WorldWideScience

Sample records for volumes cover discussion

  1. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  2. 23 CFR 636.506 - What issues must be covered in discussions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What issues must be covered in discussions? 636.506 Section 636.506 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Discussions, Proposal Revisions and Source Selection §...

  3. Cover Image, Volume 113, Number 9, September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Juan M; Krämer, Christina E M; Ungerböck, Birgit; Mayr, Torsten; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Cover Legend The cover image, by Bernd Nidetzky et al., is based on the Article Development of a fully integrated falling film microreactor for gas-liquid-solid biotransformation with surface immobilized O2 -dependent enzyme, DOI: 10.1002/bit.25969. Support by the European Union (FP7 Marie Curie ITN project EUROMBR - European network for innovative microbioreactor applications in bioprocess development; Grant Agreement Number 608104) is acknowledged.

  4. Maximizing Volume Ratios for Shadow Covering by Tetrahedra

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Define a body A to be able to hide behind a body B if the orthogonal projection of B contains a translation of the corresponding orthogonal projection of A in every direction. In two dimensions, it is easy to observe that there exist two objects such that one can hide behind another and have a larger area than the other. It was recently shown that similar examples exist in higher dimensions as well. However, the highest possible volume ratio for such bodies is still undetermined. We investigated two three-dimensional examples, one involving a tetrahedron and a ball and the other involving a tetrahedron and an inverted tetrahedron. We calculate the highest volume ratio known up to this date, 1.16, which is generated by our second example.

  5. discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Poznyak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a version of Robust Stochastic Maximum Principle (RSMP applied to the Minimax Mayer Problem formulated for stochastic differential equations with the control-dependent diffusion term. The parametric families of first and second order adjoint stochastic processes are introduced to construct the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. The Hamiltonian function used for the construction of the robust optimal control is shown to be equal to the Lebesque integral over a parametric set of the standard stochastic Hamiltonians corresponding to a fixed value of the uncertain parameter. The paper deals with a cost function given at finite horizon and containing the mathematical expectation of a terminal term. A terminal condition, covered by a vector function, is also considered. The optimal control strategies, adapted for available information, for the wide class of uncertain systems given by an stochastic differential equation with unknown parameters from a given compact set, are constructed. This problem belongs to the class of minimax stochastic optimization problems. The proof is based on the recent results obtained for Minimax Mayer Problem with a finite uncertainty set [14,43-45] as well as on the variation results of [53] derived for Stochastic Maximum Principle for nonlinear stochastic systems under complete information. The corresponding discussion of the obtain results concludes this study.

  6. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  7. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume I: technical discussion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a reference document for use by the Air Resources Board, local air pollution control districts, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that describes technological options available for the control of emissions from stationary sources located in California. Control technologies were examined for 10 industry groups and six air pollutants. Volume I, Technical Discussion, includes an overall introduction to the project, descriptions of its major elements, background information for each industry group addressed, and the project bibliography. In Volume II, Control Technology Data Tables, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts, and application status are presented in tabular format. Also included is a code list that classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process and emission source.

  8. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  9. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1994-12-31

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass-covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. figs., tabs., refs.

  10. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume VII: Panel Discussion, Closing Address and Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    This seventh and concluding volume in a series containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference contains a panel discussion on policy making as well as the conference's closing address. Panel discussion members were Austin Asche, Peter Bailey, Jonathon Bradshaw, Marie Coleman, Lionel Murphy, David Scott, Pat Troy, and…

  11. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Volume phase holographic grating performance testing and discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shaojie; Wright, Shelley A; Moore, Anna M; Larkin, James E; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82{\\mu}m (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19- 1.37 {\\mu}m (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000....

  12. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 2. Appendix A: Resistance measurements. Appendix B: Lightning test data plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Resistance measurements are given in graphical for when a simulated lightning discharge strikes on an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was to measure the electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case.

  13. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  14. Orienting Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Sustainable Development: A Discussion Paper. UNESCO-UNEVOC Discussion Paper Series. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This discussion paper presents an overview of key concepts, trends and issues in the field of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for sustainable development. It examines interlinkages between the world of work and environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainable development, as well as ways in which TVET can be…

  15. Artificial heart development program. Volume II. System support. Phase III summary report. Period covered: July 1, 1973--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Appendix A covers major activities of the Artificial Heart Development program that supported the design, fabrication, and test of the system demonstration units. Section A.1.0 provides a listing beyond that of the body of the report on the components needed for an implantation. It also presents glove box sterilization calibration results and results of an extensive mock circulation calibration. Section A.2.0 provides detail procedures for assembly, preparing for use, and the use of the system and major components. Section A.3.0 covers the component research and development activities undertaken to improve components of the existing system units and to prepare for a future prototype system. Section A.4.0 provides a listing of the top assembly drawings of the major systems variations fabricated and tested.

  16. A Discussion on Land Cover Mapping%关于土地覆被遥感监测的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 吴炳方

    2011-01-01

    针对国内外土地覆被遥感监测中存在的突出问题展开讨论,分析土地覆被分类系统的目标适应性; 总结现有分类算法的特点及存在问题,分析小尺度和大尺度监测技术的差异性和效果; 研究不同尺度土地覆被监测所解决的应用问题及尺度空间变化下的分类效果; 分析现有监测体系的分类精度及产生误差的原因和解决方法.%This paper has dealt with some key problems existent in land cover mapping and analyzed objective adaptability of the classification system, which include the impacts of land cover definition uncertainty on classification effects, the features and adaptability of the classification algorithms, the gap and effects of fine and coarse scale monitoring techniques, the capability of land cover scaling for application, the scaling effects on classification, the procedures, problems and solutions of the classification system of land cover, the classification algorithm and its accuracy assessment, and the factors and solutions of accuracy and errors of the current monitoring systems.

  17. A Structural Weight Estimation Program (SWEEP) for Aircraft. Volume 6 - Wing and Empennage Module. Book 3: Technical Discussion, Section 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    TECHNI- CAL DISCUSSION, SECTION V G. Hayase Rockwell International Corporation Prepared for: Aeronautical Systems Division June 1974...coefficient for intermediate rib or spar. iö • ) i^uji variable DBLAT, bulkhead attachment coefficient. v misc7 blhd’ d__, variable DELFS , front...J5./2, center-section box width at side-of-body station, in. (Width) „y., center-sect ion box width at centerline, in. b1 /2, side-of-body station

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  1. Effects of Vegetation Cover and Rainfall Intensity on Sediment-Bound Nutrient Loss, Size Composition and Volume Fractal Dimension of Sediment Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guan-Hua; LIU Guo-Bin; WANG Guo-Liang; WANG Yu-Xia

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation and rainfall are two important factors affecting soil erosion and thus resulting in nutrient loss in the Chinese Loess Plateau.A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rainfall intensities (60,100 and 140 mm h-1) and vegetation (Caragana korshinskii) coverages (0%,30% and 80%) on soil loss,nutrient loss,and the composition and volume fractal dimension of eroded sediment particles under simulated rainfall conditions.The results showed that vegetation cover,rainfall intensity and their interaction all had significant effects on sediment transport and the sedimentbound nutrient loss.Higher rainfall intensity and lower coverage led to higher sediment and nutrient losses.Positive linear relationships were observed between soil loss and nutrient loss.The treatments showed more significant effects on the enrichment ratio (ER) of nitrogen (ERN) than organic matter (EROM) and phosphorus (ERP).Compared with the original surface soil,the eroded sediment contained more fine particles.Under the same coverage,the clay content significantly decreased with increasing rainfall intensity.The ER of sediment-bound nutrients was positively correlated with that of clay,suggesting that the clay fraction was preferentially eroded and soil nutrients were mainly adsorbed onto or contained within this fraction.There were increments in the fractal dimension of the sediment particles compared to that of the original surface soil.Moreover,the fractal dimension was positively correlated with clay,silt,and sediment-bound OM,N,and P contents,whereas it was negatively correlated with sand content.This study demonstrated that fractal dimension analysis can be used to characterize differences in particle-size distribution and nutrient loss associated with soil erosion.

  2. Utilizing a Multi-Source Forest Inventory Technique, MODIS Data and Landsat TM Images in the Production of Forest Cover and Volume Maps for the Terai Physiographic Zone in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on the nearest neighbors techniques is presented for producing thematic maps of forest cover (forest/non-forest and total stand volume for the Terai region in southern Nepal. To create the forest cover map, we used a combination of Landsat TM satellite data and visual interpretation data, i.e., a sample grid of visual interpretation plots for which we obtained the land use classification according to the FAO standard. These visual interpretation plots together with the field plots for volume mapping originate from an operative forest inventory project, i.e., the Forest Resource Assessment of Nepal (FRA Nepal project. The field plots were also used in checking the classification accuracy. MODIS satellite data were used as a reference in a local correction approach conducted for the relative calibration of Landsat TM images. This study applied a non-parametric k-nearest neighbor technique (k-NN to the forest cover and volume mapping. A tree height prediction approach based on a nonlinear, mixed-effects (NLME modeling procedure is presented in the Appendix. The MODIS image data performed well as reference data for the calibration approach applied to make the Landsat image mosaic. The agreement between the forest cover map and the field observed values of forest cover was substantial in Western Terai (KHAT 0.745 and strong in Eastern Terai (KHAT 0.825. The forest cover and volume maps that were estimated using the k-NN method and the inventory data from the FRA Nepal project are already appropriate and valuable data for research purposes and for the planning of forthcoming forest inventories. Adaptation of the methods and techniques was carried out using Open Source software tools.

  3. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  4. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre; Oeverglasning av stora byggnadsvolymer; En tvaervetenskaplig utvaerdering av ett koepcentrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1993-11-01

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass- covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. (author) figs., tabs., 101 refs

  5. COVER FIGURE in Nucleic Acids Research (Volume 39, Issue 9) entitled "The involvement of the nuclear-encoded human 2'-phosphodiesterase in mitochondrial RNA turnover"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave

    2011-01-01

    (English) Cover: The involvement of the nuclear-encoded human 2'-phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE) in mitochondrial RNA turnover. The 2'-PDE precursor (upper left corner) gets directed into the mitochondrial matrix by an N-terminal mitochondrial signaling peptide (blue). Inside the matrix, this signalin...

  6. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  7. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2000. It is described...

  8. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  9. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  10. Economic Analysis. Volume V. Course Segments 65-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    The fifth volume of the multimedia, individualized course in economic analysis produced for the United States Naval Academy covers segments 65-79 of the course. Included in the volume are discussions of monopoly markets, monopolistic competition, oligopoly markets, and the theory of factor demand and supply. Other segments of the course, the…

  11. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  12. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  13. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  14. General discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The general discussion focuses on some aspects that are of overarching relevance for all the preceding chapters. The fi rst subject that is discussed is the relationship between systems theory and the philosophy of science. After a short summary of the principles of system science and the

  15. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  16. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  17. 地铁车辆段带上盖接触网悬挂方案研究%Discussion on Suspension Mode of Catenary in Subway Car Depot with Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王财华

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: Beginning with the analyses of all kinds of suspension mode of catenary and according to the design value(h) of the head room of the track section, the design scheme of the catenary suspension in the subway car depot with cover is offered. This scheme mixes all kinds of the single design standard of conventional catenary together. This scheme not only can meet the requirements of reliability in safety and rationality in technology, but also it has features of the good usability in function, good looking and the more rationality in financial investment because of the optimization of the distribution of resources. This mode can provide the reference to the similar works. Research conclusions: When the design value H of the head room of the track section is equal to or less than 6.5 m,the rigid suspension mode of the catenary should be adopted. When the design value is more than 6.5 m and equal to or less than 8 m, the suspension mode of using ground column should be used along with the ceiling suspension. When the design value is more than 8 m, the suspension mode of the ground column and twist - arm post should be adopted.%研究目的:从架空接触网的各种悬挂分析入手,根据轨行区的净空高度设计值(H),提出适合车辆段带上盖条件下的接触网设计方案,这种方案融合常规接触网的各种单一设计标准,不仅在系统上满足安全可靠性、技术合理性的要求,而且功能适用性强、美观性好,并且因优化资源配置而使经济投资更加合理,这种新的模式可以为类似工程设计提供参考借鉴.研究结论:H≤6.5 m,采用刚性悬挂;6.5 m<H≤8 m,采用地面立杆与顶板悬挂相结合的方式;H>8m,采用地面立杆腕臂柱悬挂.

  18. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  19. Swept Volume Parameterization for Isogeometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, M.; Heinrich, C.; Jüttler, B.; Pilgerstorfer, E.; Simeon, B.; Vuong, A.-V.

    Isogeometric Analysis uses NURBS representations of the domain for performing numerical simulations. The first part of this paper presents a variational framework for generating NURBS parameterizations of swept volumes. The class of these volumes covers a number of interesting free-form shapes, such as blades of turbines and propellers, ship hulls or wings of airplanes. The second part of the paper reports the results of isogeometric analysis which were obtained with the help of the generated NURBS volume parameterizations. In particular we discuss the influence of the chosen parameterization and the incorporation of boundary conditions.

  20. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given

    1975-01-01

    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  1. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  2. Study of New Youth Initiatives in Apprenticeship. Interim Report. Volume 2: Site Visit Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This second volume of the interim report provides detailed case study reports on each of the eight Youth Apprenticeship Projects. (Volume 1, an overview of data from the site visits, is available separately as CE 032 791.) Discussion areas covered in each site visit report are local context/operational environment, administrative information,…

  3. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  4. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  5. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  6. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  7. Sub-optimal MCV Cover Based Method for Measuring Fractal Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolle, Charles Robert; McJunkin, Timothy R; Gorsich, D. I.

    2003-01-01

    A new method for calculating fractal dimension is developed in this paper. The method is based on the box dimension concept; however, it involves direct estimation of a suboptimal covering of the data set of interest. By finding a suboptimal cover, this method is better able to estimate the required number of covering elements for a given cover size than is the standard box counting algorithm. Moreover, any decrease in the error of the covering element count directly increases the accuracy of the fractal dimension estimation. In general, our method represents a mathematical dual to the standard box counting algorithm by not solving for the number of boxes used to cover a data set given the size of the box. Instead, the method chooses the number of covering elements and then proceeds to find the placement of smallest hyperellipsoids that fully covers the data set. This method involves a variant of the Fuzzy-C Means clustering algorithm, as well as the use of the Minimum Cluster Volume clustering algorithm. A variety of fractal dimension estimators using this suboptimal covering method are discussed. Finally, these methods are compared to the standard box counting algorithm and wavelet-decomposition methods for calculating fractal dimension by using one-dimensional cantor dust sets and a set of standard Brownian random fractal images.

  8. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  9. Space resources. Volume 3: Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckay, M.F.; Mckay, D.S.; Duke, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Space Resources addresses the issues of using space resources to support life on the Moon and for exploration of Mars. This volume - Materials - covers a number of technical and policy issues regarding the materials in space (mainly lunar and asteroidal) which can be used to support space operations. In part 1, nature and location of these materials, exploration strategy, evaluation criteria, and the technical means to collect or mine these materials is discussed. A baseline lunar mine and the basics of asteroid mining are presented and critiqued. In part 2, the beneficiation of ores and the extraction of such materials as oxygen, metals, and the makings of concrete are discussed. In part 3, the manufacturing and fabrication of nonterrestrial products are discussed. The economic tradeoffs between bringing needed products from Earth and making these products on location in space is considered. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report.

  10. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  11. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  12. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  13. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  14. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  15. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  16. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  17. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  18. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  19. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (16th, Durham, NH, August 6-11, 1992). Volumes I-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeslin, William, Ed.; Graham, Karen, Ed.

    The Proceedings of PME-XVI has been published in three volumes because of the large number of papers presented at the conference. Volume 1 contains: (1) brief reports from each of the 11 standing Working Groups on their respective roles in organizing PME-XVI; (2) brief reports from 6 Discussion Groups; and (3) 35 research reports covering authors…

  20. 适应新版GMP对药厂风量-压力控制的探讨%Discussion on the Control of Air Volume and Pressure in Pharmaceutical Factory to Meet the New GMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付永飞; 刘燕敏; 胡崔健

    2012-01-01

    In order to better meet the requirements of the new GMP for the pharmaceutical clean room construction and environmental control, a new Smart Venturi valve is used to control air volume and pressure in the pharmaceutical cleanroom. Through analyzing and comparing the air volumes and static pressure differences before and after the transformation of the system, the results show that the Smart Venturi valve can effectively ensure the requirements of air volume and pressure control in the cleanroom.%为了更好地满足我国新版GMP对药厂洁净室的建设与环境控制的要求,采用新型的智能文丘里阀来控制药厂洁净室的风量.压力参数。通过整改前后系统送风量和静压差的比较与分析,表明智能文丘里阀能行之有效地保证洁净室风量与压力的控制要求。

  1. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  2. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  3. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  4. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  5. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  6. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  7. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  8. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  10. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  11. Covering All Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  12. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  13. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  14. Orbifold groups, quasi-projectivity and covers

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Matei, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We discuss properties of complex algebraic orbifold groups, their characteristic varieties, and their abelian covers. In particular, we deal with the question of (quasi)-projectivity of orbifold groups. We also prove a structure theorem for the variety of characters of normal-crossing quasi-projective orbifold groups. Finally, we extend Sakuma's formula for the first Betti number of abelian covers of orbifold fundamental groups. Several examples are presented, including a compact orbifold group which is not projective and a Zariski pair of plane projective curves that can be told by considering an unbranched cover of the projective plane with an orbifold structure.

  15. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...... of this note to give the right definition and point out how this affects the statements in that paper. Moreover, we give an example of a dicovering in the sense of [1], which does not satisfy the extra condition. Fortunately, with the extra condition, the subsequent results are now correct. [1] L. Fajstrup......, Dicovering spaces, Homology Homotopy Appl. 5 (2003), no. 2, 1-17....

  16. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  17. Influence of snow-cover properties on avalanche dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkogler, W.; Sovilla, B.; Lehning, M.

    2012-04-01

    Snow avalanches with the potential of reaching traffic routes and settlements are a permanent winter threat for many mountain communities. Snow safety officers have to take the decision whether to close a road, a railway line or a ski slope. Those decisions are often very difficult as they demand the ability to interpret weather forecasts, to establish their implication for the stability and the structure of the snow cover and to evaluate the influence of the snow cover on avalanche run-out distances. In the operational programme 'Italy-Switzerland, project STRADA' we focus on the effects of snow cover on avalanche dynamics, and thus run-out distance, with the aim to provide a better understanding of this influence and to ultimately develop tools to support snow safety officers in their decision process. We selected five avalanches, measured at the Vallée de la Sionne field site, with similar initial mass and topography but different flow dynamics and run-out distances. Significant differences amongst the individual avalanches could be observed for front and internal velocities, impact pressures, flow regimes, deposition volumes and run-out distances. For each of these avalanches, the prevailing snow conditions at release were reconstructed using field data from local snowpits or were modeled with SNOWPACK. Combining flow dynamical data with snow cover properties shows that erodible snow depth, snow density and snow temperature in the snow pack along the avalanche track are among the decisive variables that appear to explain the observed differences. It is further discussed, how these influencing factors can be quantified and used for improved predictions of site and time specific avalanche hazard.

  18. Construction legislation and energy efficiency. A discussion on the covered open spaces for ventilation adopted by the Rio de Janeiro city building code, Brazil; Legislacao edilicia e eficiencia energetica. Uma discussao sobre os vaos de ventilacao adotados pelo codigo de obras do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Gustavo Carvalho; Barroso-Krause, Claudia [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Arquitetura]. E-mails: gparj@terra.com.br; bkrause@ufrj.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses, under the energetic efficiency viewpoint, the critical points of the Rio de Janeiro city construction legislation, by the time that decrees the directives for covered open spaces for ventilation in multi-familiar buildings. The paper also demonstrates where and how the building code influences the architectonic project to induce energy consumption not contributing for an efficient architecture.

  19. Commutator coverings of Siegel threefolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the existence and non-existence of modular forms of low weight with a character with respect to the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and discuss the resulting geometric consequences. Using an advanced version of Maa\\ss\\ lifting one can construct many examples of such modular forms and in particular examples of weight 3 cusp forms. Consequently we find many abelian coverings of low degree of the moduli space ${\\Cal A}_t$ of (1,t)-polarized abelian surfaces which are not unirational. We also determine the commutator subgroups of the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and its degree 2 extension $\\Gamma^+_t$. This has applications for the Picard group of the moduli stack ${\\underline{\\Cal A}}_t$. Finally we prove non-existence theorems for low weight modular forms. As one of our main results we obtain the theorem that the maximal abelian cover ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ of ${\\Cal A}_t$ has geometric genus 0 if and only if t=1, 2, 4 or 5. We also prove that ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ has geometric genus 1 for t=3 and 7.

  20. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  1. Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.

    2009-07-15

    Canadian corn products refiner, Casco Inc., recently upgraded a wastewater anaerobic digester at its automated corn wet milling facility on the St. Lawrence River, in Cardinal Ontario. The upgrade includes an improved floating and insulated geomembrane cover, designed and installed by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. The cover effectively streamlines biogas collection, improves biogas odour control and optimizes bioreactor heat retention. Casco's bulk volume fermenter (BVF) was designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems Inc. It is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day from several areas of the plant. Wastewater sludge is usually treated by anaerobic digestion. At Casco, raw solids are added directly to the BVF bioreactor, where they are digested, minimizing waste sludge handling. In essence, anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source which converts wastewater to a methane- and carbon dioxide-rich biogas suitable for energy production, replacing fossil fuels. The insulated geomembrane cover captures and reclaims all the biogas from the treatment process that is going on inside the tank. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. The new geomembrane cover collects an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day, at a 65 per cent methane concentration, from the BVF bioreactor. 2 figs.

  2. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  3. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  4. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume I. General discussion and Examination of the articles; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome I. Discussion generale et Examen des articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    This report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply is composed of three parts. The first part contains the following three sections: I. The electricity, a commodity as others?; II. The stride towards liberalization; III. France and the opening of electricity market. In turn, the first section addresses the following two subjects: A. The 'classic' approach or recognizing the peculiarity of electricity; B. The European approach or the trend of trivializing the electricity. The second section addresses the subjects titled: A. A long and severe bargaining; B. Directive 96/92/CE of 19 December 1996, a new step in achieving a domestic market of electricity; C. The stage of implementation throughout the member states. The third section presents the current juridical framework and the main problems stipulated in the draft of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. The second part of this report is devoted to the debates in the Commission of Production and Exchanges and contains the following three sections: I. Auditions; II. General discussion; III. The examination of the articles of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply.

  5. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  6. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  7. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  8. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1989). Volume 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenty, P. W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1989-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period January-March 1989, contains the first part of a two-part series of articles dealing with the OMEGA Upgrade. The two articles in this issue discuss the theoretical and laser design work performed to characterize the basic requirements for the upgrade. In addition, the advanced technology section contains articles discussing a new computer code developed to model x-ray refraction in line-focus geometry and experiments involving the use of time-resolved spectroscopy to diagnose high density in argon implosions. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  9. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  10. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  11. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  12. Space Constrained Dynamic Covering

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...

  13. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  14. Highlights of the Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M.; Gillespie, Ardyth H.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions and identified research priorities from a 1980 Workshop on Nutrition Education Research relating to areas of anthropology, communications, psychology, and social psychology. (DS)

  15. MOD-5A wind turbine generator program design report: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.

  16. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  17. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  18. Leading Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…

  19. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  20. The Use of Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Edmund deS.; And Others

    Research on the use of discussion in adult education has been largely concerned with comparing it with the use of other instructional techniques and with measuring opinion change. Many studies, such as Kurt Lewin's study of food habits, have compared the effectiveness of group discussion as contrasted with lecture in changing opinions and…

  1. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Gaillard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The major objectives of this paper are: (1 to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC developed during the last ten years, (2 to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites, to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3 to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4 to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need of REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is proved to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. Thus, the application of REVEALS opens up the possibility of achieving a more robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are

  2. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  3. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  4. PA Discussion Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    lower priority discussion ADD-TARDEC Network Centric Military Energy Control (NCMEC) Future discussion ADD-TARDEC M&S for Hybrid Electric Vehicles ...Approved for public release • OBJECTIVES: Reduce Thermal Burden on Vehicles Reduce Converter Operating Power • APPROACH: Develop compact...APU) that delivers 5 kWe (Threshold), 10 kWe (Objective) of vehicle electrical power demonstrated at TRL 5. • System designed to fit into an

  5. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  6. 脐正中襞覆盖内环口在腹腔镜治疗小儿斜疝效果的探讨%The discussion of pediatric inguinal hernia in the laparoscopic treatment with median umbilical fold covering internal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭雄; 易朝锋; 刘秀莲; 万展眉

    2014-01-01

    目的:脐正中襞覆盖内环口在腹腔镜治疗小儿斜疝的治疗效果。方法选取我院196例小儿斜疝为研究对象,随机分为A、B两组。其中A组给予传统开放手术,B组微型腹腔镜疝囊高扎及正中襞覆盖内环口术,随访18个月后对效果进行评价。结果 B组98例手术均顺利完成,手术时间7~13 min,双侧16~20 min,全部患儿术后6 h 进食,住院1~2d,术后无感染、阴囊水肿或血肿、睾丸缺血坏死及穿刺损伤等并发症发生,病例随访18个月,无复发,术后瘢痕极小;A组从手术时间、住院时间、并发症发生率、复发率伤口大小等均明显高于B组,经χ2检验,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论正中襞覆盖内环口在微型腹腔镜疝囊高扎治疗小儿斜疝可以降低小儿腹股沟手术的并发症及复发率,缩短恢复时间及住院时间,伤口美观等。值得推广。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of pediatric inguinal hernia in the laparoscopic treatment with median umbilical fold covering internal. Methods Our hospital 196 cases of pediatric inguinal hernia is selected for the study were randomly divided into A, B groups. A group given traditional open surgery, group B mini-laparoscopic hernia sac high bar and median fold coverage of the inner mouth surgery, to evaluate the effectiveness of fol ow-up after 18 months.Results 98 cases of group B patients were successful y, surgery time to 13 min,Bilateral 16 to 20 min, 6 h Al postoperatively eating, hospitalization for 1 to 2 days, with no postoperative infection, scrotal edema or hematoma, testicular ischemic necrosis and puncture injury complications, patients were fol owed up for 18 months, no recurrence, minimal scar; A group from the operative time, hospital stay, incidence of complications, recurrence rate of wound size were significantly higher than group B, by 2 test, P <0.05, the difference was statistical y significant

  7. LLE Review quarterly report, October--December 1992. Volume 53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhofer, D.D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period October--December 1992. On 18 December, the OMEGA Laser Facility fired its last shot. It will be decommissioned during the next quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade Laser Facility. This volume deals with two areas of interest for the OMEGA Upgrade, the development of advanced x-ray and neutron diagnostics and the development of long-pulse (>1-ns) laser sources. The first three articles discuss the development of time-dependent diagnostics. The development of an x-ray framing camera is described and measurements of the high-voltage pulse propagation in the camera are presented. Time-resolved and time-integrated neutron diagnostics for the OMEGA Upgrade are then discussed. Two schemes for the generation of >1-ns laser pulses are presented. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  8. Free radicals in biology. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    This volume covers topics ranging from radiation chemistry to biochemistry, biology, and medicine. This volume attempts to bridge the gap between chemical investigations and the medical applications and implications of free radical reactions. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the technique of radiation chemistry, the thermodynamics and kinetic factors that need be considered, the use of pulse radiolysis and flow techniques, and the application of these methods to free radicals of biological interest. Chapter 3 discusses the mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Chapter 4 reviews the morphological, histochemical, biochemical, and chemical nature of lipofuscin pigments. This chapter brings together the evidence that lipofuscin pigments arise from free radical pathology and that the formation of these pigments proves the presence of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Chapter 5 reviews the evidence for production of free (i.e., scavengeable) radicals from the reactions of selected enzymes with their substrates. Chapter 6 discusses one of the systems in which free radical damage is clearly important in vivo, both for man and animal, the damage caused to skin by sunlight. The evidence that free radical reactions can contribute to carcinogenesis dates from the earliest observations that ionizing radiation often produces higher incidences of tumors. A current working hypothesis is that chemical toxins cause damage to DNA and that the repair of this damge may incorporate viral genetic information into the host cell's chromosomes, producing cell transformation and cancer. The mechanism whereby chemical carcinogens become bound to DNA to produce point defects is discussed in Chapter 7.

  9. Discussion on the english translation of several Chinese medicines in the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume I%对《中国药典》(英文版)I 部中几个有关中药材名称英译问题的商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫舒瑶

    2013-01-01

    By pointing some translating problems of Chinese medicines in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China, Volume I from the perspectives of one medicinal with one English name, translation form, translation of medicinal parts and some technical errors, suggestions are made for further discussion with those sharing the same interests.%从一名一译、译文格式、入药部位翻译及技术性失误等方面对《中国药典》(英文版)I 部中出现的几个有关中药材名称英译的问题提出拙见,以期与同行商榷。

  10. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  11. Writing a Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sue; And Others

    A unit used in an Australian school to teach English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students how to write a discussion is described. The 3-week unit was planned and implemented jointly by an ESL resource teacher, class teacher, and teacher librarian. The class was divided into three heterogeneous groups, two of which were observed for this study and…

  12. Promoting Lively Literature Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritter, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    When students create personal connections with literature during whole-class discussion, they make sense both of text and of their life experiences. In this article, the author shares tips that help students make text-to-self, text-to-world, and text-to-text connections. She offers classroom examples to illustrate how conversations that encourage…

  13. Discussion of Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁和毓

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about environment issues was introduced. The influence of pollution on human beings as well as ecosystem was analyzed. And the management of environment protection and the roles that both the local government and central government should play were discussed. Finally, the legislation and supervision for environment protection were put forward.

  14. Reply to the discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRILLINGER David R

    2009-01-01

    @@ Alan Lee adds to the topic and work of the paper by providing highly insightful discussion and new results. I thank him. In particular he provides further reasons for working with the derived values, Win-Tie-Loss,rather that actual goal counts themselves.

  15. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  16. Dualities in Covering Rough Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Rough set theory is a technique of granular computing. In this paper, we study a type of generalized rough sets based on covering. There are several literatures[ 1,40-43 ] exploring covering-based rough sets. Our focus of this paper is on the dualities in rough operations.

  17. High plains cover crop research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  18. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  19. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  20. Earth-covered buildings and settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, F L [ed.

    1978-01-01

    Opening remarks were made by Wilbur T. Coyle, Program Manager in the Buildings and Community Systems Division, Department of Energy, wherein he discussed briefly DOE's plans for innovative shelter for energy conservation as well as the role of his Division. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 26 presentations in this volume; all abstracts will appear in both Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  1. Summaries of group discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  2. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  3. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  4. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  5. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  6. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  7. Re-Discussion on Lenin's Materialist Dialectics --studying Selections of Lenin Essays Volume of Philosophy%列宁唯物辩证法思想再探——解读《列宁专题文集》哲学卷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欣

    2011-01-01

    Selections of Lenin Essays Volume of Philosophy shows us how he attached importance to Materialist Dialectics and how he put them into practice . Lenin spoke highly of the importance of Materialist Dialectics and its solid position in the theory. He revised the concept of dialectics seven times, defined its contents to cover the main structure of unity of opposites, the principles of putting dialectics, epistemology and logic as a whole, as well as the practical epistemology that combines objective and subjective epistemology. Additionally, Lenin concentrated on the utilization of the materialist dialectics, clarified the specific principles of analysis and made a distinction of epistemology and relativism.%《列宁专题文集》哲学卷集中体现了列宁对唯物辨证法的重视、阐发和运用。列宁高度评价辩证法的重要性和决定性理论地位;对辩证法的概念先后进行了七次界定;阐发了唯物辩证法的具体内容,包括以对立统一为核心的主体结构,辩证法、认识论、逻辑学三者同一的原则,作为客观辩证法和主观辩证法统一之基础的实践辩证法。在此基础上,列宁着眼于唯物辩证法的实际运用,明确了具体问题具体分析的原则要求,以及辩证法与相对主义、折中主义诡辩论的本质区分。

  8. LLE review. Quarterly report, April 1997--June 1997. Volume 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1997, includes an article discussing the results from recent experiments performed on OMEGA. These experiments used a new beam-smoothing device-distributed polarization rotators-in concert with existing techniques to improve the on-target uniformity of each beam. The result of this improved radiation uniformity was a substantive reduction in imprinting-the nonuniformity caused by the laser. A novel way to study the time dependence of this imprinting is also presented in this article.

  9. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1996). Volume 67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeldon, Mark D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April-June 1996, contains articles detailing several nonlinear processes associated with lasers and their use, as well as an article describing the computer control systems necessary to maintain and operate a large laser system such as the 60-beam OMEGA laser. The specific topics discussed in this issue include stimulated scattering in laser plasmas, power exchange between interacting laser beams, charged particles interacting with a laser pulse, thermal equilibration of optically excited states, an overview of the laser control system software in OMEGA, and a technique for cancellation of the nonlinear phase accumulation in short-pulse lasers.

  10. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  11. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of hepatic B virus(HBV)infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the innate/adaptive immune system.As an important lectin complement pathway activator,human ficolin-2 is secreted from liver cells and contributes to the clearance of viral infections and lysis of enveloped virions,which has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule.In this issue,a research group lead by Drs.XiaoLian Zhang and Fengling Luo,investigated the serum and liver tissue ficolin-2

  12. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>This issue of Virologica Sinica is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of "filterable lytic factor" or "bacteriophage"(1915-2015).During the past 100 years,both basic knowledge and applications of bacteriophages have been substantially explored and developed.In recent years,bacteriophage research is booming and holding the hope

  13. Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Frontiers of Biogeography, Editorial Office

    2017-01-01

    Frontiers of Biogeography new logo. This logo feeds on the theme created for the new IBS corporate image, and represents four overlapping hypervolumes in the form of a butterfly’s wings, flying over four niche response curves in the form of hills, mountains and the sea (see Dawson et al. in this issue for details).

  14. Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Soybean growth habit is an important agronomic trait,and related genes have been cloned recently,while the variation of the major gene and how this gene was selected during the soybean breeding in China remain unknown.In the diverse soybean germplasm,it is hard to distinguish the determinate from the semi‐determinate phenotype.The development of functional Indel and CAPS markers from the Gm Tfl1 gene of the Dt1 locus makes it possible to evaluate genotype of the germplasm.The different allele

  15. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection remains a major global health problem because current therapies rarely eliminate the replicative template of HBV,which is the covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA).As an accurate and efficient genome editing tool,clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat(CRISPR)-associated(Cas)9 system represents a very promising potential

  16. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  17. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  18. Medical Physics Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèye, Paul; Avery, Steven; Baird, Richard; Soares, Christopher; Amols, Howard; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Drew

    2006-03-01

    The panel discussion will explore opportunities and vistas in medical physics research and practice, medical imaging, teaching medical physics to undergraduates, and medical physics curricula as a recruiting tool for physics departments. Panel members consist of representatives from NSBP (Paul Guèye and Steven Avery), NIH/NIBIB (Richard Baird), NIST (Christopher Soares), AAPM (Howard Amols), ASTRO (Prabhakar Tripuraneni), and Jefferson Lab (Stan Majewski and Drew Weisenberger). Medical Physicists are part of Departments of Radiation Oncology at hospitals and medical centers. The field of medical physics includes radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. It also ranges from basic researcher (at college institutions, industries, and laboratories) to applications in clinical environments.

  19. Conclusion et discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Romain; Wachtel, Nathan; Berger, Laurent; Levi, Giovanni; Boucheron, Patrick; Calvo, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    M. Romain BERTRANDNous voilà désormais rendus au terme probablement très provisoire concernant les débats et les discussions des travaux de Nathan WACHTEL lors de cette rencontre. Il nous reste une trentaine de minutes pour engager le débat avec les participants de la dernière séance et, le cas échéant, faire valoir des remarques générales sur telle ou telle session. Je souhaiterais inviter Nathan WACHTEL à initier cet échange s’il le souhaite. M. Nathan WACHTELComme je l’expliquais à Romain,...

  20. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  1. Good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable

    CERN Document Server

    Tancer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A good cover in R^d is a collection of open contractible sets in R^d such that the intersection of any subcollection is either contractible or empty. Motivated by an analogy with convex sets, intersection patterns of good covers were studied intensively. Our main result is that intersection patterns of good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable. More precisely, the intersection pattern of a good cover can be stored in a simplicial complex called nerve which records which subfamilies of the good cover intersect. A simplicial complex is topologically d-representable if it is isomorphic to the nerve of a good cover in R^d. We prove that it is algorithmically undecidable whether a given simplicial complex is topologically d-representable for any fixed d \\geq 5. As an auxiliary result we prove that if a simplicial complex is PL embeddable into R^d, then it is topologically d-representable. We also supply this result with showing that if a "sufficiently fine" subdivision of a k-dimensional complex is d-represen...

  2. Advances in heat transfer volume 21

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett †, James P; Cho, Young I

    1991-01-01

    This volume in a series on heat transfer covers the modelling of the dynamics of turbulent transport processes, supercritical pressures, hydrodynamics, mass transfer near rotating surfaces, lost heat in entropy and the mechanics of heat transfer in a multifluid bubbling pool. Other related titles are "Advances in Heat Transfer", volumes 18, 19 and 20.

  3. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  4. DISCUSSING NURSING DIAGNOSIS APPLIED BY NURSING STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. H. Cavalcante; Botelho, M.L.; P. P. Cavalcanti; F. M. P. Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Aimed to identify and discuss nursing diagnosis present in 50 Case Studies developed by students of graduation nursing of Federal University of Mato Grosso - Campus of Sinop, in a unit of clinical medical. Documentary research that addressed quantitatively the nursing diagnosis proposed using the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I (2009-2011). It was documented 82 different diagnosis, and covered all the 13 domains. The involvement of all the domains and the large variability of diagnoses identified sug...

  5. A review on soil cover in Waste and contaminant containment: design, monitoring, and modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng PENG; Huilian JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Soil cover is a widely-used but relatively new method for solid waste containment. Standard while site-specific procedures for cover design, monitoring, and evluation are needed to insure reliable cover performance. This paper presents a review of soil cover types, design principles and procedures, cover monitoring, and long-term performance modeling. Cover types and cover design are introduced with the general concepts and discussed on their specific applicabilities in different circumstances. Detailed discussion is given on unsaturated flow system properties and their field measurements, including meth-ods, apparatuses/equipments and their advantages and disadvantages. Several unsaturated flow simulators are discussed and compared with regards to their simulation capacities for critical parameters closely related to soil cover performance such as runoff, infiltration and evaporation. Finally, research subjects are suggested for future work for better soil cover monitoring and modeling.

  6. Covering Numbers for Convex Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Guntuboyina, Adityanand

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the covering numbers of the space of convex and uniformly bounded functions in multi-dimension. We find optimal upper and lower bounds for the $\\epsilon$-covering number of $\\C([a, b]^d, B)$, in the $L_p$-metric, $1 \\le p 0$, and $\\C([a,b]^d, B)$ denotes the set of all convex functions on $[a, b]^d$ that are uniformly bounded by $B$. We summarize previously known results on covering numbers for convex functions and also provide alternate proofs of some known results. Our results have direct implications in the study of rates of convergence of empirical minimization procedures as well as optimal convergence rates in the numerous convexity constrained function estimation problems.

  7. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  8. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  9. Vibrations on Cu surfaces covered with Ni monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Rusina, G. G.; Chulkov, E. V.

    1999-08-01

    Vibrational modes on the Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces covered with a Ni monolayer have been calculated using the embedded-atom method. A detailed discussion of the dispersion relations and polarizations of adsorbate modes and surface phonons is presented. The dispersion of the Rayleigh phonon is in good agreement with the experimental EELS data. The changes in interatomic force constants are discussed.

  10. LLE review. Volume 65. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehly, T.R. [ed.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1995, contains a description of the generation and characterization of continuous, deep-surface-relief phase plates that are more efficient and versatile than previous designs. The LLE program plan has scheduled a number of enhancements to OMEGA`s performance and uniformity, the first of which is the implementation of these new distributed phase plates. Other articles in this volume include the discussion of an x-ray diagnostic method to measure shell-fuel mixing, the theoretical analysis of ablation-front stability, a description of a major subsystem in the OMEGA control system software, a study of the population inversions in intensely pumped Nd:YLF, and a description of a new ultrafast laser system and its uses.

  11. Kummer covers and braid monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to reconstruct the braid monodromy of the preimage of a curve by a Kummer cover. This method is interesting, since it combines two techniques, namely, the reconstruction of a highly non-generic braid monodromy with a systematic method to go from a non-generic to a generic braid monodromy. This "generification" method is independent from Kummer covers and can be applied in more general circumstances since non generic braid monodromies appear more naturally and are oftentimes much easier to compute. Explicit examples are computed using these techniques.

  12. Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 1. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The central receiver system consists of a field of heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage unit, an electrical power generation system, and balance of plant. This volume discusses the collector field geometry, requirements and configuration. The development of the collector system and subsystems are discussed and the selection rationale outlined. System safety and availability are covered. Finally, the plans for collector portion of the central receiver system are reviewed.

  13. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  14. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  15. The potential of cover crops for improving soil function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoate, Chris; Crotty, Felicity

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops can be grown over the autumn and winter ensuring green cover throughout the year. They have been described as improving soil structure, reducing soil erosion and potentially even a form of grass weed control. These crops retain nutrients within the plant, potentially making them available for future crops, as well as increasing soil organic matter. Over the last three years, we have investigated how different cover crop regimes affect soil quality. Three separate experiments over each autumn/winter period have investigated how different cover crops affect soil biology, physics and chemistry, with each experiment building on the previous one. There have been significant effects of cover crops on soil structure, as well as significantly lower weed biomass and increased yields in the following crop - in comparison to bare stubble. For example, the effect of drilling the cover crops on soil structure in comparison to a bare stubble control that had not been driven on by machinery was quantified, and over the winter period the soil structure of the cover crop treatments changed, with compaction reduced in the cover crop treatments, whilst the bare stubble control remained unchanged. Weeds were found in significantly lower biomass in the cover crop mixes in comparison to the bare stubble control, and significantly lower weed biomass continued to be found in the following spring oat crop where the cover crops had been, indicating a weed suppressive effect that has a continued legacy in the following crop. The following spring oats have shown similar results in the last two years, with higher yields in the previous cover crop areas compared to the bare stubble controls. Overall, these results are indicating that cover crops have the potential to provide improvements to soil quality, reduce weeds and improve yields. We discuss the economic implications.

  16. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  17. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    di Matematica pura ed applicata, CLX:303–320, 1991. [3] H. Attouch and R. J-B Wets. A convergence theory for saddle functions. Transactions of the...P. L. Bartlett, J. Shawe-Taylor, and R. C. Williamson. Covering numbers for support vector machines. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(1

  18. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  19. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  20. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  1. Variability of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R; Cunningham, G F

    2015-07-13

    We present our estimates of the thickness and volume of the Arctic Ocean ice cover from CryoSat-2 data acquired between October 2010 and May 2014. Average ice thickness and draft differences are within 0.16 m of measurements from other sources (moorings, submarine, electromagnetic sensors, IceBridge). The choice of parameters that affect the conversion of ice freeboard to thickness is discussed. Estimates between 2011 and 2013 suggest moderate decreases in volume followed by a notable increase of more than 2500 km(3) (or 0.34 m of thickness over the basin) in 2014, which could be attributed to not only a cooler summer in 2013 but also to large-scale ice convergence just west of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago due to wind-driven onshore drift. Variability of volume and thickness in the multiyear ice zone underscores the importance of dynamics in maintaining the thickness of the Arctic ice cover. Volume estimates are compared with those from ICESat as well as the trends in ice thickness derived from submarine ice draft between 1980 and 2004. The combined ICESat and CryoSat-2 record yields reduced trends in volume loss compared with the 5 year ICESat record, which was weighted by the record-setting ice extent after the summer of 2007.

  2. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  3. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  4. Radon attenuation handbook for uranium mill tailings cover design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    This handbook has been prepared to facilitate the design of earthen covers to control radon emission from uranium mill tailings. Radon emissions from bare and covered uranium mill tailings can be estimated from equations based on diffusion theory. Basic equations are presented for calculating surface radon fluxes from covered tailings, or alternately, the cover thicknesses required to satisfy a given radon flux criterion. Also described is a computer code, RAECOM, for calculating cover thicknesses and surface fluxes. Methods are also described for measuring diffusion coefficients for radon, or for estimating them from empirical correlations. Since long-term soil moisture content is a critical parameter in determining the value of the diffusion coefficient, methods are given for estimating the long-term moisture contents of soils. The effects of cover defects or advection are also discussed and guidelines are given for determining if they are significant. For most practical cases, advection and cover defect effects on radon flux can be neglected. Several examples are given to demonstrate cover design calculations, and an extensive list of references is included. 63 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  6. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  7. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  8. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  9. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  10. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  11. EXACT ALGORITHM FOR BIN COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new arc flow model for the one-dimensional bin covering problem and an algorithm to solve the problem exactly through a branch-and-bound procedure and the technique of column generation. The subproblems occuring in the procedure of branch-and-bound have the same structure and therefore can be solved by the same algorithm. In order to solve effectively the subproblems which are generally large scale, a column generation algorithm is employed. Many rules found in this paper can improve the performance of the methods.

  12. Green's conjecture for general covers

    CERN Document Server

    Aprodu, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We establish Green's syzygy conjecture for classes of covers of curves of higher Clifford dimension. These curves have an infinite number of minimal pencils, in particular they do not verify a well-known Brill-Noether theoretic sufficient condition that implies Green's conjecture. Secondly, we study syzygies of curves with a fixed point free involution and prove that sections of Nikulin surfaces of minimal Picard number 9, verify the classical Green Conjecture but fail the Prym-Green Conjecture on syzygies of Prym-canonical curves. This provides an explicit locus in the moduli space R_g where Green's Conjecture is known to hold.

  13. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume IV. Model documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M L; Allen, B J; Gale, J E; Lutz, M S; O& #x27; Hara, N E; Wood, R K

    1979-02-01

    This volume is the fourth in a series of seven documenting the PIES Integrating Model. It contains detailed descriptions of the basic assumptions behind each of the components of PIES and how they interact with one another. Chapter II of this volume presents the methodology used to integrate supply and demand. It includes a discussion of both the interface between the Demand Model and the equilibrating mechanism and the various supply models via the equilibrating algorithm used by PIES. Chapters III through IX describe each supply submodel in turn: coal, oil, and natural gas supply, utilities, refineries, advanced technologies, and transportation. Code and data documentation are covered elsewhere in this series (Volumes V and VI respectively). PIES is an evolving system. As this document was being prepared, many parts of the model were being modified. This document describes the PIES Integrating Model as of January 1, 1978.

  14. A new patch antenna with metamaterial cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; YAN Chun-sheng; LIN Qing-chun

    2006-01-01

    A metamaterial was introduced into the cover of a patch antenna and its band structure was analyzed. The metamaterial cover with correct selection of the working frequency increases by 9.14 dB the patch antenna's directivity. The mechanism of metamaterial cover is completely different from that of a photonic bandgap cover. The mechanism of the metamaterial cover,the number of the cover's layers, and the distance between the layers, were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the metamaterial cover, which works like a lens, could effectively improve the patch antenna's directivity. The physical reasons for the improvement are also given.

  15. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: joan.serraj@upf.edu

    2009-09-15

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  16. Gargoyles are Grrrreat! Cover Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project in which ninth grade students sculpt gargoyles as part of a Gothic unit. Discusses the construction of the gargoyles from the initial sketches to sculpting methods and effects to finishes. Offers tips on what to avoid. (CMK)

  17. DISCUSSING NURSING DIAGNOSIS APPLIED BY NURSING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. H. Cavalcante

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to identify and discuss nursing diagnosis present in 50 Case Studies developed by students of graduation nursing of Federal University of Mato Grosso - Campus of Sinop, in a unit of clinical medical. Documentary research that addressed quantitatively the nursing diagnosis proposed using the Taxonomy II of NANDA-I (2009-2011. It was documented 82 different diagnosis, and covered all the 13 domains. The involvement of all the domains and the large variability of diagnoses identified suggested a possible holistic view of patient care and emphasized the individuality of the care plan. However, it may indicate an immaturity of these students, because often different diagnosis are related, and interventions set to one of these can solve the other, so opting for one avoids large health plans. Researchers and professors should conduct investigations and discussions to be identified teaching methods best suited to the teaching of the diagnostic process.

  18. Impacts of Land Cover Changes on Climate over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Frauenfeld, O. W.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover changes can influence regional climate through modifying the surface energy balance and water fluxes, and can also affect climate at large scales via changes in atmospheric general circulation. With rapid population growth and economic development, China has experienced significant land cover changes, such as deforestation, grassland degradation, and farmland expansion. In this study, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is used to investigate the climate impacts of anthropogenic land cover changes over China. To isolate the climatic effects of land cover change, we focus on the CAM and CLM models, with prescribed climatological sea surface temperature and sea ice cover. Two experiments were performed, one with current vegetation and the other with potential vegetation. Current vegetation conditions were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations, and potential vegetation over China was obtained from Ramankutty and Foley's global potential vegetation dataset. Impacts of land cover changes on surface air temperature and precipitation are assessed based on the difference of the two experiments. Results suggest that land cover changes have a cold-season cooling effect in a large region of China, but a warming effect in summer. These temperature changes can be reconciled with albedo forcing and evapotranspiration. Moreover, impacts on atmospheric circulation and the Asian Monsoon is also discussed.

  19. MODIS land cover uncertainty in regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Messina, Joseph P.; Moore, Nathan J.; Fan, Peilei; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2017-02-01

    MODIS land cover datasets are used extensively across the climate modeling community, but inherent uncertainties and associated propagating impacts are rarely discussed. This paper modeled uncertainties embedded within the annual MODIS Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1) products and propagated these uncertainties through the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). First, land cover uncertainties were modeled using pixel-based trajectory analyses from a time series of MCD12Q1 for Urumqi, China. Second, alternative land cover maps were produced based on these categorical uncertainties and passed into RAMS. Finally, simulations from RAMS were analyzed temporally and spatially to reveal impacts. Our study found that MCD12Q1 struggles to discriminate between grasslands and croplands or grasslands and barren in this study area. Such categorical uncertainties have significant impacts on regional climate model outputs. All climate variables examined demonstrated impact across the various regions, with latent heat flux affected most with a magnitude of 4.32 W/m2 in domain average. Impacted areas were spatially connected to locations of greater land cover uncertainty. Both biophysical characteristics and soil moisture settings in regard to land cover types contribute to the variations among simulations. These results indicate that formal land cover uncertainty analysis should be included in MCD12Q1-fed climate modeling as a routine procedure.

  20. On the Fractality of Complex Networks: Covering Problem, Algorithms and Ahlfors Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qin; Xi, Lifeng; Chen, Jin; Wang, Songjing; Bao, Liulu; Yu, Zhouyu; Zhao, Luming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the fractality of complex network by investigating three dimensions with respect to minimum box-covering, minimum ball-covering and average volume of balls. The first two dimensions are calculated through the minimum box-covering problem and minimum ball-covering problem. For minimum ball-covering problem, we prove its NP-completeness and propose several heuristic algorithms on its feasible solution, and we also compare the performance of these algorithms. For the third dimension, we introduce the random ball-volume algorithm. We introduce the notion of Ahlfors regularity of networks and prove that above three dimensions are the same if networks are Ahlfors regular. We also provide a class of networks satisfying Ahlfors regularity. PMID:28128289

  1. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  2. Nearshore Berm Discussion Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    straight lines through the sample* *Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater BUILDING STRONG® Definitions • Traditional Placement...drift algae that covers 10 to 100 percent of a substrate* * http://myfwc.com BUILDING STRONG® Definition of Placement Operations Hopper or Split...National Audubon Society, Inc. BUILDING STRONG® Potential Environmental Impacts Nearshore Hardbottom  Support diverse assemblages of algae

  3. A Discussion with Jacques Derrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Jacques

    1990-01-01

    Presents an edited transcript of a discussion held in April 1989 between Jacques Derrida and a group of students and professors concerning Derrida's "Afterword: Toward an Ethic of Discussion." Discusses Derrida's views on "deconstruction" as a term and a movement, the idea of arguments and persuasion, and specific power…

  4. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

  5. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The LWR spent fuels discussed in Volume 1 of this report comprise about 99% of all domestic non-reprocessed spent fuel. In this report we discuss other types of spent fuels which, although small in relative quantity, consist of a number of diverse types, sizes, and compositions. Many of these fuels are candidates for repository disposal. Some non-LWR spent fuels are currently reprocessed or are scheduled for reprocessing in DOE facilities at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It appears likely that the reprocessing of fuels that have been reprocessed in the past will continue and that the resulting high-level wastes will become part of defense HLW. However, it is not entirely clear in some cases whether a given fuel will be reprocessed, especially in cases where pretreatment may be needed before reprocessing, or where the enrichment is not high enough to make reprocessing attractive. Some fuels may be canistered, while others may require special means of disposal. The major categories covered in this chapter include HTGR spent fuel from the Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom-1 reactors, research and test reactor fuels, and miscellaneous fuels, and wastes generated from the decommissioning of facilities.

  6. How Selected High School Newspapers Covered the Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jane W.; Maronn, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the many ways in which high school newspapers covered the Persian Gulf War, ranging from a serious analysis to satire in the form of a Cliff Notes summary. Compares two editorials from "The Little Hawk" (Iowa City, Iowa), one supporting the war and the other against. (PA)

  7. mkt607 all week discussions latest 2015 [ all 16 discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    mkt607 all week discussions latest 2015 [ all 16 discussions] Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/mkt607-all-week-discussions/   week 1   What are the components of a common marketing plan? Why is it important have a strategic marketing plan? How does the type of product or service affect the marketing strategy? Provide an example.       diss 2 What are the aspects of marketing management? How has the marketing management proc...

  8. The covering number of $M_{24}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Epstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A  finite cover $\\mathcal{C}$ of a group $G$ is a finite collection of proper subgroups of $G$ such that $G$ is equal to the union of all of the members of $\\mathcal{C}$. Such a cover is called {\\em minimal} if it has the smallest cardinality among all finite covers of $G$. The  covering number of $G$, denoted by $\\sigma(G$, is the number of subgroups in a minimal cover of $G$. In this paper the covering number of the Mathieu group $M_{24}$ is shown to be 3336.

  9. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  10. Conversational Markers of Constructive Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Niculae, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    Group discussions are essential for organizing every aspect of modern life, from faculty meetings to senate debates, from grant review panels to papal conclaves. While costly in terms of time and organization effort, group discussions are commonly seen as a way of reaching better decisions compared to solutions that do not require coordination between the individuals (e.g. voting)---through discussion, the sum becomes greater than the parts. However, this assumption is not irrefutable: anecdotal evidence of wasteful discussions abounds, and in our own experiments we find that over 30% of discussions are unproductive. We propose a framework for analyzing conversational dynamics in order to determine whether a given task-oriented discussion is worth having or not. We exploit conversational patterns reflecting the flow of ideas and the balance between the participants, as well as their linguistic choices. We apply this framework to conversations naturally occurring in an online collaborative world exploration ga...

  11. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  12. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  13. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  14. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  15. A Citizen's Guide to Evapotranspiration Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide explains Evapotranspiration Covers which are Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are a type of cap placed over contaminated material, such as soil, landfill waste, or mining tailings, to prevent water from reaching it.

  16. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  17. Thermodestruction of components of anticorrosion polymer cover

    OpenAIRE

    Тихомирова, Татьяна Сергеевна

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the processes of thermodestruction of multilayer polymer cover, which is widely used to protect the external surface of steel pipelines. The main purpose of the work is to prove the possibility of combination of various polymer components in one cover preserving the thermostability of the cover. The behavior of the separate modified components of the cover at high temperatures was analyzed using the differential-thermal analysis and the derivative thermogravimetry...

  18. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  19. Volume inside old black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  20. Estimating mean plant cover from different types of cover data: a coherent statistical framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damgaard, C

    2014-01-01

    Plant cover is measured by different methods and it is important to be able to estimate mean cover and to compare estimates of plant cover across different sampling methods in a coherent statistical framework...

  1. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  2. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  3. National land-cover pattern data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; James E. Vogelmann; K. Bruce Jones

    2000-01-01

    Land cover and its spatial patterns are key ingredients in ecological studies that consider large regions and the impacts of human activities. Because humanity is a principal driver of land-cover change over large regions (Turner et al. 1990), land-cover data provide direct measures of human activity, and both direct and indirect measures of ecological conditions...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an outer...

  5. Acquiring Knowledge from Asynchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yiong Hwee; Webster, Len

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a study which was designed to explore how online scaffolding can be incorporated to support knowledge acquisition in asynchronous discussion. A group of Singapore preservice teachers engaged in collaborative critiquing of videos before they embarked on their video projects to illustrate what constitutes good and bad video…

  6. Corn Growth as Affected by Plastic Cover Under Drip Irrigation Condition in the Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXUE-FENG; U.SHANI

    1994-01-01

    Plastic cover,as a method to minimize soil water evaporation and improve water use efficiency,was used for corn during the whole growing period in a desert area.Field Studies were conducted to determine the effect of plastic covering nmanagement on corn growth and rooting pattern and its relationship with changes in climate.Four treatments.0) bared soil without cover,1) covering one side of the crop,2) covering both sides of the crop,and 3) covering the surface totally,were established on a sandy loam soil.Results showed that treatment 0 was significantly different from others and revealed that plastic covering was not always good to corn growht.Improper usage of plastic cover might weaken root development and thereafter lower the total yield of the crop.Suitable practices cvombining different methods discussed could not only improve water use efficiency but also increase the crop yield.

  7. Geometric covering arguments and ergodic theorems for free groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to the proof of ergodic theorems for actions of free groups based on geometric covering and asymptotic invariance arguments. Our approach can be viewed as a direct generalization of the classical geometric covering and asymptotic invariance arguments used in the ergodic theory of amenable groups. We use this approach to generalize the existing maximal and pointwise ergodic theorems for free group actions to a large class of geometric averages which were not accessible by previous techniques. Some applications of our approach to other groups and other problems in ergodic theory are also briefly discussed.

  8. Octree-based Volume Sculpting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A volume sculpting system is presented. The system provides tools for interactive editing of a voxel raster that is stored in an octree data structure. Two different modes of sculpting are supported: Sculpting by adding and subtracting solids, and sculpting with tools that are based on a spray ca...... metaphor. The possibility of extending the method to support multiresolution sculpting is discussed....

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  10. Discussion on geobiology,biogeology and geobiofacies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN HongFu; XIE ShuCheng; QING JianZhong; YAN JiaXin; LUO GenMing

    2008-01-01

    Here we first discuss the definition of and the difference between geobiology and biogeology following a brief introduction of recent geobiology research in China.Geobiology is defined as an interdisciplinary study of life sciences and earth sciences,and biogeology as an interdisciplinary study of biology and geology.Scope of the term geobiology covers that of the term biogeology.Branch interdisciplines of both are listed.We then propose the term geobiofacies,defined as the facies of a geologic body embodying the whole process of interaction between organisms and environments.Differences among geobiofacies,biofacies,and organic facies are discussed.Main parameters defining a geobiofacies include habitat type,biotic composition and productivity,paleo-oxygenation regimes,and early diagenesis phases.Each of them is discussed in detail,and a semi-quantitative assessment of the biogeofacies of source rocks is proposed based on these parameters.A two-fold terminology for geobiofacies is recommended,namely,the biological and environmental aspects of biota and the redox conditions during life-burial-diagenesis process.

  11. Discussion on geobiology, biogeology and geobiofacies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Here we first discuss the definition of and the difference between geobiology and biogeology following a brief introduction of recent geobiology research in China. Geobiology is defined as an interdisciplinary study of life sciences and earth sciences, and biogeology as an interdisciplinary study of biology and geology. Scope of the term geobiology covers that of the term biogeology. Branch interdisciplines of both are listed. We then propose the term geobiofacies, defined as the facies of a geologic body embodying the whole process of interaction between organisms and environments. Differences among geobiofacies, biofacies, and organic facies are discussed. Main parameters defining a geobiofacies include habitat type, biotic composition and productivity, paleo-oxygenation regimes, and early diagenesis phases. Each of them is discussed in detail, and a semi-quantitative assessment of the biogeofacies of source rocks is proposed based on these parameters. A two-fold terminology for geobiofacies is recommended, namely, the biological and environmental aspects of biota and the redox conditions during life-burial-diagenesis process

  12. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  13. Investigation of daily covering material for biocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

    2014-02-01

    Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir b

  14. Speech Understanding Systems. Volume 5. Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    modeling, parsing, pattern recognition, phonetic labeling, phonetic segmentation, phonological rules, phonology , pragmatic grammar, pragmatics...extraction, acoustic- phonetic analysis of the signal, phonological expansion of the lexicon, lexical matching and retrieval, syntactic analysis and...used by the assistant. Because acoustic, phonetic or phonological knowledge have been covered elsewhere (Volumes 1-3), we will be focusing on so-called

  15. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  16. Discussing and managing hematologic germ line variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, Wendy; Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-11-24

    With the introduction of genomic technologies, more hereditary cancer syndromes with hematologic malignancies are being described. Up to 10% of hematologic malignancies in children and adults may be the result of an underlying inherited genetic risk. Managing these patients with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including familial leukemia, remains a clinical challenge because there is little information about these relatively rare disorders. This article covers some of the issues related to the diagnosis and interpretation of variants associated with hereditary hematologic malignancies, including the importance of an accurate family history in interpreting genetic variants associated with disease. The challenges of screening other family members and offering the most appropriate early malignancy detection is also discussed. We now have a good opportunity to better define hereditary cancer syndromes with associated hematologic malignancies and contribute to clinically effective guidelines.

  17. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  18. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  19. Changes of snow cover in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2017-02-01

    The present paper examines variability of characteristics of snow cover (snow cover depth, number of days with snow cover and dates of beginning and end of snow cover) in Poland. The study makes use of a set of 43 long time series of observation records from the stations in Poland, from 1952 to 2013. To describe temporal changes in snow cover characteristics, the intervals of 1952-1990 and of 1991-2013 are compared and trends in analysed data are sought (e.g., using the Mann-Kendall test). Observed behaviour of time series of snow-related variables is complex and not easy to interpret, for instance because of the location of the research area in the zone of transitional moderate climate, where strong variability of climate events is one of the main attributes. A statistical link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the snow cover depth, as well as the number of snow cover days is found.

  20. Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    July–August 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 17 From the Guest Editor Describing the Elephant Framing a Discussion on Command and Control Col Henry...DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Describing the Elephant: Framing a Discussion on...path ahead for better understanding and op- erational performance in this complex core function. To move down this path requires a common frame of

  1. Three particles in a finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Polejaeva, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Within the non-relativistic potential scattering theory, we derive a generalized version of the L\\"uscher formula, which includes three-particle inelastic channels. Faddeev equations in a finite volume are discussed in detail. It is proved that, even in the presence of the three-particle intermediate states, the discrete spectrum in a finite box is determined by the infinite-volume elements of the scattering S-matrix up to corrections, exponentially suppressed at large volumes.

  2. Group discussion improves lie detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadav Klein; Nicholas Epley

    2015-01-01

    ... identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions...

  3. Discussion of "interpretation and play".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Irma Brenman

    2011-01-01

    This discussion addresses the conflict in technique between play versus interpretation. It further considers how the nature of the interpretation may be affected by a consideration of what is being projected into the analyst.

  4. Discussion-Induced Attitude Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that the average of group members' responses following group discussion will generally be more extreme in the same direction as the average of individual pregroup preferences. (Author/MLF)

  5. Panel Discussion on Libraries and Best Practices in Fair Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathemacher, Andree J.

    2012-01-01

    This report covers a panel discussion on the Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries, published in January 2012 by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). The panel was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on March 23, 2012, and was hosted by the MIT Libraries. Panelists were Patricia…

  6. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage......, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume increase (RVI), which is mediated primarily by Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransport, and Na(+) channels. Here, we review in detail the current knowledge regarding the molecular identity of these transport pathways...... and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...

  7. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  8. On the correlation between cosmic ray intensity and cloud cover

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D; Kudela, K; Sloan, T; Wolfendale, A W

    2009-01-01

    Various aspects of the connection between cloud cover (CC) and cosmic rays (CR) are analysed. Many features of this connection indicate that there is no direct causal connection between low cloud cover (LCC) and CR in spite of the evident long-term correlation between them. However, most of these features are indirect. If only some part of the LCC is connected and varies with CR, then its value, obtained from the joint analysis of their 11-year variations, and averaged over the globe, should be most likely less than 20%. The most significant argument against a causal connection of CR and LCC is the anticorrelation between LCC and the medium cloud cover (MCC). The scenario of the parallel influence of the solar activity on the global temperature and CC on one side and CR on the other, which can lead to the observed correlations, is discussed and advocated.

  9. Extracting excited mesons from the finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As quark masses come closer to their physical values in lattice simulations, finite volume effects dominate the level spectrum. Methods to extract excited mesons from the finite volume are discussed, like moving frames in the presence of coupled channels. Effective field theory can be used to stabilize the determination of the resonance spectrum.

  10. Physiological functions of plant cell coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-08-01

    The cell coverings of plants have two important functions in plant life. Plant cell coverings are deeply involved in the regulation of the life cycle of plants: each stage of the life cycle, such as germination, vegetative growth, reproductive growth, and senescence, is strongly influenced by the nature of the cell coverings. Also, the apoplast, which consists of the cell coverings, is the field where plant cells first encounter the outer environment, and so becomes the major site of plant responses to the environment. In the regulation of each stage of the life cycle and the response to each environmental signal, some specific constituents of the cell coverings, such as xyloglucans in dicotyledons and 1,3,1,4-beta-glucans in Gramineae, act as the key component. The physiological functions of plant cell coverings are sustained by the metabolic turnover of these components. The components of the cell coverings are supplied from the symplast, but then they are modified or degraded in the apoplast. Thus, the metabolism of the cell coverings is regulated through the cross-talk between the symplast and the apoplast. The understanding of physiological functions of plant cell coverings will be greatly advanced by the use of genomic approaches. At the same time, we need to introduce nanobiological techniques for clarifying the minute changes in the cell coverings that occur in a small part within each cell.

  11. Speed-Discussion: Engaging Students in Class Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sarah; Noack, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Communication Criticism, Rhetorical Criticism, Family and Communication, Gender and Communication, Popular Communication, and theory-based courses. Objectives: This activity engages students in dynamic, supportive, social discussion groups; helps them to identify and review the central ideas from the reading; and creates a record of their…

  12. The Development of a National System of Vocational Qualifications: A Discussion Paper. UNESCO-UNEVOC Discussion Paper Series. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inform readers about the development of national qualifications systems and to provide guidance for countries aiming to set up or reform their systems. The paper is written in the context of vocational qualifications--that is, qualifications that are designed to prepare people for work or to assess their performance in…

  13. Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

  14. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  15. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  16. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  17. Disgust discussed: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2013-03-01

    The author introduces a special section of Psychological Bulletin devoted to the study of disgust. After discussing conflicts between its supposed role as a basic emotion and its more recently understood involvement in responding to moral transgressions, the author summarizes 3 articles contained in the special section. Widen and Russell (2013) present a developmental account of disgust highlighting the ages at which children experience, express, understand, verbalize, and recognize disgust. The article shows that disgust is present early but that recognition of disgust in others is considerably delayed. Chapman and Anderson (2013) review evidence pertaining to the question of whether genuine disgust is elicited by moral transgressions. Their review covers data from self-report, brain imaging, facial behavior, and implicit measures gathered from both experimental and correlational studies. They conclude that moral transgressions elicit genuine disgust. Russell and Giner-Sorolla (2013) ask what types of moral transgressions are most likely to elicit pure disgust. They find that moral transgressions involving body violations are more likely than others to elicit such disgust. Moreover, they suggest that disgust elicited by body violations is likely to be more resistant to modification by context, situation, and efforts at rationalization. Taken together, the reviews support the view that rudiments of disgust to physical objects are present early in life but later become adapted to social influence and new moral purposes. Social implications are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  18. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  19. Clique Cover Width and Clique Sum

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    For a clique cover $C$ in the undirected graph $G$, the clique cover graph of $C$ is the graph obtained by contracting the vertices of each clique in $C$ into a single vertex. The clique cover width of G, denoted by $CCW(G)$, is the minimum value of the bandwidth of all clique cover graphs of $G$. When $G$ is the clique sum of $G_1$ and $G_2$, we prove that $CCW(G) \\le 3/2(CCW(G_1) + CCW(G_2))$.

  20. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  1. Mathematical Induction: A Pedagogical Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of mathematical induction and what constitutes a correct proof by this method and common misconceptions of induction with recommendations for their remediation. The topic is also analyzed into behavioral skills and subjected to a conceptual analysis. Criteria for analyzing and evaluating textbook treatment of induction are…

  2. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective ped

  3. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on others to…

  4. Five Discussions on Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, E. R., Ed.

    Topics discussed are: (1) student aid and access to postsecondary education (Jack L. Woodward); (2) values in athletics (Grant Dungee); (3) some considerations in planning for postsecondary education (Paul G. Orr); (4) the open university as a challenge for postsecondary education in Mississippi (Cleopatra D. Thompson); and (5) comprehensive…

  5. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  6. Detailed requirements document for the Interactive Financial Management System (IFMS), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The detailed requirements for phase 1 (online fund control, subauthorization accounting, and accounts receivable functional capabilities) of the Interactive Financial Management System (IFMS) are described. This includes information on the following: systems requirements, performance requirements, test requirements, and production implementation. Most of the work is centered on systems requirements, and includes discussions on the following processes: resources authority, allotment, primary work authorization, reimbursable order acceptance, purchase request, obligation, cost accrual, cost distribution, disbursement, subauthorization performance, travel, accounts receivable, payroll, property, edit table maintenance, end-of-year, backup input. Other subjects covered include: external systems interfaces, general inquiries, general report requirements, communication requirements, and miscellaneous. Subjects covered under performance requirements include: response time, processing volumes, system reliability, and accuracy. Under test requirements come test data sources, general test approach, and acceptance criteria. Under production implementation come data base establishment, operational stages, and operational requirements.

  7. Volume-effect and radiotherapy [2]. Part 2: volume-effect and normal tissue; Effet volume en radiotherapie [2]. Deuxieme partie: volume et tolerance des tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Atlan, D. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    The first part of our work has focused on the relationship bet men tumor Volume and tumor control. Indeed, it is well known that the importance of irradiated volume could be a main parameter of radiation-induced complications. Numerous mathematical models have described the correlation between the irradiated volume and the risk of adverse effects. These models should predict the complication rate of each treatment planning. At the present time late effects have been the most studied. In this report we firstly propose a review of different mathematical models described for volume effect. Secondly, we will discuss whether these theoretical considerations can influence our view of radiation treatment planning optimization. (authors)

  8. Perennial snow and ice volumes on Iliamna Volcano, Alaska, estimated with ice radar and volume modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, Dennis C.

    1999-01-01

    The volume of four of the largest glaciers on Iliamna Volcano was estimated using the volume model developed for evaluating glacier volumes on Redoubt Volcano. The volume model is controlled by simulated valley cross sections that are constructed by fitting third-order polynomials to the shape of the valley walls exposed above the glacier surface. Critical cross sections were field checked by sounding with ice-penetrating radar during July 1998. The estimated volumes of perennial snow and glacier ice for Tuxedni, Lateral, Red, and Umbrella Glaciers are 8.6, 0.85, 4.7, and 0.60 cubic kilometers respectively. The estimated volume of snow and ice on the upper 1,000 meters of the volcano is about 1 cubic kilometer. The volume estimates are thought to have errors of no more than ?25 percent. The volumes estimated for the four largest glaciers are more than three times the total volume of snow and ice on Mount Rainier and about 82 times the total volume of snow and ice that was on Mount St. Helens before its May 18, 1980 eruption. Volcanoes mantled by substantial snow and ice covers have produced the largest and most catastrophic lahars and floods. Therefore, it is prudent to expect that, during an eruptive episode, flooding and lahars threaten all of the drainages heading on Iliamna Volcano. On the other hand, debris avalanches can happen any time. Fortunately, their influence is generally limited to the area within a few kilometers of the summit.

  9. Digital Elevation Model Creation Using SfM on High-Altitude Snow-Covered Surfaces at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, J. D.; Hawley, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SfM) provides a means through which a digital elevation model (DEM) can be constructed with data acquired at a relatively low cost when compared to other current alternatives. Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), a large area can be efficiently covered at high spatial resolution to quantify regional topography. Structure from Motion applied to photogrammetric techniques from a UAV has proven to be a successful tool, but challenges to UAV-based SfM include high-altitude locations with few distinctive surface features and minor textural differences. In June 2015, we piloted a small UAV (Quest) in order to conduct a topographical survey of Summit Camp, Greenland using SfM. Summit Camp sits at a surface elevation of 3200 meters above sea level, and occupies a snow-covered surface. The flat, very uniform terrain proved to be a challenge when flying the UAV and processing imagery using SfM techniques. In this presentation we discuss the issues both with operating a UAV instrument platform at high-altitude in the polar regions and interpreting the resulting DEM from a snow-covered region. The final DEM of Summit Camp covers a large portion of the surface area directly impacted by camp activities. In particular, volume calculations of drifting snow gauge an estimate of the equipment hours that will be required to clear and unearth structures. Investigation of surface roughness at multiple length scales can similarly provide insight on the accuracy of the DEM when observing texturally uniform surfaces.

  10. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  11. Mapping urban land cover from space: Some observations for future progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, L.

    1982-01-01

    The multilevel classification system adopted by the USGS for operational mapping of land use and land cover at levels 1 and 2 is discussed and the successes and failures of mapping land cover from LANDSAT digital data are reviewed. Techniques used for image interpretation and their relationships to sensor parameters are examined. The requirements for mapping levels 2 and 3 classes are considered.

  12. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  13. Ash and sludge covering of mine waste - Final report. Benefits and/or risks using ash and sludge for covering of weathered mine waste; Aska och roetslam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall - Slutrapport. Foerdelar och/eller risker med att anvaenda aska och slam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Karlsson, Ulrika [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2006-02-15

    One of the main sources for metal pollution in Sweden is mine waste. One way to decrease the leaching of metals from mine waste areas are covering which decreases the volume of acid drainage. There is a shortage of appropriate materials to use for covering and excavation of till and clay from the environment might cause damages on the landscape. Previous studies have demonstrated that sludge and ashes are suitable materials for covering of waste deposits. When covering mine waste with ash and sludge various positive effects would arise, since the production of drainage water decreases as well as the pH increases due to the high buffer capacity of the ash. In Ervalla outside Oerebro an area with mine waste (tailings) has been covered with ash and sludge. This area gives a unique possibility to study benefits and/or risks with the covering of mine waste with ash and sludge. Unfortunately, the covering was not, from the start, carried out in a way that made it possible to evaluate the data. For instance, data about the surface and groundwater quality prior to the covering is lacking. Sulphidic minerals are also very common in the area, giving rise to acidic groundwater from other parts of the area, which haven't been remediated. This report is a final report where all phases are presented (phase 1 and 2). Focus in phase 1 has been on characterization of the material that has been used for covering and initiation of a monitoring program. In phase 2 focus has been on evaluation of monitoring data and the pros and cons of the deposit regarding the environment. Preliminary findings indicate that that the covering increases the leaching of some metals whereas the leaching of some metals decreases. An increase was observed for pH, calcium, potassium, sodium, arsenic, barium, chromium and copper. A decrease in the concentration of iron, nickel, cobalt, lead and zinc was observed. Other benefits with the remediation is also discussed (increased plant growth and an area

  14. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  15. Discussion boards: boring no more!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Deborah S; Nogueras, Debra J

    2013-01-01

    Creating discussion boards (DBs) that capture student imaginations and contain meaningful interactions can be a difficult process. Traditional DBs use a question-and-answer format that often is boring for both the student and instructor. The authors present creative approaches to DBs that result in lively debates and student-to-student and student-to-faculty interactions, including role playing, blogging, wikis, and the use of voice.

  16. What Were the Deputies Discussing?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the last five years, since the Seventh Chinese Women’s National Congress, the women’s movement of China has developed vigorously. For the purposes of moving the women’s cause into the next century, the Eighth Chinese Women’s National Congress recently convened in Beijing to hold wideranging discussions on women’s issues. More than one thousand deputies came from different nationalities and social

  17. Discussions on Hypnosis and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    A classic paper in intellect and argument, this article contains a transcript of a conversation between Jay Haley, John Weakland, and Milton Erickson as they discuss the role of communication in hypnosis and schizophrenia. In 1955, schizophrenia was considered primarily a psychological disorder. Whereas today schizophrenia is mostly considered a biological disorder, this very early, unpublished paper still gives much food for thought and a further glimpse into Haley and Erickson's thinking and intellect at a fervent time in schizophrenia research.

  18. 170 years of debris covered glacier surface evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölg, Nico; Bolch, Tobias; Vieli, Andreas; Bauder, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The local effect of debris layer thickness on ice melt can be studied considering short time periods and is quite well known to date. How the reduced melt, the additional weight of the debris, and the formation of ice cliffs and lakes are linked with the flow behaviour of the glacier is less well understood and much longer time periods are required for such investigations, typically in the order of the response time of the respective glacier, if possible even longer. For this reason we selected to study Zmuttgletscher in the Western Swiss Alps, which today is a heavily debris covered valley glacier. We produced a time series of glacier area, debris cover and surface elevation changes on the basis of 14 old maps and aerial images, 11 orthoimages and additional terrestrial photographs starting at the end of the little ice age (LIA) in 1859. During these 170 years the glacier lost a volume of 52.9*106 m3 (mean thickness change of -89 m) at its tongue while its debris covered area increased from about 14 to 20%. Several periods of variable retreat rates can be discerned and spatially varying change patterns become visible. Commonly the glacier has been retreating, but we can discern locally different elevation change, and also stable to positive periods in the 1980s become visible on different dynamical section of the glacier. Surface features that are commonly linked to debris cover and ice flow have emerged after the end of the LIA. For example, supraglacial thermokarst features become visible in 1880 and are widespread in the lower area of the glacier tongue in 1946. Considering big ice cliffs that are typically related to a realtively high, steep elevation difference and a large surface area, their number has increased somewhat from zero in 1859 to about 15 today. However, its the small ice cliffs, lakes and surface water channels that have emerged and also contribute to stronger melt through either exposed clean ice or ice in contact with water. Elevation

  19. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Rentz

    2005-01-01

    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  20. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  1. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  2. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  3. Well-covered graphs and factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    2006-01-01

    A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has a perf...

  4. 29 CFR 1904.31 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered employees. 1904.31 Section 1904.31 Labor... Requirements § 1904.31 Covered employees. (a) Basic requirement. You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the recordable injuries and illnesses of all employees on your payroll, whether they are labor, executive,...

  5. 14 CFR 120.215 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered employees. 120.215 Section 120.215... Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.215 Covered employees. (a) Each employee, including any... accordance with this subpart. This includes full-time, part-time, temporary, and intermittent...

  6. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  7. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  8. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  9. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity......We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...

  10. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dawn Evans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue that decisions to un/cover (after a disability disclosure has already been made play a pivotal role for this group in developing a strong, positive disability identity and making that identity legible to others. Decisions to pass, cover, or un/cover are ongoing decisions that stitch together the fabric of each person's daily life experiences, thus serving as primary mechanisms for identity negotiation and management.

  11. Volume-effect in radiation therapy part one: volume-effect and tumour; L'effet volume en radiotherapie premiere partie: effet volume et tumeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Wu, J. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou (AP-HP), Service de Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Caudry, M.; Trouette, R.; Vendrely, V.; Causse, N.; Recaldini, L.; Dahan, O.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2003-04-01

    Volume is an important parameter of radiation therapy. Local control is inversely related to tumor size and the complication rate increases with the importance of the irradiated volume. Although the effect of irradiated volume has been widely reported since the beginning of radiotherapy, it has been less studied than other radiation parameters such as dose, fractionation, or treatment duration. One of the first organ system in which the adverse effect of increased volume was well defined is the skin. Over the last twenty years, numerous mathematical models have been developed for different organs. In this report we will discuss the relation between irradiated volume and tumor control. In a second article we will study the impact of irradiated volume on radiation adverse effects. (authors)

  12. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  13. Central Asian Snow Cover Characteristics between 1986 and 2012 derived from Time Series of Medium Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The eminent importance of snow cover for climatic, hydrologic, anthropogenic, and economic reasons has been widely discussed in scientific literature. Up to 50% of the Northern Hemisphere is covered by snow at least temporarily, turning snow to the most prevalent land cover types at all. Depending on regular precipitation and temperatures below freezing point it is obvious that a changing climate effects snow cover characteristics fundamentally. Such changes can have severe impacts on local, ...

  14. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  15. Some discussions on Arctic vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hai; Sun Lantao; Wu Huiding; Li Xiang

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic vortex is a persistent large-scale cyclonic circulation in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. Its activity and variation control the semi-permanent active centers of Pan-Arctic and the short-time cyclone activity in the subarctic areas. Its strength variation, which directly relates to the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem of the Arctic, can affect the lower atmospheric circulation, the weather of subarctic area and even the weather of middle latitude areas. The 2003 Chinese Second Arctic Research Expedition experienced the transition of the stratosphereic circulation from a warm anticyclone to a cold cyclone during the ending period of Arctic summertime, a typical establishing process of the polar vortex circulation. The impact of the polar vortex variation on the low-level circulation has been investigated by some scientists through studying the coupling mechanisms of the stratosphere and troposphere. The impact of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SFW) events on the polar vortex variation was drawing people's great attention in the fifties of the last century. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) , relating to the variation of the Arctic vortex, has been used to study the impact of the Arctic vortex on climate change. The recent Arctic vortex studies are simply reviewed and some discussions on the Arctic vertex are given in the paper. Some different views and questions are also discussed.

  16. Homoeopathy: Discussion on scientific validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lex Rutten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are diverging opinions about scientific evidence for Homoeopathy, but evidence for conventional medicine is not perfect either. In fact, proof for Homoeopathy is not inferior to conventional. However, the evidence for Homoeopathy has been downplayed by selection of trials (cherry-picking. The effect of Homoeopathy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs, however, is small due to many ineffective prescriptions. This is caused by shortcomings of our Materia Medica and Repertories. Discussion: The hegemony of the RCT is increasingly questioned; it does not provide all answers, especially not for the individual patient. The individual patient wants to know his individual prognosis: Will this medicine work for him? This is even more important than his individual diagnosis. It is possible to assess prognosis scientifically the same way as diagnosis. Prognostic research is based on daily practice; practitioners should have knowledge about statistics to fulfill their role in this process. Conclusion: The discussion in this paper elucidates that RCT has its limitations, especially for the patient whose main concern is recovery/prognosis. Drug validation is a key to improve the outcome of clinical practice in Homoeopathy.

  17. Himalayan glacier retreat delayed by debris cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherler, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Variable retreat rates and paucity of mass-balance data complicate a coherent picture of the current state and future fate of Himalayan glaciers. We report frontal changes and remotely-sensed surface velocities from >250 glaciers in the greater Himalayan realm (Hindu Kush, Karakoram, Himalaya, West Kunlun Shan) between 2000 and 2008 that provide evidence for widespread meltdown, which is obscured by debris cover. While debris-free glaciers in Tibet and other low-relief areas have been mainly retreating, debris-covered glaciers in high-relief areas, such as the central Himalaya, were mostly stagnating and in-situ down wasting but not retreating. Only Karakoram glaciers show no signs of stagnation or appreciable retreat, despite high debris cover, suggesting no recent mass loss. Our study shows that regional differences in topographic relief account for substantial differences in debris cover and thus retreat behaviour that need to be considered when comparing glacier retreat rates. The combination of melt rates lowered by debris cover and healthier glaciers in the strongly glaciated Karakoram slows down current glacier wastage in High Asia. Predictions of future water availability and global sea level have so far neglected the effect of debris cover on glacier melt rates and thus likely overestimate the speed of glacier meltdown in the Himalaya and other steep mountain ranges where debris covered glaciers are common.

  18. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H; Arneth, Almut; Baranzelli, Claudia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Brown, Calum; Butler, Adam; Calvin, Katherine; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Doelman, Jonathan C; Dunford, Robert; Engström, Kerstin; Eitelberg, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harrison, Paula A; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Holzhauer, Sascha; Humpenöder, Florian; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Lavalle, Carlo; Lenton, Tim; Liu, Jiayi; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Powell, Tom; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Stehfest, Elke; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; Wise, Marshall A; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-02-01

    Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Volume 7, Issue 1 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Creagh; John Clarke; Karen Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to Volume 7 of Student Success.  This editorial has two parts: The first part maintains the “doing things differently” tradition, making readers aware by chronicling the publishing of the journal in an open access (OA) forum.  Future editorials will briefly discuss other aspects and issues pertaining to the new scholarly publishing landscape that this journal adheres to, such as:  Creative Commons Licencing; ORCID IDs; considerations of new peer review models and importantly; measurin...

  20. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  1. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  2. Dicycle Cover of Hamiltonian Oriented Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Alsatami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dicycle cover of a digraph D is a family F of dicycles of D such that each arc of D lies in at least one dicycle in F. We investigate the problem of determining the upper bounds for the minimum number of dicycles which cover all arcs in a strong digraph. Best possible upper bounds of dicycle covers are obtained in a number of classes of digraphs including strong tournaments, Hamiltonian oriented graphs, Hamiltonian oriented complete bipartite graphs, and families of possibly non-Hamiltonian digraphs obtained from these digraphs via a sequence of 2-sum operations.

  3. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  4. Making the Grade? Globalisation and the Training Market in Australia. Volume 1 [and] Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard; Buchanan, John; Bretherton, Tanya; van Barneveld, Kristin; Pickersgill, Richard

    This two-volume document reports on a study of globalization and Australia's training market. Volume 1 begins by examining debate on globalization and industry training in Australia. Discussed next is the study methodology, which involved field studies of the metals and engineering industry in South West Sydney and the Hunter and the information…

  5. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

    companies in the corridor, attracting innovative international companies, and supporting the creation of new knowledge intensive businesses is thus at the core of the strategy. New areas of collaboration will have to be identified systematically. Cooperation among COINCO businesses have...... The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on common cultural, social and environmental values. The strategy comprises of a vision and more detailed aims and actions within three different areas: Corridor infrastructure, Innovation and Cooperation. In this way, the COINCO partners want to establish a political platform for transborder collaboration...

  6. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  7. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  8. Archival description: a conceptual discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Paula Vital

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contextualizes the activity of archival description in the processes of organization and representation of information. Objective: Features aimed at identifying the concept of archival description presented in scientific articles of Information Science. Methodology: It is a literature that employs techniques of content analysis. 9 examines scientific articles recovered Base Reference Data Journal Articles in Information Science (BRAPCI and International Basis Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA, that meet the criteria. Results: Considers the concept of archival description in the literature of information science considered a form of representation of information through a process of analyzing, organizing and recording information. Information is represented by structure elements (support and means of access and elements of content and context. Conclusions: Highlights the paucity of studies that present a theoretical discussion about the theme and possible approaches to the areas of organization and representation of information.

  9. Nuclear materials 1993 annual report. Volume 8, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Note that the subtitle of No. 2 has been changed from ``Nonreactors`` to ``Nuclear Materials.`` Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993.

  10. Reading and Teaching the Novel, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Roslyn M., Ed.

    This volume on reading and teaching the novel contains six articles: "Close Reading: The Novel in the Senior School" by S. E. Lee discusses the advantages of rereading and analytical reading in high school; "Teaching 'The Great Gatsby'" by David Mallick discusses the difficulties of teaching this novel and provides a lesson plan; "The Operation of…

  11. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  12. 45 CFR 152.19 - Covered benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offered by a PCIP shall not cover the following services: (1) Cosmetic surgery or other treatment for cosmetic purposes except to restore bodily function or correct deformity resulting from disease....

  13. Global Land Cover Characterization: 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of involvement in multi-scale, and multi-temporal land cover characterization and mapping of the world. During...

  14. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit... inpatient hospital services apply to inpatient hospital services which are: (1) Covered under both...

  15. The Results: WLB's Cover Contest for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnofsky, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    Lists winners of a contest for a cover design among elementary school children, with entries submitted by school librarians from all over the country. Includes reproductions of some winning entries. (JS)

  16. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  17. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sankaran, M

    2005-12-08

    Full Text Available Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties (1...

  18. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  19. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  20. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations 36 (914) 24 (610) Drainage ditches of public roads and railroad crossings 36 (914) 24 (610) (b... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation...

  1. Orbifoldization, covering surfaces and uniformization theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bántay, P

    1998-01-01

    The connection between the theory of permutation orbifolds, covering surfaces and uniformization is investigated, and the higher genus partition functions of an arbitrary permutation orbifold are expressed in terms of those of the original theory.

  2. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation.

  3. Design and performance of the telescope and detector covers on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Two cover mechanisms were designed and developed for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) science payload to keep the EUVE telescope mirrors and detectors sealed from the atmospheric environment until the spacecraft was placed into orbit. There were four telescope front covers and seven motorized detector covers on the EUVE science payload. The EUVE satellite was launched into orbit in June 1992 and all the covers operated successfully after launch. This success can be attributed to high design margins and extensive testing at each level of assembly. This paper described the design of the telescope front covers and the motorized detector covers. This paper also discusses some of the many design considerations and modifications made as performance and reliability problems became apparent from each phase of testing.

  4. LLE Review quarterly report, January--March 1993. Volume 54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhofer, D.D. [ed.

    1993-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period January--March 1993. The OMEGA laser facility was decommissioned during this quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility. The decommissioning is described in this volume. Electron thermal transport in the corona and laser-irradiation uniformity are related issues for direct-drive laser fusion. Thermal transport can affect the laser-irradiation uniformity requirements. The status of Fokker-Planck modeling of electron transport at LLE is reviewed and is followed by a description of a new technique for achieving high laser uniformity using zero-correlation phase masks. The use of fast, optically triggered, superconducting opening switches can, in principle, reduce the peak electrical load requirements of systems like the OMEGA Upgrade. Recent research in this area is described. The last three articles discuss vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray emission from short-pulse, laser-matter interactions. The generation of a high spectral brightness, picosecond K{alpha} source is described. The subsequent articles describe the generation of high-order harmonics of a high-intensity laser system laser system in low- density, laser-atom interactions and the novel gas target used.

  5. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1993). Volume 54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerhofer, D. D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review covers the three-month period January-March1993. The OMEGA laser facility was decommissioned during this quarter to make room for the OMEGA Upgrade laser facility. The decommissioning is described in this volume. Electron thermal transport in the corona and laserirradiation uniformity are related issues for direct-drive laser fusion. Thermal transport can affect the laser-irradiation uniformity requirements. The status of Fokker-Planckmodeling of electron transport at LLEis reviewed and is followed by a description of a new technique for achieving high laser uniformity using zero-correlation phase masks. The use of fast, optically triggered, superconducting opening switches can, in principle, reduce the peak electrical load requirements of systems like the OMEGA Upgrade. Recent research in this area is described. The last three articles discuss vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray emission from shortpulse, laser-matter interactions. The generation of a high spectral brightness, picosecond K, source is described.The subsequent articles describe the generation of high-order harmonics of a high-intensity laser system in low-density, laseratom interactions and the novel gas target used.

  6. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 79(g)(3), 85, 86) U.S. Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 246, 253) Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (21 U... the filing of an application by a party who believes the proceeding is covered by EAJA; whether the proceeding is covered will then be an issue for resolution in proceedings on the application. (c) If a...

  7. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478).......We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  8. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  9. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  10. Discussion of CoSA: Clustering of Sparse Approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Derek Elswick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The purpose of this talk is to discuss the possible applications of CoSA (Clustering of Sparse Approximations) to the exploitation of HSI (HyperSpectral Imagery) data. CoSA is presented by Moody et al. in the Journal of Applied Remote Sensing (“Land cover classification in multispectral imagery using clustering of sparse approximations over learned feature dictionaries”, Vol. 8, 2014) and is based on machine learning techniques.

  11. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  13. The FirnCover Project - Real-time Monitoring of Greenland's Firn Compaction in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFerrin, M. J.; Stevens, C.; Waddington, E. D.; Abdalati, W.

    2015-12-01

    An unavoidable source of uncertainty in altimetry-based mass balance assessments of ice sheets is the conversion from volume change into mass change. A primary component of this volume change is firn compaction, or the rate at which snow compresses into glacial ice. Firn densification models simulate this process, but model outputs vary widely, and Greenland's rapidly changing climate challenges many of the steady-state assumptions held in most of these models. Contemporary measurements of firn compaction rates are extremely sparse across Greenland in both time and space and are nonexistent in many large regions. Here we present initial results from Greenland's Firn Compaction Verification and Reconnaissance (FirnCover) Project, a network of real-time strain gauges at over thirty boreholes that continuously monitor compaction rates at eight locations in Greenland's accumulation zones, ranging from areas of heavy percolation to dry snow. Initial results from these stations indicate a strong seasonality in compaction, especially in regions where heavy melt and refreezing release latent heat into the firn column, a process that will intensify as melt increases across Greenland. We also discuss the substantial challenge of measuring firn compaction in regions of heterogeneous percolation, and other challenges encountered when validating firn models and monitoring contemporary mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet.

  14. Two-phase CFD PTS validation in an extended range of thermohydraulics conditions covered by the COSI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, P., E-mail: pierre.coste@cea.fr [CEA, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SMTF/LMSF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ortolan, A. [CEA, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SMTF/LMSF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); ENSICA Engineering School, Toulouse (France)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Models for large interfaces in two-phase CFD were developed for PTS. • The COSI experiment is used for NEPTUNE{sub C}FD integral validation. • COSI is a PWR cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume. • Fifty runs are calculated, covering a large range of flow configurations. • The CFD predicting capability is analysed using global and local measurements. - Abstract: In the context of the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) life duration safety studies, some models were developed to address the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) from the two-phase CFD angle, dealing with interfaces much larger than cells size and with direct contact condensation. Such models were implemented in NEPTUNE{sub C}FD, a 3D transient Eulerian two-fluid model. The COSI experiment is used for its integral validation. It represents a cold leg scaled 1/100 for volume and power from a 900 MW PWR under a large range of LOCA PTS conditions. In this study, the CFD is evaluated in the whole range of parameters and flow configurations covered by the experiment. In a first step, a single choice of mesh and CFD models parameters is fixed and justified. In a second step, fifty runs are calculated. The CFD predicting capability is analysed, comparing the liquid temperature and the total condensation rate with the experiment, discussing their dependency on the inlet cold liquid rate, on the liquid level in the cold leg and on the difference between co-current and counter-current runs. It is shown that NEPTUNE{sub C}FD 1.0.8 calculates with a fair agreement a large range of flow configurations related to ECCS injection and steam condensation.

  15. A Discussion of Taylor Weighting for Continuous Apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    111111111111 Wlllllll 85111!11!4 11!12i!N A DISCUSSION OF TAYLOR WEIGHTING FOR CONTINUOUS APERTURES Date: 4 January 1985 Prepared by: ~ /. UJ Roy L...COVERED 04-01-1985 to 04-01-1985 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Discussion of Taylor Weighting for Continuous Apertures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...derived. It is pointed out that the Taylor weighting function can be negative for large n^_, a fact that does not seem to be well known. In addition

  16. A Discussion with Prof Kathy Charmaz on Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Interviewed by Graham R Gibbs at the BPS Qualitative Social Psychology Conference, University of Huddersfield, UK\\ud September 14-16 2013\\ud The discussion focusses on ideas from her book, Constructing Grounded Theory of which a second edition was published in March 2014, a few months after this interview. This second edition elaborates many of the points covered in the discussion.\\ud Charmaz, K (2014) Constructing Grounded Theory. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: SAGE.\\ud http://www.uk.sage...

  17. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, K.S. [ed.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance.

  18. Adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevanda, Mirjana; Horning, Ned; Reineking, Bjoern; Heurich, Marco; Wegmann, Martin; Mueller, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. Habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. Land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. We investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover information and spatial metrics. This approach uses a continuous representation of the landscape using percentage cover of a chosen land cover type instead of discrete classes. This approach, fractional cover, captures spatial heterogeneity within classes and is therefore capable to provide a more distinct representation of the landscape. The variation in home range sizes is analysed using fractional cover and spatial metrics in conjunction with mixed effect models on red deer position data in the Bohemian Forest, compared over multiple spatio-temporal scales. We analysed forest fractional cover and a texture metric within each home range showing that variance of fractional cover values and texture explain much of variation in home range sizes. The results show a hump-shaped relationship, leading to smaller home ranges when forest fractional cover is very homogeneous or highly heterogeneous, while intermediate stages lead to larger home ranges. The application of continuous land cover information in conjunction with spatial metrics proved to be valuable for the explanation of home-range sizes of red deer.

  19. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  20. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  1. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  2. Prediction of Overpressure from Finite Volume Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramamurthi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Tri-nitro toluene (TNT equivalence is not a good criterion for evaluating the practically encounted nonideal blast waves during ignition and in explosion-safety problems. A theoretical model which shows the trends related to the effects of source volume and energy time release on blast wave strength is discussed. A slower energy release and a larger source volume are shown to be necessary to reduce the blast effects.

  3. Predicting streamflow for land cover changes in the Upper Gilgel Abay River Basin, Ethiopia: A TOPMODEL based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumindoga, W.; Rientjes, T. H. M.; Haile, A. T.; Dube, T.

    Hydrological effects of land cover changes and runoff contributions from respective land cover types are analysed for the Upper Gilgel Abay basin in Ethiopia. Runoff production and streamflow are simulated by the TOPMODEL approach. For impact assessment of land cover changes, satellite based land covers for the years 1973, 1986 and 2001 are considered. Catchment topography as well as land cover and vegetation characteristics are derived from satellite images and serve to estimate model parameters. Land cover in TOPMODEL has been implemented by spatial units based on the actual size of each land cover type. The topographic index distribution function, which is an important input to the TOPMODEL, is prepared for each land cover type. Simulations are also performed for specific land cover types to allow inter comparison of hydrological responses. Results showed that the highest peak flow as well as the annual streamflow volume varied among the land cover types agriculture, forest and grassland which dominate land cover in the catchment. Results of this study show that in data poor basins, satellite images provide suitable land surface data for rainfall-runoff modelling and land surface parameterization. Findings are of relevance for many African rural catchments which experience rapid population increases and resource scarcity.

  4. International Discussion Meeting on High-Tc Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    In the past two years conferences on superconductivity have been characterized by the attendance of hundreds of scientists. Consequently, the organizers were forced to schedule numerous parallel sessions and poster presentations with an almost unsurveyable amount of information. It was, therefore, felt that a more informal get-together, providing ample time for a thourough discussion of some topics of current interest in high-temperature superconductivity, was timely and benefitial for leading scientists as well as for newcomers in the field. The present volume contains the majority of papers presented at the International Discussion Meeting on High-Tc Superconductors held at the Mauterndorf Castle in the Austrian Alps from February 7 to 11, 1988. Each subject was introduced in review form by a few invited speakers and then discussed together with the contributed poster presentations. These discussion sessions chaired by selected scientists turned out to be the highlights of the meeting, not only because all ...

  5. Areas and volumes for null cones

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, James D E

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent work of Choquet-Bruhat, Chrusciel, and Martin-Garcia, we prove monotonicity properties and comparison results for the area of slices of the null cone of a point in a Lorentzian manifold. We also prove volume comparison results for subsets of the null cone analogous to the Bishop-Gromov relative volume monotonicity theorem and Guenther's volume comparison theorem. We briefly discuss how these estimates may be used to control the null second fundamental form of slices of the null cone in Ricci-flat Lorentzian four-manifolds with null curvature bounded above.

  6. Unification of coupling constants without a covering GUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, S.; Zoupanos, G.; Tracas, D.

    1988-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of unification of gauge coupling constants of the standard model and its extensions at some high scale without the assumption of the existence of a covering GUT at that scale. In our analysis we examine (i) the standard model, (ii) its supersymmetric extension and (iii) an extension in which the spontaneous symmetry breaking is based on the condensation of high-colour fermions. The latter case is favoured for perturbative coupling constants unification while the supersymmetric extension of the standard model, with five families, is favoured for non-perturbative unification.

  7. Ant Colony Optimization and Hypergraph Covering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pat, Ankit

    2011-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a very popular metaheuristic for solving computationally hard combinatorial optimization problems. Runtime analysis of ACO with respect to various pseudo-boolean functions and different graph based combinatorial optimization problems has been taken up in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the runtime behavior of an MMAS*(Max-Min Ant System) ACO algorithm on some well known hypergraph covering problems that are NP-Hard. In particular, we have addressed the Minimum Edge Cover problem, the Minimum Vertex Cover problem and the Maximum Weak- Independent Set problem. The influence of pheromone values and heuristic information on the running time is analysed. The results indicate that the heuristic information has greater impact towards improving the expected optimization time as compared to pheromone values. For certain instances of hypergraphs, we show that the MMAS* algorithm gives a constant order expected optimization time when the dominance of heuristic information is ...

  8. Spatial Scaling of Land Cover Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Spatial networks of land cover are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. Continuous field proxies for human settlements, agriculture and forest cover have similar spatial scaling properties spanning 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Progressive segmentation of these continuous fields yields spatial networks with rank-size distributions having slopes near -1 for a wide range of thresholds. We consider a general explanation for this scaling that does not require different processes for each type of land cover. The same conditions that give rise to scale-free networks in general can produce power law distributions of component sizes for bounded spatial networks confined to a plane or surface. Progressive segmentation of a continuous field naturally results in growth of the network while the increasing perimeters of the growing components result in preferential attachment to the larger components with the longer perimeters. Progressive segmentation of two types of random continuous field results in progr...

  9. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2011-10-01

    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.

  10. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  11. Sediment transport in ice-covered channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian KNACK; Hung-tao SHEN

    2015-01-01

    The existence of ice cover has important effects on sediment transport and channel morphology for rivers in areas with an annual occurrence of an ice season. The interaction of sediment transport and surface ice is poorly understood. In this paper, data from existing flume experiments, each with a limited range of flow and sediment transport conditions, are analyzed. The analysis showed that the bed load transport in ice-covered channels can be described by conventional relationships for the equivalent free-surface flow if the flow strength is expressed in terms of the bed shear stress. A modified Rouse formulation considering the effect of the ice cover on velocity and turbulent diffusion is shown to be applicable for calculating the suspended sediment transport discharge.

  12. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  13. [SENTIERI Project: discussion and conclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, Roberta; Ricci, Paolo; Comba, Pietro; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Biggeri, Annibale; Conti, Susanna; Fazzo, Lucia; Forastiere, Francesco; Iavarone, Ivano; Martuzzi, Marco; Musmeci, Loredana; Pasetto, Roberto; Zona, Amerigo; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    showing the increase, considering latency and the length of the observation period. Of further interest are results relating to diseases of the urinary tract such as kidney failure in the NPCSs of Basso bacino del fiume Chienti, Taranto, Milazzo and Priolo. Overall, the results discussed above are consistent with the previous findings pertaining to mortality for 1995-2002. The present analysis also introduces a new element - the study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges - which can tell us a great deal about diseases with high survival rates or non lethal ones. The first is the case of thyroid cancer, which presents increases in both databases and for both genders in a number of NPCSs (Brescia-Caffaro, Laghi di Mantova, Milazzo, Sassuolo- Scandiano and Taranto). The study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges also revealed cancer excesses for melanoma, breast cancer and non Hodgkin lymphoma in Brescia-Caffaro NPCS where PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyl) are the site's main pollutant. PCBs, according to the 2013 evaluation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are ascertained human carcinogens for melanoma and probable carcinogens for breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results pertaining to cancer incidence in the 17 NPCSs can also be presented using rankings by area or disease analyzed by a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model. These rankings reveal an overlapping of credibility intervals, such that it is not possible to speak of a limited number of cancer sites or of certain NPCSs as being particularly affected. Every NPCS, therefore, must be considered individually and ordering them by ranking of cancer incidence wouldn't be appropriate. Data collected concerning some of the NPCSs in the context of the SENTIERI Project is so conclusive that remediation measures can immediately be put in place. This is the case in the Biancavilla and Brescia-Caffaro NPCSs. A similar conclusion can be drawn for complex locations such as Taranto

  14. Effects of Forest Cover Change on Flood Characteristics in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effect of forest cover changes on streamflow (river discharge in large-scale catchment is important to be studied. The rate of forest cover change in the Upper Citarum Watershed as a large-scale catchment is high enough to drive streamflow change, such as increase of discharge level, or flood volume. Within the research area, flood would occur when the volume of streamflow exceeded the canal capacity and inundated areas that were normally dry. Therefore, this research focused on identifying the effects of forest cover change on flood events and its distribution. The research consisted of 2 main stages; firstly, building geometric data of river and performing frequency analysis of historical and scenario discharges using an approach of probability distribution; and, secondly, flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS model. The results showed that forest reduction have affected water yield in the downstream of Upper Citarum Watershed. In each return period, this reduction have increased river discharge level and affected the spread of flooded areas. In 2-year return period, the extent of flood as an impact of forest reduction was estimated to decrease slowly. However, in the return period of more than 2 years, the spread of flooded areas increased sharply. These proved that forest cover reduction would always increase the discharge value, but it did not always expand the inundated area.Keywords: geometric data, forest cover, water yield, return period

  15. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  16. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  17. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  18. Synergistic Effects of Minefields and Covering Fire (SEMAC) Computer Model. Volume 2. Analyst’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    TYPE DISPENSED, NUMBER OF MINES, X AND Y COORDINATES OF AIMPOINT, AND MINE PATTERN LENGTH AND WIDTH 10 CARD TYPE 10 _ f _ ’ J , STORE AIMPOINT...CARD | TYPE 18 , :x j STORE PR08AÖILITY OF DAMAGE | GIVEN A HIT BY WEAPON TYPE AND TARGET TYPE Figure 5. (Continued) 46 BJ-AITO...VALUE BY WEAPON TYPE AND TARGET TYPE [ 20) \\ --’ ’I CARD i TYPE ?Q j STORE : DEFENDER TYPE, LENGTH, WIDTH, RADIUS, HEIGHT, TIME BETWEEN

  19. The Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project Volume 1: land cover, vertebrate species distributions, and land stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Gould; C. Alarcon; B. Fevold; M.E. Jimenez; S. Martinuzzi; G. Potts; M. Quinones; M. Solórzano; E. Ventosa

    2008-01-01

    Puerto Rico faces a number of problems common to much of the world. Population is increasing while land area is not, and there are reassessments of land use policy and practice to accommodate growing populations, shifting economies, and changing public value systems. Puerto Rico shares similarities with the Eastern United States with its history of agricultural...

  20. Analysis of the pattern of potential woody cover in Texas savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuebin; Crews, Kelley A.; Yan, Bowei

    2016-10-01

    While woody plant encroachment has been observed worldwide in savannas and adversely affected the ecosystem structure and function, a thorough understanding of the nature of this phenomenon is urgently required for savanna management and restoration. Among others, potential woody cover (the maximum realizable woody cover that a given site can support), especially its variation over environment has huge implication on the encroachment management in particular, and on tree-grass interactions in general. This project was designed to explore the pattern of potential woody cover in Texas savanna, an ecosystem with a large rainfall gradient in west-east direction. Substantial random pixels were sampled across the study area from MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) tree cover layer (250 m). Since potential woody cover is suggested to be limited by water availability, a nonlinear 99th quantile regression was performed between the observed woody cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP) to model the pattern of potential woody cover. Research result suggests a segmented relationship between potential woody cover and MAP at MODIS scale. Potential biases as well as the practical and theoretical implications were discussed. Through this study, the hypothesis about the primary role of water availability in determining savanna woody cover was further confirmed in a relatively understudied US-located savanna.

  1. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  2. Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 1: Instrumentation and Reduction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles, aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges, cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmosphere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library, in addition to its being essential reading for all practical astronomers.

  3. Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 2: Earth and Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmosphere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compedium a useful complement to any college library.

  4. Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 3: Stars and Stellar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmophere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular, the Milky Way and Galaxies. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library.

  5. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  6. Porous Media and Immersed Boundary Hybrid-Modelling for Simulating Flow in Stone Cover-Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Liu, Xiaofeng; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a new numerical modelling approach for coastal and marine applications where a porous media conceptual model was combined with a free surface volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and an immersed boundary method (IBM). The immersed boundary model covers the method of describing a s....... In this paper, the model is applied to investigate two practical cases in terms of a cover layer of stones on a flat bed under oscillatory flow at different packing densities, and a rock toe structure at a breakwater....

  7. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  8. Capo Verde, Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  9. 19 CFR 212.03 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceedings covered. 212.03 Section 212.03 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE... fees and expenses related to those portions of the proceedings conducted for the consideration...

  10. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  11. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  12. 16 CFR 436.3 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with a cover page, in the order and form as follows: (a) The title “FRANCHISE DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT” in... begin operation of a franchise is . This includes that must be paid to the franchisor or affiliate. (2) This disclosure document summarizes certain provisions of your franchise agreement and...

  13. The Best Use of a Cover Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    So when should you use a cover letter? Only as part of a limited, targeted campaign to reach potential employers. Take the time to research and understand a company before committing yourself on paper as a potential employee, if you have no idea what the company does,

  14. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization primarily engaged in the business of providing financial services or credit, a mutual savings bank... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.5 Covered entities. Entities to which the general rule in § 46.4(b) applies are the following: (a) Any investment bank, bank holding company, foreign...

  15. 49 CFR 1520.7 - Covered persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (e) Each person performing the function of a computer reservation system or global distribution system for airline passenger information. (f) Each person participating in a national or area security... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.7 Covered persons. Persons subject to the requirements of part 1520 are: (a...

  16. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  17. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, R.J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Roux, Le X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bicini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance

  18. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  19. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., which could result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person....

  20. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  1. 22 CFR 171.41 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.41 Covered employees. (a) Officers and employees (including special Government employees as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202) whose positions are classified at...

  2. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  3. 17 CFR 148.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceedings covered. 148.3 Section 148.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... 14 of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C. 18, Commission review of exchange disciplinary and access...

  4. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  5. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    2005-01-01

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined by the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P.J. Cameron (Ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469–478)....

  6. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  7. Satellite Image Processing for Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashoka Vanjare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, urban growth of Bangalore region is analyzed and discussed by using multi-temporal and multi-spectral Landsat satellite images. Urban growth analysis helps in understanding the change detection of Bangalore region. The change detection is studied over a period of 39 years and the region of interest covers an area of 2182 km2. The main cause for urban growth is the increase in population. In India, rapid urbanization is witnessed due to an increase in the population, continuous development has affected the existence of natural resources. Therefore observing and monitoring the natural resources (land use plays an important role. To analyze changed detection, researcher’s use remote sensing data. Continuous use of remote sensing data helps researchers to analyze the change detection. The main objective of this study is to monitor land cover changes of Bangalore district which covers rural and urban regions using multi-temporal and multi-sensor Landsat - multi-spectral scanner (MSS, thematic mapper (TM, Enhanced Thematic mapper plus (ETM+ MSS, TM and ETM+ images captured in the years 1973, 1992, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011. Temporal changes were determined by using maximum likelihood classification method. The classification results contain four land cover classes namely, built-up, vegetation, water and barren land. The results indicate that the region is densely developed which has resulted in decrease of water and vegetation regions. The continuous transformation of barren land to built-up region has affected water and vegetation regions. Generally, from 1973 to 2011 the percentage of urban region has increased from 4.6% to 25.43%, mainly due to urbanization.

  8. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...); (5) Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-- Definition of Technological Invention...--Definition of Technological Invention, 77 FR 7095 (Feb. 10, 2012). This final rule revises the rules of... definition for technological invention for covered business method patent review proceedings. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.503 - Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops. 1437.503 Section 1437.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS...

  10. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  11. The Quality-Volume Relationship: Comparing Civilian and MHS Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cleared for Public Release Distribution unlimited The Quality-Volume Relationship : Comparing Civilian and MHS Practice Holly...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Quality-Volume Relationship : Comparing Civilian and MHS... marketing strategy. The Leapfrog Group, a non-profit group focused on reducing medical errors and improving hospital safety, provides safety ratings based

  12. feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Low winter rainfall poses a challenge to production of high biomass from cover ... February planted cover crops had the lowest residues remaining at maize ..... Interaction effects of planting date and cover crop species on cover crop dry weight at termination in Eastern Cape ... to weed species density (per m2) at cover crop.

  13. Discussion of DNS: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the review, status, and projected future of direct numerical simulation (DNS) methodology relative to the state-of-the-art in computer technology, numerical methods, and the trends in fundamental research programs.

  14. Air plasma treatment of liquid covered tissue: long timescale chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for the treatment of wounds and cancerous tumors. In these applications, the sample is usually covered by a thin layer of a biological liquid. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated by the plasma activate and are processed by the liquid before the plasma produced activation reaches the tissue. The synergy between the plasma and the liquid, including evaporation and the solvation of ions and neutrals, is critical to understanding the outcome of plasma treatment. The atmospheric pressure plasma sources used in these procedures are typically repetitively pulsed. The processes activated by the plasma sources have multiple timescales—from a few ns during the discharge pulse to many minutes for reactions in the liquid. In this paper we discuss results from a computational investigation of plasma-liquid interactions and liquid phase chemistry using a global model with the goal of addressing this large dynamic range in timescales. In modeling air plasmas produced by a dielectric barrier discharge over liquid covered tissue, 5000 voltage pulses were simulated, followed by 5 min of afterglow. Due to the accumulation of long-lived species such as ozone and N x O y , the gas phase dynamics of the 5000th discharge pulse are different from those of the first pulse, particularly with regards to the negative ions. The consequences of applied voltage, gas flow, pulse repetition frequency, and the presence of organic molecules in the liquid on the gas and liquid reactive species are discussed.

  15. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  16. Volume-preserving Fields and Reeb Fields on 3-manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jun LI

    2006-01-01

    Volume-preserving field X on a 3-manifold is the one that satisfies LxΩ≡ 0 for some volume Ω. The Reeb vector field of a contact form is of volume-preserving, but not conversely. On the basis of Geiges-Gonzalo's parallelization results, we obtain a volume-preserving sphere, which is a triple of everywhere linearly independent vector fields such that all their linear combinations with constant coefficients are volume-preserving fields. From many aspects, we discuss the distinction between volume-preserving fields and Reeb-like fields. We establish a duality between volume-preserving fields and h-closed 2-forms to understand such distinction. We also give two kinds of non-Reeb-like but volume-preserving vector fields to display such distinction.

  17. Catalyst, Volume 9, Number 3, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  18. Catalyst, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  19. Catalyst, Volume 10, Number 2, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention publishes "Catalyst," a newsletter covering current Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence (AODV) prevention issues at institutions of higher education. "Catalyst" discusses emerging issues and highlights innovative efforts on…

  20. Land Use and Land Cover - LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN: Land Cover in Indiana, Derived from the 2006 National Land Cover Database (United States Geological Survey, 30-Meter TIFF Image)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN is a grid (30-meter cell size) showing 2006 Land Cover data in Indiana. This grid is a subset of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD 2006)...

  1. Propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl. The report covers the general conditions of development of aquatic plants. Please note...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006...

  3. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  4. Tree cover bistability in the MPI Earth system model due to fire-vegetation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasslop, Gitta; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The global distribution of tree cover is mainly limited by precipitation and temperature. Within tropical ecosystems different tree cover values have been observed in regions with similar climate. Satellite data even revealed a lack of ecosystems with tree coverage around 60% and dominant tree covers of 20% and 80%. Conceptual models have been used to explain this tree cover distribution and base it on a bistability in tree cover caused by fire-vegetation interactions or competition between trees and grasses. Some ecological models also show this property of multiple stable tree covers, but it remains unclear which mechanism is the cause for this behaviour. Vegetation models used in climate simulations usually use simple approaches and were criticised to neglect such ecological theories and misrepresent tropical tree cover distribution and dynamics. Here we show that including the process based fire model SPITFIRE generated a bistability in tree cover in the land surface model JSBACH. Previous model versions showed only one stable tree cover state. Using a conceptual model we can show that a bistability can occur due to a feedback between grasses and fire. Grasses and trees are represented in the model based on plant functional types. With respect to fire the main difference between grasses and trees is the fuel characteristics. Grass fuels are smaller in size, and have a higher surface area to volume ratio. These grass fuels dry faster increasing their flammability which leads to a higher fire rate of spread. Trees are characterized by coarse fuels, which are less likely to ignite and rather suppress fire. Therefore a higher fraction of grasses promotes fire, fire kills trees and following a fire, grasses establish faster. This feedback can stabilize ecosystems with low tree cover in a low tree cover state and systems with high tree cover in a high tree cover state. In previous model versions this feedback was absent. Based on the new JSBACH model driven with

  5. A Review of the Definition and Measurement of Poverty: Volume I, Summary Review Paper; Volume II, Annotated Bibliography. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Sharon; And Others

    This study reviews the existing literature on a series of issues associated with the defintion and measurement of poverty, and it consists of a summary report covering this research (Volume I), and an annotated bibliography (Volume II). Eleven specific issues were identified and reviewed in this study: (1) the historical definitions of poverty,…

  6. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  7. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, Rozaliya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meisner, Roberta Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rosseel, Thomas M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  8. Lifetime cover in private insurance markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Shelton; Connelly, Luke B

    2005-03-01

    In the last few decades, private health insurance rates have declined in many countries. In countries and states with community rating, a major cause is adverse selection. In order to address age-based adverse selection, Australia has recently begun a novel approach which imposes stiff penalties for buying private insurance later in life, when expected costs are higher. In this paper, we analyze Australia's Lifetime Cover in the context of a modified version of the Rothschild-Stiglitz insurance model (Rothschild and Stiglitz, 1976). We allow empirically-based probabilities to increase by age for low-risk types. The model highlights the shortcomings of the Australian plan. Based on empirically-based probabilities of illness, we predict that Lifetime Cover will not arrest adverse selection. The model has many policy implications for government regulation encouraging long-term health coverage.

  9. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  10. Georadar Measurements for the Snow Cover Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Godio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground Probing Radar (GPR devices is adopted for the analysis of thickness and the mechanical properties (density of the snow cover in some test site in Alps, in Northern Italy. The performances of standard radar systems for the snow cover characterisation are analysed, the main aim is to assess the reliability of the method to estimate the snow density, the snowpack thickness and the depth resolution in terms of capability to detect thin layers. The main relationships between the electrical permittivity and the density of the dry-snow are applied to estimate the density vertical profiles inferred by the GPR investigation. The data were calibrated and compared with the results coming from direct measurements of the density and thickness.

  11. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, F

    1994-01-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4\\gamma+2 and \\gamma \\geqq 1 (\\gamma = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2\\gamma+1 (resp. 4\\gamma+2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4\\gamma+4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the \\gamma-involution has at least one common fixed point.

  12. Alternating group covers of the affine line

    CERN Document Server

    Muskat, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We prove Abhyankar's Inertia Conjecture for the alternating group A_{p+2} on p+2 letters when p = 2 mod 3, by showing that every possible inertia group occurs for a (wildly ramified) A_{p+2}-Galois cover of the projective k-line branched only at infinity where k is an algebraically closed field of characteristic p > 0. More generally, when 1 < s < p and gcd(p-1, s+1)=1, we prove that all but finitely many rational numbers which satisfy the obvious necessary conditions occur as the upper jump in the filtration of higher ramification groups of an A_{p+s}-Galois cover of the projective line branched only at infinity.

  13. Cooling experiments using dummies covered by leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, L; Stückradt, S; Henssge, C; Bajanowski, T

    2007-03-01

    One main method to estimate the time of death is the measurement of the body temperature. The cooling of a corpse depends on a number of conditions including the surroundings. In cases where the cooling conditions differ from the defined standard, a corrective factor is used to characterise the influence of clothing, air movement, the properties of the supporting base and the humidity. Nothing is known about the significance of other circumstances, for example of a tegument by leaves or wet leaves. Therefore, the cooling of dummies which were placed on a 2-cm-thick layer of wet/dry leaves and covered by a 10-cm-thick layer of leaves was investigated. Corrective factors of 1.0 for wet leaves on the ground and of 1.3 and 1.5 for drier leaves were found. If the dummies were additionally covered, corrective factors ranged between 1.8 and 2.7.

  14. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  15. Comparing network covers using mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, Alcides Viamontes

    2012-01-01

    In network science, researchers often use mutual information to understand the difference between network partitions produced by community detection methods. Here we extend the use of mutual information to covers, that is, the cases where a node can belong to more than one module. In our proposed solution, the underlying stochastic process used to compare partitions is extended to deal with covers, and the random variables of the new process are simply fed into the usual definition of mutual information. With partitions, our extended process behaves exactly as the conventional approach for partitions, and thus, the mutual information values obtained are the same. We also describe how to perform sampling and do error estimation for our extended process, as both are necessary steps for a practical application of this measure. The stochastic process that we define here is not only applicable to networks, but can also be used to compare more general set-to-set binary relations.

  16. Processing and analysis of Global snow cover time series for climate change assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data offer the opportunity to detect terrestrial snow cover in high temporal and spatial resolution. Such information is essential for various applications – ranging from small scale predictions of runoff or floods, ground water recharge and hydro power generation to large scale planetary processes connected to climate change. The processing of globally available time series of remote sensing data constitutes a challenging task due to the huge data volume and computational dema...

  17. Land cover and water yield: inference problems when comparing catchments with mixed land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled experiments provide strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation can affect mean catchment streamflow (Q. By contrast, a similarly strong influence has not been found in studies that interpret Q from multiple catchments with mixed land cover. One possible reason is that there are methodological issues with the way in which the Budyko framework was used in the latter type studies. We examined this using Q data observed in 278 Australian catchments and by making inferences from synthetic Q data simulated by a hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model. The previous contrasting findings could be reproduced. In the synthetic experiment, the land cover influence was still present but not accurately detected with the Budyko- framework. Likely sources of interpretation bias demonstrated include: (i noise in land cover, precipitation and Q data; (ii additional catchment climate characteristics more important than land cover; and (iii covariance between Q and catchment attributes. These methodological issues caution against the use of a Budyko framework to quantify a land cover influence in Q data from mixed land-cover catchments. Importantly, however, our findings do not rule out that there may also be physical processes that modify the influence of land cover in mixed land-cover catchments. Process model simulations suggested that lateral water redistribution between vegetation types and recirculation of intercepted rainfall may be important.

  18. Memorial volume for Y. Nambu

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lay Nam; Han, Moo-Young; Phua, Kok Khoo

    2016-01-01

    We have lost one of the giants of the twentieth century physics when Yoichiro Nambu passed away in July, 2015, at the age of 94. Today's Standard Model, though still incomplete in many respects, is the culmination of the most successful theory of the Universe to date, and it is built upon foundations provided by discoveries made by Nambu in the 1960s: the mechanism of spontaneously broken symmetry in Nature (with G Jona-Lasinio) and the hidden new SU(3) symmetry of quarks and gluons (with M-Y Han). In this volume honoring Nambu's memory, World Scientific Publishing presents a unique collection of papers written by his former colleagues, collaborating researchers and former students and associates, not only citing Nambu's great contributions in physics but also many personal and private reminiscences, some never told before. This volume also contains the very last scientific writing by Professor Nambu himself, discussing the development of particle physics. This book is a volume for all who benefited not on...

  19. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  2. Extreme Learning Machine for land cover classification

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Mahesh

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of extreme learning machine based supervised classification algorithm for land cover classification. In comparison to a backpropagation neural network, which requires setting of several user-defined parameters and may produce local minima, extreme learning machine require setting of one parameter and produce a unique solution. ETM+ multispectral data set (England) was used to judge the suitability of extreme learning machine for remote sensing classifications...

  3. Stream discharge measurements under ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, K. Michael; Jacobson, Nathan D.

    2000-01-01

    This training presentation shows procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure streamflow when streams are covered by ice. Although 'Ice Measurements' are generally more difficult to make than open-water measurements and are often made under uncomfortable conditions it is very important that ice measurements be made regularly during the winter. This is because a large part of many winter discharge records depend on such measurements.

  4. Optimal Covering Tours with Turn Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Esther M.; Bender, Michael A.; Demaine, Erik D.; Fekete, Sandor P.; Mitchell, Joseph S.B.; Sethia, Saurabh

    2003-01-01

    We give the first algorithmic study of a class of ``covering tour'' problems related to the geometric Traveling Salesman Problem: Find a polygonal tour for a cutter so that it sweeps out a specified region (``pocket''), in order to minimize a cost that depends mainly on the number of em turns. These problems arise naturally in manufacturing applications of computational geometry to automatic tool path generation and automatic inspection systems, as well as arc routing (``postman'') problems w...

  5. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned, Volume 2 of 3: Appendixes A - C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Davis, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    This document is the 2nd volume of the three volume set from the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise held at Hanford in 1994. Volume 2 contains Appendices A-C, with Appendices A and B containing a discussion of the design of the PUREX process and Appendix C containing a discussion of the safeguards measures for the PUREX facility.

  7. Conceptual design of a cover system for the degmay uranium tailings site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsidin, Saidov; David, S. Kessel; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The Republic of Tajikistan has ten former uranium mining sites. The total volume of all tailings is approximately 55 million tonnes, and the covered area is more than 200 hectares. The safe management of legacy uranium mining and tailing sites has become an issue of concern. Depending on the performance requirements and site-specific conditions (location in an arid, semiarid or humid region), a cover system for uranium tailings sites could be constructed using several material layers using both natural and man-made materials. The purpose of this study is to find a feasible cost-effective cover system design for the Degmay uranium tailings site which could provide a long period (100 years) of protection. The HELP computer code was used in the evaluation of potential Degmay cover system designs. As a result of this study, a cover system with 70 cm thick percolation layer, 30 cm thick drainage layer, geomembrane liner and 60 cm thick barrier soil layer is recommended because it minimizes cover thickness and would be the most cost-effective design.

  8. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  9. Set Covering Problems with General Objective Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Jean

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a parameterized version of set cover that generalizes several previously studied problems. Given a ground set V and a collection of subsets S_i of V, a feasible solution is a partition of V such that each subset of the partition is included in one of the S_i. The problem involves maximizing the mean subset size of the partition, where the mean is the generalized mean of parameter p, taken over the elements. For p=-1, the problem is equivalent to the classical minimum set cover problem. For p=0, it is equivalent to the minimum entropy set cover problem, introduced by Halperin and Karp. For p=1, the problem includes the maximum-edge clique partition problem as a special case. We prove that the greedy algorithm simultaneously approximates the problem within a factor of (p+1)^1/p for any p in R^+, and that this is the best possible unless P=NP. These results both generalize and simplify previous results for special cases. We also consider the corresponding graph coloring problem, and prove several tr...

  10. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1996 annual report. Volume 10, Number 1: Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1996. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1996 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from CY 1980 through 1996. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC`s mission in 1996.

  11. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N. (comp.)

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  12. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 7, Safety operation procedure for hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for the safety operation procedure for hot cell. It covers the master-slave manipulators, dry waste removal, cell transfers, hoists, cask handling, liquid waste system, and physical characterization of fluids.

  13. On the volume inside old black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1+1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  14. Enrollment Projections for Presentation & Discussion: 2010-11 Pupil Population Estimating Conference. Research Brief. Volume 0901

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie; Froman, Terry; Romanik, Dale

    2009-01-01

    The 2010-11 projected enrollment offered by Research Services represents a small increase in student enrollment. The District's student enrollment is projected to be 341,324 in 2010-11, an increase of 0.3 percent (1,077 students) from 2009-10. A slight increase in the District's 2009-10 student enrollment reversed a seven year decline. (Contains 3…

  15. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Workshop. Volume 1: Presentation material and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, John C. (Editor); Devol, William (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of the workshop was to identify future NASA needs for technology that will allow the management of subcritical cryogenic fluids in the low gravity space environment. Workshop participants were asked to identify those technologies which will require in-space experimentation and are thus candidates for inclusion in the flight experiment being defined at the Lewis Research Center.

  16. Giromill wind tunnel test and analysis. Volume II. Technical discussion. Final report, June 1976--October 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, W.A.

    1977-10-01

    A wind tunnel test of a Giromill rotor was conducted. The objective of this test was to substantiate the performance computed by the Larsen cyclogiro vortex theory. Additional objectives were to obtain performance comparison data between the Giromill, a sinusoidal blade modulation Giromill, a Darrieus rotor, and a modified Darrieus rotor that flips the blades a few degrees. A three bladed Giromill rotor having a diameter of 2.13 m (7 ft) and a span of 1.52 m (5 ft) was tested in the McDonnell Aircraft Company 15 x 20 ft Mini Speed Wind Tunnel. The blade modulations were accomplished through use of a cam and push rod arrangement. Replaceable cams provided the desired blade modulation at the various operating points. Various operating conditions were achieved by adjusting the rotor RPM and tunnel speed. The results show that the Giromill has good performance, equal to or much better than that predicted by theory, and outperforms the other types of vertical axis wind turbines tested.

  17. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 2. Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    knowledge and meta-reasoning. In Proceedings of EP14-85 ("Encontro Portugues de Inteligencia Artificial "), pages 138-154, Oporto, Portugal, 1985. [19] N, J...See reverse) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial Intelligence...ABSTRACTM-2.,-- The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) was created by the Air Force Systems Command, Rome Air Development Center, and

  18. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report. Volume 2. 1988 Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans (NLP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Encontro Portugues de Inteligencia Artificial (EPIA), Oporto, Portugal, September 1985. [15] N. J. Nilsson. Principles Of Artificial Intelligence. Tioga...FI1 F COPY () RADC-TR-89-259, Vol II (of twelve) Interim Report October 1969 AD-A218 154 NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL...7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial Of p0ilcabe) Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) Rome_____ Air___ Development____Center

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Fuels. Volume I. Experiments, Results, and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    STATEMENT (ol the abstract entered In Block 20, Il different from Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Availability of this report is specified on verso of...alkane 0.03 CIH30 n-terradecane 0.05 C 15H32 n-pentadecane 0.08 aMore than one compound. 21 TABLE 7. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED BY GC-MS IN UNLEADED

  20. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report 1987. Volume 2, Part B. Discussing, Using, and Recognizing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    alternative arc instances. Ito This term is borrowed from, and is analogous to, the notion of "archiphonemes or "archi-unit" used in phonology , as explained...unit" used in phonology , as explained in Chomsky & Halle (19684). 2B-110 archiprocess in the queue holds a pointer to an appropriate compiled state...Base and Electrolyte Disorders . In P. Szolovits (Ed.). Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. Westview Press. 1982. Pereira. F.. and Warren. D. Definite

  1. Variability of Major Organic Components in Aircraft Fuels. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-27

    yield an unequi- vocal definition of a GC/FID or GC/MS feature due to mass spectra similarities. TQ better define GC/FID and GC/MS features, additional...Reference Fuel. In this GC/MS quntitative analy- sis, each of the GC/FID features above 4 mg/ml was identifie using retention time and up to three

  2. Fire Protection System for Hardened Aircraft Shelters. Volume 1. Discussion and Appendixes A-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    rural farming areas. Water present on the floor of the shelter from condensation or rain may influence certain types of detectors. Dust on the surface...test i rir w i- oonpl, eted IH fore- the - ir -cond ur*’ le n iOt . j ,, o cv er td. 200 100 00 100 200 50 ft 45 ft 40 ft 4000 70800 9’X Not detected...provided by a smart , multiple-wavelength fire detector. It has also been determined that even dual-wavelength detectors can be fooled by a combination of

  3. DDC 10 Year Requirements and Planning Study. Volume II. Technical Discussion, Bibliography, and Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-12

    Technology of Information Procesoing (1978-1988) ........ .................. ... 39 2.2.3 Organizational Interface Between DDC and Other Information...Requirements and Planning Study: Expert Penal Review Report. December 31, 1975. (AUER-2325/2326-T-N5 AD-A022 303) TABLE 14 Evaluation of Technological

  4. Finite volume hydromechanical simulation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin

    2014-05-01

    Cell-centered finite volume methods are prevailing in numerical simulation of flow in porous media. However, due to the lack of cell-centered finite volume methods for mechanics, coupled flow and deformation is usually treated either by coupled finite-volume-finite element discretizations, or within a finite element setting. The former approach is unfavorable as it introduces two separate grid structures, while the latter approach loses the advantages of finite volume methods for the flow equation. Recently, we proposed a cell-centered finite volume method for elasticity. Herein, we explore the applicability of this novel method to provide a compatible finite volume discretization for coupled hydromechanic flows in porous media. We detail in particular the issue of coupling terms, and show how this is naturally handled. Furthermore, we observe how the cell-centered finite volume framework naturally allows for modeling fractured and fracturing porous media through internal boundary conditions. We support the discussion with a set of numerical examples: the convergence properties of the coupled scheme are first investigated; second, we illustrate the practical applicability of the method both for fractured and heterogeneous media.

  5. Increasing Moral Reasoning Skills through Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Smith, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects that online asynchronous dilemma discussions have on moral reasoning scores of pharmacy students. In contrast to face-to-face group discussions, asynchronous threaded discussions afford all participants time to reflect and respond during discussions. Anonymity features may lessen inhibitions in responding critically…

  6. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1991. Volume 2, Energy production research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The report is submitted in two volumes, Volume I representing the work accomplished under Fuels Research and Volume II the work for Energy Production Research during the period July 1--Sept. 30, 1991. Topics covered include: chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience technology, resource assessment technology, microbial technology, environmental technology.

  7. World History (Volume Two): Upper Middle School Textbook for the Full-time Ten Year School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Contains a translation of the second volume of a two-volume world history textbook for senior secondary students published in China in 1978. This volume covers the period from 1848 to World War II. Particular attention is given to uprisings, rebellions, revolutions, and the development of the Communist movement. (AM)

  8. Earth-covered buildings: technical notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, F L; Higgs, F; Shih, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    John Cable, Architectural and Engineering Systems Branch, Division of Buildings and Community Systems, Department of Energy, kicked off the conference and spelled out the role of DOE in this area. One of his points was that the technical problems are easier than the institutional problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 18 papers of this volume; all of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and 16 were selected for Energy Abstractss for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (DCK)

  9. Standard Enucleation with Aluminium Oxide Implant (Bioceramic Covered with Patient's Sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Zigiotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe in our study a modified standard enucleation, using sclera harvested from the enucleated eye to cover the prosthesis in order to insert a large porous implant and to reduce postoperative complication rates in a phthisis globe. Methods. We perform initially a standard enucleation. The porous implant (Bioceramic is then covered only partially by the patient's sclera. The implant is inserted in the posterior Tenon's space with the scleral covering looking at front. All patients were followed at least for twelve months (average followup 16 months. Results. We performed nineteen primary procedures (19 patients, 19 eyes, M; F and secondary, to fill the orbital cavity in patients already operated by standard evisceration (7 patients, 7 eyes. There were no cases of implant extrusion. The orbital volume was well reintegrated. Conclusion. Our procedure was safe and effective. All patients had a good cosmetic result after final prosthetic fitting and we also achieved good prothesis mobility.

  10. DIII-D in-vessel port cover and shutter assembly for the phase contrast interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The entire outer wall of the DIII-D vacuum vessel interion is covered with a regular array of graphite tiles. Certain of the diagnostic ports through the outer vessel wall contain equipment which is shielded from the plasma by installing port covers designed to withstand energy deposition. If the diagnostic contained in the port must communicate with the vessel volume, a shutter assembly is usually provided. In the ports at 285 degrees, R+1 and R-1, interferometer mirrors have been installed to provide a means for transmitting a large diameter CO-2 laser beam through the edge of the plasma. To protect the mirrors and other hardware contained in these ports, a special protective plate and shutter arrangement has been designed. This report describes the details of design, fabrication, and installation of these protective covers and shutters.

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Meramec Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and...

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Silver Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Upper Silver Creek Watershed in Illinois. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information...

  13. National Land Cover Database 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 1992-2001 Retrofit Change Product What is the NLCD 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product? Although one of the guiding principles of the NLCD 2001 design...

  14. Effects of Forest Cover Change on Flood Characteristics in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effect of forest cover changes on streamflow (river discharge in large-scale catchment is important to be studied. The rate of forest cover change in the Upper Citarum Watershed as a large-scale catchment is high enough to drive streamflow change, such as increase of discharge level, or flood volume. Within the research area, flood would occur when the volume of streamflow exceeded the canal capacity and inundated areas that were normally dry. Therefore, this research focused on identifying the effects of forest cover change on flood events and its distribution. The research consisted of 2 main stages; firstly, building geometric data of river and performing frequency analysis of historical and scenario discharges using an approach of probability distribution; and, secondly, flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS model. The results showed that forest reduction have affected water yield in the downstream of Upper Citarum Watershed. In each return period, this reduction have increased river discharge level and affected the spread of flooded areas. In 2-year return period, the extent of flood as an impact of forest reduction was estimated to decrease slowly. However, in the return period of more than 2 years, the spread of flooded areas increased sharply. These proved that forest cover reduction would always increase the discharge value, but it did not always expand the inundated area.

  15. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  16. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  17. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  18. Processes for an Architecture of Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcgee, Wes; Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses both the architectural, conceptual motivations and the tools and techniques necessary for the digital production of an architecture of volume. The robotic manufacturing techniques of shaping volumetric materials by hot wire and abrasive wire cutting are discussed through...

  19. Resource Guide for Emotional Disabilities. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keystone Area Education, Elkader, IA.

    The first of a two volume series designed for teachers of students with emotional disabilities, this guide provides information on practical classroom techniques. The following topics are examined through article reprints, checklists, and discussion overviews (sample subtopics in parentheses): behavior management (management plans, intervention…

  20. Estimation of Soil Moisture Under Vegetation Cover at Multiple Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadghuber, Thomas; Hajnsek, Irena; Weiß, Thomas; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture under vegetation cover was estimated by a polarimetric, iterative, generalized, hybrid decomposition and inversion approach at multiple frequencies (X-, C- and L-band). Therefore the algorithm, originally designed for longer wavelength (L-band), was adapted to deal with the short wavelength scattering scenarios of X- and C-band. The Integral Equation Method (IEM) was incorporated together with a pedo-transfer function of Dobson et al. to account for the peculiarities of short wavelength scattering at X- and C-band. DLR's F-SAR system acquired fully polarimetric SAR data in X-, C- and L-band over the Wallerfing test site in Lower Bavaria, Germany in 2014. Simultaneously, soil and vegetation measurements were conducted on different agricultural test fields. The results indicate a spatially continuous inversion of soil moisture in all three frequencies (inversion rates >92%), mainly due to the careful adaption of the vegetation volume removal including a physical constraining of the decomposition algorithm. However, for X- and C-band the inversion results reveal moisture pattern inconsistencies and in some cases an incorrectly high inversion of soil moisture at X-band. The validation with in situ measurements states a stable performance of 2.1- 7.6vol.% at L-band for the entire growing period. At C- and X-band a reliable performance of 3.7-13.4vol.% in RMSE can only be achieved after distinct filtering (X- band) leading to a loss of almost 60% in spatial inversion rate. Hence, a robust inversion for soil moisture estimation under vegetation cover can only be conducted at L-band due to a constant availability of the soil signal in contrast to higher frequencies (X- and C-band).

  1. Payenia Quaternary flood basalts (southern Mendoza, Argentina: Geophysical constraints on their volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro G. Spagnuolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary volcanic province of Payenia is located in southern Mendoza and northern Neuquén provinces of Argentina and is characterized by a dominant basaltic composition. The volcanic province covers an area larger than 40,000 km2 and its origin and evolution has been the center of several studies. In this study we analyzed gravity data together with more accurate volcanic volumes calculations in order to investigate the subsurface structure of the Payenia volcanic province. The volume of material was calculated using digital elevation models and geographic information system (GIS techniques to estimate the volume of material erupted and then, with those values, make an estimation of the intrusive material that could be located within the crust. The results of the calculations were compared with different 2D-sections constructed to model the gravity data and compare with the observed satellite gravity. After evaluating different models which have been generated to match both: the observed gravity data and the subsurface material calculated, we discuss those that best fit with observation. The results clearly indicate that the lithosphere is attenuated below the region.

  2. Payenia Quaternary flood basalts (southern Mendoza, Argentina):Geophysical constraints on their volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauro G. Spagnuolo; Darío L. Orts; Mario Gimenez; Andres Folguera; Victor A. Ramos

    2016-01-01

    The Quaternary volcanic province of Payenia is located in southern Mendoza and northern Neuquén provinces of Argentina and is characterized by a dominant basaltic composition. The volcanic province covers an area larger than 40,000 km2 and its origin and evolution has been the center of several studies. In this study we analyzed gravity data together with more accurate volcanic volumes calculations in order to investigate the subsurface structure of the Payenia volcanic province. The volume of material was calculated using digital elevation models and geographic information system (GIS) techniques to estimate the volume of material erupted and then, with those values, make an estimation of the intrusive material that could be located within the crust. The results of the calculations were compared with different 2D-sections constructed to model the gravity data and compare with the observed satellite gravity. After evaluating different models which have been generated to match both: the observed gravity data and the subsurface material calculated, we discuss those that best fit with observation. The results clearly indicate that the lithosphere is attenuated below the region.

  3. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  4. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  5. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  6. The Sensitivity of West African Squall Line Water Budgets to Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Karen I.; Baker, R. David; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Famiglietti, James S.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study used a two-dimensional coupled land/atmosphere (cloud-resolving) model to investigate the influence of land cover on the water budgets of squall lines in the Sahel. Study simulations used the same initial sounding and one of three different land covers, a sparsely vegetated semi-desert, a grassy savanna, and a dense evergreen broadleaf forest. All simulations began at midnight and ran for 24 hours to capture a full diurnal cycle. In the morning, the latent heat flux, boundary layer mixing ratio, and moist static energy in the boundary layer exhibited notable variations among the three land covers. The broadleaf forest had the highest latent heat flux, the shallowest, moistest, slowest growing boundary layer, and significantly more moist static energy per unit area than the savanna and semi-desert. Although all simulations produced squall lines by early afternoon, the broadleaf forest had the most intense, longest-lived squall lines with 29% more rainfall than the savanna and 37% more than the semi-desert. The sensitivity of the results to vegetation density, initial sounding humidity, and grid resolution was also assessed. There were greater differences in rainfall among land cover types than among simulations of the same land cover with varying amounts of vegetation. Small changes in humidity were equivalent in effect to large changes in land cover, producing large changes in the condensate and rainfall. Decreasing the humidity had a greater effect on rainfall volume than increasing the humidity. Reducing the grid resolution from 1.5 km to 0.5 km decreased the temperature and humidity of the cold pools and increased the rain volume.

  7. Thermodynamics of the low density excluded volume hadron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Zalewski, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the influence of the excluded volume of hadrons on macroscopic variables and thermal parameters of the hadron gas at finite temperature and chemical potential in the low density approximation. Based solely on elementary thermodynamics we show that when the excluded volume grows at constant temperature, pressure, and number of particles, the overall volume increases just as much as the excluded volume, while the entropy and energy remain unchanged. The growth of the chemical potentials is equal to the work needed to create the respective excluded volumes. Consequently, the bulk density functions of a gas with excluded volume are expressed by the corresponding variables in a system of point particles with the shifted chemical potentials. Our results are fully consistent with the previous findings obtained upon applications of more advanced methods of statistical physics. A validity limit for the low density approximation is derived and discussed in the context of the hadron gas created in heavy ion c...

  8. 8th conference on Finite Volumes for Complex Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    This first volume of the proceedings of the 8th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Lille, June 2017) covers various topics including convergence and stability analysis, as well as investigations of these methods from the point of view of compatibility with physical principles. It collects together the focused invited papers comparing advanced numerical methods for Stokes and Navier–Stokes equations on a benchmark, as well as reviewed contributions from internationally leading researchers in the field of analysis of finite volume and related methods, offering a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation, and recent decades have brought significant advances in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including m...

  9. Summary of the ACAT Round Table Discussion: Open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, Federico; Riemann, Tord

    2014-01-01

    Round table discussions are in the tradition of ACAT. This year's plenary round table discussion was devoted to questions related to the use of scientific software in High Energy Physics and beyond. The 90 minutes of discussion were lively, and quite a lot of diverse opinions were spelled out. Although the discussion was, in part, controversial, the participants agreed unanimously on several basic issues in software sharing: (i) The importance of having various licensing models in academic research; (ii) The basic value of proper recognition and attribution of intellectual property, including scientific software; (iii) The user respect for the conditions of use, including licence statements, as formulated by the author. The need of a similar discussion on the issues of data sharing was emphasized and it was recommended to cover this subject at the conference round table discussion of next ACAT. In this contribution, we summarise selected topics that were covered in the introductory talks and in the following ...

  10. Handbook of the Economics of Education. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A., Ed.; Machin, Stephen J., Ed.; Woessmann, Ludger, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    How does education affect economic and social outcomes, and how can it inform public policy? Volume 3 of the Handbooks in the Economics of Education uses newly available high quality data from around the world to address these and other core questions. With the help of new methodological approaches, contributors cover econometric methods and…

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 1988). Volume 37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenty, P. W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1988-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October-December 1988, contains several articles devoted to our work in the understanding, identification, and correction of illumination non-uniformities on the OMEGA laser system. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser facilities are summarized.

  12. High-Volume Utilization of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article briefly explores possible utilization of cotton in volume in the traditional textile sector and in the growing nontraditional nonwovens sector and covers the challenges and opportunities that may exist on the way. Some new concepts in the development of predominantly cotton-based textil...

  13. The reflectance characteristics of snow covered surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data analysis techniques were developed to most efficiently use available satellite measurements to determine and understand components of the surface energy budget for ice and snow-covered areas. The emphasis is placed on identifying the important components of the heat budget related to snow surfaces, specifically the albedo and the energy consumed in the melting process. Ice and snow charts are prepared by NOAA from satellite observations which map areas into three relative reflectivity zones. Field measurements are analyzed of the reflectivity of an open snow field to assist in the interpretation of the NOAA reflectivity zones.

  14. Making meaning(s with cover designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Reed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s grammar of visual design and Bernstein’s work on pedagogic discourse are drawn on in order to analyze some of the ways in which meanings are made and some meanings privileged over others in the designing, both visual and discursive, of the covers of three course books prepared for teacher education programmes in South Africa. The primary aim of this analysis is to understand what meanings are offered to readers as entrants into or as established members of communities of practice in the teaching profession and the academy.

  15. Focusing on Concepts by Covering Them Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Pete

    2017-05-01

    "Parallel" pedagogy covers the four mechanics concepts of momentum, energy, forces, and kinematics simultaneously instead of building each concept on an understanding of the previous one. Course content is delivered through interactive videos, allowing class time for group work and student-centered activities. We start with simple examples, building complexity throughout the course with the introduction of springs, two dimensions, vectors, energy diagrams, universal gravitation, and rotation. Success means that students ponder underlying physics concepts rather than hunt for formulas. Surveys indicate that students accept this learning model well and have considerable improvement in applied conceptual understanding.

  16. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  17. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  18. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  19. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  20. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site.

  1. The Persistence of the Large Volumes in Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-01-01

    Classically, black holes admit maximal interior volumes that grow asymptotically linearly in time. We show that such volumes remain large when Hawking evaporation is taken into account. Even if a charged black hole approaches the extremal limit during this evolution, its volume continues to grow; although an exactly extremal black hole does not have a "large interior". We clarify this point and discuss the implications of our results to the information loss and firewall paradoxes.

  2. Lock-in thermography of OLEDs through cover glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lovera, T.; Van der Tempel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many photovoltaic cells and OLEDs are covered by cover glass or foil to protect the device against oxygen and moisture. The cover glassor foil is semitransparent for infrared radiation and conducts the heat and blurs lock-in thermograms. In lock-in thermograms of OLEDs with cover glass short circu

  3. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section 1404.200 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is...

  4. Using cash cover crops to provide pollinator provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, the use of winter cover crops in MN and SD has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, wi...

  5. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  6. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  7. LLE Review. Volume 68, July--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period of July-September 1996, includes a description of an important experiment carried out on OMEGA by researchers from LANL, LLNL, and LLE to demonstrate the feasibility of using OMEGA for indirect drive. Additional topics include tetrahedral hohlraums, the speckle properties of phase- converted laser beams, design criteria for SSD phase modulators, and the design of slab amplifiers. Highlights of the research presented in this issue are (1) Results from the proof-of-principle indirect- drive experiments in which up to 40 OMEGA beams were used to irradiate cylindrical hohlraums. Nova results were reproduced, and new capabilities not available on other lasers were demonstrated. (2) A discussion of tetrahedral hohlraums (spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes) as a means of achieving better capsule irradiation uniformity. Tetrahedral hohlraums also allow the use of all 60 OMEGA beams and may provide an alternate route to ignition on the NIF. (3) An analysis of the residual target irradiation nonuniformity due to the fine laser speckle remaining on the beam after being phase converted by the DPP`s. A model shows how a uniformly ablating plasma atmosphere reduces the speckle contribution to the effective time-averaged irradiation nonuniformity. (4) A discussion of the theory, design, manufacture, testing, and implementation of the microwave SSD phase modulators used on OMEGA for two-dimensional SSD. The modulators are capable of operating in the gigahertz frequency range. (5) A discussion of the design and performance of a large-aperture, high-gain Nd:glass zig-zag slab amplifier for materials testing. The design incorporates improvements from previous work in addition to improvements obtained from careful design choices guided by analytic calculations.

  8. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; analysis of human data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Wei, Timothy; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Anor, Tomer

    2010-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a neuropathophysiological disorder primarily diagnosed by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure within the brain. To date, utilization of clinical measurements have been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs enforce volume conservation principles in terms of pressure. Control volume analysis, through the integral mass and momentum conservation equations, ensures that pressure and volume are accounted for using first principles fluid physics. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians into a simple, direct and robust mechanics based framework. Clinical data obtained for analysis are discussed along with data processing techniques used to extract terms in the conservation equation. Control volume analysis provides a non-invasive, physics-based approach to extracting pressure information from magnetic resonance velocity data that cannot be measured directly by pressure instrumentation.

  9. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  10. Variability and Anomalous Trends in the Global Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite data came fortuitously at a time when the global sea ice cover has been changing rapidly and new techniques are needed to accurately assess the true state and characteristics of the global sea ice cover. The extent of the sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere has been declining by about -4% per decade for the period 1979 to 2011 but for the period from 1996 to 2010, the rate of decline became even more negative at -8% per decade, indicating an acceleration in the decline. More intriguing is the drastically declining perennial sea ice area, which is the ice that survives the summer melt and observed to be retreating at the rate of -14% per decade during the 1979 to 2012 period. Although a slight recovery occurred in the last three years from an abrupt decline in 2007, the perennial ice extent was almost as low as in 2007 in 2011. The multiyear ice, which is the thick component of the perennial ice and regarded as the mainstay of the Arctic sea ice cover is declining at an even higher rate of -19% per decade. The more rapid decline of the extent of this thicker ice type means that the volume of the ice is also declining making the survival of the Arctic ice in summer highly questionable. The slight recovery in 2008, 2009 and 2010 for the perennial ice in summer was likely associated with an apparent cycle in the time series with a period of about 8 years. Results of analysis of concurrent MODIS and AMSR-E data in summer also provide some evidence of more extensive summer melt and meltponding in 2007 and 2011 than in other years. Meanwhile, the Antarctic sea ice cover, as observed by the same set of satellite data, is showing an unexpected and counter intuitive increase of about 1 % per decade over the same period. Although a strong decline in ice extent is apparent in the Bellingshausen/ Amundsen Seas region, such decline is more than compensated by increases in the extent of the sea ice cover in the Ross Sea region. The results of analysis of

  11. Talk by Philippe Descola and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    DESCOLA, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    One hour talk, followed by hour of discussion, chaired by Stephen Hugh-Jones and filmed by Alan Macfarlane on 13 February 2004 Talk to anthropology seminar at Cambridge University by Philippe Descola on 'Ontologies', followed by questions and discussion.

  12. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  13. Electrohydrodynamics of a particle-covered drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriemi, Malika; Vlahovska, Petia

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a drop nearly-completely covered with a particle monolayer in a uniform DC electric field. The weakly conducting fluid system consists of a silicon oil drop suspended in castor oil. A broad range of particle sizes, conductivities, and shapes is explored. In weak electric fields, the presence of particles increases drop deformation compared to a particle-free drop and suppresses the electrohydrodynamic flow. Very good agreement is observed between the measured drop deformation and the small deformation theory derived for surfactant-laden drops (Nganguia et al., 2013). In stronger electric fields, where drops are expected to undergo Quincke rotation (Salipante and Vlahovska, 2010), the presence of the particles greatly decreases the threshold for rotation and the stationary tilted drop configuration observed for clean drop is replaced by a spinning drop with either a wobbling inclination or a very low inclination. These behaviors resemble the predicted response of rigid ellipsoids in uniform electric fields. At even stronger electric fields, the particles can form dynamic wings or the drop implodes. The similar behavior of particle-covered and surfactant-laden drops provides new insights into understanding stability of Pickering emulsions. Supported by NSF-CBET 1437545.

  14. Alliance Free and Alliance Cover Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Alberto RODRIGUEZ-VELAZQUEZ; José María SIGARRETA; Ismael GONZALEZ YERO; Sergio BERMUDO

    2011-01-01

    A defensive (offensive) k-alliance in T = (V, E) is a set S (∪) V such that every v in S (in the boundary of S) has at least k more neighbors in S than it has in V \\ S. A set X (∪) V is defensive (offensive) k-alliance free, if for all defensive (offensive) k-alliance S, S\\X ≠ φ, i.e., X does not contain any defensive (offensive) k-alliance as a subset. A set Y (∪) V is a defensive (offensive) k-alliance cover,if for all defensive (offensive) k-alliance S, S ∩ Y ≠ φ, i.e., Y contains at least one vertex from each defensive (offensive) k-alliance of T. In this paper we show several mathematical properties of defensive (offensive) k-alliance free sets and defensive (offensive) k-alliance cover sets, including tight bounds on their cardinality.

  15. Stiefel-Whitney classes of curve covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Let D be a Dedekind scheme with the characteristic of all residue fields not equal to 2. To every tame cover Cto D with only odd ramification we associate a second Stiefel-Whitney class in the second cohomology with mod 2 coefficients of a certain tame orbicurve [D] associated to D. This class is then related to the pull-back of the second Stiefel-Whitney class of the push-forward of the line bundle of half of the ramification divisor. This shows (indirectly) that our Stiefel-Whitney class is the pull-back of a sum of cohomology classes considered by Esnault, Kahn and Viehweg in `Coverings with odd ramification and Stiefel-Whitney classes'. Perhaps more importantly, in the case of a proper and smooth curve over an algebraically closed field, our Stiefel-Whitney class is shown to be the pull-back of an invariant considered by Serre in `Revêtements à ramification impaire et thêta-caractéristiques', and in this case our arguments give a new proof of the main result of that article.

  16. Proceedings of the symposium to review Volume III of the Annual Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, F.; Norland, D.

    1979-01-01

    This report is a transcript of the proceedings of a two-day Symposium, held in the Fall of 1979 at the University of Maryland in order to independently review the 1978 Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Report to Congress (ARC), Volume III. Participants included energy forecasting experts from the academic community and the private sector; other Federal, State, and local government energy experts; and Office of Applied Analysis, EIA, staff members. The Symposium and its transcript are a critique of the underlying 1978 ARC assumptions, methodologies, and energy system projections. Discussions cover the short-, mid-, and long-term periods, national and international forecasts, source and consuming sectors and projected economic impacts. 27 figures, 22 tables.

  17. Utility FGD survey: January--December 1989. Volume 1, Categorical summaries of FGD systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M.

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  18. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the Application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 2 contains 16 papers in a poster session and 8 papers in the contaminant plume containment and remediation and landfill stabilization Focus Areas. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  20. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  1. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  2. Panel discussion: Proposals for improving OCL

    OpenAIRE

    Brucker, Achim D.; Clark, Tony; Dania, Carolina; Georg, Geri; Gogolla, Martin; Jouault, Frederic; Teniente López, Ernest; Wolff, Burkhart

    2014-01-01

    During the panel session at the OCL workshop, the OCL community discussed, stimulated by short presentations by OCL experts, potential future extensions and improvements of the OCL. As such, this panel discussion continued the discussion that started at the OCL meeting in Aachen in 2013 and on which we reported in the proceedings of the last year's OCL workshop. This collaborative paper, to which each OCL expert contributed one section, summarises the panel discussion as well as describes the...

  3. Collected software engineering papers, volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1992 through November 1993. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 11th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  4. Collected software engineering papers, volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1993 through October 1994. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 12th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.

  5. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  6. Industrial Maintenance, Volume I. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the first of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains two sections. Section 1 overviews the philosophies, purposes, and goals for vocational education in Georgia. Contents of section 2 include a discussion of employability skills, description of the occupational…

  7. La Experiencia Mexicana (The Mexican Experience). Volumes I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Neal B.

    Designed to be used as part of a comprehensive social studies program on Mexican culture, this two-volume manual, written in Spanish, offers an instructional package on Mexican culture, stressing an art-architecture perspective, which can be used at the secondary, college and adult levels. The teacher's guide, Volume I, includes a discussion of a…

  8. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  9. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  10. Solving Set Cover with Pairs Problem using Quantum Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yudong; Jiang, Shuxian; Perouli, Debbie; Kais, Sabre

    2016-09-01

    Here we consider using quantum annealing to solve Set Cover with Pairs (SCP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that plays an important role in networking, computational biology, and biochemistry. We show an explicit construction of Ising Hamiltonians whose ground states encode the solution of SCP instances. We numerically simulate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in order to test the performance of quantum annealing for random instances and compare with that of simulated annealing. We also discuss explicit embedding strategies for realizing our Hamiltonian construction on the D-wave type restricted Ising Hamiltonian based on Chimera graphs. Our embedding on the Chimera graph preserves the structure of the original SCP instance and in particular, the embedding for general complete bipartite graphs and logical disjunctions may be of broader use than that the specific problem we deal with.

  11. Hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten; Karlberg, Gustav; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    . The energetics of adsorption and desorption of hydrogen on/from different types of sites on the Pd-Au(111) surface are assessed by means of density functional theory calculations combined with thermodynamic modeling. Based on the density functional and Monte Carlo data, the hydrogen evolution activity......A theoretical investigation of electrochemical hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd is presented. The size and shape of monoatomically high Pd islands formed on the Au(111) surface are determined using Monte Carlo simulations, for Pd coverages varying from 0.02 to 0.95 ML...... line defects for Pd island formation and hydrogen evolution are discussed. It is argued, with support from theoretical data, that this kind of defects is likely to be responsible for a dramatic increase in activity observed experimentally [ChemPhysChem 7, 985 (2006); Electrochim. Acta 52, 5548 (2007...

  12. Covering Resilience: A Recent Development for Binomial Checkpointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-09-12

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, required, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algorithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We describe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding implementation and discuss first numerical results.

  13. Discussion Technique: The Twice-Around

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a discussion technique: the twice-around. A variant on the circular response discussion, the twice-around engages students by beginning with students' questions, ensuring equal time for all participants and inviting discussants to build on previous contributions. In the twice-around, participants sit in a circle,…

  14. Design and Test of a Deployable Radiation Cover for the REgolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carte, David B.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Jones, Michael P.; Masterson, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The REgolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) instrument contains a one-time deployable radiation cover that is opened using a shape memory alloy actuator (a "Frangibolt") from TiNi Aerospace and two torsion springs. The door will be held closed by the bolt for several years in cold storage during travel to the target asteroid, Bennu, and it is imperative to gain confidence that the door will open at predicted operational temperatures. This paper briefly covers the main design features of the radiation cover and measures taken to mitigate risks to cover deployment. As the chosen FD04 model Frangibolt actuator has minimal flight heritage, the main focus of this paper is the testing, results and conclusions with the FD04 while discussing key lessons learned with respect to the use of the FD04 actuator in this application.

  15. Investigating the Feasibility of Geo-Tagged Photographs as Sources of Land Cover Input Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyron Antoniou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geo-tagged photographs are used increasingly as a source of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, which could potentially be used for land use and land cover applications. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the feasibility of using this source of spatial information for three use cases related to land cover: Calibration, validation and verification. We first provide an inventory of the metadata that are collected with geo-tagged photographs and then consider what elements would be essential, desirable, or unnecessary for the aforementioned use cases. Geo-tagged photographs were then extracted from Flickr, Panoramio and Geograph for an area of London, UK, and classified based on their usefulness for land cover mapping including an analysis of the accompanying metadata. Finally, we discuss protocols for geo-tagged photographs for use of VGI in relation to land cover applications.

  16. A Variable Precision Covering-Based Rough Set Model Based on Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical rough set theory is a technique of granular computing for handling the uncertainty, vagueness, and granularity in information systems. Covering-based rough sets are proposed to generalize this theory for dealing with covering data. By introducing a concept of misclassification rate functions, an extended variable precision covering-based rough set model is proposed in this paper. In addition, we define the f-lower and f-upper approximations in terms of neighborhoods in the extended model and study their properties. Particularly, two coverings with the same reductions are proved to generate the same f-lower and f-upper approximations. Finally, we discuss the relationships between the new model and some other variable precision rough set models.

  17. Discussion of the Entanglement Entropy in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Chen-Te

    2016-01-01

    Quantum gravity needs to be satisfied by the holographic principle, and the entanglement entropy already has holographic evidences via anti-de Sitter/ Conformal field theory correspondence. Thus, we explore principles of quantum gravity via the entanglement entropy. We compute the entanglement entropy in two dimensional Einstein-Hilbert action to understand quantum geometry and area law. Then we also discuss two dimensional conformal field theory because we expect strongly coupled conformal field theory can describe perturbative quantum gravity theory. We find universal terms of the entanglement entropy is independent of a choice of an entangling surface in two dimensional conformal field theory for one interval and some cases of multiple intervals. To extend our discussion to generic multiple intervals, we use a geometric method to determine the entanglement entropy. Finally, we argue translational invariance possibly be a necessary condition in quantum gravity theory from ruing out volume law of the entangl...

  18. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Volumes I-II and Overhead Transparencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallek, Max

    This two-volume textbook and collection of overhead transparency masters is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The following topics are covered in the first volume: getting off to a good start, doing market research, forecasting sales, financing a small business, understanding the different legal needs of different types…

  19. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 5. Program logic manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume is the Programmer's Manual. It covers: a system overview, attractiveness component of gravity model, trip-distribution component of gravity model, economic-effects model, and the consumer-surplus model. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism.

  20. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…