(volume Ⅰ),and to discuss its guiding significance for clinical rational drug use.METHODS:2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(volume Ⅰ) was compared with different editions chinese pharmaiopoeias,The characteristic of addtion and revision in volume 1 of Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as TCM decoction piece were summed up.RESULTS:There were 2 165 varieties recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,among which 1 019 varieties were new added (including 439 decoction pieces standards) and 634 varieties were revised.Recorded species,decoction pieces standard was increased significantly,drug standard was more reasonable,and drug safety was stronger,new detection techniques and methods was adopted and appendix of the standard was further improved.Latin names,medicinal parts,indications of the function,dosage,route of administration and attention of many herbs had been revised.CONCLUSIONS:2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia embody the development level of the drug check in China and the character of clinical drug use,furthermore which make great development in the security and controllability of drug administration.So it should exert the positive effect among improving quality of TCM decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicine,ensuring safety and efficiency of clinical drug use and regulating the development of TCM industry.%目的:了解2010年版《中国药典》(一部)增修订情况,探讨其对于临床用药的指导意义.方法:将2010年版《中国药典》(一部)与历版《中国药典》进行对比,总结新版增、修订特点,以及药材饮片增、修订情况.结果:2010年版《中国药典》(一部)共收载品种2 165个,新增品种1 019个(包括439个饮片标准),修订634种;收载品种、饮片标准大幅增加,药品标准更为合理,药品安全性更强,加入了新的检测技术和方法,附录更完善;许多药材的拉丁名

  7. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  8. Trauma remains a surgical disease from cradle to grave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Shannon N; Stovall, Robert T; Moore, Ernest E; Partrick, David A; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Bensard, Denis D

    2014-08-01

    in the patients who required a hospital stay of more than 7 days (67.2% among all patients). More than half of patients admitted following traumatic injury require operative intervention. This rate remains stable across all age groups. Our data emphasize the continued need for surgeons to stay engaged in the care of the trauma patient, particularly those most critically injured patients who will require prolonged hospital stay. Epidemiologic study, level III. Care management study, level IV.

  9. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  10. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  11. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  12. Structuring diabetes care in general practices: many improvements, remaining challenges.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    2009-08-07

    BACKGROUND: For people with type 2 diabetes to enjoy improved longevity and quality of life, care needs to be organised in a systematic way. AIM: To test if processes and intermediate outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes changed with the move to structured care in general practice shared with secondary care. METHODS: An audit of process and intermediate outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes before and after the change to structured care in 10 Dublin general practices shared with secondary care four years on. RESULTS: Structured diabetes care in general practice has led to more dedicated clinics improved processes of care and increased access to multidisciplinary expertise. Improvement in blood pressure control, the use of aspirin and the use of lipid lowering agents indicate a significant decrease in absolute risk of vascular events for this population. CONCLUSIONS: Structured care in general practice improves intermediate outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes. Further improvements need to be made to reach international targets.

  13. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-04-01

    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  14. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  15. Reduced thalamic volume in preterm infants is associated with abnormal white matter metabolism independent of injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, So Young [University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Altered thalamocortical development is hypothesized to be a key substrate underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. However, the pathogenesis of this abnormality is not well-understood. We combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the parietal white matter and morphometric analyses of the thalamus to investigate the association between white matter metabolism and thalamic volume and tested the hypothesis that thalamic volume would be associated with diminished N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a measure of neuronal/axonal maturation, independent of white matter injury. Data from 106 preterm infants (mean gestational age at birth: 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; range 23-36 weeks) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between parietal white matter NAA concentration and thalamic volume. This effect was above and beyond the effect of white matter injury and age at MRI and remained significant even when preterm infants with punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) were excluded from the analysis. Furthermore, choline, and among the preterm infants without pWMLs, lactate concentrations were also associated with thalamic volume. Of note, the associations between NAA and choline concentration and thalamic volume remained significant even when the sample was restricted to neonates who were term-equivalent age or older. These observations provide convergent evidence of a neuroimaging phenotype characterized by widespread abnormal thalamocortical development and suggest that the pathogenesis may involve impaired axonal maturation. (orig.)

  16. Prices Up and Volumes Stable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 First Half China Garment Industry Report Exports Grew at a Slower Pace China Customs reported the garment & accessories export value of $51.286 billion for the first five months of this year, up 23.12% y/y, accounting for 56.28 percent of the total, 5% lower than the previous year’s points.Despite sales prices increase, sales volume remain stable. From Jan. to May

  17. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  18. Pathophysiology of obesity: why surgery remains the most effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Talat; Mogensen, Kris M; Lautz, David B; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is a rapidly increasing, worldwide epidemic. Despite recent scientific advances, no currently recommended dietary program or medication results in long-term weight loss of more than 10% of body weight for the vast majority of people who attempt these interventions. Hence, surgical intervention is recommended for patients with a BMI > or =40 kg/m2. Although surgery is an effective, sustainable treatment of obesity, it can be associated with potentially significant perioperative risks and long-term complications. Current research is focused on developing a medical therapy, which produces more effective and sustainable weight loss, yet avoids the risks inherent in major surgery. With a reduced risk profile, such therapy could also be appropriately offered to those who are less obese and, in theory, help those who have BMIs as low as 27 kg/m2. Toward that end, numerous scientists are working to both unravel the pathophysiology of obesity and to determine why surgical intervention is so effective. This review briefly examines the current status of obesity pathophysiology and management, the reasons for failure of conventional medical treatments, and the success of surgical intervention. Finally, future areas of research are discussed.

  19. HIGH-VOLUME RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSION ACUTELY DIMINISHES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y, in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise and a control session (no exercise on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01 and 14.7% (p < 0.01 respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01. The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training.

  20. Volume calculation of CT lung lesions based on Halton low-discrepancy sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shusheng; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Shuo

    2017-03-01

    Volume calculation from the Computed Tomography (CT) lung lesions data is a significant parameter for clinical diagnosis. The volume is widely used to assess the severity of the lung nodules and track its progression, however, the accuracy and efficiency of previous studies are not well achieved for clinical uses. It remains to be a challenging task due to its tight attachment to the lung wall, inhomogeneous background noises and large variations in sizes and shape. In this paper, we employ Halton low-discrepancy sequences to calculate the volume of the lung lesions. The proposed method directly compute the volume without the procedure of three-dimension (3D) model reconstruction and surface triangulation, which significantly improves the efficiency and reduces the complexity. The main steps of the proposed method are: (1) generate a certain number of random points in each slice using Halton low-discrepancy sequences and calculate the lesion area of each slice through the proportion; (2) obtain the volume by integrating the areas in the sagittal direction. In order to evaluate our proposed method, the experiments were conducted on the sufficient data sets with different size of lung lesions. With the uniform distribution of random points, our proposed method achieves more accurate results compared with other methods, which demonstrates the robustness and accuracy for the volume calculation of CT lung lesions. In addition, our proposed method is easy to follow and can be extensively applied to other applications, e.g., volume calculation of liver tumor, atrial wall aneurysm, etc.

  1. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Change and Significance of Mean Platelet Volume in Children with Chronic Tonsillitis and Adenoid Hypertrophy%慢性扁桃体炎和腺样体肥大儿童外周血平均血小板体积变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海明

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic tonsillitis (CT)and adenoid hypertrophy (AH)is the most common cause of ob-structive sleep apnea hyponea syndrome(OSAHS).In the present study,we evaluated the relationship between mean platelet volume (MPV)and CT and AH which is the most frequent cause leading OSA in children.Methods A total of 40 children aged between 4 and 16,who underwent adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy with a diagnosis of AH and/or CT were recruited as operation group.38 healthy controls aged between 4 and 16 were employed as control group.Mean platelet volume (MPV)values,platelet count (PLT),white blood cell count (WBC)and hemoglobin (Hb)levels were recorded individually.Results It was found that MPV values in operation group were significantly lower than control group(P<0.001),whereas PLT in operation group was significantly higher than control group(P<0.001).There were no significant differences in WBC and HB values among groups.Conclusion OSAHS caused by CT-AH is associ-ated with low MPV values in childhood aged 4 to 1 6 .%目的:慢性扁桃体炎(CT)和腺样体肥大(AH)是引起阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)的最常见原因。本研究探讨扁桃体和(或)腺样体切除后外周血平均血小板体积(MPV)变化及其意义。方法40例被诊断为腺样体肥大和(或)慢性扁桃体炎患儿全麻下行腺样体和(或)扁桃体切除术,设为手术组,年龄4到16岁。38例4到16健康岁儿童设为对照组。分别检测外周血平均血小板体积(MPV),血小板计数(PLT),白细胞计数(WBC)和血红蛋白(HB)水平。结果手术组 MPV水平明显低于对照组(P<0.001),手术组PLT明显高于对照组(P<0.001);手术组 WBC和 HB水平与对照组相比无统计学意义。结论4到16岁儿童由慢性扁桃体炎(CT)和腺样体肥大(AH)引起的阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)与外周血低水平血小板平均体积(MPV)有关。

  3. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Results Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner’s syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen.

  4. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNAL ANAL SPHINCTER FUNCTION AND LENGTH OF REMAINING RECTUM AFTER RESECTING RECTAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xiaowei

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between internal anal sphincter function and length of remaining rectum after resecting rectal carcinoma. Methods: Preoperatively,21 patients were evaluated via patients' clinical date,including anal resting pressure (resting pressure) assay.Six months postoperatively, repeated manometric studies and clinical evaluations were performed to assess the level of continence. The formula use for calculating postoperative resting pressure is as follows: postoperative resting pressure=0.42×preoperative resting pressure+1.56×length of remaining recturm+12.37 (R2=0.58; P<0.01).Degree of continence was graded based on severity of the dysfunction and grade of the continence score. Results:It was demonstrated the patients with low postoperative resting pressures (<4.0 Kpa) had incontinence, and those with high postoperative resting pressures (>4.7 Kpa) were continent. There were significant correlations between length of the remaining rectum and ratio of the decrease in maximum resting pressure (postoperative/preoperative maximum resting pressure; r=0.62; P<0.01). Conclusion:Continence of rectum is influenced by maximum resting pressure of function of the internal anal sphincter, length of remaining rectum is shorter, the more damage to the internal anal sphincter. It is able to foretell stool incontinence by using the postoperative resting pressure formula, and to determine the length of the remaining rectum.

  6. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  7. Moderate intensity supine exercise causes decreased cardiac volumes and increased outer volume variations: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Jablonowski, Robert; Arvidsson, Per M;

    2013-01-01

    The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study...

  8. Static cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation remains intact during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dheeraj; McLeod, Katherine; Leonard, Samantha; Kibler, Kathleen; Easley, Ronald Blaine; Fraser, Charles D; Andropoulos, Dean; Brady, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies measuring cerebral blood flow in infants during deep hypothermia have demonstrated diminished cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. The coexistence of hypotension in these cohorts confounds the conclusion that deep hypothermia impairs cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. We sought to compare the lower limit of autoregulation and the static rate of autoregulation between normothermic and hypothermic piglets. Twenty anesthetized neonatal piglets (5-7 days old; 10 normothermic and 10 hypothermic to 20°C) had continuous measurements of cortical red cell flux using laser Doppler flowmetry, while hemorrhagic hypotension was induced without cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limit of autoregulation was determined for each subject using piecewise regression and SRoR was determined above and below each lower limit of autoregulation as (%change cerebrovascular resistance/%change cerebral perfusion pressure). The estimated difference in lower limit of autoregulation was 1.4 mm Hg (lower in the hypothermic piglets; 95% C.I. -10 to 14 mm Hg; P=0.6). The median lower limit of autoregulation in the normothermic group was 39 mm Hg [IQR 38-51] vs 35 mm Hg [31-50] in the hypothermic group. Intact steady-state pressure autoregulation was defined as static rate of autoregulation >0.5 and was demonstrated in all normothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.72 [0.65-0.87]) and in 9/10 of the hypothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.65 [0.52-0.87]). This difference in static rate of autoregulation of 0.06 (95% C.I. -0.3 to 0.1) was not significant (P=0.4). Intact steady-state cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is demonstrated in a swine model of profound hypothermia. Lower limit of autoregulation and static rate of autoregulation were similar in hypothermic and normothermic subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  10. Surgical treatment of dislocated acromioclavicular syndesmolysis remains controversial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Mihaljevič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Operative treatment of acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocations Allman-Tossy III type is controversial. There are more than 30 types of operative treatments described. At the Department of Traumatology of Celje General and Teaching Hospital (CGTH we operate the AC joint dislocation by the AC joint opened reduction and fixation using two Kirschner wires and additional figure of eight wire loop over the AC joint. The purpose of the analysis is to evaluate the results of acromioclavicular joint complete dislocation Allman-Tossy III type operative treatment.Patients and methods: In the 2-year period from July 1st 1997, to June 31st, 1999, at the Department of Traumatology of CGTH we operatively treated 59 injured persons with the AC joint dislocation. There were 55 men (93 % and 4 women (7 %. The average age was 40 years (from 20 to 72 years. 56 (95 % injured persons had the AC joint injury of Allman-Tossy III type. In first three weeks (early reconstruction we operated 45 injured persons (76.3 %. The applied material was removed after 8 weeks. 47 (79.7 % injured persons were re-examined at least one year after the injury (27 months in average; 14–39 months. The results were evaluated according to University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA scale for the shoulder function evaluation. The impact of factors on a good treatment result was presented by the odds ratio and uni-variant analysis calculation.Results: Out of 47 injured persons re-examined according to the UCLA scale at least one year after the injury there were 17 injured persons (36.2 % rated with an excellent result (UCLA 34– 35, 22 good (46.8 % (UCLA 28–33, 5 satisfactory (10.6 % (UCLA 21–27 and 3 bad (6.4 % (UCLA 0–20. In total we achieved 83 % of excellent and good results. The injured persons age did not significantly affect the treatment result. Complications occurred in 14 (29.8 % injured patients. If no complications were occurred the odds ratio for good

  11. The Effect of Local Anesthetic Volume Within the Adductor Canal on Quadriceps Femoris Function Evaluated by Electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevstad, Ulrik; Jæger, Pia; Sørensen, Johan Kløvgaard;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-injection adductor canal block (ACB) provides analgesia after knee surgery. Which nerves that are blocked by an ACB and what influence-if any-local anesthetic volume has on the effects remain undetermined. We hypothesized that effects on the nerve to the vastus medialis muscle...... (which besides being a motor nerve innervates portions of the knee) are volume-dependent. METHODS: In this assessor- and subject-blinded randomized trial, 20 volunteers were included. On 3 separate days, subjects received an ACB with different volumes (10, 20, and 30 mL) of lidocaine 1%. In addition......L was used (P = 0.0001). No statistically significant differences were found between volume and effect on the vastus lateralis (P = 0.81) or in muscle strength (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: For ACB, there is a positive correlation between local anesthetic volume and effect on the vastus medialis muscle. Despite...

  12. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  13. US Public Health Preparedness for Zika and Other Threats Remains Vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2016-04-01

    The unanticipated global outbreak of Zika virus infection is the most current but certainly not the last emerging infectious disease challenge to confront the US public heath system. Despite a number of such threats in recent years, significant gaps remain in core areas of public health system readiness. Stable, sustained investments are required to establish a solid foundation for achieving necessary national public health emergency preparedness and response capacity.

  14. Sonographic Determination of Residual Bladder Volume after Application of Different Cystotomy Closure Techniques in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IU Khan1*, MA Khan2, SG Bokhari2, A Safdar2, M Shoaib1, H Akbar2, S Aslam2, MA Khan2 and A Noor2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Residual urine volume is measured to diagnose various neurogenic and obstructive disorders of the urinary bladder. However, it is hypothesized that cystotomy closure using inverting patterns decreases intraluminal diameter of urinary bladder which consequently reduce residual bladder volume. This study aimed to investigate the ideal suturing style for cystotomy incision closure which would exert the least effect on residual bladder volume. The effect of various suturing styles on residual bladder volume was studied sonographically. Residual Bladder Volume (RBV was calculated by the formula, i.e. RBV=L×W× (DL+DT/2×0.625, where L=longitudinal diameter, W=transverse diameter, DL= depth at longitudinal diameter, DT=depth at transverse diameter. 24 healthy mongrel dogs were selected and randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D (n=6. In groups A, B and C, the cystotomy incision was subsequently closed by two-layered appositional suturing pattern, two-layered inverting pattern and three layers (using a combination of appositional and inverting styles, respectively. Group-D remained as sham-operated Control. The results clearly showed that the three-layered closure technique using a combination of appositional and inverting patterns (Group-C, significantly reduced the bladder volume (P<0.01. Two-layered inverting patterns (Group B, also reduced the bladder volume but not up to a significant level, whereas, the appositional suturing technique (group-A exerted the least effect on residual bladder volume. Conclusively, it was inferred that a two-layered appositional suturing pattern should be preferred for closure of cystotomy incision to avoid significant changes in residual bladder volume.

  15. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  16. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  17. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. Effects of lithium on cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield volumes in psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumatos, C I; Nanda, P; Mathew, I T; Tandon, N; Shah, J; Bishop, J R; Clementz, B A; Pearlson, G D; Sweeney, J A; Tamminga, C A; Keshavan, M S

    2015-02-01

    Relative to healthy controls, lithium free bipolar patients exhibit significant gray matter abnormalities. Lithium, the long-time reference standard medication treatment for bipolar disorder, has been proposed to be neuro-protective against these abnormalities. However, its effects on cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield (HSF) volumes remain unstudied and unclear, respectively, in bipolar disorder. This study included 342 healthy controls (HC), 51 lithium free PBD patients (NoLi), and 51 PBD patients taking lithium (Li). Regional gray matter thickness and HSF volume values were extracted from 3T MRI images. After matching NoLi and Li samples, regions where HC differed from either Li or NoLi were identified. In regions of significant or trending HC-NoLi difference, Li-NoLi comparisons were made. No significant HC-Li thickness or HSF volume differences were found. Significantly thinner occipital cortices were observed in NoLi compared to HC. In these regions, Li consistently exhibited non-significant trends for greater cortical thickness relative to NoLi. Significantly less volume was observed in NoLi compared to both HC and Li in right HSFs. Our results suggest that PBD in patients not treated with Li is associated with thinner occipital cortices and reduced HSF volumes compared with HC. Patients treated with Li exhibited significantly larger HSF volumes than NoLi, and those treated with Li were no different from HC in cortical thickness or hippocampal volumes. This evidence directly supports the hypothesis that Li may counteract the locally thinner and smaller gray matter structure found in PBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

  1. 翼外肌在髁突矢状骨折愈合中对新生骨形成的影响%Changes of New Bone Trabecular Number,Thickness,Gap Width and Bone Volume Fraction and Its Clinical Significance of Pterygoid Muscle in Condyle Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕波; 何志良; 王承阳; 贺成功; 曹雷; 苏丹妮

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the effects of new bone formation of pterygoid muscle in condyle fracture .[Meth‐ods] A total of 8 healthy sheep were randomly divided into observation and control groups ( n=4 each) .Condylar osteot‐omy was used for mimicking mandibular condyle sagittal fracture .Pterygoid muscle function was retained for observation group and blocked for control group .At Weeks 4 ,12 and 24 ,the changes of new bone trabecular number ,thickness ,gap width and bone volume fraction were recorded .Reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) and immuno‐histochemistry were used for detecting the changes of osteocalcin (OCN) ,transforming growth factor‐β1 (TGF‐β1) gene and protein .[Results]With elapsing time ,trabecular number ,thickness and bone volume fraction increased significantly while trabecular gap width significantly decreased in observation group as compared to control group ( P0 .05) .In observation group ,the expressions of OCN mRNA and TGF‐β1 mRNA and positive cell percentage increased significantly ( P <0 .05) .As compared with control group ,the expressions of OCN mRNA and TGF‐β1 mRNA and positive cell percentage were significantly higher in observation group during each period ( P<0 .05) .In control group ,the expressions of OCN mRNA and TGF‐β1 mRNA and positive cell percentage peaked during Week 12 and then decreased significantly ( P <0 .05) .[Conclusion] Pterygoid muscle affects remodeling of condyle shape in healing of sagittal condylar fracture .And the mechanism may be due to a formation of new bone and an aggravation of condyle deformity resulting in joint disk or articular fossa adhesion and ankylosis .%【目的】探讨翼外肌在髁突矢状骨折愈合中对新骨形成的影响。【方法】10只健康绵羊随机分为观察组(5只)和对照组(5只),两组绵羊均通过髁突截骨术造成髁突矢状骨折,观察组保留翼外肌功能,对照组阻断翼外肌功

  2. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  3. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  4. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Wales

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated decisions as to which one to use for a given task. The experimental findings should prove useful to the aDNA and archaeological communities by guiding future research methodologies and ensuring precious archaeobotanical remains are studied in optimal ways, and may thereby yield important new perspectives on the interactions between humans and past plant communities.

  5. Continuous nasogastric tube feeding: monitoring by combined use of refractometry and traditional gastric residual volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W-K; McClave, S-A; Chao, Y-C

    2004-02-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs) is insensitive and cannot distinguish retained enteral formula from the large volume of endogenous secretions. We designed this prospective study to determine whether refractometry and Brix value (BV) measurements could be used to monitor gastric emptying and tolerance in patients receiving continuous enteral feeding. Thirty-six patients on continuous nasogastric tube feeding were divided into two groups; patients with lower GRVs (75 ml) in Group 2. Upon entry, all gastric contents were aspirated, the volume was recorded (Asp GRV), BV measurements were made by refractometry, and then the contents were reinstilled but diluted with 30 ml additional water. Finally, a small amount was reaspirated and repeat BV measurements were made. Three hours later, the entire procedure was repeated a second time. The BV ratio, calculated (Cal) GRV, and volume of formula remaining were calculated by derived equations. Mean BV ratios were significantly higher for those patients in Group 2 compared to those in Group 1. All but one of the 22 patients (95%) in Group 1 had a volume of formula remaining in the stomach estimated on both measurements to be less than the hourly infusion rate (all these patients had BV ratios 70%). Three of the Group 2 patients (21%) whose initial measurement showed evidence for retention of formula, improved on repeat follow-up measurement assuring adequate gastric emptying. The remaining five patients from Group 2 (35%) had a volume of formula remaining that was less than the hourly infusion rate on both measurements. The pattern of Asp GRVs and serial pre- and post-dilution BVs failed to differentiate these patients in Group 2 with potential emptying problems from those with sufficient gastric emptying. Refractometry and measurement of the BV may improve the clinical utilization of GRVs, by its ability to identify the component of formula within gastric contents and track changes in that component related

  6. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  7. Rotigaptide (ZP123) improves atrial conduction slowing in chronic volume overload-induced dilated atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Ketil; Miyamoto, Takuya; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kubota, Isao; Nakayama, Jun; Shimojo, Hisashi; Hirose, Masamichi

    2006-07-01

    Chronic atrial dilation is associated with atrial conduction velocity slowing and an increased risk of developing atrial tachyarrhythmias. Rotigaptide (ZP123) is a selective gap junction modifier that increases cardiac gap junctional intercellular communication. We hypothesised that rotigaptide treatment would increase atrial conduction velocity and reduce the inducibility to atrial tachyarrhythmias in a model of chronic volume overload induced chronic atrial dilatation characterized by atrial conduction velocity slowing. Chronic volume overload was created in Japanese white rabbits by arterio-venous shunt formation. Atrial conduction velocity and atrial tachyarrhythmias inducibility were examined in Langendorff-perfused chronic volume overload hearts (n=12) using high-resolution optical mapping before and after treatment with rotigaptide. Moreover, expression levels of atrial gap junction proteins (connexin40 and connexin43) were examined in chronic volume overload hearts (n=6) and compared to sham-operated controls (n=6). Rotigaptide treatment significantly increased atrial conduction velocity in chronic volume overload hearts, however, rotigaptide did not decrease susceptibility to the induction of atrial tachyarrhythmias. Protein expressions of Cx40 and Cx43 were decreased by 32% and 72% (P<0.01), respectively, in chromic volume overload atria compared to control. To conclude, rotigaptide increased atrial conduction velocity in a rabbit model of chromic volume overload induced atrial conduction velocity slowing. The demonstrated effect of rotigaptide on atrial conduction velocity did not prevent atrial tachyarrhythmias inducibility. Whether rotigaptide may possess antiarrhythmic efficacy in other models of atrial fibrillation remains to be determined.

  8. Post-traumatic stress and age variation in amygdala volumes among youth exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Klabunde, Megan; Russell, Justin D; Reiss, Allan L; Carrión, Victor G

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, normal developmental variation in amygdala volumes may be altered under conditions of severe stress. The purpose of this article was to examine whether posttraumatic stress moderates the association between age and amygdala volumes in youth exposed to traumatic events who are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Volumetric imaging was conducted on two groups of youth aged 9-17 years: 28 with exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms (boys = 15, girls = 13) and 26 matched (age, IQ) comparison youth (Controls; boys = 12, girls = 14). There was a significant group by age interaction in predicting right amygdala volumes. A positive association between age and right amygdala volumes was observed, but only in PTSD youth. These associations with age remained when controlling for IQ, total brain volumes and sex. Moreover, older youth with PTSD symptoms had relatively larger right amygdala volumes than controls. Findings provide evidence that severe stress may influence age-related variation in amygdala volumes. Results further highlight the importance of utilizing age as an interactive variable in pediatric neuroimaging research, in so far as age may act as an important moderator of group differences.

  9. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  10. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  11. Correlation of transrectal and transabodominal ultrasound measurement of transition zone volume with post-operative enucleated adenoma volume in benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Idowu; Aremu, Ademola; Olajide, Abimbola; Bello, Tope; Olajide, Folake; Adetiloye, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease of ageing men worldwide. Though transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is the standard in most parts of the world in evaluation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), it is rarely done in some less developed countries because of non availability of appropriate probes and or specialists. Transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) remains the mainstay in these areas. Some controversies still exist in literature about the accuracy of TAUS evaluation of prostatic volume in patients with BPH. This study aimed at comparing the transition zone volume estimation of the prostate on transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound with post-operative enucleated adenoma volume in Nigeria patients with BPH and to suggest better predictor of prostate volume in evaluation of BPH. Forty-six (46) patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to BPH attending the urologic clinic were evaluated ultrasonographically and eventually managed with open surgery (prostatectomy) after due counselling. The post operative samples were weighted using a sensitive top loading weighing balance and converted to volume. Since the specific gravity of the prostate is equivalent to that of water,the weight is the same as volume. Patients' ages ranged between 59 and 90 years with a peak age incidence at seventh decade. Transition Zone (TZ) volume estimation on both transrectal and transabdominal ultrasound showed positive correlation with the post operative enucleated adenoma(r = 0.594, p < 0.001) but the transrectal method was more accurate. There was no significant relationship between the TZ volume and patients' symptoms(r = 0.491, p = 0.007). Both TRUS and TAUS are comparable at TZ volume estimation and therefore TAUS can be utilized in regions where intracavitary probes and or the expertise is/are not available.

  12. Comparative response of right and left ventricles to volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, R; Thilenius, O G; Arcilla, R A

    1976-08-01

    The cardiac volume data of 49 normal children were compared with those of 23 with secundum atrial septal defect and 24 with patent ductus arteriosus. Significantly smaller ventricular end-diastolic volumes were observed in the normal infants than in older children (right ventricle 53.9 versus 75.5 cm3/m2; left ventricle 46.7 versus 63.6 cm3/m2). "Distensibility" of the right ventricle (DRV), left ventricle (DLV) and left atrium increased normally with age. DRV and DLV were similar shortly after birth; thereafter, DRV increased more rapidly than DLV (mean DRV 12.7; mean DLV 7.8 cm3/m2 per mm Hg, P less than 0.001). In both atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus, the ipsilateral (involved) ventricles had increased volume, increased output, normal ejection fraction and increased distensibility. The contralateral (left) ventricle in atrial septal defect was smaller than normal (39.6 versus 49.7 cm3, P less than 0.001), and had a smaller ejection fraction (0.63 versus 0.71, P less than 0.01) and output (3.70 versus 4.57 liters/min per m2, P less than 0.005). In contrast, the contralateral (right) ventricle in patent ductus arteriosus remained normal. Left atrial maximal volume was larger than normal in atrial septal defect (46.6 versus 35.9 cm3/m2, P less than 0.001). The left atrial and left ventricular volumes in patent ductus arteriosus were, respectively, 152 and 142 percent of normal, indicating comparable response to the volume load. The left head changes in atrial septal defect may be related both to a functionally restrictive defect and to the difference in distensibility of the ventricles.

  13. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  14. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  15. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  16. Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them.©

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Towards a multidisciplinary practice for human remains: the conservation, collection, and display of human remains and objects made from them. This research discussion examines the breadth and complexity of a unique strand of museum collections, artefacts that often cross boundaries of classification, being defined as both material culture and human remains. It explores some of the controversial methods in which collections of human remains were amassed as well as the decision-making processe...

  17. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Schwartz

    Full Text Available Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet" yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd c. BCE and Diodorus Siculus (1(st c. BCE], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate, Insulin Resistance and Ovarian Volume Estimation in Patients With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysi Christodoulaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the potential association of DHEA-S with metabolic and hormonal alterations and with disorders of ovarian morphology.Materials and methods: The present study was based on women with PCOS that attended the Gynaecological Endocrinology – Paediatric and Adolescence Endocrinology Department of our clinic. Overall, 321 patients who met the Rotterdam ESHRE/ ASRM – Sponsored criteria for the definition of PCOS were included. Women’s personal medical history was recorded, anthropometric parameters were assessed and blood was drawn for analysis of metabolic and hormonal parameters. A gynaecological ultrasound was also performed to evaluate ovarian morphology.Results: Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation of DHEA-S with the mean volume of the right and left ovary and with the maximum volume of the largest ovary. This finding remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI (β ± SE = -0.39 ± 0.17, p = 0.023 in the case of mean ovarian volume and β ± SE = -0.36 ± 0.17, p = 0.032 in the case of the maximum volume of the maximum ovarian volume.Conclusion: The findings of our study reveal a clear negative association of DHEA-S with ovarian volume. To date, however, current evidence in this field are restricted to experimental animal models. Future clinical studies are needed in this field to corroborate our findings.

  19. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  20. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Issa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP, composite nodal volumes (GTVN and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance.

  1. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad R.; Samuels, Stuart E.; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  2. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico;

    2014-01-01

    DNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated...

  3. Recovery Rates of Human Fetal Skeletal Remains Using Varying Mesh Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T; De La Paz, Jade S

    2016-01-01

    Human fetal skeletal elements of different gestational ages were screened with multiple mesh sizes (6.4 mm [1/4 inch], 3.2 mm [1/8 inch], 2.0 mm, and 1.0 mm) to determine their recovery rates. All remains were previously macerated, and no significantly damaged elements were used. The 6.4 mm mesh allowed a large loss of elements (63.2% overall), including diagnostic elements, while no diagnostic elements were lost when the 1 mm mesh (0.2%) was used. When using the 3.2 mm mesh, 16.2% of the bones were lost, including some diagnostic elements (primarily tooth crowns), while 7.5% were lost using the 2.0 mm mesh. The authors recommend that the potential loss of information incurred when utilizing larger mesh sizes be taken into consideration when planning recovery methods where fetal remains may be encountered and that a minimum of 1.0 mm mesh be utilized in recovery contexts known to include fetal remains. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene.

  5. Dental health of children: where we are today and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most common disease in man and presents a tremendous health-affecting challenge and fiscal burden to both developed and underdeveloped countries. Changing demographics including increased number of ethnic minorities, cultural practices and diet, the number of children living in poverty or near poverty, and the special needs of medically compromised children have made solutions more complex and evasive. Systemic and topical fluoride contacts remain the most cost-effective public health response to preventing caries among children. The time-honored impact of reducing sugars and carbohydrates in the diet and improving oral hygiene practices also remain essential. New technology has the potential of offering remineralization strategies. The dental profession is challenged to be proactive in identifying alternatives and implementing new and creative ways to embrace underserved children and improve their access to care including trauma prevention. The impact on families and society, including financial and general well-being, due to poor oral health is significant. Lower income families absorb disproportionately the effect of dental diseases due to lack of education, food availability and selection, and access to early preventive care.

  6. Post-operative hemimaxillectomy rehabilitation using prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining natural teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhou Qu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results. The patients were assessed using the prosthesis functioning scale of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, retention and bite force were recorded for both the temporary prosthesis and the final prosthesis. RESULTS: The mean bite force of the prosthetic first molar was increased to 69.2 N. The mean retentive force increased to 13.5 N after zygoma implant insertion. The bite force on the prosthetic first molar was improved to 229.3 N. CONCLUSION: Bite force increased significantly with the support of a zygoma implant. The use of zygoma implants in the restoration of maxillary defects improved functional outcome and patient satisfaction.

  7. Mechanics and energetics of overstretch: the relationship of altered left ventricular volume to the Frank-Starling mechanism and phosphorylation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H; Holt, W; Watters, T A; Wu, S; Parmley, W W; Schiller, N; Higgins, C; Wikman-Coffelt, J

    1988-08-01

    Isovolumic perfused rat hearts containing an intraventricular balloon were used to assess the effects of incremental balloon volumes on developed pressure, oxygen consumption, coronary flow, phosphorylation potential obtained by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance, wall thickness obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography, and diastolic wall stress. Three phases in developed pressure were noted: (1) volumes from 0 to 150 microliter resulted in a continuous increase in developed pressure; (2) with volumes from 150 to 250 microliter, developed pressure remained constant whereas developed (systolic) and diastolic wall stress rose sharply; and (3) with volumes from 250 to 400 microliter, developed pressure fell whereas developed (systolic) and diastolic wall stress continued to rise. The ln [(PCr)/(Pi)] was in synchrony with oxygen consumption at 0 and 50 microliter balloon volumes, and then diverged at volumes greater than 100 microliter. Oxygen consumption increased from 0 to 50 microliter, was constant from 50 to 250 microliter balloon volume, and then declined. The ln [(PCr)/(Pi)] fell precipitously at balloon volumes greater than 100 microliter, most likely limited by oxygen consumption. Coronary flow did not change significantly until 250 microliter or more of water was added to the balloon, and then it started to decline. Volumes greater than 100 microliter result in overstretch of myofibers, as observed by the precipitous decline in ln [(PCr)/(Pi)], and the steep increase in diastolic wall stress. With excessive volume loading, the drop in phosphorylation potential, ln [(PCr)/(Pi)], appears to contribute to the decrease in developed pressure.

  8. The clandestine multiple graves in Malaysia: The first mass identification operation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Noor, Mohd Suhani; Khoo, Lay See; Zamaliana Alias, Wan Zafirah; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Ibrahim, Mohamad Azaini; Mahmood, Mohd Shah

    2017-09-01

    The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site. The mortuary operation was conducted over a period of 3 months from June to September 2015, and was divided into two phases; phase 1 involving the postmortem examination of the remains of 116 suspected individuals and for phase 2 the remains of 49 suspected individuals. The fact that the graves were of unknown individuals afforded the mass identification operation a sufficient duration of 2 weeks as preparatory phase enabling procedurals and daily victim identification workflow to be established, and the setting up of a temporary body storage for the designated mortuary. The temporary body storage has proven to be a significant factor in enabling the successful conclusion of the VIC operation to the final phase of temporary controlled burials. Recognition from two international observers, Mr. Andréas Patiño Umaña, from the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Prof. Noel Woodford from Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) had proven the mortuary operation was in compliance to the international quality and standards. The overall victim identification and mortuary operation identified a number of significant challenges, in particular the management of commingled human remains as well as the compilation of postmortem data in the absence of

  9. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  10. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  11. Mediastinal staging for lung cancer: the influence of biopsy volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Elof; Pape, Christian; Jørgensen, Ole Dan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mediastinal staging is of paramount importance prior to surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to identify patients with N2-disease. Mediastinoscopy remains the gold standard, and sampling from at least three lymph node stations is generally recommended. It is unknown whether...... of demonstrating N2-disease (psampling from several lymph node stations was significantly associated with a decreased probability of demonstrating N2-disease (p=0.015) and volume was significantly larger per station when fewer stations were sampled (p... nodes during mediastinoscopy was significantly associated with the probability of demonstrating N2-disease; however, contrary to common belief, sampling from several lymph node stations was not associated with an increased probability of detecting N2-disease. Although purely speculative, these findings...

  12. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  13. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones.

  14. Cardiorenal-endocrine dynamics during and following volume expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.S.; Edwards, B.S.; Schwab, T.R.; Heublein, D.M.; Burnett, J.C. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    The relationship between atrial pressure, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and renal hemodynamic and excretory function was examined during and following acute 10% body weight saline volume expansion and measurements were made at 3.3, 6.6, and 10% body weight volume expansion in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), fractional excretion of Na (FE/sub Na/), and ANP all increased in parallel during volume expansion. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone decreased in parallel during 10% volume expansion. ANP, PRA and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Following 10% volume expansion, saline was infused at the peak urine flow rate to maintain peak volume expansion. Despite continued saline infusion, RAP, PCWP, and ANP decreased in parallel. In contrast, FE/sub Na/ remained increased, and aldosterone and PRA remained depressed. These studies demonstrate that atrial pressures, ANP, and FE/sub Na/ increase in parallel during volume expansion; this suggests a role for ANP in modulating acute atrial volume overload. During stable volume expansion periods, however, despite a decrease in ANP levels, Na excretion remains elevated, suggesting that non-ANP mechanisms may be important in maintaining natriuresis during stable volume expansion.

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  16. Prostate volume modifies the association between obesity and prostate cancer or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Motley, Saundra S; Wills, Marcia; Cookson, Michael S; Concepcion, Raoul S; Eckstein, Charles W; Chang, Sam S; Smith, Joseph A

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between obesity and prostate cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effect of prostate volume on the obesity and prostate cancer association. With a multi-centered, rapid-recruitment protocol, weight and body size measurements were collected prior to diagnosis, and medical charts were reviewed for pathology results (n = 420 controls, 119 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) cases, and 286 cancer cases (41% Gleason > 6). In multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, PSA levels and history, DRE results, and number of cores at biopsy, the association between BMI and cancer was restricted to men with a smaller prostate volume (volume or = 30) = 2.17 (1.09, 4.32), p (trend) = 0.02; volume > or = 40 cm(3): OR(BMI > or = 30) = 0.77 (0.34, 1.77), p (trend) = 0.17; p (interaction) = 0.03). Similarly, the WHR and PIN association was significantly modified by prostate volume (volume or = 40 m(3): OR((WHR: T3 vs. T1)) = 0.63 (0.32, 1.23) (p (trend) = 0.17); p (interaction) prostate volume acts as a modifier, and BMI and WHR are significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN, respectively, in the absence of biopsy sampling error derived from obesity-related prostate enlargement.

  17. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremely high surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

  18. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty female patients with spider phobia and twenty age-matched healthy female controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging to investigate amygdala volumes. The amygdalae were segmented using an automatic, model-based segmentation tool (FSL FIRST). Differences in amygdala volume were investigated by multivariate analysis of covariance with group as between-subject factor and left and right amygdala as dependent factors. The relation between amygdala volume and clinical features such as symptom severity, disgust sensitivity, trait anxiety and duration of illness was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis. Results Spider phobic patients showed significantly smaller left amygdala volume than healthy controls. No significant difference in right amygdala volume was detected. Furthermore, the diminished amygdala size in patients was related to higher symptom severity, but not to higher disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety and was independent of age. Conclusions In summary, the results reveal a relation between higher symptom severity and smaller left amygdala volume in patients with spider phobia. This relation was independent of other potential confounders such as the disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety. The findings suggest that greater spider phobic fear is associated with smaller left amygdala. However, the smaller left amygdala volume may either stand for a higher vulnerability to develop a phobic disorder or emerge as a consequence of the disorder. PMID:23442196

  19. Does hyrax expansion therapy affect maxillary sinus volume? A cone-beam computed tomography report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darsey, Drew M.; English, Jeryl D.; Ellis, Randy K.; Akyalcin, Sercan [School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Kau, Chung H [School of Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial effects of maxillary expansion therapy with Hyrax appliance and to evaluate the related changes in maxillary sinus volume. Thirty patients (20 females, 10 males; 13.8 years) requiring maxillary expansion therapy, as part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment, were examined. Each patient had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before (T1) and after (T2) maxillary expansion therapy with a banded Hyrax appliance. Multiplanar slices were used to measure linear dimensions and palatal vault angle. Volumetric analysis was used to measure maxillary sinus volumes. Student t tests were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment measurements. Additionally, differences between two age groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. Comparison of pre-treatment to post-treatment variables revealed significant changes in the transverse dimension related to both maxillary skeletal and dental structures and palatal vault angle, resulting in a widened palatal vault (p<0.05). Hard palate showed no significant movement in the vertical and anteroposterior planes. Nasal cavity width increased on a mean value of 0.93 mm(SD=0.23, p<0.05). Maxillary sinus volume remained virtually stable. No significant age differences were observed in the sample. Hyrax expansion therapy did not have a significant impact on maxillary sinus volume.

  20. Combined effects of marijuana and nicotine on memory performance and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel

    2015-10-15

    Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine.

  1. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  2. Influence of Bulla Volume on Postbullectomy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Baldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the contribution of the resected volume and the presence of associated, functionally significant emphysema to the postoperative improvement of pulmonary function after resection of giant lung bullae.

  3. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  4. The Persistence of the Large Volumes in Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-01-01

    Classically, black holes admit maximal interior volumes that grow asymptotically linearly in time. We show that such volumes remain large when Hawking evaporation is taken into account. Even if a charged black hole approaches the extremal limit during this evolution, its volume continues to grow; although an exactly extremal black hole does not have a "large interior". We clarify this point and discuss the implications of our results to the information loss and firewall paradoxes.

  5. Lung Volume Measured during Sequential Swallowing in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Outcomes from studying the coordinative relationship between respiratory and swallow subsystems are inconsistent for sequential swallows, and the lung volume at the initiation of sequential swallowing remains undefined. The first goal of this study was to quantify the lung volume at initiation of sequential swallowing ingestion cycles and…

  6. Impact of varied center volume categories on volume-outcome relationship in children receiving ECMO for heart operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Seib, Paul M; Robertson, Michael J; Wilcox, Andrew; Gupta, Punkaj

    2016-09-01

    To study the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), different studies from different databases use different volume categories. The objective of this study was to evaluate if different center volume categories impact the volume-outcome relationship among children receiving ECMO for heart operations. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from an existing national database, the Pediatric Health Information System. Centers were classified into five different volume categories using different cut-offs and different variables. Mortality rates were compared between the varied volume categories using a mixed effects logistic regression model after adjusting for patient- and center-level risk factors. Data collection included demographic information, baseline characteristics, pre-ECMO risk factors, operation details, patient diagnoses, and center data. In unadjusted analysis, there was a significant relationship between center volume and mortality, with low-and medium-volume centers associated with higher mortality rates compared to high-volume centers in all volume categories, except the hierarchical clustering volume category. In contrast, there was no significant association between center-volume and mortality among all volume categories in adjusted analysis. We concluded that high-volume centers were not associated with improved outcomes for the majority of the categorization schemes despite using different cut-offs and different variables for volume categorization.

  7. Detection and characterization of volatile organic compounds from burned human and animal remains in fire debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, John D; Taormina, Eimi I; Brien, David J

    2017-03-01

    Debris collected from various test sites where mammalian remains (human and porcine) had been burned in a variety of full-scale fire scenarios was evaluated for the presence of volatile residues that could be characteristic of those remains. Levels of volatiles were measured using the method commonly used for fire debris analysis: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Homologous n-aldehydes (from n-pentanal to n-nonanal) proved to be a significant indicator of the presence of burned animal tissue as they were observed in nearly all of the samples. Such aldehydes are created by the combustion of animal fats. One aldehyde, n-hexanal, appeared more frequently than the other aldehydes, n-pentanal, n-heptanal, n-octanal, and n-nonanal. Ethanol was detected in two-thirds of the samples, while acetone appeared in about three-fourths of the samples, but both were detected at much lower concentrations than n-hexanal. These appear to have been combustion products of the substrates on which each body burned, rather than originating from the combustion of the body. There appeared to be no qualitative distinction between volatile products produced from burned porcine carcasses and those from human cadavers. Since a homologous series of C5-C9n-aldehydes is not produced as a dominant species by the pyrolysis or combustion of any normally encountered substrate (carpet, bedding, wood products or upholstery), their detection by normal fire debris methods appears to be a valid indicator of the presence of burned animal remains. These data will also provide guidance to fire debris analysts as to the nature of volatiles associated with the combustion of human bodies in real-world fires. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of sediment size and biostratinomy on the development of biofilms in recent avian vertebrate remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.

    2017-04-01

    Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.

  9. All- Ceramic Crown Preparation and the Remained wall Thickness of the Pulp Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available tatement of Problem: A minimally invasive method of preparation is essential to prevent tooth structure weakening and pulp irritation; especially for mandibular anterior single-tooth all-ceramic crowns. According to many investigations, one of the most important reasons of pulp injury caused by tooth preparation for different restorative procedures is reduced “remained wall thickness” (RWT. In order to protect the pulp from irritation, it is necessary to maintain a 0.5 mm of RWT.Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of all-ceramic crown preparation on pulp chamber RWT of mandibular incisors.Materials and Method: Mesiodistal and buccolingual initial images of 24 ex-tracted mandibular incisors were provided. The pulp chamber initial wall thick-nesses of buccal, lingual and proximal surfaces of cervical, 1and 2 mm above the cervical areas and also the incisal surfaces of incisal sections were measured using digital radiography and Photoshop software. After all-ceramic crown preparation, images were provided at the same initial positions. The initial and remained pulp chamber wall thicknesses were statistically evaluated and analyzed by ANOVA, paired t-test and a post hoc Tukey test.Results: Repeated measures ANOVA showed that the mean of pre- or post-preparation wall thicknesses were not significantly different for each surface at the three horizontal levels (p> 0.05. However, there were significant differences between the surfaces for each section. Comparison of pre- and post-preparation wall thicknesses revealed significant differences (p< 0.05. Proximal surfaces of cervical sections had the least RWT (0.42±0.12.Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, the least amount of initial and remained wall thicknesses of pulp chamber were related to the proximal surfaces, particularly in cervical areas. Therefore a reduction of preparation to 0.7 mm is suggested to prevent future pulp injury for

  10. Relationship between muscle volume and muscle torque of the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yu; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-01-01

    The muscle torque per unit volume of the hamstrings on the injured and uninjured sides in patients with ACL reconstruction were compared with participants with no history of knee injury to examine whether a similar mechanism leading to quadriceps weakness exists in the hamstrings of these patients. The study population consisted of 18 and 52 patients at torque per unit volume, the peak torque of knee flexion was divided by the hamstring volume. Most muscle torque per unit volume indexes were not significantly different between the patients at torque per unit volume of patients at 12 months in both injured (0.118+/-0.03 Nm/cm(3), 60 degrees /s; 0.092+/-0.02 Nm/cm(3), 180 degrees /s) and uninjured sides (0.120+/-0.03 Nm/cm(3) at 60 degrees /s; 0.094+/-0.02 Nm/cm(3), 180 degrees /s) were significantly lower than those of controls (P<0.01). We found no evidence of recruitment disorder in the hamstrings of the patients. The results of this study indicated that the mechanism of muscle weakness of the hamstrings after reconstruction was different from that of the quadriceps, although the precise mechanism remains to be determined.

  11. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  12. Modeling susceptibility to deforestation of remaining ecosystems in North Central Mexico with logistic regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Miranda-Aragón; E.J. Trevi(n)o-Garza; J. Jiménez-Pérez; O.A. Aguirre-Calderón; M.A. González-Tagle; M. Pompa-García; C.A. Aguirre-Salado

    2012-01-01

    Determining underlying factors that foster deforestation and delineating forest areas by levels of susceptibility are of the main challenges when defining policies for forest management and planning at regional scale.The susceptibility to deforestation of remaining forest ecosystems (shrubland,temperate forest and rainforest) was conducted in the state of San Luis Potosi,located in north central Mexico.Spatial analysis techniques were used to detect the deforested areas in the study area during 1993-2007.Logistic regression was used to relate explanatory variables (such as social,investment,forest production,biophysical and proximity factors) with susceptibility to deforestation to construct predictive models with two focuses:general and by biogeographical zone.In all models,deforestation has positive correlation with distance to rainfed agriculture,and negative correlation with slope,distance to roads and distance to towns.Other variables were significant in some cases,but in others they had dual relationships,which varied in each biogeographical zone.The results show that the remaining rainforest of Huasteca region is highly susceptible to deforestation.Both approaches show that more than 70% of the current rainforest area has high and very high levels of susceptibility to deforestation.The values represent a serious concern with global warming whether tree carbon is released to atmosphere.However,after some considerations,encouraging forest environmental services appears to be the best alternative to achieve sustainabie forest management.

  13. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoda (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  14. Damage of the Remaining Stands Caused by Various Types of Logging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting causes a lot of damage, which results in damage of the remaining stand. These damages have different character. Their origin, range, and type is affected by the type of machinery, harvesting technology and the machine operator. This paper was focused on the negative impact of three types of forest harvesting technologies to the remaining stand. We considered wheeled skidder technology, and CTL technology with wheeled and tracked chassis. The harvest in stands varied between 21 and 52%, with an average concentration of felling 13.7–95.4 m3 per one skid trail. We observed that the damage rate in stands processed by CTL technology was between 7.3 and 8.03%. Skidder technologies caused damage between 17.8% and 44.6%. The average size of wound caused by CTL technologies was between 167 and 322 cm2. Skidder caused damages with area between 395 and 506 cm2. We also observed differences between damages caused by various types of chassis. CTL technology with tracked chassis caused more damages of timber and tree root system. We used multivariate regression and correlation analyses to evaluate the effect of stand density and intensity of harvest on the intensity of damage. The analyses did not confirm significant impact of these two characteristics on intensity of damage, with coefficients of correlation of 0.22 (stand density and 0.53 (intensity of harvest.

  15. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  16. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-02-27

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  17. Digital UV/IR photography for tattoo evaluation in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R; Leone, Lisa

    2012-07-01

    The presence and location of tattoos can be an important component in the identification of remains in the extended postmortem period if remnants of skin persist. However, when there is significant mummification, visualization of tattoos can be problematic. Multiple methods have been proposed to make tattoos more visible, but all have limitation. In this case report, a mummified body was discovered. The presumptive victim was reported to have a small tattoo on her hand but it was not visible to the naked eye. The hand was photographed using ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light. A tattoo matching the description was noted in the photographs. In contrast to film-based IR and UV photography, digital UV and IR photography allows rapid visual evaluation of results and optimization of image utility. The ability to quickly modify photographic parameters quickly greatly increases the utility of IR and UV photography in the autopsy suite.

  18. Real time remaining useful life prediction based on nonlinear Wiener based degradation processes with measurement errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐圣金; 郭晓松; 于传强; 周志杰; 周召发; 张邦成

    2014-01-01

    Real time remaining useful life (RUL) prediction based on condition monitoring is an essential part in condition based maintenance (CBM). In the current methods about the real time RUL prediction of the nonlinear degradation process, the measurement error is not considered and forecasting uncertainty is large. Therefore, an approximate analytical RUL distribution in a closed-form of a nonlinear Wiener based degradation process with measurement errors was proposed. The maximum likelihood estimation approach was used to estimate the unknown fixed parameters in the proposed model. When the newly observed data are available, the random parameter is updated by the Bayesian method to make the estimation adapt to the item’s individual characteristic and reduce the uncertainty of the estimation. The simulation results show that considering measurement errors in the degradation process can significantly improve the accuracy of real time RUL prediction.

  19. A test of the citrate method of PMI estimation from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Christensen, Angi M

    2017-01-01

    Citrate content in bone has been shown to be associated with the postmortem interval (PMI), with citrate decreasing after death as a function of time. Here we test this method using porcine ribs for the period of 1-165days after death, and also assess citrate content and variation from samples placed into two different postmortem environments (terrestrial and aquatic). Higher citrate variation, lower citrate recovery, and a weaker association with time were found in this study as compared to others. Citrate content, however, was found to decrease with increasing PMI, and the method was found to be easy and inexpensive to apply. No significant differences were found in citrate loss between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Although more research is needed, citrate content appears to be a promising new approach in estimating PMI from skeletal remains. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  1. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  2. Farmer's lung in Ireland (1983-1996) remains at a constant level.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, D S

    2012-02-03

    A prospective study was undertaken by the Departments of Respiratory Medicine and Medical Microbiology at the Cork University Hospital, a. to investigate the epidemiology of Farmer\\'s Lung (F.L.) in the Republic of Ireland (pop. 3.5 million), with special reference to the South Western Region of this country (pop. 536,000) and b. to assess any relationship between the prevalence\\/incidence of F.L. with climatic factors in South West Ireland, between 1983 and 1996. F.L. incidence remained constant throughout the 13 yrs studied both on a national and a regional basis. A significant relationship was also found between total rainfall each summer and F.L. incidence and prevalence over the following yr (p < 0.005) in South-West Ireland. The persistence of F.L. in Ireland at a constant level suggests that farmers\\' working environment and farm practices need to be improved.

  3. Impacts of global warming on phenology of spring leaf unfolding remain stable in the long run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Rutishauser, This; Tao, Zexing; Zhong, Shuying; Ge, Quansheng; Dai, Junhu

    2016-07-01

    The impact of spring temperature forcing on the timing of leaf unfolding of plants (temperature sensitivity, ST) is one important indicator of how and to what degree plant species track climate change. Fu et al. (Nature 526:104-107, 2015) found that ST has significantly decreased from the 1980-1994 to the 1999-2013 period for seven mid-latitude tree species in Europe. However, long-term changes in ST over the past 60 years are still not clear. Here, using in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species, we analyze the temporal change in ST over decadal time scales extending the data series back to 1951. Our results demonstrate that ST shows no statistically significant change within shifting 30-year windows from 1951 to 2013 and remains stable between 1951-1980 and 1984-2013 (3.6 versus 3.7 days °C-1). This result suggests that the significant decrease in ST over the past 33 years could not be sustained when examining the trends of phenological responses in the long run. Therefore, we could not conclude that tree spring phenology advances will slow down in the future, and the ST changes in warming scenarios are still uncertain.

  4. Impacts of global warming on phenology of spring leaf unfolding remain stable in the long run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Rutishauser, This; Tao, Zexing; Zhong, Shuying; Ge, Quansheng; Dai, Junhu

    2017-02-01

    The impact of spring temperature forcing on the timing of leaf unfolding of plants (temperature sensitivity, ST) is one important indicator of how and to what degree plant species track climate change. Fu et al. (Nature 526:104-107, 2015) found that ST has significantly decreased from the 1980-1994 to the 1999-2013 period for seven mid-latitude tree species in Europe. However, long-term changes in ST over the past 60 years are still not clear. Here, using in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species, we analyze the temporal change in ST over decadal time scales extending the data series back to 1951. Our results demonstrate that ST shows no statistically significant change within shifting 30-year windows from 1951 to 2013 and remains stable between 1951-1980 and 1984-2013 (3.6 versus 3.7 days °C-1). This result suggests that the significant decrease in ST over the past 33 years could not be sustained when examining the trends of phenological responses in the long run. Therefore, we could not conclude that tree spring phenology advances will slow down in the future, and the ST changes in warming scenarios are still uncertain.

  5. Effect of cataract surgery volume constraints on recently graduated ophthalmologists: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert J.; El-Defrawy, Sherif R.; Bell, Chaim M.; Gill, Sudeep S.; Hooper, Philip L.; Whitehead, Marlo; Campbell, Erica de L.P.; Nesdole, Robert; Warder, Daniel; ten Hove, Martin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Across Canada, graduates from several medical and surgical specialties have recently had difficulty securing practice opportunities, especially in specialties dependent on limited resources such as ophthalmology. We aimed to investigate whether resource constraints in the health care system have a greater impact on the volume of cataract surgery performed by recent graduates than on established physicians. METHODS: We used population-based administrative data from Ontario for the period Jan. 1, 1994, to June 30, 2013, to compare health services provided by recent graduates and established ophthalmologists. The primary outcome was volume of cataract surgery, a resource-intensive service for which volume is controlled by the province. RESULTS: When cataract surgery volume in Ontario entered a period of government-mandated zero growth in 2007, the mean number of cataract operations performed by recent graduates dropped significantly (−46.37 operations/quarter, 95% confidence interval [CI] −62.73 to −30.00 operations/quarter), whereas the mean rate for established ophthalmologists remained stable (+5.89 operations/quarter, 95% CI 95% CI −1.47 to +13.24 operations/quarter). Decreases in service provision among recent graduates did not occur for services without volume control. The proportion of recent graduates providing exclusively cataract surgery increased over the study period, and recent graduates in this group were 5.24 times (95% CI 2.15 to 12.76 times) more likely to fall within the lowest quartile for cataract surgical volume during the period of zero growth in provincial cataract volume (2007–2013) than in the preceding period (1996–2006). INTERPRETATION: Recent ophthalmology graduates performed many fewer cataract surgery procedures after volume controls were implemented in Ontario. Integrated initiatives involving multiple stakeholders are needed to address the issues facing recently graduated physicians in Canada. PMID:27920012

  6. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  7. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  8. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  9. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  10. Pituitary volume in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartalci, Sukru; Dogan, Metin; Unal, Suheyla; Ozcan, A Cemal; Ozdemir, Serdal; Atmaca, Murad

    2011-01-15

    Panic patients have many functional deficiencies in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have shown changed pituitary gland volume in some psychiatric disorders that have functional deficiencies in the HPA axis. However, to date no study has evaluated the pituitary gland volume in patients with panic disorder (PD). We investigated the pituitary gland volume in patients with PD (n=27) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27), using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging in this study. Analysis showed that patients with PD had significantly smaller pituitary volume compared to healthy subjects. Patients with agoraphobia especially had a significantly smaller pituitary volume than patients without agoraphobia. There was a significant relationship between the pituitary volume and both the severity of symptoms and the illness duration in the patient group. The results show that patients with PD have reduced pituitary volume, which may reflect the functional abnormalities seen in this disorder. These findings may help us better understand the pathology of PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Updated Drainable Interstitial Liquid Volume Estimates for 119 Single Shell Tanks (SST) Declared Stabilized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FIELD, J.G.

    2000-02-08

    This document assesses the volume of drainable interstitial liquid (DIL) and pumpable liquid remaining in 119 single-shell tanks (SSTs) that were previously stabilized. Based on the methodology and assumptions presented, the DIL exceeded the stabilization criterion of less than 50,000 gal in two of the 119 SSTs. Tank 241-C-102 had an estimated DIL of 62,000 gal, and the estimated DIL for tank 241-BY-103 was 58,000 gal. In addition, tanks 241-BX-103, 241-T-102, and 241-T-112 appear to exceed the stabilization criterion of 5,000 gal supernatant. An assessment of the source of the supernatant in these tanks is beyond the scope of this document. The actual DIL and pumpable liquid remaining volumes for each tank may vary significantly from estimated volumes as a result of specific tank waste characteristics that are not currently measured or defined. Further refinement to the pumpable liquid and DIL volume estimates may be needed as additional tank waste information is obtained.

  12. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  13. Long-term effect of seismic activities on archaeological remains: a test study from Zakynthos, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendürüs, M.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.; Kars, H.; Sintubin, M.; Stewart, I.S.; Niemi, T.M.; Altunel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the archaeological and geoarchaeological surveys on the island of Zakynthos, Greece, it has been noted that the distribution and preservation of archaeological remains of Zakynthos present spatially different characteristics. In general, archaeological pottery finds and architectural remains

  14. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  15. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  16. Normal lung dose-volume histogram varieties in the former and inter period of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy plans and their clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer%非小细胞肺癌三维适形后程加速超分割放疗中肺剂量体积变化规律及临床意义探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡银祥; 卢冰; 周华宁; 甘家应; 洪卫

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the normal lung dose-volume histogram(DVH) varieties in the former and later period(P1 and P2)of three dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3DCRT) plans and the compound (Pc) plan in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC),and to access the feasibility to modify the target volume during the treatment course.Methods Twenty-one NSCLC patients who had received accelerated hyper-frationation 3DCRT in P2 were included in the study.Both of the P1 and P2 plans were redesigned to a total dose of 70 Gy with V20 smaller than 35%.When the target volume was modified and P2 plan was rede signed using accelerated hyper-frationation 3DCRT of 30 Gy after P1 plan of 40 Gy,the Pc plan was compoun ded by transmitting the parameters(such as target volume,irradiation field and dose) of P1 plan into P2 plan. Total lung volume and target volumes(GTV,PTV) of P1 and P2 were evaluated.MLD,V5,V10,V20 and V30 of P1,P2 and Pc were calculated.Results The total lung volume in P1 and P2 plans was not significantly dif ferent(t = 0.19,P = 0.850).The volumes of GTV,PTV in P2 were obviously smaller than P1 (t = 2.88,P = 0.009 ; t = 4.01 ,P = 0.001) .When comparing P2 with P1 ,MLD were 16.5 Gy Vs 17.8 Gy (t = 2.60, DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1004-4221.2009.01.057 P = 0.017),V30 was significantly decreased (t = 2.19,P = 0.041),but V5,V10 and V20 had no significant difference.Similar differences were found in MLD,V5 ,V10 ,V20 and V30 when comparing Po to P1.P2 plans had significantly smaller MLD,Vs,V10,V20 and V30 than Pc plans.Fourteen patients with decreased PTV were further analyzed.The V30 and MLD decreased significantly (t = 3.00,P = 0.0 I 0;t = 2.38,P = 0.033), but V5 ,V10,V20 had no difference when comparing P1 and P2 plans.Among these 14 patients,the V10 and V30 decreased significantly(t = 2.76,P = 0.033 ; t = 3.60,P = 0.011) when P2 plans were generated using the same field number and beam angles in P1 plans in 7 patients.The parameters were similar in P1and Pc plans

  17. Variation in mouse basolateral amygdala volume is associated with differences in stress reactivity and fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rebecca J; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Cameron, Heather A; Williams, Robert W; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A wealth of research identifies the amygdala as a key brain region mediating negative affect, and implicates amygdala dysfunction in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Although there is a strong genetic component to anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) there remains debate about whether abnormalities in amygdala function predispose to these disorders. In the present study, groups of C57BL/6 x DBA/2 (B x D) recombinant inbred strains of mice were selected for differences in volume of the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA). Strains with relatively small, medium, or large BLA volumes were compared for Pavlovian fear learning and memory, anxiety-related behaviors, depression-related behavior, and glucocorticoid responses to stress. Strains with relatively small BLA exhibited stronger conditioned fear responses to both auditory tone and contextual stimuli, as compared to groups with larger BLA. The small BLA group also showed significantly greater corticosterone responses to stress than the larger BLA groups. BLA volume did not predict clear differences in measures of anxiety-like behavior or depression-related behavior, other than greater locomotor inhibition to novelty in strains with smaller BLA. Neither striatal, hippocampal nor cerebellar volumes correlated significantly with any behavioral measure. The present data demonstrate a phenotype of enhanced fear conditioning and exaggerated glucocorticoid responses to stress associated with small BLA volume. This profile is reminiscent of the increased fear processing and stress reactivity that is associated with amygdala excitability and reduced amygdala volume in humans carrying loss of function polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A genes. Our study provides a unique example of how natural variation in amygdala volume associates with specific fear- and stress-related phenotypes in rodents, and further supports the role of amygdala dysfunction in anxiety

  18. Gender versus brain size effects on subcortical gray matter volumes in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyu; Jiao, Yun; Wang, Xunheng; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-11-27

    Previous studies had reported that volume differences of gray matter (GM) in subcortical regions of the human brain were mainly caused by gender. Meanwhile, other studies had found that the distribution of GM in the human brain varied based on individual brain sizes. Main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions remain unclear. Therefore, the goals of this study are twofold, namely, to determine the main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions of the human brain and to investigate the independent or joint contribution of gender and brain size to subcortical volume differences. In this study, 40 male and 40 female subjects with comparable brain sizes were selected from a population of 198 individuals. The sample was divided into the following four groups: male and female groups with comparably large brain sizes and male and female groups with comparably small brain sizes. The main effects of gender and of brain size and interactions between both factors in subcortical GM volumes were examined by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) using a 2×2 design matrix. Volumes of GM in subcortical regions were extracted and measured by an automatic segmentation method. Furthermore, we used two datasets to test the reliability of our methods. In both datasets, we found significant brain size effects in the right amygdala and the bilateral caudate nucleus and significant gender effects in the bilateral putamen. No interactions between brain size and gender were found. In conclusion, both gender and brain size independently contributed to volume distribution in different subcortical areas of the human brain.

  19. Intraday seasonalities and nonstationarity of trading volume in financial markets: Collective features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Michelle B; Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M

    2017-01-01

    Employing Random Matrix Theory and Principal Component Analysis techniques, we enlarge our work on the individual and cross-sectional intraday statistical properties of trading volume in financial markets to the study of collective intraday features of that financial observable. Our data consist of the trading volume of the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index components spanning the years between 2003 and 2014. Computing the intraday time dependent correlation matrices and their spectrum of eigenvalues, we show there is a mode ruling the collective behaviour of the trading volume of these stocks whereas the remaining eigenvalues are within the bounds established by random matrix theory, except the second largest eigenvalue which is robustly above the upper bound limit at the opening and slightly above it during the morning-afternoon transition. Taking into account that for price fluctuations it was reported the existence of at least seven significant eigenvalues-and that its autocorrelation function is close to white noise for highly liquid stocks whereas for the trading volume it lasts significantly for more than 2 hours -, our finding goes against any expectation based on those features, even when we take into account the Epps effect. In addition, the weight of the trading volume collective mode is intraday dependent; its value increases as the trading session advances with its eigenversor approaching the uniform vector as well, which corresponds to a soar in the behavioural homogeneity. With respect to the nonstationarity of the collective features of the trading volume we observe that after the financial crisis of 2008 the coherence function shows the emergence of an upset profile with large fluctuations from that year on, a property that concurs with the modification of the average trading volume profile we noted in our previous individual analysis.

  20. Standard filtration practices may significantly distort planktonic microbial diversity estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Cruz Padilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of biomass by filtration is a standard method for sampling planktonic microbes. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition of filtered biomass changes depending on sample volume. Using seawater from a marine oxygen minimum zone, we quantified the 16S rRNA gene composition of biomass on a prefilter (1.6 μm pore-size and a downstream 0.2 μm filter over sample volumes from 0.05 to 5 L. Significant community shifts occurred in both filter fractions, and were most dramatic in the prefilter community. Sequences matching Vibrionales decreased from ~40-60% of prefilter datasets at low volumes (0.05-0.5 L to less than 5% at higher volumes, while groups such at the Chromatiales and Thiohalorhabdales followed opposite trends, increasing from minor representation to become the dominant taxa at higher volumes. Groups often associated with marine particles, including members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes, were among those showing the greatest increase with volume (4 to 27-fold. Taxon richness (97% similarity clusters also varied significantly with volume, and in opposing directions depending on filter fraction, highlighting potential biases in community complexity estimates. These data raise concerns for studies using filter fractionation for quantitative comparisons of aquatic microbial diversity, for example between free-living and particle-associated communities.

  1. Standard filtration practices may significantly distort planktonic microbial diversity estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cory C; Ganesh, Sangita; Gantt, Shelby; Huhman, Alex; Parris, Darren J; Sarode, Neha; Stewart, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Fractionation of biomass by filtration is a standard method for sampling planktonic microbes. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition of filtered biomass changes depending on sample volume. Using seawater from a marine oxygen minimum zone, we quantified the 16S rRNA gene composition of biomass on a prefilter (1.6 μm pore-size) and a downstream 0.2 μm filter over sample volumes from 0.05 to 5 L. Significant community shifts occurred in both filter fractions, and were most dramatic in the prefilter community. Sequences matching Vibrionales decreased from ~40 to 60% of prefilter datasets at low volumes (0.05-0.5 L) to less than 5% at higher volumes, while groups such at the Chromatiales and Thiohalorhabdales followed opposite trends, increasing from minor representation to become the dominant taxa at higher volumes. Groups often associated with marine particles, including members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes, were among those showing the greatest increase with volume (4 to 27-fold). Taxon richness (97% similarity clusters) also varied significantly with volume, and in opposing directions depending on filter fraction, highlighting potential biases in community complexity estimates. These data raise concerns for studies using filter fractionation for quantitative comparisons of aquatic microbial diversity, for example between free-living and particle-associated communities.

  2. Visitor Perceptions of Ancient Egyptian Human Remains in Three United Kindom Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Kilminster

    2003-01-01

    Although the issues of retention and display of human remains have become topical over the last decade, the thoughts of museum visitors about this topic have not been registered, despite their being the museums’ main stakeholder. The vast majority (82.5%) of 300 respondents questioned in the summer of 2002 at three British museums displaying ancient Egyptian human remains supported the idea of having these remains on display. However, a small percentage of visitors (14.2%) wanted the remains ...

  3. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  4. 78 FR 27993 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  5. 76 FR 795 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated... Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS. The human remains and cultural items were removed from Claiborne County, MS...

  6. 78 FR 27994 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... transfer of control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request...

  7. 77 FR 11583 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. The human remains and cultural items were removed from the vicinity of...

  8. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The ] human remains were removed from...

  9. 78 FR 25470 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Parkway has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, published in a Notice... human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of the U.S. Department of the Interior...

  10. 77 FR 68825 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects in the Control of... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the possession of the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Coolidge, AZ. The human remains and...

  11. 78 FR 27995 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the U.S. Army... human remains and associated funerary objects to the lineal descendants, Indian tribes, or Native...

  12. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies to...

  13. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, and... cultural affiliation with the human remains should contact the Colorado Historical Society at the address...

  14. 78 FR 27992 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects published in a Notice of... control of these human remains and associated funerary objects should submit a written request to the...

  15. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  16. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  17. Cell volume-regulated cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Considering the enormous turnover rates of ion channels when compared to carriers it is quite obvious that channel-mediated ion transport may serve as a rapid and efficient mechanism of cell volume regulation. Whenever studied in a quantitative fashion the hypertonic activation of non-selective cation channels is found to be the main mechanism of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Some channels are inhibited by amiloride (and may be related to the ENaC), others are blocked by Gd(3) and flufenamate (and possibly linked to the group of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels). Nevertheless, the actual architecture of hypertonicity-induced cation channels remains to be defined. In some preparations, hypertonic stress decreases K(+) channel activity so reducing the continuous K(+) leak out of the cell; this is equivalent to a net gain of cell osmolytes facilitating RVI. The hypotonic activation of K(+) selective channels appears to be one of the most common principles of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and, in most instances, the actual channels involved could be identified on the molecular level. These are BKCa (or maxi K(+)) channels, IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels (of intermediate and small conductance, respectively), the group of voltage-gated (Kv) channels including their Beta (or Kv ancilliary) subunits, two-pore K(2P) channels, as well as inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels (also contributing to K(ATP) channels). In some cells, hypotonicity activates non-selective cation channels. This is surprising, at first sight, because of the inside negative membrane voltage and the sum of driving forces for Na(+) and K(+) diffusion across the cell membrane rather favouring net cation uptake. Some of these channels, however, exhibit a P(K)/P(Na) significantly higher than 1, whereas others are Ca(++) permeable linking hypotonic stress to the activation of Ca(++) dependent ion channels. In particular, the latter holds for the group of TRPs which are specialised in the

  18. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Land, lake, and fish: Investigation of fish remains from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (paleo-Lake Hula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Irit; Biton, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    The question of whether or not pre-modern hominins were responsible for the accumulation of fish remains is discussed through analyses of remains recovered from two lacustrine facies (I-4 and I-5) from Area A of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) in the Jordan Rift Valley, Israel. The fish remains provide the first glimpse into the naturally accumulated fish assemblage from the fluctuating shores of a lake that had been continually exploited by early hominins some 780,000 years ago. Preliminary analysis of the remains show that thirteen of the seventeen species native to Lake Hula were identified at GBY. These represent three of the five freshwater fish families native to the lake: Cyprinidae (carps), Cichlidae (tilapini, St. Peter's fish), and Clariidae (catfish). From a taphonomical perspective, a significant difference is found between the two lithofacies (Layers I-4 and I-5) in terms of species composition, richness, diversity, and skeleton completeness. It appears that the fish remains recovered from Layer I-4 (clay) are better preserved than those from Layer I-5 (coquina). In both lithofacies, Cyprinidae are highly abundant while Cichlidae and Clariidae are rare and under-represented, especially when compared to the Lake Hula fishery report from the 1950s. All of these identified species may have contributed significantly to the diet of GBY hominins.

  1. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  2. Enhanced microbial coalbed methane generation: A review of research, commercial activity, and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Daniel J.; Vinson, David S.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Akob, Denise M.; Fields, Matthew W.; Cunningham, Al B.; Orem, William H.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) makes up a significant portion of the world’s natural gas resources. The discovery that approximately 20% of natural gas is microbial in origin has led to interest in microbially enhanced CBM (MECoM), which involves stimulating microorganisms to produce additional CBM from existing production wells. This paper reviews current laboratory and field research on understanding processes and reservoir conditions which are essential for microbial CBM generation, the progress of efforts to stimulate microbial methane generation in coal beds, and key remaining knowledge gaps. Research has been primarily focused on identifying microbial communities present in areas of CBM generation and attempting to determine their function, in-situ reservoir conditions that are most favorable for microbial CBM generation, and geochemical indicators of metabolic pathways of methanogenesis (i.e., acetoclastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis). Meanwhile, researchers at universities, government agencies, and companies have focused on four primary MECoM strategies: 1) microbial stimulation (i.e., addition of nutrients to stimulate native microbes); 2) microbial augmentation (i.e., addition of microbes not native to or abundant in the reservoir of interest); 3) physically increasing microbial access to coal and distribution of amendments; and 4) chemically increasing the bioavailability of coal organics. Most companies interested in MECoM have pursued microbial stimulation: Luca Technologies, Inc., successfully completed a pilot scale field test of their stimulation strategy, while two others, Ciris Energy and Next Fuel, Inc., have undertaken smaller scale field tests. Several key knowledge gaps remain that need to be addressed before MECoM strategies can be implemented commercially. Little is known about the bacterial community responsible for coal biodegradation and how these microorganisms may be stimulated to enhance microbial methanogenesis. In addition, research

  3. Genomic Variation of Inbreeding and Ancestry in the Remaining Two Isle Royale Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Kardos, Marty; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2017-03-01

    Inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry have traditionally been estimated with pedigree information, however, molecular genomic data can provide more detailed examination of these properties. For example, pedigree information provides estimation of the expected value of these measures but molecular genomic data can estimate the realized values of these measures in individuals. Here, we generate the theoretical distribution of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry for the individuals in the pedigree of the Isle Royale wolves, the first examination of such variation in a wild population with a known pedigree. We use the 38 autosomes of the dog genome and their estimated map lengths in our genomic analysis. Although it is known that the remaining wolves are highly inbred, closely related, and descend from only 3 ancestors, our analyses suggest that there is significant variation in the realized inbreeding and relatedness around pedigree expectations. For example, the expected inbreeding in a hypothetical offspring from the 2 remaining wolves is 0.438 but the realized 95% genomic confidence interval is from 0.311 to 0.565. For individual chromosomes, a substantial proportion of the whole chromosomes are completely identical by descent. This examination provides a background to use when analyzing molecular genomic data for individual levels of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry. The level of variation in these measures is a function of the time to the common ancestor(s), the number of chromosomes, and the rate of recombination. In the Isle Royale wolf population, the few generations to a common ancestor results in the high variance in genomic inbreeding. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1994-11-01

    Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

  5. Relationship between defect shape resolution accuracy and calculated remaining strength of corroded pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, R.; Chauhan, V. [Advantica Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom); Sloterdijk, W. [Gastransport Services, Gronigen (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of research investigating the interactions of corrosion metal loss features detected using in-line inspection (ILI) tool. The study examined the potential benefits of using more detailed information concerning the shape of metal loss features in conjunction with defect assessment methods. The effects of varying assumptions made in the criteria used to determine the interaction of closely spaced defect clusters were also investigated. High resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data containing a large proportion of metal loss features was used in a series of sensitivity studies. Automated assessments were undertaken using the RSTRENG method by varying defect dimensions and the interaction criterion. The sensitivity studies to predict failure pressures were undertaken by increasing the reported defect depths by increments of 5, 10, and 20 per cent of the wall thickness. Length and width measurements remained at their reported values. A further set of sensitivity studies was then conducted to predict failure pressures by varying the defect length by an additional 5 mm and 10 mm. Results of the study showed that an accurate knowledge of the defect depth, followed by defect length was of the most benefit in determining the remaining strength of corroded pipelines. It was concluded that by increasing the defect depth measurement accuracy of MFL tools will result in a linear increase in predicted failure pressures. The sensitivity studies showed that the assumptions made in relation to interaction criterion used to decide if defects are clustered together may play a significant role in defect assessments. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Soil stratigraphy of charcoal kiln remains (CKR) in the Litchfield Hills, CT, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Ouimet, Will; Dethier, David

    2016-04-01

    Charcoal kiln relicts (CKRs) are small anthropogenic landforms that are often found in historic mining areas. CKRs have not been a big research topic yet but mainly were studied as by-products of archaeological excavations. In the last years newly available and very accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data have been used to identify these archaeological remains. In addition, findings of several thousands CKRs in the North German Lowland have increased the awareness that historical charcoal production may significantly contribute to Late Holocene landscape change. Besides the archaeological aspect of CKRs, potential impacts of charcoal burning on the ecology of modern soil landscapes and ecosystem processes must be considered. A relatively high density of CKRs is found in the Litchfield Hills nearby the town of West Cornwall, Litchfield County, CT, USA. The CKRs are especially well preserved on slopes of the tributary valleys of the Housatonic River and form little, circular ramparts with diameters normally less than ten meters. First, rough field surveys in Litchfield County in spring 2015 have suggested differences between soils inside and outside the CKR. Soils on the CKR seem to have relatively deep humus-rich and charcoal containing topsoils whereas the topsoils outside the CKR appear typically thinner and less rich in humus. More thorough investigations have been started in autumn 2015 to prove the hypothesis that properties, distribution and development of soils are controlled by archaeological remains of historical charcoal burning. We present preliminary results from our field studies conducted in October 2015. The stratigraphy and the extent of the 26 CKRs were studied using a sedimentological-pedological approach by coring and trenching. Our results indicate that in Litchfield County the CKRs were used twice and in quick succession. Before the second reuse, the rim of the platform was stabilized

  7. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  8. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  9. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  10. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  11. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  12. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Oncological procedures may have better outcomes if performed by high-volume providers. METHODS: A review of the English language literature incorporating searches of the Medline, Embase and Cochrane collaboration databases was performed. Studies were included if they involved a patient cohort from 1984 onwards, were community or population based, and assessed health outcome as a dependent variable and volume as an independent variable. The studies were also scored quantifiably to assess generalizability with respect to any observed volume-outcome relationship and analysed according to organ system; numbers needed to treat were estimated where possible. RESULTS: Sixty-eight relevant studies were identified and a total of 41 were included, of which 13 were based on clinical data. All showed either an inverse relationship, of variable magnitude, between provider volume and mortality, or no volume-outcome effect. All but two clinical reports revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between volume and outcome; none demonstrated the opposite. CONCLUSION: High-volume providers have a significantly better outcome for complex cancer surgery, specifically for pancreatectomy, oesphagectomy, gastrectomy and rectal resection.

  13. Development and proof-of-concept of three-dimensional lung histology volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lindsay; Alabousi, Mostafa; Wheatley, Andrew; Aladl, Usaf; Slipetz, Deborah; Hogg, James C.; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2012-03-01

    Most medical imaging is inherently three-dimensional (3D) but for validation of pathological findings, histopathology is commonly used and typically histopathology images are acquired as twodimensional slices with quantitative analysis performed in a single dimension. Histopathology is invasive, labour-intensive, and the analysis cannot be performed in real time, yet it remains the gold standard for the pathological diagnosis and validation of clinical or radiological diagnoses of disease. A major goal worldwide is to improve medical imaging resolution, sensitivity and specificity to better guide therapy and biopsy and to one day delay or replace biopsy. A key limitation however is the lack of tools to directly compare 3D macroscopic imaging acquired in patients with histopathology findings, typically provided in a single dimension (1D) or in two dimensions (2D). To directly address this, we developed methods for 2D histology slice visualization/registration to generate 3D volumes and quantified tissue components in the 3D volume for direct comparison to volumetric micro-CT and clinical CT. We used the elastase-instilled mouse emphysema lung model to evaluate our methods with murine lungs sectioned (5 μm thickness/10 μm gap) and digitized with 2μm in-plane resolution. 3D volumes were generated for wildtype and elastase mouse lung sections after semi-automated registration of all tissue slices. The 1D mean linear intercept (Lm) for wildtype (WT) (47.1 μm +/- 9.8 μm) and elastase mouse lung (64.5 μm +/- 14.0 μm) was significantly different (p<.001). We also generated 3D measurements based on tissue and airspace morphometry from the 3D volumes and all of these were significantly different (p<.0001) when comparing elastase and WT mouse lung. The ratio of the airspace-to-lung volume for the entire lung volume was also significantly and strongly correlated with Lm.

  14. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  15. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  16. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  17. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  18. NPR hazards review: (Phase 1, Production only appendixes). Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.R.; Trumble, R.E.

    1962-08-15

    The NPR Hazards Review is being issued in a series of volumes. Volume 1, which has already been published, was of the nature of an expanded summary. It included the results of hazards analyses with some explanatory material to put the results in context. Volume 2 presents results of reviews made after the preparation of Volume 1. It also contains supporting material and details not included in Volume 1. Volumes 1 and 2 together provide a nearly complete ``Design Hazards Review of the NPR.`` However, certain remaining problems still exist and are to be the subject of a continuing R&D program. These problems and programs are discussed in Appendix H. Neither Volume 1 nor Volume 2 treat operational aspects of reactor hazards in detail. This area of concern will be the primary subject of a third volume of the NPR Hazards Review. This third volume, to be prepared and issued at a later date, may also contain information supplementing Volumes 1 and 2.

  19. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  20. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Little, Zoë R; Keevil, C William

    2015-11-10

    The evolution of new and reemerging historic virulent strains of respiratory viruses from animal reservoirs is a significant threat to human health. Inefficient human-to-human transmission of zoonotic strains may initially limit the spread of transmission, but an infection may be contracted by touching contaminated surfaces. Enveloped viruses are often susceptible to environmental stresses, but the human coronaviruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have recently caused increasing concern of contact transmission during outbreaks. We report here that pathogenic human coronavirus 229E remained infectious in a human lung cell culture model following at least 5 days of persistence on a range of common nonbiocidal surface materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon; PTFE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ceramic tiles, glass, silicone rubber, and stainless steel. We have shown previously that noroviruses are destroyed on copper alloy surfaces. In this new study, human coronavirus 229E was rapidly inactivated on a range of copper alloys (within a few minutes for simulated fingertip contamination) and Cu/Zn brasses were very effective at lower copper concentration. Exposure to copper destroyed the viral genomes and irreversibly affected virus morphology, including disintegration of envelope and dispersal of surface spikes. Cu(I) and Cu(II) moieties were responsible for the inactivation, which was enhanced by reactive oxygen species generation on alloy surfaces, resulting in even faster inactivation than was seen with nonenveloped viruses on copper. Consequently, copper alloy surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce transmission of respiratory viruses from contaminated surfaces and protect the public health. Respiratory viruses are responsible for more deaths globally than any other infectious agent. Animal coronaviruses that "host jump" to humans result in

  1. Sr Isotopes and human skeletal remains, improving a methodological approach in migration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis Pichardo, G.; Schaaf, P. E.; Hernandez, T.; Horn, P.; Manzanilla, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. Sr isotopes are widely used in anthropological sciences to trace human migration histories from ancient burials. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Until now, tooth enamel was considered to be less sensitive to secondary Sr contamination due to its higher crystallinity and larger sizes of the biogenic apatites in comparison to that in bone and dentine. In the past, enamel as well as bone material was powdered, dissolved and analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). In this contribution we show, however, that simple dissolution of enamel frequently yields erroneous results. Tooth enamel is often affected by secondary strontium contamination processes such as caries or diagenetic and environmental input, which can change the original isotopic composition. To avoid these problems we introduced a pre-treatment and three-step leaching procedure in enamel samples. Leaching is carried out with acetic acid of different concentrations, yielding two leachates and one residue of each sample. Frequently the 87Sr/86Sr results of the three leachates display different values confirming that secondary contamination did occur. Several examples from Teotihuacan, central Mexico demonstrate that enamel 87Sr/86Sr without leaching can show correct biogenic values, but there is also a considerable probability for these values to represent a mixture of original and secondary Sr without significance for migration reconstructions. Only the residue value is interpreted by us as the representative ratio for

  2. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  3. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  4. Least destructive sampling of human remains using laser drilling for Sr isotope analysis by TIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, Malte; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; McMorrow, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) measured in ancient human remains can be used to reconstruct migration patterns of ancient human populations. This application is based on the fact that different geologic regions have distinct Sr isotope signatures that are cycled through the soils, plants and rivers, and eventually enter the food cycle. Sr isotope ratios measured in skeletal remains (bones and teeth) reflect the average of dietary Sr that was consumed when the tissue was formed, allowing the investigation of human migration between geologically distinct terrains. The analysis of human remains is always a sensitive topic requiring minimal damage to the sample, while at the same time providing highly precise and accurate results. Samples can be analysed either by solution methods like thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), or by in-situ laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. For TIMS a drill is used to extract a small amount of sample, which is then digested in acid and Sr is separated out using ion exchange chromatography. This technique provides highly precise and accurate results, because any isobaric interferences are removed during chemical separation. The drawback is that drilling may cause visible damage to the sample, restricting access to precious human remains. LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis is very fast and nearly destruction free. However, the accuracy and precision of LA-MC-ICP-MS is limited by a number of factors including large instrumental mass discrimination, laser-induced isotopic and elemental fractionations and molecular interferences on 87Sr. Its application thus requires rigorous data reduction, which can introduce significant uncertainties into the analysis. This is especially true for samples with relatively low Sr concentrations such as human teeth (e.g., Woodhead et al., 2005; Horstwood et al., 2008; Vroon et al., 2008). In addition, LA-MC-ICP-MS has traditionally required a flat sample surface, thus an unbroken tooth needs to be cut, which is rather

  5. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  6. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  7. Understanding the heterogeneity in volume overload and fluid distribution in decompensated heart failure is key to optimal volume management: role for blood volume quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Mullan, Brian P

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to quantitate total blood volume (TBV) in patients hospitalized for decompensated chronic heart failure (DCHF) and to determine the extent of volume overload, and the magnitude and distribution of blood volume and body water changes following diuretic therapy. The accurate assessment and management of volume overload in patients with DCHF remains problematic. TBV was measured by a radiolabeled-albumin dilution technique with intravascular volume, pre-to-post-diuretic therapy, evaluated at hospital admission and at discharge. Change in body weight in relation to quantitated TBV was used to determine interstitial volume contribution to total fluid loss. Twenty-six patients were prospectively evaluated. Two patients had normal TBV at admission. Twenty-four patients were hypervolemic with TBV (7.4 ± 1.6 liters) increased by +39 ± 22% (range, +9.5% to +107%) above the expected normal volume. With diuresis, TBV decreased marginally (+30 ± 16%). Body weight declined by 6.9 ± 5.2 kg, and fluid intake/fluid output was a net negative 8.4 ± 5.2 liters. Interstitial compartment fluid loss was calculated at 6.2 ± 4.0 liters, accounting for 85 ± 15% of the total fluid reduction. TBV analysis demonstrated a wide range in the extent of intravascular overload. Dismissal measurements revealed marginally reduced intravascular volume post-diuretic therapy despite large reductions in body weight. Mobilization of interstitial fluid to the intravascular compartment with diuresis accounted for this disparity. Intravascular volume, however, remained increased at dismissal. The extent, composition, and distribution of volume overload are highly variable in DCHF, and this variability needs to be taken into account in the approach to individualized therapy. TBV quantitation, particularly serial measurements, can facilitate informed volume management with respect to a goal of treating to euvolemia. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  8. Fluid Volume Overload and Congestion in Heart Failure: Time to Reconsider Pathophysiology and How Volume Is Assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L

    2016-08-01

    Volume regulation, assessment, and management remain basic issues in patients with heart failure. The discussion presented here is directed at opening a reassessment of the pathophysiology of congestion in congestive heart failure and the methods by which we determine volume overload status. Peer-reviewed historical and contemporary literatures are reviewed. Volume overload and fluid congestion remain primary issues for patients with chronic heart failure. The pathophysiology is complex, and the simple concept of intravascular fluid accumulation is not adequate. The dynamics of interstitial and intravascular fluid compartment interactions and fluid redistribution from venous splanchnic beds to central pulmonary circulation need to be taken into account in strategies of volume management. Clinical bedside evaluations and right heart hemodynamic assessments can alert clinicians of changes in volume status, but only the quantitative measurement of total blood volume can help identify the heterogeneity in plasma volume and red blood cell mass that are features of volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure and help guide individualized, appropriate therapy-not all volume overload is the same. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Taphonomic alterations by the rodent species woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokines, James T

    2015-12-01

    This forensic case report describes the taphonomic effects of woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon a set of skeletonized human remains recovered in Massachusetts, USA. Remains of an individual of this rodent species were discovered where it had been nesting inside the human cranium. Fine, parallel grooves indicative of small rodent gnawing were noted on multiple postcranial elements, and all isolated grooves were consistent in size with the incisors of this species. Other taphonomic alterations to these remains include some gnawing damage and dispersal by large carnivores. This case represents the first report of this rodent species affecting human remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  11. Thermodynamics of the low density excluded volume hadron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Zalewski, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the influence of the excluded volume of hadrons on macroscopic variables and thermal parameters of the hadron gas at finite temperature and chemical potential in the low density approximation. Based solely on elementary thermodynamics we show that when the excluded volume grows at constant temperature, pressure, and number of particles, the overall volume increases just as much as the excluded volume, while the entropy and energy remain unchanged. The growth of the chemical potentials is equal to the work needed to create the respective excluded volumes. Consequently, the bulk density functions of a gas with excluded volume are expressed by the corresponding variables in a system of point particles with the shifted chemical potentials. Our results are fully consistent with the previous findings obtained upon applications of more advanced methods of statistical physics. A validity limit for the low density approximation is derived and discussed in the context of the hadron gas created in heavy ion c...

  12. U-series and radiocarbon analyses of human and faunal remains from Wajak, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paul; Wood, Rachel; Stringer, Chris; Bartsiokas, Antonis; de Vos, John; Aubert, Maxime; Kinsley, Les; Grün, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Laser ablation U-series dating results on human and faunal bone fragments from Wajak, Indonesia, indicate a minimum age of between 37.4 and 28.5 ka (thousands of years ago) for the whole assemblage. These are significantly older than previously published radiocarbon estimates on bone carbonate, which suggested a Holocene age for a human bone fragment and a late Pleistocene age for a faunal bone. The analysis of the organic components in the faunal material show severe degradation and a positive δ(13)C ratio indicate a high degree of secondary carbonatisation. This may explain why the thermal release method used for the original age assessments yielded such young ages. While the older U-series ages are not in contradiction with the morphology of the Wajak human fossils or Javanese biostratigraphy, they will require a reassessment of the evolutionary relationships of modern human remains in Southeast Asia and Oceania. It can be expected that systematic direct dating of human fossils from this area will lead to further revisions of our understanding of modern human evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B; Bolten, Alan B; Tucker, Anton D; Hart, Kristen M; Lamont, Margaret M; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J; Addison, David S; Mansfield, Katherine L; Phillips, Katrina F; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  14. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzhein, Frauke; Escher, Felicitas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:28352641

  15. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  16. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atya, M. A.; AL Khateeb, S. O.; Ahmed, S. B.; Musa, M. F.; Gaballa, M.; Abbas, A. M.; Shaaban, F. F.; Hafez, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A) includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B) includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C) includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  17. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Atya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  18. Cancer in adolescents and young adults: Who remains at risk of poor social functioning over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Bradley J; Aguilar, Christine; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2017-07-15

    The objective of the current study was to examine social functioning among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) within the first 2 years after a cancer diagnosis and compare their scores with population norms and identify trajectories of social functioning over time and its correlates. A multicenter, longitudinal study was conducted among 215 AYA patients with cancer aged 14 to 39 years. A total of 141 patients completed a self-report measure of social functioning within the first 4 months of diagnosis and again at 12 months and 24 months later. AYA patients with cancer were found to have significantly worse social functioning scores around the time of diagnosis (52.0 vs 85.1; Pcancer who had consistently low social functioning were more often off treatment at the time of follow-up, reported more physical symptoms and higher levels of distress at baseline and follow-up, and perceived less social support at baseline compared with the other 3 groups. Although improved over time, social functioning still was found to be compromised 24 months after the primary diagnosis. Nearly one-third of these patients remain at risk of poor social functioning. Reducing physical symptoms and psychological distress and enhancing social support by interventions during the period after treatment may potentially help these young survivors to better reintegrate into society. Cancer 2017;123:2743-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  20. Modified DOP-PCR for improved STR typing of degraded DNA from human skeletal remains and bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie; Turnbough, Meredith; Benjamin, Robert; Gill-King, Harrell; King, Jonathan; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Forensic and ancient DNA samples often are damaged and in limited quantity as a result of exposure to harsh environments and the passage of time. Several strategies have been proposed to address the challenges posed by degraded and low copy templates, including a PCR based whole genome amplification method called degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). This study assessed the efficacy of four modified versions of the original DOP-PCR primer that retain at least a portion of the 5' defined sequence and alter the number of bases on the 3' end. The use of each of the four modified primers resulted in improved STR profiles from environmentally-damaged bloodstains, contemporary human skeletal remains, American Civil War era bone samples, and skeletal remains of WWII soldiers over those obtained by previously described DOP-PCR methods and routine STR typing. Additionally, the modified DOP-PCR procedure allows for a larger volume of DNA extract to be used, reducing the need to concentrate the sample and thus mitigating the effects of concurrent concentration of inhibitors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Ancient urban ecology reconstructed from archaeozoological remains of small mammals in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data.

  2. Comparison of waxy and normal potato starch remaining granules after chemical surface gelatinization: pasting behavior and surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junrong; Chen, Zhenghong; Xu, Yalun; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Shuxing; Yang, Daqing; Schols, Henk A

    2014-02-15

    To understand the contribution of granule inner portion to the pasting property of starch, waxy potato starch and two normal potato starches and their acetylated starch samples were subjected to chemical surface gelatinization by 3.8 mol/L CaCl2 to obtain remaining granules. Native and acetylated, original and remaining granules of waxy potato starch had similar rapid visco analyzer (RVA) pasting profiles, while those of two normal potato starches behaved obviously different from each other. All remaining granules had lower peak viscosity than the corresponding original granules. Contribution of waxy potato starch granule's inner portion to the peak viscosity was significant more than those of normal potato starches. The shell structure appearing on the remaining granule surface for waxy potato starch was smoother and thinner than that for normal potato starches as observed by scanning electron microscopy, indicating a more regular structure of shell and a more ordered packing of shell for waxy potato starch granules. The blocklet size of waxy potato starch was smaller and more uniform than those of normal potato starches as shown by atomic force microscopy images of original and remaining granules. In general, our results provided the evidence for the spatial structure diversity between waxy and normal potato starch granules: outer layer and inner portion of waxy potato starch granule had similar structure, while outer layer had notably different structure from inner portion for normal potato starch granule.

  3. The thermal history and stress state of a fresh steam-pipeline influencing its remaining service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The service life of thick-walled power plant components exposed to creep, as is the case with pipelines of fresh- and re-heated steam, depend on the exhaustion rate of the material. Plant operation at elevated temperatures and at temperatures below designed temperatures all relates to the material exhaustion rate, thus complicating remaining life assessment, whereas the operating temperature variation is a most common cause in the mismatching of real service- and design life. Apart from temperature, the tube wall stress is a significant variable for remaining life assessment, whose calculation depends on the selected procedure, due to the complex pipeline configuration. In this paper, a remaining life assessment is performed according to the Larson-Miller parametric relation for a Ø324×36 pipe bend element of a fresh steam-pipeline, made of steel class 1Cr0.3Mo0.25V, after 160 000 hours of operation. The temperature history of the pipeline, altogether with the pipe bend, is determined based on continuous temperature monitoring records. Compared results of remaining life assessment are displayed for monitored temperature records and for designed operating temperature in the same time period. The stress calculation in the pipe bend wall is performed by three methods that are usually applied so to emphasize the differences in the obtained results of remaining life assessment.

  4. Sequential Right and Left Ventricular Assessment in Posttetralogy of Fallot Patients with Significant Pulmonary Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekera, Vishva A; Raju, Rekha; Precious, Bruce; Berger, Adam J; Kiess, Marla C; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Grewal, Jasmine

    2016-12-01

    time period. We have demonstrated, in a small population of patients with hemodynamically significant PR, that there is a small increase in RV volumes and decrease in RVEF over a mean 4-year period. We believe it to be reasonable practice to perform CMR at least every 4 years in asymptomatic patients with repaired TOF and hemodynamically significant PR. We found that LV volumes and function remained stable during the study period, suggesting that significant progressive LV changes are less likely to occur over a shorter time period. Our results inform a safe standardized approach to monitoring adults with hemodynamically significant PR post TOF repair and assist in planning allocation of this expensive and limited resource. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Adaptive evolution of interleukin-3 (IL3), a gene associated with brain volume variation in general human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Huang, Liang; Li, Kaiqin; Huo, Yongxia; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Jinkai; Liu, Jiewei; Luo, Zhenwu; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Yao, Yong-gang; Su, Bing; Luo, Xiong-jian

    2016-04-01

    Greatly expanded brain volume is one of the most characteristic traits that distinguish humans from other primates. Recent studies have revealed genes responsible for the dramatically enlarged human brain size (i.e., the microcephaly genes), and it has been well documented that many microcephaly genes have undergone accelerated evolution along the human lineage. In addition to being far larger than other primates, human brain volume is also highly variable in general populations. However, the genetic basis underlying human brain volume variation remains elusive and it is not known whether genes regulating human brain volume variation also have experienced positive selection. We have previously shown that genetic variants (near the IL3 gene) on 5q33 were significantly associated with brain volume in Chinese population. Here, we provide further evidence that support the significant association of genetic variants on 5q33 with brain volume. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that rs31480 is likely to be the causal variant among the studied SNPs. Molecular evolutionary analyses suggested that IL3 might have undergone positive selection in primates and humans. Neutrality tests further revealed signatures of positive selection of IL3 in Han Chinese and Europeans. Finally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH analyses showed that the C allele of SNP rs31480 might have experienced recent positive selection in Han Chinese. Our results suggest that IL3 is an important genetic regulator for human brain volume variation and implied that IL3 might have experienced weak or modest positive selection in the evolutionary history of humans, which may be due to its contribution to human brain volume.

  6. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Remains High in African American and Hispanic Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Theresa; Ramsey, David; Graham, David; Shaib, Yasser; Shiota, Seiji; Velez, Maria; Cole, Rhonda; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Vela, Marcelo; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori in the United States has been declining in the 1990s albeit less so among blacks and Hispanics. As the socioeconomic status of racial groups has evolved, it remains unclear whether the prevalence or the racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence of H. pylori have changed. This is a cross-sectional study from a Veteran Affairs center among patients aged 40-80 years old who underwent a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy with gastric biopsies, which were cultured for H. pylori irrespective of findings on histopathology. Positive H. pylori was defined as positive culture or histopathology (stained organism combined with active gastritis). We calculated age-, race-, and birth cohort-specific H. pylori prevalence rates and examined predictors of H. pylori infection in logistic regression models. We analyzed data on 1200 patients; most (92.8%) were men and non-Hispanic white (59.9%) or black (28.9%). H. pylori was positive in 347 (28.9%) and was highest among black males aged 50-59 (53.3%; 44.0-62.4%), followed by Hispanic males aged 60-69 (48.1%; 34.2-62.2%), and lowest in non-Hispanic white males aged 40-49 (8.2%; 2.7-20.5%). In multivariate analysis, age group 50-59 was significantly associated with H. pylori (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-4.45) compared with those aged 40-49, and with black race (adjusted OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.83-3.60) and Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.70-5.34) compared with non-Hispanic white. Irrespective of age group, patients born during 1960-1969 had a lower risk of H. pylori (adjusted OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.96) compared to those born in 1930-1939. Those with some college education were less likely to have H. pylori compared to those with no college education (adjusted OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37-0.69). Among veterans, the prevalence of active H. pylori remains high (28.9%) with even higher rates in blacks and Hispanics with lower education levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  7. Assessing intravascular volume by difference in pulse pressure in pigs submitted to graded hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Hiltebrand, Luzius B; Fukui, Kimiko; Cohen, Delphine; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea M

    2006-10-01

    We assessed changes in intravascular volume monitored by difference in pulse pressure (dPP%) after stepwise hemorrhage in an experimental pig model. Six pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized (isoflurane 1.5 vol%) and mechanically ventilated to keep end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) at 35 mmHg. A PA-catheter and an arterial catheter were placed via femoral access. During and after surgery, animals received lactated Ringer's solution as long as they were considered volume responders (dPP>13%). Then animals were allowed to stabilize from the induction of anesthesia and insertion of catheters for 30 min. After stabilization, baseline measurements were taken. Five percent of blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5%, and then in 10%-increments until death from exsanguination occurred. After withdrawal of 5% of blood volume, all pigs were considered volume responders (dPP>13%); dPP rose significantly from 6.1+/-3.3% to 19.4+/-4.2%. The regression analysis of stepwise hemorrhage revealed a linear relation between blood loss (hemorrhage in %) and dPP (y=0.99*x+14; R2=0.7764; P<.0001). In addition, dPP was the only parameter that changed significantly between baseline and a blood loss of 5% (P<0.01), whereas cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, MAP, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, and systemic vascular resistance, respectively, remained unchanged. We conclude that in an experimental hypovolemic pig model, dPP correlates well with blood loss.

  8. Neocortical and hippocampal volume loss in a human ciliopathy: A quantitative MRI study in Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate; Northam, Gemma B; Chong, W K; Banks, Tina; Beales, Philip; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Cilia are ubiquitous cell surface organelles with diverse roles from embryogenesis to adult life. The neurodevelopmental functions of the cilium are currently under investigation in animal systems, but relevance to human brain development remains uncertain. We present the first systematic investigation of structural neuroanatomy in a ciliopathy-Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). Qualitative and quantitative aspects of brain structure were evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging in 10 patients with BBS (ages 14-28 years). In comparison to age and gender-matched healthy controls, BBS patients had significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume but no total white matter (WM) or cerebrospinal fluid volume changes. Voxel-based morphometric analysis indicated regional GM volume loss bilaterally in the anterior temporal lobes and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, and WM volume loss in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Region-of-interest measurements revealed reduced volume of the hippocampus. Two patients were found to have ventriculomegaly. Global GM reduction and regional volume reductions in the temporal lobe may underlie the learning disabilities and behavioral problems experienced by some patients with BBS. These findings are consistent with previous observations in mouse models of BBS, and further implicate the cilium in neurodevelopmental processes relevant to human cognitive function.

  9. Cell type-specific adaptation of cellular and nuclear volume in micro-engineered 3D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Alexandra M; Klein, Franziska; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Richter, Benjamin; Striebel, Thomas; Wundari, Bayu G; Autenrieth, Tatjana J; Wegener, Martin; Franz, Clemens M; Bastmeyer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Bio-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) are structurally and mechanically well-defined and ideal for systematically investigating the influence of three-dimensionality and substrate stiffness on cell behavior. Here, we show that different fibroblast-like and epithelial cell lines maintain normal proliferation rates and form functional cell-matrix contacts in DLW-fabricated 3D scaffolds of different mechanics and geometry. Furthermore, the molecular composition of cell-matrix contacts forming in these 3D micro-environments and under conventional 2D culture conditions is identical, based on the analysis of several marker proteins (paxillin, phospho-paxillin, phospho-focal adhesion kinase, vinculin, β1-integrin). However, fibroblast-like and epithelial cells differ markedly in the way they adapt their total cell and nuclear volumes in 3D environments. While fibroblast-like cell lines display significantly increased cell and nuclear volumes in 3D substrates compared to 2D substrates, epithelial cells retain similar cell and nuclear volumes in 2D and 3D environments. Despite differential cell volume regulation between fibroblasts and epithelial cells in 3D environments, the nucleus-to-cell (N/C) volume ratios remain constant for all cell types and culture conditions. Thus, changes in cell and nuclear volume during the transition from 2D to 3D environments are strongly cell type-dependent, but independent of scaffold stiffness, while cells maintain the N/C ratio regardless of culture conditions.

  10. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will your application remain in effect? Your application for SVB will remain in effect from the date it is filed until...

  11. The Mean Remaining Strength Of Systems In A Stress-Strength Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gürler, Selma

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mean remaining strength of a component inthe stress-strength setup. We present the models for the mean remaining strength for systems consisting of n independent components underthe k-out-of-n:F , parallel and series configurations. We assume thatthe strengths of the components are nonidentically distributed randomvariables and components are designed under the common stress.

  12. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  13. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  14. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  15. The Effect of Time on Bone Fluorescence: Implications for Using Alternate Light Sources to Search for Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaraldahab, Mohamed A H; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Bones fluoresce when exposed to certain wavelengths of shortwave light, and this property can be useful in locating and sorting skeletal remains in forensic contexts. The proteins in bone collagen are largely responsible for its fluorescent properties, but these proteins degrade and denature over time. This study examined the fluorescence of bones from four temporal groups (recent, semi-recent, ancient, and historic) ranging from 0 to 1064 years before present. Specimens were photographed under 490 nm wavelength light, and fluorescence was quantified by converting intensity to a gray scale value based on the RGB color model using ImageJ(®) software. Significant (p fluorescence between all four temporal groups, and a 0.324 coefficient of correlation indicates a significant (inverse) relationship between fluorescence and time. Bone fluorescence decreases with time, but some fluorescence is retained even in older samples. Fluorescence can therefore be reliably used in many modern skeletal remains searches.

  16. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  17. Novel radiotherapy techniques for involved-field and involved-node treatment of mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma. When should they be considered and which questions remain open

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr, Frank; Koeck, Julia; Abo-Madyan, Yasser [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Georg, Dietmar; Knaeusl, Barbara; Dieckmann, Karin [Medical University Vienna/AKH Vienna, Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna/AKH Vienna, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria); Cozzi, Luca [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Eich, Hans Theodor [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Muenster (Germany); Weber, Damien C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, University of Bern, Center for Proton Therapy, Bern (Switzerland); Fiandra, Christian; Ricardi, Umberto [University of Torino, Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, Turin (Italy); Mueller, Rolf-Peter [University of Cologne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cologne (Germany); Engert, Andreas [University of Cologne, Department of Medical Oncology, Cologne (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a highly curable disease. Reducing late complications and second malignancies has become increasingly important. Radiotherapy target paradigms are currently changing and radiotherapy techniques are evolving rapidly. This overview reports to what extent target volume reduction in involved-node (IN) and advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton therapy-compared with involved-field (IF) and 3D radiotherapy (3D-RT)- can reduce high doses to organs at risk (OAR) and examines the issues that still remain open. Although no comparison of all available techniques on identical patient datasets exists, clear patterns emerge. Advanced dose-calculation algorithms (e.g., convolution-superposition/Monte Carlo) should be used in mediastinal HL. INRT consistently reduces treated volumes when compared with IFRT with the exact amount depending on the INRT definition. The number of patients that might significantly benefit from highly conformal techniques such as IMRT over 3D-RT regarding high-dose exposure to organs at risk (OAR) is smaller with INRT. The impact of larger volumes treated with low doses in advanced techniques is unclear. The type of IMRT used (static/rotational) is of minor importance. All advanced photon techniques result in similar potential benefits and disadvantages, therefore only the degree-of-modulation should be chosen based on individual treatment goals. Treatment in deep inspiration breath hold is being evaluated. Protons theoretically provide both excellent high-dose conformality and reduced integral dose. Further reduction of treated volumes most effectively reduces OAR dose, most likely without disadvantages if the excellent control rates achieved currently are maintained. For both IFRT and INRT, the benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques depend on the individual patient/target geometry. Their use should therefore be decided case by case with comparative treatment planning

  18. Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, M

    2000-08-12

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

  19. Computer-assisted venous thrombosis volume quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Dhibi, Mounir; Bressollette, Luc; Guias, Bruno; Solaiman, Basel

    2009-03-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) volume assessment, by verifying its risk of progression when anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapies are prescribed, is often necessary to screen life-threatening complications. Commonly, VT volume estimation is done by manual delineation of few contours in the ultrasound (US) image sequence, assuming that the VT has a regular shape and constant radius, thus producing significant errors. This paper presents and evaluates a comprehensive functional approach based on the combination of robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contours to calculate VT volume in a more accurate manner when applied to freehand 2-D US image sequences. Robust anisotropic filtering reduces image speckle noise without generating incoherent edge discontinuities. Prior knowledge of the VT shape allows initializing the deformable contour, which is then guided by the noise-filtering outcome. Segmented contours are subsequently used to calculate VT volume. The proposed approach is integrated into a system prototype compatible with existing clinical US machines that additionally tracks the acquired images 3-D position and provides a dense Delaunay triangulation required for volume calculation. A predefined robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contour parameter set enhances the system usability. Experimental results pertinence is assessed by comparison with manual and tetrahedron-based volume computations, using images acquired by two medical experts of eight plastic phantoms and eight in vitro VTs, whose independently measured volume is the reference ground truth. Results show a mean difference between 16 and 35 mm(3) for volumes that vary from 655 to 2826 mm(3). Two in vivo VT volumes are also calculated to illustrate how this approach could be applied in clinical conditions when the real value is unknown. Comparative results for the two experts differ from 1.2% to 10.08% of the smallest estimated value when the image acquisition cadences are similar.

  20. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  1. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  2. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  3. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  4. The current science of gastric banding: an overview of pressure-volume theory in band adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a safe and effective bariatric operation for the treatment of morbid obesity. Optimized long-term weight loss and reduced complications may be facilitated by development of a standardized, accurate, band-fill measurement methodology for use in postoperative LAGB adjustments. A summary of the primary in vitro, theoretical, and in vivo studies of pressure-volume theory relative to gastric banding was undertaken. LAGBs range in mechanisms of action from low-pressure/high-volume to high-pressure/low-volume. Use of both basic and dynamic pressure data obtained experimentally and clinically with a low-pressure/high-volume (LP/HV) band as a research tool revealed that intra-band pressures remained very low even when the band balloon was filled to its maximum fill volume; in contrast, when a high-pressure/low-volume (HP/LV) band was filled, it exhibited a pressure curve markedly steeper and of greater amplitude than that of the LP/HV band. Theoretical calculations of the differences between the bands in terms of the pressures they exerted on a bolus of food passing through a stoma found that the pressure created by the HP/LV band against the gastric wall was >100% higher than that applied by the LP/HV band; these mathematical results were verified by using invasive manometry in 35 patients undergoing band adjustment. In clinical testing, basic band pressure, band volume, and dynamic pressure data (that demonstrated esophageal motility patterns at the stoma during bolus passage) were gathered and correlated. As identified by intra-band pressure readings, a zone of disruptive peristaltic activity that obstructed bolus passage through the stoma was observed; slightly beneath this zone, it was hypothesized that successful patient adjustments might be carried out. The manometrically delineated measure of mean band pressure sufficient to exert a significant yet not disruptive restriction (i.e., 20 mm Hg; mean volume of 5.4 m

  5. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  7. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  8. Enhanced metal and metalloid concentrations in the gut system comparing to remaining tissues of Gammarus pulex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Dharamshi, Jennah; Dudel, E Gert

    2011-04-01

    Invertebrate shredders such as Gammarus pulex are key species in contaminated stream ecosystems. Although a number of previous studies examining differences in metal accumulation between the gut system and remaining tissues of invertebrates exist, few focus on wide range of metals and metalloids that are relevant to contaminated systems. This study compared accumulation of the commonest (at study site) 15 metals and metalloids between the gut system including feces and remaining tissues of G. pulex. All metals and metalloids measured were significantly higher (p<0.001, except Cu p<0.005) in the gut system including feces than remaining tissues of G. pulex. Metals and metalloids in body tissues without the gut system including feces were significantly lower (Al, Cr, Fe and Mn (p<0.005), Sr and U (p<0.01), Co (p<0.05)) in content for a number of elements when compared to washed, whole G. pulex specimens. As well, all elements measured were significantly higher (all elements (p<0.005) except Cu and Co (p<0.05)) in gut system including feces than washed, whole G. pulex specimens. These results indicate that in G. pulex the uptake of all 15 metals and metalloids examined across the gut epithelium is minimalized or that sequestration of these elements in gut epithelial cells may occur.

  9. Detecting Buried Archaeological Remains by the Use of Geophysical Data Processing with 'Diffusion Maps' Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2015-04-01

    ) (e.g., Eppelbaum et al., 2010; Eppelbaum, 2011) of the targets under study for the concrete area (region) are developed. These PAM are composed on the basis of the known archaeological and geological data, results of previous archaeogeophysical investigations and 3D modeling of geophysical data. It should be underlined that the PAMs must differ (by depth, size, shape and physical properties of AT as well as peculiarities of the host archaeological-geological media). The PAMs must include also noise components of different orders (corresponding to the archaeogeophysical conditions of the area under study). The same models are computed and without the AT. Introducing complex PAMs (for example, situated in the vicinity of electric power lines, some objects of infrastructure, etc. (Eppelbaum et al., 2001)) will reflect some real class of AT occurring in such unfavorable for geophysical searching conditions. Anomalous effects from such complex PAMs will significantly disturb the geophysical anomalies from AT and impede the wavelet methodology employment. At the same time, the 'self-learning' procedure laid in this methodology will help further to recognize the AT even in the cases of unfavorable S/N ratio. Modern developments in the wavelet theory and data mining are utilized for the analysis of the integrated data. Wavelet approach is applied for derivation of enhanced (e.g., coherence portraits) and combined images of geophysical fields. The modern methodologies based on the matching pursuit with wavelet packet dictionaries enables to extract desired signals even from strongly noised data (Averbuch et al., 2014). Researchers usually met the problem of extraction of essential features from available data contaminated by a random noise and by a non-relevant background (Averbuch et al., 2014). If the essential structure of a signal consists of several sine waves then we may represent it via trigonometric basis (Fourier analysis). In this case one can compare the signal

  10. Characteristics of remaining oil viscosity in water-and polymer-flooding reservoirs in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of 21 crude oil samples shows a good correlation between high molecular-weight hydrocarbon components (C 40+) and viscosity.Forty-four remaining oil samples extracted from oil sands of oilfield development coring wells were analyzed by high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC),for the relative abundance of C 21-,C 21-C 40 and C 40+ hydrocarbons.The relationship between viscosity of crude oil and C 40+ (%) hydrocarbons abundance is used to expect the viscosity of remaining oil.The mobility characteristics of remaining oil,the properties of remaining oil,and the next displacement methods in reservoirs either water-flooded or polymer-flooded are studied with rock permeability,oil saturation of coring wells,etc.The experimental results show that the hydrocarbons composition,viscosity,and mobility of remaining oil from both polymer-flooding and water-flooding reservoirs are heterogeneous,especially the former.Relative abundance of C 21- and C 21-C 40 hydrocarbons in polymer-flooding reservoirs is lower than that of water-flooding,but with more abundance of C 40+ hydrocarbons.It is then suggested that polymer flooding must have driven more C 40- hydrocarbons out of reservoir,which resulted in relatively enriched C 40+,more viscous oils,and poorer mobility.Remaining oil in water-flooding reservoirs is dominated by moderate viscosity oil with some low viscosity oil,while polymer-flooding mainly contained moderate viscosity oil with some high viscosity oil.In each oilfield and reservoir,displacement methods of remaining oil,viscosity,and concentration by polymer-solution can be adjusted by current viscosity of remaining oil and mobility ratio in a favorable range.A new basis and methods are suggested for the further development and enhanced oil recovery of remaining oil.

  11. Study of dental occlusion in ancient human remains: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Elena; Cadafalch, Joan; Ceperuelo, Dolors; Adserias Adserias, Maria José; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduard; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    The anthropological dental and maxillary study in human skeletal remains usually refers to alterations or conditions of the oral cavity. These alterations could have repercussions on life style, dietary habits and diseases. In this particular context, dental occlusion is not often analyzed due to the fragmented condition of the remains, and especially due to the lack of methodology adapted to study ancient remains. The aim of this study is to propose an anthropological method based on clinical dental practice. In the method presented in this work, odontological parameters such as overjet, overbite, and Angle's Classification of Malocclusion, are evaluated.

  12. Application of the Stephan et al. Chest Radiograph Comparison Method to Decomposed Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mariyam I; Hefner, Joseph T; Markey, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    This manuscript describes the use of comparative radiography of the chest to facilitate positive identification of human remains in advanced stages of decomposition. The method reported by Stephan et al. for positive identification of dry, disarticulated skeletal elements was used on semifleshed, decomposing remains. Positive identification was established through multiple points of concordance observed in radiographs of the left and right clavicles and the C5-T1 vertebrae. This case study demonstrates the applicability of the Stephan et al.'s method in cases involving decomposing remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. The Swan-Ganz Catheter Remains a Critically Important Component of Monitoring in Cardiovascular Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew; Curley, Gerard F; Mustard, Mary; Mazer, C David

    2017-01-01

    Few inventions in modern medicine have generated as passionate and extended debate as the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). Since its introduction in 1970, the PAC remains an indispensable monitor in cardiovascular critical care. Despite attempts to develop less invasive alternatives, the PAC remains unequaled as a single monitoring device capable of measuring physiological derangement in most components of the circulation, in the awake or sedated patient, with real-time feedback on the efficacy of an intervention. In reviewing the literature, we contend that the PAC remains the "gold standard" for hemodynamic monitoring of critically ill cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. REMAINING LIFE TIME PREDICTION OF BEARINGS USING K-STAR ALGORITHM – A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SATISHKUMAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of bearings is significant in reducing the down time of all rotating machineries. The increasing trend of bearing failures in recent times has triggered the need and importance of deployment of condition monitoring. There are multiple factors associated to a bearing failure while it is in operation. Hence, a predictive strategy is required to evaluate the current state of the bearings in operation. In past, predictive models with regression techniques were widely used for bearing lifetime estimations. The Objective of this paper is to estimate the remaining useful life of bearings through a machine learning approach. The ultimate objective of this study is to strengthen the predictive maintenance. The present study was done using classification approach following the concepts of machine learning and a predictive model was built to calculate the residual lifetime of bearings in operation. Vibration signals were acquired on a continuous basis from an experiment wherein the bearings are made to run till it fails naturally. It should be noted that the experiment was carried out with new bearings at pre-defined load and speed conditions until the bearing fails on its own. In the present work, statistical features were deployed and feature selection process was carried out using J48 decision tree and selected features were used to develop the prognostic model. The K-Star classification algorithm, a supervised machine learning technique is made use of in building a predictive model to estimate the lifetime of bearings. The performance of classifier was cross validated with distinct data. The result shows that the K-Star classification model gives 98.56% classification accuracy with selected features.

  15. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryne Burke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.

  16. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eGaume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown efficacy of brief intervention (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings, and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale is disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content, and exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness.We searched Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications for original research or reviews on active ingredients (or components, or mechanisms of face-to-face BIs (and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing [BMI] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among Emergency Room patients, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such.Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  17. Tracing partners of patients with syphilis infection remains challenging: experience of Geneva Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Angèle, Gayet-Ageron; Martine, Girard-Strohbach; Laurence, Toutous Trellu

    2017-01-01

    Syphilis has been reinstated on the list of notifiable diseases in Switzerland since 2006 and the active management of sexual partners is encouraged to avoid reinfection. However, contact tracing has yielded unsatisfactory results and the incidence of syphilis remains important, especially in high-risk populations. The aim of this study was to compare the proportions of notified sexual partners of patients diagnosed with syphilis by the laboratories of Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) with those diagnosed in private laboratories (non-HUG) and to assess the risk factors for no notification to sexual partners. All syphilis cases notified to the Office of the Surgeon General in Geneva (Switzerland) between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were analysed. The proportions of partner notification (PN) between HUG and non-HUG laboratories were compared by Chi square test and the main risk factors for no notification to sexual partners were assessed by binomial log-linear regression. Among a total of 720 notifications reported, 244 cases were diagnosed with contagious syphilis stages and 263 with non-contagious stages (i.e. successfully treated patients with or late latent cases). Overall, PN was higher among contagious than non-contagious cases (58.4% versus 31.0%; p = 0.030) and it was significantly higher in the non-HUG compared to the HUG group (75.9% versus 50.0%, respectively; p 45 years (RR 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.76) and if the patient had received treatment for syphilis (RR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.38-2.66). Our results illustrate the difficulty of contact tracing in syphilis infection and the necessity to improve this crucial part of sexually transmitted infection management.

  18. How can health remain central post-2015 in a sustainable development paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Buse, Kent; Brolan, Claire E; Ooms, Gorik

    2014-04-03

    In two years, the uncompleted tasks of the Millennium Development Goals will be merged with the agenda articulated in the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. This process will seek to integrate economic development (including the elimination of extreme poverty), social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and good governance into a combined sustainable development agenda. The first phase of consultation for the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals reached completion in the May 2013 report to the Secretary-General of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Health did well out of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) process, but the global context and framing of the new agenda is substantially different, and health advocates cannot automatically assume the same prominence. This paper argues that to remain central to continuing negotiations and the future implementation, four strategic shifts are urgently required. Advocates need to reframe health from the poverty reduction focus of the MDGs to embrace the social sustainability paradigm that underpins the new goals. Second, health advocates need to speak--and listen--to the whole sustainable development agenda, and assert health in every theme and every relevant policy, something that is not yet happening in current thematic debates. Third, we need to construct goals that will be truly "universal", that will engage every nation--a significant re-orientation from the focus on low-income countries of the MDGs. And finally, health advocates need to overtly explore what global governance structures will be needed to finance and implement these universal Sustainable Development Goals.

  19. Longitudinal volume changes of the pituitary gland in patients with schizotypal disorder and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Nakamura, Kazue; Tanino, Ryoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-01-15

    An enlarged volume of the pituitary gland has been reported in the schizophrenia spectrum, possibly reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity. However, it remains largely unknown whether the pituitary size longitudinally changes in the course of the spectrum disorders. In the present study, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained from 18 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 13 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 20 healthy controls. The pituitary volume was measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 2.7 years) scans and was compared across groups. The pituitary volume was larger in the schizophrenia patients than controls at baseline, and both patient groups had significantly larger pituitary volume than controls at follow-up. In a longitudinal comparison, both schizophrenia (3.6%/year) and schizotypal (2.7%/year) patients showed significant pituitary enlargement compared with controls (-1.8%/year). In the schizophrenia patients, greater pituitary enlargement over time was associated with less improvement of delusions and higher scores for thought disorders at the follow-up. These findings suggest that the pituitary gland exhibits ongoing volume changes during the early course of the schizophrenia spectrum as a possible marker of state-related impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shear-induced Volume Decrease in MDCK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinseok; Sachs, Frederick; Wang, Jianbin; Hua, Susan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm2 resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ~ 20 – 30 % smaller than the initial resting cell volume. Independent experiments based on fluorescence quenching confirmed the volume reduction. This shear-induced cell shrinkage was irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (~ 30 min). Treatment of 0.1 μM Hg2+ significantly inhibited the volume decrease, suggesting that the shear-induced cell shrinkage is associated with water efflux through aquaporins. The volume decrease cannot be inhibited by 75 mM TEA, 100 μM DIDS, or 100 μM Gd3+ suggesting that volume reduction is not directly mediated by K+ and Cl− channels that typically function during regulatory volume decrease (RVD), nor is it through cationic stretch-activated ion channels (SACs). The process also appears to be Ca2+ independent because it was insensitive to intracellular Ca2+ level. Since cell volume is determined by the intracellular water content, we postulate that the shear induced reductions in cell volume may arise from increased intracellular hydrostatic pressure as the cell is deformed under flow, which promotes the efflux of water. The increase in internal pressure in a deformable object under the flow is supported by the finite element mechanical model. PMID:22759987

  1. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  2. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  3. Is resected stomach volume related to weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagat Pal; Tantia, Om; Chaudhuri, Tamonas; Khanna, Shashi; Patil, Prateek H

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was initially performed as the first stage of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch for the treatment of super-obese or high-risk obese patients but is now most commonly performed as a standalone operation. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate outcomes after LSG according to resected stomach volume. Between May 2011 and April 2013, LSG was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Two patients were excluded, and data from the remaining 100 patients were analyzed in this study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the following resected stomach volume: 700-1,200 mL (group A, n = 21), 1,200-1,700 mL (group B, n = 62), and >1,700 mL (group C, n = 17). Mean values were compared among the groups by analysis of variance. The mean percentage excess body weight loss (%EBWL) at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery was 37.68 ± 10.97, 50.97 ± 13.59, 62.35 ± 11.31, and 67.59 ± 9.02 %, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean %EBWL among the three groups. Resected stomach volume was greater in patients with higher preoperative body mass index and was positively associated with resected stomach weight. Mean %EBWL after LSG was not significantly different among three groups of patients divided according to resected stomach volume. Resected stomach volume was significantly greater in patients with higher preoperative body mass index.

  4. Isolation of PCR ready-human DNA using copper nanoparticles from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Anand; Ansari, Niha; Shah, Shahil; Rao, M V; Menon, Shobhana K

    2017-01-01

    Present study represents a novel approach of PCR ready-human DNA extraction method from skeletal remains using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for personnel identification. To achieve rapid, cost effective, sensitive and non-hazardous method for DNA extraction we utilized CuNPs synthesized using microwave. The applicability of this approach was first tested in blood samples and afterwards, this system was extended to skeletal remains' samples also. This method yields good quality DNA that are ready for PCR reactions from small quantities of blood and skeletal remains. Consequently, even small quantities of nanoparticles could be potentially utilized for a highly efficient isolation of DNA from skeletal remains as well as from ancient archaeological samples. The present method has the advantages that it is quick with high yield, inexpensive, robust, environment friendly and does not require use of hazardous organic solvents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Paleoparasitology in Brazil and Findings in Human Remains from South America: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shênia Patrícia Corrêa Novo; Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    .... In sequence, it is made a presentation of parasitological findings on human remains found in archaeological sites in South America, highlighting Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, where major discoveries have occurred...

  6. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including...

  7. Pond Creek Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  8. Fire Clay Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  9. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with remaining resource values...

  10. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial scree

  11. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  12. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  13. Scott's Lake Site/Santee Indian Mound/Fort Watson Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a generic dataset collected on human remains and funerary objects during Scott's Lake Site Excavation. Excavated by Dr. Leland G. Ferguson of SCIAA in 1973,...

  14. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Liao; Wei Xie; Yu Peng; Datong Liu; Hong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL) estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS). The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a...

  15. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  16. Interstitial volume modulates the conduction velocity-gap junction relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Rengasayee; Salama, Mohamed E; Poelzing, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac conduction through gap junctions is an important determinant of arrhythmia susceptibility. Yet, the relationship between degrees of G(j) uncoupling and conduction velocity (θ) remains controversial. Conflicting results in similar experiments are normally attributed to experimental differences. We hypothesized that interstitial volume modulates conduction velocity and its dependence on G(j). Interstitial volume (V(IS)) was quantified histologically from guinea pig right ventricle. Optical mapping was used to quantify conduction velocity and anisotropy (AR(θ)). Albumin (4 g/l) decreased histologically assessed V(IS), increased transverse θ by 71 ± 10%, and lowered AR(θ). Furthermore, albumin did not change isolated cell size. Conversely, mannitol increased V(IS), decreased transverse θ by 24 ± 4%, and increased AR(θ). Mannitol also decreased cell width by 12%. Furthermore, mannitol was associated with spontaneous ventricular tachycardias in three of eight animals relative to zero of 15 during control. The θ-G(j) relationship was assessed using the G(j) uncoupler carbenoxolone (CBX). Whereas 13 μM CBX did not significantly affect θ during control, it slowed transverse θ by 38 ± 9% during mannitol (edema). These data suggest changes in V(IS) modulate θ, AR(θ), and the θ-G(j) relationship and thereby alter arrhythmia susceptibility. Therefore, V(IS) may underlie arrhythmia susceptibility, particularly in diseases associated with gap junction remodeling.

  17. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques.

  18. DNA Identification of Commingled Human Remains from the Cemetery Relocated by Flooding in Central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čakar, Jasmina; Pilav, Amela; Džehverović, Mirela; Ahatović, Anesa; Haverić, Sanin; Ramić, Jasmin; Marjanović, Damir

    2017-05-11

    The floods in Bosnia and Herzegovina in May 2014 caused landslides all over the country. In the small village of Šerići, near the town of Zenica, a landslide destroyed the local cemetery, relocated graves, and commingled skeletal remains. As the use of other physical methods of identification (facial recognition, fingerprint analysis, dental analysis, etc.) was not possible, DNA analysis was applied. DNA was isolated from 20 skeletal remains (bone and tooth samples) and six reference samples (blood from living relatives) and amplified using PowerPlex(®) Fusion and PowerPlex(®) Y23 kits. DNA profiles were generated for all reference samples and 17 skeletal remains. A statistical analysis (calculation of paternity, maternity, and sibling indexes and matching probabilities) resulted in 10 positive identifications. In this study, 5 individuals were identified based on one reference sample. This has once again demonstrated the significance of DNA analysis in resolving the most complicated cases, such as the identification of commingled human skeletal remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Big Cat Coalitions: A comparative analysis of regional brain volumes in Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharleen T Sakai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of 4 focal species: lions (Panthera leo, leopards (Panthera pardus, cougars (Puma concolor, and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography (CT. Skulls (n=75 were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares (PGLS regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in 4 focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively

  20. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sharleen T.; Arsznov, Bradley M.; Hristova, Ani E.; Yoon, Elise J.; Lundrigan, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls (n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC volumes

  1. Effect of pulmonary hyperinflation on central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Kyhl, Kasper; Frestad, Daria

    2017-01-01

    (11±7%) above the total lung capacity. All cardiac chambers decreased in volume and despite a heart rate increase of 24±29 bpm (39±50%), pulmonary blood flow decreased by 2783±1820mL (43±20%). The pulmonary transit time remained unchanged at 7.5±2.2s and pulmonary blood volume decreased by 354±176m...

  2. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  3. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-02-01

    Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal-distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal-distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure.

  4. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  5. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  6. Factors influencing the difference between forecasted and actual drug sales volumes under the price-volume agreement in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Euna; Kim, Jini; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-08-01

    This study analyzed factors contributing to increases in the actual sales volumes relative to forecasted volumes of drugs under price-volume agreement (PVA) policy in South Korea. Sales volumes of newly listed drugs on the national formulary are monitored under PVA policy. When actual sales volume exceeds the pre-agreed forecasted volume by 30% or more, the drug is subject to price-reduction. Logistic regression assessed the factors related to whether drugs were the PVA price-reduction drugs. A generalized linear model with gamma distribution and log-link assessed the factors influencing the increase in actual volumes compared to forecasted volume in the PVA price-reduction drugs. Of 186 PVA monitored drugs, 34.9% were price-reduction drugs. Drugs marketed by pharmaceutical companies with previous-occupation in the therapeutic markets were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than drugs marketed by firms with no previous-occupation. Drugs of multinational pharmaceutical companies were more likely to be PVA price-reduction drugs than those of domestic companies. Having more alternative existing drugs was significantly associated with higher odds of being PVA price-reduction drugs. Among the PVA price-reduction drugs, the increasing rate of actual volume compared to forecasted volume was significantly higher in drugs with clinical usefulness. By focusing the negotiation efforts on those target drugs, PVA policy can be administered more efficiently with the improved predictability of the drug sales volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Left Atrial Volume in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgruber, Thomas; Krisai, Philipp; Zimmermann, Andreas J.; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Pumpol, Katrin; Kessel-Schaefer, Arnheid; Stephan, Frank-Peter; Handschin, Nadja; Sticherling, Christian; Osswald, Stefan; Kaufmann, Beat A.; Paré, Guillaume; Kühne, Michael; Conen, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Left atrial (LA) enlargement is an important risk factor for incident stroke and a key determinant for the success of rhythm control strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, factors associated with LA volume in AF patients remain poorly understood. Methods Patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF were enrolled in this study. Real time 3-D echocardiography was performed in all participants and analyzed offline in a standardized manner. We performed stepwise backward linear regression analyses using a broad set of clinical parameters to determine independent correlates for 3-D LA volume. Results We included 210 patients (70.9% male, mean age 61±11years). Paroxysmal and persistent AF were present in 95 (45%) and 115 (55%) patients, respectively. Overall, 115 (55%) had hypertension, 11 (5%) had diabetes, and 18 (9%) had ischemic heart disease. Mean indexed LA volume was 36±12ml/m2. In multivariable models, significant associations were found for female sex (β coefficient -10.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) -17.85;-3.16), p = 0.0053), undergoing cardioversion (β 11.95 (CI 5.15; 18.74), p = 0.0006), diabetes (β 14.23 (CI 2.36; 26.10), p = 0.019), body surface area (BSA) (β 34.21 (CI 19.30; 49.12), pglomerular filtration rate (β -0.21 (CI -0.36; -0.06), p = 0.0064) and plasma levels of NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (β 6.79 (CI 4.05; 9.52), p<0.0001), but not age (p = 0.59) or hypertension (p = 0.42). Our final model explained 52% of the LA volume variability. Conclusions In patients with AF, the most important correlates with LA volume are sex, BSA, diabetes, renal function and NT-proBNP, but not age or hypertension. These results may help to refine rhythm control strategies in AF patients. PMID:27701468

  8. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  9. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to diagnose and distinguish from each other. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Patients with PD and MSA and controls were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tissue...... segmentation and outlining of regions in order to identify regional volume changes that might be useful in the diagnosis of the two diseases. RESULTS: Patients with PD had significantly larger intracranial volumes (ICVs) and significantly smaller putaminal and sustantia nigra volumes than controls. MSA...... or compensatory responses to early CNS damage. Atrophy of the amygdala in MSA patients has not been demonstrated with MR before. It might explain why these patients can have hyposmia. The putaminal atrophy found in the PD group may be a trait of the later stages of PD. Segmentation of the substantia nigra can...

  10. Nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Mi So; Kim, Su Jin; Chang, Sung Ok

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to clarify and conceptualise nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home residents suffering from physical-cognitive functional decline. Older adults experience physical, psychological and social changes, but their remaining abilities differ across individuals. This study used a qualitative research to gain a deeper understanding of nursing homes nurses' clinical decision-making. In-depth interviews with 32 experienced nurses were undertaken. The data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Six categories and 58 subcategories of nursing practice related to managing the remaining abilities of residents with physical-cognitive functional decline were generated. The results of this study revealed five themes: (1) seeing residents' potential, (2) physical, emotional and psychosocial care in daily routines, (3) keeping personalised charts, (4) encouraging, promoting and physical and emotional support and (5) preparing residents for more independent living. The results were categorised into nurses' personal strategies based on their experience, practical nursing knowledge, nursing interventions and nursing evaluation criteria. The themes reflected positive views on the residents' functional abilities and the nursing homes nurses' perception that their goal was to help residents achieve their highest level of independence. Preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities represents nurses' optimistic view of residents' functional status. Routine care tailored for preserving the remaining abilities of individual nursing home residents with physical-cognitive functional decline is needed. Preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home resident is supported by therapeutic interactions including close contact as well as physical and emotional support. Nurses' main goal in working with residents with remaining abilities is improving their independence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Effect of Bolus Volume on Hyoid Kinematics in Healthy Swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyoid movement in swallowing is biomechanically linked to closure of the laryngeal vestibule for airway protection and to opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. Studies suggest that the range of hyoid movement is highly variable in the healthy population. However, other aspects of hyoid movement such as velocity remain relatively unexplored. In this study, we analyze data from a sample of 20 healthy young participants (10 male to determine whether hyoid movement distance, duration, velocity, and peak velocity vary systematically with increases in thin liquid bolus volume from 5 to 20 mL. The temporal correspondence between peak hyoid velocity and laryngeal vestibule closure was also examined. The results show that maximum hyoid position and peak velocity increase significantly for 20 mL bolus volumes compared to smaller volumes, and that the timing of peak velocity is closely linked to achieving laryngeal vestibule closure. This suggests that generating hyoid movements with increased power is a strategy for handling larger volumes.

  12. Challenges in Accommodating Volume Change of Si Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-11-01

    Si has been considered as a promising alternative anode for next-generation Li-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical energy density, relatively low working potential, and abundance in nature. However, Si anodes exhibit rapid capacity decay and an increase in the internal resistance, which are caused by the large volume changes upon Li insertion and extraction. This unfortunately limits their practical applications. Therefore, managing the total volume change remains a critical challenge for effectively alleviating the mechanical fractures and instability of solid-electrolyte-interphase products. In this regard, we review the recent progress in volume-change-accommodating Si electrodes and investigate their ingenious structures with significant improvements in the battery performance, including size-controlled materials, patterned thin films, porous structures, shape-preserving shell designs, and graphene composites. These representative approaches potentially overcome the large morphologic changes in the volume of Si anodes by securing the strain relaxation and structural integrity in the entire electrode. Finally, we propose perspectives and future challenges to realize the practical application of Si anodes in LIB systems.

  13. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers and hippocampal subfield volumes in behaviorally characterized aged tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuker, Jeanine I H; de Biurrun, Gabriel; Luiten, Paul G M; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2004-01-19

    Aging is associated with a decreased ability to store and retrieve information. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in such memory processes, and its integrity is affected during normal aging. We used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) as an animal model of aging, because in many characteristics, tree shrews are closer to primates than they are to rodents. Young and aged male tree shrews performed a holeboard spatial memory task, which permits assessment of reference and working memory. Upon completion of the behavioral measurements, we carried out modified stereological analyses of neuronal numbers in various subdivisions of the hippocampus and used the Cavalieri method to calculate the volumes of these subfields. Results showed that the working memory of aged tree shrews was significantly impaired compared with that of young animals, whereas the hippocampus-dependent reference memory remained unchanged by aging. Estimation of the number of neurons revealed preserved neuron numbers in the subiculum, in the subregions CA1, CA2, CA3, and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. Volume measurements showed no aging-related changes in the volume of any of these hippocampal subregions, or in the molecular and granule cell layers of the dentate gyrus of tree shrews. We conclude that the observed changes in memory performance in aging tree shrews are not accompanied by observable reductions of hippocampal neuron numbers or hippocampal volume, rather, the changes in memory performance are more likely the result of modified subcellular mechanisms that are affected by the aging process.

  15. Diagnosis and classification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Current concepts and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Etsuko; Tokushige, Katsutoshi; Ludwig, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has made the condition an important public health issue. Two clinical entities are manifestations of NAFLD, namely, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The former tends to be benign and non-progressive while the latter can progress to cirrhosis, which in rare cases gives rise to hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of NAFLD is based on: (i) a history of no or limited daily alcohol intake (<20 g for women and <30 g for men); (ii) presence of hepatic steatosis by imaging or by histology; and (iii) exclusion of other liver diseases. NAFL is defined histologically by the presence of bland, primarily macrovesicular, hepatocellular fatty change, while NASH features fatty change with inflammation and evidence of hepatocyte injury, such as ballooning degeneration. Presence of fibrosis is a sign of chronicity. Thus, the diagnosis of NAFL/NASH rests on clinicopathological criteria; it always requires both clinical and biopsy-based information. NAFLD could be both the result and the cause of metabolic syndrome, with a vicious cycle operating between these conditions. Remaining challenges are: (i) the lack of a clear threshold alcohol intake for defining "non-alcoholic"; (ii) a lacking consensus for the classification of fatty liver disease; and (iii) absence of a histological definition of NASH, which currently remains the gold standard for the diagnosis. Further challenges include the overlap of the criteria for NAFLD and alcoholic liver disease as many obese individuals also consume considerable volumes of alcohol.

  16. Human Remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition of Southwest China Suggest a Complex Evolutionary History for East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I. R.; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S. C.; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C. H.; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Background Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia. PMID:22431968

  17. Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Curnoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province. We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia.

  18. The interactive effect of the degradation of cotton clothing and decomposition fluid production associated with decaying remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Nizio, Katie D; Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H

    2015-10-01

    Textiles are a commonly encountered source of evidence in forensic cases. In the past, most research has been focused on how textiles affect the decomposition process while little attention has been paid to how the decomposition products interact with the textiles. While some studies have shown that the presence of remains will have an effect on the degradation of clothing associated with a decaying body, very little work has been carried out on the specific mechanisms that prevent or delay textile degradation when in contact with decomposing remains. In order to investigate the effect of decomposition fluid on textile degradation, three clothed domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses were placed on a soil surface, textile specimens were collected over a period of a year and were then analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyse the data. Cotton specimens not associated with remains degraded markedly, whereas the samples exposed to decomposition fluids remained relatively intact over the same time frame. An investigation of the decomposition by-products found that the protein-related bands remained stable and unchanged throughout the experiment. Lipid components, on the other hand, demonstrated a significant change; this was confirmed with the use of both ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Through an advanced statistical approach, information about the decomposition by-products and their characteristics was obtained. There is potential that the lipid profile in a textile specimen could be a valuable tool used in the examination of clothing located at a crime scene.

  19. Changes and Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Its Tissue Inhibitor in Plasma and Cardiac Muscle of Rats with Chronic Cardiac Failure Induced by Volume Overload%基质金属蛋白酶及其抑制物在容量过负荷致慢性心力衰竭大鼠血浆及心肌组织中的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超英; 李晓惠; 伏瑾; 崔小岱

    2011-01-01

    after surgery. Meanwhile, MMP -8 and TIMP - 1 concentrations in plasma were evaluated. MMP -8 mRNA and TIMP - 1 mRNA expressions were detected by using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method in cardiac muscle. Results Left ventricular systolic pressure, difference of left ventricular pressure,left ventricular diastolic,left ventricular peak rate of contraction,left ventricular peak rate of relaxation were significantly reduced in the shunt group compared with those in control group( Pa < 0.05,0.01 ). Compared with control group, left ventricular end diastolic pressure were significantly increased in shunt group ( P < 0.05 ). Compared with control group, the plasma levels of MMP - 8 and TIMP - 1 mRNA increased significantly in shunt group ( Pa < 0.05 ). The expressions of MMP - 8 mRNA and TIMP - 1 mRNA in cardiac muscle were similar between the 2 groups ( Pa > 0.05 ).The ratio of MMP - 8/TIMP - 1 significantly decreased in shunt group as compared with that in control group, which was more significant in right ventricular than that in left ventricular. Conclusion MMP - 8 and TIMP - 1 are involved in ventricular remodeling in rats with chronic cardiac failure resulting from volume overload.

  20. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  1. The Early Aurignacian human remains from La Quina-Aval (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Christine; Dujardin, Véronique; Trinkaus, Erik

    2012-05-01

    There is a dearth of diagnostic human remains securely associated with the Early Aurignacian of western Europe, despite the presence of similarly aged early modern human remains from further east. One small and fragmentary sample of such remains consists of the two partial immature mandibles plus teeth from the Early Aurignacian of La Quina-Aval, Charente, France. The La Quina-Aval 4 mandible exhibits a prominent anterior symphyseal tuber symphyseos on a vertical symphysis and a narrow anterior dental arcade, both features of early modern humans. The dental remains from La Quina-Aval 1 to 4 (a dm(1), 2 dm(2), a P(4) and a P(4)) are unexceptional in size and present occlusal configurations that combine early modern human features with a few retained ancestral ones. Securely dated to ~33 ka (14)C BP (~38 ka cal BP), these remains serve to confirm the association of early modern humans with the Early Aurignacian in western Europe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From Biography to Osteobiography: An Example of Anthropological Historical Identification of the Remains of St. Paul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihanović, Frane; Jerković, Ivan; Kružić, Ivana; Anđelinović, Šimun; Janković, Stipan; Bašić, Željana

    2017-09-01

    In the identification process of historical figures, and especially in cases of Saint's bodies or mummified remains, any method that includes physical encroachment or sampling is often not allowed. In these cases, one of the few remaining possibilities is the application of nondestructive radiographical and anthropological methods. However, although there have been a few attempts of such analyses, no systematic standard methodology has been developed until now. In this study, we developed a methodological approach that was used to test the authenticity of the alleged body of Saint Paul the Confessor. Upon imaging the remains on MSCT and post-processing, the images were analyzed by an interdisciplinary team to explore the contents beneath the binding media (e.g., the remains) and to obtain osetobiographical data for comparison with historical biological data. Obtained results: ancestry, sex, age, occupation, and social status were consistent with historical data. Although the methodological approach proved to be appropriate in this case, due to the discrepancy in the amount of data, identity could not be fully confirmed. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that the remains do not belong to St. Paul was rejected, whilst positive identification receives support. Anat Rec, 300:1535-1546, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  4. A novel approach of remaining discharge energy prediction for large format lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-03-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack remaining discharge energy is a crucial challenge to the battery energy storage systems. In this paper, a new method of battery pack remaining discharge energy estimation is proposed using the recursive least square-unscented Kalman filter. To predict the remaining discharge energy precisely, the inconsistency of the battery pack caused by different working temperatures is taken into consideration and the degree of battery inconsistency is quantified based on mathematical methods of statistics. In addition, the recursive least square is applied to identify the parameters of the battery pack model on-line and the unscented Kalman filter is employed in battery pack remaining discharge energy and energy utilization ratio estimation. The experimental results in terms of battery states estimation under the new European driving cycle and real driven profiles, with the root mean square error less than 0.01, further verify that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack remaining discharge energy with high accuracy. What's more, the relationship between the pack energy utilization ratio and the degree of battery inconsistency is summarized in the paper.

  5. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  6. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  7. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  8. Comparison of actual tidal volume in neonatal lung model volume control ventilation using three ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, H; Endo, Y; Ejima, Y; Matsubara, M; Kurosawa, S

    2011-07-01

    In neonates, small changes in tidal volumes (V(T)) may lead to complications. Previous studies have shown a significant difference between ventilator-measured tidal volume and tidal volume delivered (actual V(T)). We evaluated the accuracy of three different ventilators to deliver small V(T) during volume-controlled ventilation. We tested Servo 300, 840 ventilator and Evita 4 Neoflow ventilators with lung models simulating normal and injured neonatal lung compliance models. Gas volume delivered from the ventilator into the test circuit (V(TV)) and actual V(T) to the test lung were measured using Ventrak respiration monitors at set V(T) (30 ml). The gas volume increase of the breathing circuit was then calculated. Tidal volumes of the SV300 and PB840 in both lung models were similar to the set V(T) and the actual tidal volumes in the injured model (20.7 ml and 19.8 ml, respectively) were significantly less than that in the normal model (27.4 ml and 23.4 ml). PB840 with circuit compliance compensation could not improve the actual V(T). V(TV) of the EV4N in the normal and the injured models (37.8 ml and 46.6 ml) were markedly increased compared with set V(T), and actual V(T) were similar to set V(T) in the normal and injured model (30.2 ml and 31.9 ml, respectively). EV4N measuring V(T) close to the lung could match actual V(T) to almost the same value as the set V(T) however the gas volume of the breathing circuit was increased. If an accurate value for the patient's actual V(T) is needed, this V(T) must be measured by a sensor located between the Y-piece and the tracheal tube.

  9. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate a...... resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated...

  10. Ethical Issues Surrounding the Use of Modern Human Remains for Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, N; Dempers, J J

    2017-02-01

    Chapter 8 of the South African National Health Act 61 of 2003 (NHA) that deals with the donation of human tissue was promulgated in 2012. The new Act is perceived to impose restrictions on low-risk research involving human remains. This study aimed to identify the issues raised by a research ethics committee (REC) when reviewing protocols where human remains are used as data source. REC minutes from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed, and issues raised by the committee were categorized. In total, 127 protocols submitted to the committee over 6 years involved human remains. Queries relating to science (22.2%) and administration (18.9%) were the most common, whereas queries relating to legal issues constituted only 10.2%. Ethical issues centered on informed consent regarding sensitive topics such as HIV, DNA, and deceased children. The change in legislation did not change the number or type of legal issues identified by the REC.

  11. Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Ivanov, P L; Kimpton, C; Piercy, R; Benson, N; Tully, G; Evett, I; Hagelberg, E; Sullivan, K

    1994-02-01

    Nine skeletons found in a shallow grave in Ekaterinburg, Russia, in July 1991, were tentatively identified by Russian forensic authorities as the remains of the last Tsar, Tsarina, three of their five children, the Royal Physician and three servants. We have performed DNA based sex testing and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and confirm that a family group was present in the grave. Analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA reveals an exact sequence match between the putative Tsarina and the three children with a living maternal relative. Amplified mtDNA extracted from the remains of the putative Tsar has been cloned to demonstrate heteroplasmy at a single base within the mtDNA control region. One of these sequences matches two living maternal relatives of the Tsar. We conclude that the DNA evidence supports the hypothesis that the remains are those of the Romanov family.

  12. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    of different anatomic elements of the wood, which binds the cells and may increase resistance to mechanical damage during processes as flotation. This may explain why vitrification was better represented in the roof samples processed by flotation, since water might have destroyed weaker wood charcoal remains....... In this work a comparison of the results obtained from water processing and hand-picking of wood charcoal remains at the Neolithic site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) is presented. The material comes from a burnt roof structure, where a total of 50 hand-picked wood samples and four flotation samples (120...... such as vitrification and those related to decay. The results showed large differences in the taxonomic and taphonomic composition of wood remains retrieved in situ and through flotation. While Amygdalus had same proportions in both assemblages, in those derived by flotation, there were greater proportions of Pistacia...

  13. Reduction of residual limb volume in people with transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey T. Tantua, MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The early postoperative phase after transtibial amputation is characterized by rapid residual limb volume reduction. Accurate measurement of residual limb volume is important for the timing of fitting a prosthesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the reduction of residual limb volume in people with transtibial amputation and to correlate residual limb volume with residual limb circumference. In a longitudinal cohort study of 21 people who had a transtibial amputation, residual limb volume was measured using a laser scanner and circumference was measured using a tape measure 1 wk postamputation and every 3 wk thereafter until 24 wk postamputation. A linear mixed model analysis was performed with weeks postamputation transformed according to the natural logarithm as predictor. Residual limb volume decreased significantly over time, with a large variation between patients. Residual limb volume did not correlate well with circumference. On average, residual limb volume decreased 200.5 mL (9.7% of the initial volume per natural logarithm of the weeks postamputation. The decrease in residual limb volume following a transtibial amputation was substantial in the early postamputation phase, followed by a leveling off. It was not possible to determine the specific moment at which the residual limb volume stabilized.

  14. Significance of oxygen transport through aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiazek, Janusz J.; Xu, Hao; Tan, Xiangfeng; Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Morte, Asunción

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast. Two of the most promising O2-transporters (Homo sapiens AQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum PIP1;3) were confirmed to facilitate O2 transport in the spectrophotometric assay using yeast protoplasts. The over-expression of NtPIP1;3 in yeasts significantly increased their O2 uptake rates in suspension culture. In N. tabacum roots subjected to hypoxic hydroponic conditions, the transcript levels of the O2-transporting aquaporin NtPIP1;3 significantly increased after the seven-day hypoxia treatment, which was accompanied by the increase of ATP levels in the apical root segments. Our results suggest that the functional significance of aquaporin-mediated O2 transport and the possibility of controlling the rate of transmembrane O2 transport should be further explored. PMID:28079178

  15. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  16. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... metabolism and increased an index of cerebral blood flow, but cerebral net water and ion homeostasis remained stable. Thus, although AMS develops within hours and may be related to exercise-induced disturbance of cerebral ion and water balance, such changes are not detectable when subjects are exposed...

  17. Some Phrygian Plant and Insect Remains from Kerkenes Dağ, Central Anatolia (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 1996 and 2000 seasons of excavation at Kerkenes Dağ, a large single‐period Phrygian mountain‐top city located in central Turkey, a small assemblage of archaeobotanical remains and an insect were recovered from two specific archaeological contexts dated to the 540s B.C. This report documents a well‐cleaned Triticum durum/aestivum grain cache retrieved from a baking area, along with hand‐picked remains of Cornus mas, Cerasus cf. avium, and a Brachycerus sp. weevil.

  18. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jarillo, M; Caravaca-Sánchez, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, C; Luna, A

    2016-10-01

    This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  19. Belief dispersion among household investors and stock trading volume

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of belief dispersion on stock trading volume. Unlike most of the existing work on the subject, our paper focuses on how household investors' disagreements on macroeconomic variables influence market-wide trading volume. We show that greater belief dispersion among household investors is associated with significantly higher trading volume, even after controlling for the disagreements among professional forecasters. Further, we find that the belief dispersion among househol...

  20. Function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II in volume load-induced diuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Andrea; Schinner, Elisabeth; Huettner, Johannes P; Kees, Frieder; Tauber, Philipp; Hofmann, Franz; Schlossmann, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/cGMPs cause diuresis and natriuresis. Their downstream effectors beyond cGMP remain unclear. To elucidate a probable function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII), we investigated renal parameters in different conditions (basal, salt diets, starving, water load) using a genetically modified mouse model (cGKII-KO), but did not detect any striking differences between WT and cGKII-KO. Thus, cGKII is proposed to play only a marginal role in the adjustment of renal concentration ability to varying salt loads without water restriction or starving conditions. When WT mice were subjected to a volume load (performed by application of a 10-mM glucose solution (3% of BW) via feeding needle), they exhibited a potent diuresis. In contrast, urine volume was decreased significantly in cGKII-KO. We showed that AQP2 plasma membrane (PM) abundance was reduced for about 50% in WT upon volume load, therefore, this might be a main cause for the enhanced diuresis. In contrast, cGKII-KO mice almost completely failed to decrease AQP2-PM distribution. This significant difference between both genotypes is not induced by an altered p-Ser256-AQP2 phosphorylation, as phosphorylation at this site decreases similarly in WT and KO. Furthermore, sodium excretion was lowered in cGKII-KO mice during volume load. In summary, cGKII is only involved to a minor extent in the regulation of basal renal concentration ability. By contrast, cGKII-KO mice are not able to handle an acute volume load. Our results suggest that membrane insertion of AQP2 is inhibited by cGMP/cGKII.