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  1. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales; Diffusionseffekte in volumenselektiver NMR auf kleinen Laengenskalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-21

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 {mu}m could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  2. Zusammenfassungen auf Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassungen auf Deutsch
    BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience
    GEHIRN. Breitenforschung in der Künstlichen Intelligenz und den Neurowissenschaften
    ISSN 2067-3957
    Band 1, Heft 4
    Oktober 2010: “ Herbst, 2010”
    www.brain.edusoft.ro
    Chefredakteur: Bogdan Pătruţ

  3. Zusammenfassungen auf Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Patrut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassungen auf Deutsch
    BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience
    GEHIRN. Breitenforschung in der Künstlichen Intelligenz und den Neurowissenschaften
    ISSN 2067-3957
    Band 2, Heft 1
    Januar 2011
    www.brain.edusoft.ro
    Chefredakteur: Bogdan Pătruţ

  4. Zusammenfassungen auf Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassungen auf Deutsch
    BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience
    GEHIRN. Breitenforschung in der Künstlichen Intelligenz und den Neurowissenschaften
    ISSN 2067-3957
    Band 1, Heft 3
    Juli 2010: “Einen glücklichen Sommer 2010!”
    www.brain.edusoft.ro
    Chefredakteur: Bogdan Pătruţ

  5. Interruptibility-Detektierung auf Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Krenz, David

    2016-01-01

    Der Fokus dieser Seminararbeit liegt auf der Thematik der Unterbrechbarkeit eines Smartphone Benutzers. Wann sollte man ihn auf neue Mitteilungen aufmerksam machen? Wie soll man ihn darauf aufmerksam machen? Es soll ein Eindruck und eine gewisse Übersicht in diesem Bereich geschaffen werden. Es werden Aspekte besprochen die Einfluss in das Konzept von solch Software haben. Es ist dabei wichtig die Psyche des Benutzers zu verstehen und mit einzubringen. Außerdem werden einige Ideen beziehungsw...

  6. Bilder auf der virtuellen Landkarte

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Ob Standorte von Kirchen in Deutschland, Schlössern und Rittergütern in Sachsen oder Mühlen in Brandenburg, ob hausnummerngenauer Nachweis von Wohnhäusern in der Dresdner Neustadt oder der Sammlungsorte von Kunstwerken – seit Sommer 2007 können die geografischen Bezüge der Aufnahmen aus der Bilddatenbank der Deutschen Fotothek komfortabel und übersichtlich auf Karten- und Satellitenbildern dargestellt werden.

  7. Intensitätsverteilung auf der Sonnenscheibe

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuhofer, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Intensitätsverteilung auf der Sonnenscheibe. Strahlungsgleichgewicht in den sichtbaren Fleckschichten. Diagramm. Entstehungszeit um 1935. Quelle: Zeitschrift für Astrophysik, Heft V, S. 318, Abb. 10 Signatur: Astr.-HGD-A-45

  8. Solarstrahlungsvorhersage auf der Basis numerischer Wettermodelle

    OpenAIRE

    Girodo, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Verfahren zur Vorhersage der solaren Einstrahlung zur Anwendung in der Solarenergie für einen Vorhersagehorizont bis zu 3 Tagen auf der Basis verschiedener numerischer Wettermodelle analysiert und weiterentwickelt. Dazu wurde das mesoskalige Modell MM5 systematisch auf die Verwendbarkeit zur Strahlungsmodellierung analysiert. Des Weiteren wurde eine im Vergleich dazu besser geeignete Vorhersage der Solarstrahlung vom europäischen Wetterdienst (ECMWF) in Bezug au...

  9. Hepatische Effekte von Wachstumshormon auf den Glukosestoffwechsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufinatscha K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Untherapierter Wachstumshormonmangel im Erwachsenenalter (AGHD ist mit viszeraler Adipositas, Dyslipidämie, Insulinresistenz und Fettleber verbunden. Interessanterweise finden sich viele der AGHD-Merkmale auch bei Patienten mit metabolischem Syndrom. Die nichtalkoholische Fettlebererkrankung (NAFLD gilt als hepatische Manifestation des metabolischen Syndroms. In einigen Studien wurden bei Patienten mit NAFLD verminderte Konzentrationen von zirkulierendem IGF-1, dessen Synthese zu einem großen Teil durch Wachstumshormon (GH reguliert wird, beschrieben. Mäuse, welche eine hepatische Wachstumshormondefizienz aufweisen, zeigen zahlreiche phänotypische Charakteristika des metabolischen Syndroms, unter anderen auch eine Fettlebererkrankung. Dies legt einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Wachstumshormon und der Entstehung einer NAFLD nahe. Ziel unserer Studie ist es, in einem Zellkulturmodell die Effekte des Wachstumshormons auf den intrazellulären Glukosestoffwechsel näher zu untersuchen. Im Detail sollen Auswirkungen einer verminderten Wachstumshormonrezeptorexpression auf den Insulinsignaltransduktionsweg, den Glykogengehalt und auf Schlüsselenzyme der Glukoneogenese untersucht werden. Präliminäre Daten zeigen, dass eine verminderte Wachstumshormonrezeptorexpression mit intrazellulären Veränderungen des hepatischen Glukosestoffwechsels verbunden ist. Die verminderte Insulinsensitivität könnte auf Alterationen im Insulinsignaltransduktionsweg und Änderungen der Glukoneogenese zurückzuführen sein. Diese präliminären Daten weisen darauf hin, dass Wachstumshormon einen direkten Einfluss auf den Glukosestoffwechsel in der Leber hat. Zudem legen sie nahe, dass Veränderungen im Wachstumshormonstoffwechsel einen wichtigen pathophysiologischen Mechanismus in der Entstehung der Fettlebererkrankung bei Patienten mit metabolischem Syndrom darstellen könnten. Der folgende Artikel soll einen kurzen Überblick über die Effekte von Wachstumshormon

  10. Entwicklung einer umweltgerechten Erdbestattungspraxis im Hinblick auf die Folgewirkungen auf Böden, Grundwasser und Atmosphäre

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Im Rahmen des von der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt geförderten Forschungsprojektes „Entwicklung einer umweltgerechten Erdbestattungspraxis im Hinblick auf die Folgewirkungen auf Böden, Grundwasser und Atmosphäre“ wurden deutschlandweit 19 Friedhöfe untersucht. Auf den Friedhöfen wurden Bohrstockkartierungen vorgenommen, Leitprofile angelegt und Monitoringstationen installiert. Zusätzlich wurden auf einem Ackerstandort künstliche Gräber angelegt, in denen ein Monitoring von Matrixpotentiale...

  11. Auf dem Weg zum universellen Quantencomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Dieter; Calarco, Tommaso; Zoller, Peter

    2000-11-01

    Die Quantenmechanik eröffnet faszinierende Perspektiven für die Kommunikation und die Informationsverarbeitung. Um universell programmierbare Quantenrechner realisieren zu können bedarf es der Implementierung von Konzepten zur Quanteninformationsverarbeitung die sich auf eine große Anzahl von Qubits anwenden lassen.

  12. Beobachtungen auf Celebes und Sumatra, briefliche Mittheilung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carthaus, E.

    1899-01-01

    Auf meiner Reise nach der an der Westküste von Celebes gelegenen, in die Strasse von Makassar ausmündenden Palos-Bai machte ich während eines fast dreimonatlichen Aufenthaltes in dem östlich an dieselbe angrenzenden Gelände folgende, gewiss interessante Beobachtung: Obwohl nur einen

  13. Verpackungsproblem: Positionspapier zeigt auf, wie anpacken

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Dank verbesserter Analytik werden immer häufiger chemische Stoffe, die aus der Verpackung stammen, im Lebensmittel nachgewiesen. Ein Positionspapier, erarbeitet von Bio Suisse, FiBL und Fachleuten aus Handel und Industrie, zeigt nun auf, wie die Biobranche das Thema Rückstände durch Verpackungen von Lebensmitteln ganz grundsätzlich angehen muss.

  14. Einflüsse auf Husserl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierna, Carlo; Luft, Sebastian; Wehrle, Maren

    2017-01-01

    Das vorliegende Kapitel setzt sich zum Ziel, die wichtigsten Einflüsse auf Edmund Husserls vor-transzendentale Philosophie darzustellen. Äußere Einflüsse spielen besonders in den Anfängen von Husserls Philosophie eine Rolle, in der späteren Weiterentwicklung der Phänomenologie zu einer

  15. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  16. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  17. Die Wirkung von Alfacalcidol auf den Muskel, das neuromuskuläre System, auf die Sturzgefahr und auf Frakuren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schacht E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Muskelschwäche, neuromuskuläre Defizite, Gleichgewichts- und Gehstörungen sind Manifestationen einer Mobilitätsverschlechterung und erhöhen das Risiko von "intrinsischen" Stürzen. Stürze in höherem Alter brechen Knochen, die Furcht vor Stürzen vermindert das Selbstbewusstsein und körperliche Aktivitäten und dies initiiert einen "Circulus vitiosus". Frakturen werden auch als relevante Folge von Osteoporose angesehen, aber mehr als 90 % der Oberschenkelhalsfrakturen sind sturzbedingt. D-Hormon (1,25[OH]2D; Calcitriol, der aktive Vitamin-D-Metabolit, und sein Rezeptor (VDR spielen eine bedeutende Rolle bei der Muskelentwicklung. Höheres Alter ist signifikant assoziiert mit reduzierter VDR-Expression in menschlichem Skelettmuskelgewebe, genauso wie mit D-Hormon-abhängigen Veränderungen im Muskelfasertyp, Muskelzelldifferenzierung und -metabolismus. Eine positive Korrelation wurde zwischen der femoralen Muskelkraft und -funktion und Serumspiegeln von D-Hormon bei älteren Frauen und Männern gefunden. Diese Wechselwirkung wurde stark unterstützt durch die jüngst gefundene Tatsache, dass höhere D-Hormon-Spiegel im Serum bei älteren Frauen mit niedrigeren Sturzraten korreliert sind. Alle diese Resultate zusammen lassen vermuten, dass die altersassoziierte Zunahme der Stürze teilweise durch einen Abfall der D-Hormon-Spiegel und des VDR erklärbar ist. Eine eingeschränkte Nierenfunktion ist sehr nachteilig für die Aktivierung von D-Hormon und könnte in Zukunft zur Identifizierung von Patienten mit niederer Knochendichte und Muskelleistung, erhöhtem Sturzund Frakturrisiko führen. Die histochemische Klassifizierung basierend auf Muskelbiopsien offenbarte, dass eine sechsmonatige Behandlung mit 1 µg Alfacalcidol täglich die Zahl und den Durchmesser der "Fast Twitch Typ II A"-Fasern erhöht. Bei älteren osteopenischen Frauen war Calcitriol in der Lage, die Abnahme der physischen Performance zu verzögern. Eine signifikante

  18. Lessons on sea; Lektionen auf See

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhold, Nicole

    2013-11-15

    The offshore wind industry has collected a lot of painful experiences. Much of them could have been avoided if one would have heard a bit more on the voices from the neighborhood of offshore countries such as Denmark and the UK or from the oil and gas industry. [German] Die Offshore-Windkraftindustrie hat jede Menge schmerzhafte Erfahrungen gesammelt. Einiges haette man sich ersparen koenne, wenn man ein bisschen mehr auf Stimmen aus der Nachbarschaft in Offshore-Laendern wie Daenemark und Grossbritannien oder aus der Oel- und Gasindustrie gehoert haette.

  19. Macht auf das Tor! - Opens the gate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir de Quadros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Macht auf das Tor! (Abra o portão foi publicado, possivelmente, na primeira metade do século 20. Editado por Max Dirkschneider, Raimund Heuler e Felix Oberborbeck, apresenta músicas, rimas, piadas, jogos e canções.A edição apresentada nesse espaço é de um livro que pertence à família de Carolina Drebes, estudante do curso de Pedagogia do Centro Universitário Franciscano, Santa Maria/RS.

  20. Electronic Commerce auf lokalen Märkten

    OpenAIRE

    Schwickert, Axel C.; Lüders, René

    1999-01-01

    eCommerce, versteht man es als Business-to-Consumer-Beziehung, sollte nicht lediglich unter dem Gesichtspunkt des globalen Handels betrachtet werden. Besonders Markttransaktionen von privaten Haushalten bzgl. Konsumgütern bzw. Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs finden vorwiegend auf lokalen und physischen Märkten statt. Die Bundesbürger verwenden z. B. einen großen Teil ihres verfügbaren Einkommens zum Kauf von Lebensmitteln oder Kleidung, die sie in Kaufhäusern, Supermärkten oder im selbständigen ...

  1. Zum gotischen gen. pl. auf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grošelj

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available Bekanntlich ist die got. Endung -ē eine Besonderheit, der in den übrigen germ. Sprachen nichts Vergleichbares gegenübersteht. Man nimmt wohl -allgemein an, dass es sich um eine innergot. Neuschöpfung handelt; auch ist eine idg. Endung des Gen. Pl. -ēm; linbelegt. Folgender Erklärungsversuch geht von der Annahme aus, dass die Triebkraft für dfese Neuschöpfupg in der Neigung zur Differenzierung des Maskulinums vom Femininum auf -ō (gibō : dagē zu suchen ist. Diese Neigung ist besonders im Nom. und Gen. bemerkbar.

  2. Textsortenklassifikation auf der basus Kommunikativer Grundbedingungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Diewald

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Im folgenden wird versucht, eine Basisklassifikation von Textsorten zu entwerfen, die umfassend und nichtwillkürlich ist. Mit "umfassend" ist gemeint, daß nicht nur ein bestimmter Ausschnitt aus dem Spektrum möglicher Sprachverwendungen untersucht wird, sondern daß alle Vorkommen dominant sprachlicher Kommunikation, mit denen ein Sprecher normalerweise konfrontiert ist, einbezogen werden.1 Mit "nichtwillkürlich" ist zum einen gemeint, daß die Wahl der Klassifikationskriterien nicht beliebig, sondern aus relevanten, textexternen Faktoren ableitbar ist. 2 Zum anderen betrifft das Problem der Willkürlichkeit die Frage, ob ein Modell die schlüssige Zurückführung von Texteigenschaften auf entsprechende Klassifikationsmerkmale ermöglicht.

  3. Akzent auf die Standardsprachen: Regionale Spuren in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Kolly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Durch ihren fremdsprachlichen Akzent gibt eine Sprecherin ihre Herkunft, ihre Muttersprache preis. So werden die meisten Deutschschweizer beim Sprechen einer Fremdsprache als solche erkannt. Kann aber aufgrund dieses "Deutschschweizer" Akzents auch erkannt werden, aus welchem Dialektgebiet ein Sprecher stammt? Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt eine empirische Studie zur Perzeption dialektaler Akzente vor. Er beschäftigt sich mit dialektalen Akzenten im Standarddeutschen und im Französischen und zeigt mit quantitativen Methoden auf, dass dialektal bedingte Akzentunterschiede von native speakers durchaus wahrgenommen und lokalisiert werden können. Darüber hinaus und als Basis für die Auswertung des empirischen Teils leistet die vorliegende Arbeit eine Beschreibung und Kategorisierung der dialektalen Lautlandschaft der Schweiz sowie einen Ansatz zur Beschreibung der Aussprache des Französischen durch Schweizer Dialektsprecher.

  4. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  5. NMR of lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Larry L. Landucci

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will consider the basic aspects and findings of several forms of NMR spectroscopy, including separate discussions of proton, carbon, heteronuclear, and multidimensional NMR. Enhanced focus will be on 13C NMR, because of its qualitative and quantitative importance, followed by NMR’s contributions to our understanding of lignin...

  6. Collective traffic control systems on motorways; Kollektive Verkehrsbeeinflussung auf Autobahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschfink, H. [Heusch (Dr.-Ing. H.) Boesefeldt (Dipl.-Ing. J.) Beratende Ingenieure fuer Verkehrstechnik und Datenverarbeitung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The contribution describes direct and indirect traffic control measures. A general architecture of traffic control systems for motorways is outlined whose key requirement is the availability of current data. Intelligent methods of traffic flow analysis for data complementation and assessment are described. The key role of the computer center in the general architecture is stressed, and new developments in traffic jam management are outlined. [German] Schwerpunkt dieses Aufsatzes ist die Beschreibung direkter und indirekter Steuerungsmassnahmen im Rahmen kollektiver Verkehrsbeeinflussungsmassnahmen. Es wird eine generelle Architektur von Verkehrsbeeinflussungsanlagen auf Autobahnen skizziert, deren grundlegende Voraussetzung die Verfuegbarkeit aktueller Daten ist. Ausserdem werden intelligente Verkehrsflussanalyse-Verfahren zur Datenvervollstaendigung und -abschaetzung beschrieben. Es wird die tragende Rolle der Verkehrsrechnerzentrale innerhalb der Gesamtarchitektur beruecksichtigt und auf neuere Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des Staumanagements hingewiesen. (orig.)

  7. Mögliche Auswirkungen eines Brexit auf den deutschen Agrarhandel

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; Freund, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Als Folge des Brexit steht eine Neuausrichtung der Handelsbeziehungen zwischen dem Vereinigten Königreich mit der Europäischen Union ganz oben auf der politischen Agenda der britischen Regierung. Hiervon wären insbesondere auch die deutschen Agrar- und Nahrungsmittelmärkte betroffen, für die das Vereinigte Königreich (VK) einen bedeutsamen Handelspartner darstellt. Um die möglichen Auswirkungen eines Brexit auf die deutsche Agrar- und Nahrungsmittelindustrie abzuschätzen, wurde in dieser Stud...

  8. Nährwertkennzeichnung und ihr Einfluss auf das Verbraucherverhalten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Storcksdieck, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    , die an prominenter Stelle auf der Vorderseite der Verpackung angebracht werden. Neuere Forschung zeigt, dass die meisten Verbraucher in der Lage sind, solche Informationen korrekt zu verarbeiten, dass aber nur eine Minderheit der Verbraucher dies im Geschäft auch tut. Die entscheidende Frage der...

  9. "Jung sein heißt, auf der Spur sein ..."

    OpenAIRE

    Lämmermann, Godwin

    1987-01-01

    "Jung sein heißt, auf der Spur sein ..." : Beobachtungen zu empir. Unters. über d. Beziehung d. Jugend zu Religion u. Kirche. - In: Jugend in der Kirche zur Sprache bringen / Godwin Lämmermann ... (Hrsg.) - München : Kaiser, 1987. - S. 111-124

  10. NMR logging apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  11. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D/AUF1 interacts with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In an attempt to characterize the interaction occurring between cellular proteins and hnRNP L, yeast two-hybrid screening was conducted using a HeLa cDNA library. Some of the cDNA clones were found to harbour a partial human hnRNP D/AUF1 cDNA (GeneBank accession number NM_031369). In this study, we ...

  12. Der Einfluss von Phlorizin auf den programmierten Zelltod von Erythrozyten

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Anja Doris

    2013-01-01

    Erythrozyten sind in der Lage, suizidalen Zelltod zu betreiben. Von einigen Substanzen ist bereits bekannt, dass sie die sogenannte Eryptose beeinflussen. Beispiele dafür sind Quecksilber, Monensin, Benzethonium und Oridonin, welche zu den Stimulatoren der Eryptose gehören. Blebbistatin, Koffein und Endothelin, gehören zu den Inhibitoren. In dieser Studie sollte untersucht werden, welchen Einfluss Phlorizin auf den Ablauf des suizidalen Zelltodes von Erythrozyten hat. Es wurde belegt, dass si...

  13. Der Anspruch eines neuen Blicks auf den russischen Kulturraum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marchetta

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Monographie zur Filmgeschichte der Sowjetunion und Rußlands erhebt den Anspruch, die erste und aktuellste Gesamtdarstellung des „sowjetischen und russischen Films“ zu sein. Durch ein Überblenden von Innenperspektive und Außenperspektive versucht das international und interdisziplinär besetzte Autor/-innenteam um Christine Engel am Beispiel der Entwicklung des Filmgeschehens einen anderen, neuen Blick auf den russischen Kulturraum.

  14. Wirkungen von Psychopharmaka auf das Lärmerleben

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Hans-Peter (Prof. Dr.); Kohnen, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In allgemeinpsychologischen Lärmexperimenten ist eine monotone Beziehung zwischen physikalischer Lautstärke und erlebter Lautheit bestens abgesichert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird gezeigt, daß diese Beziehung unter Medikationsbedingungen nicht gilt. In einem 3 X 3 X 2-faktoriellen Versuchsplan mit den Faktoren physikalische Lautstärke (weißes Rauschen in 76, 79 und 82 dB), Medikation (Tranquilizer, Plazebo, Stimulizer) und (niedere bzw. hohe) Ansprechbarkeit auf Medikamente beurteilten ins...

  15. Erfolgsfaktor Payment - Der Einfluss der Zahlungsverfahren auf Ihren Umsatz

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Ernst; Breitschaft, Markus; Krabichler, Thomas; Wittmann, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Haben Sie sich auch schon gefragt, wie viele Kunden in Webshops den Kaufvorgang abbrechen, weil sie nicht die richtigen Zahlungsverfahren angeboten bekommen? Aber welche Kombination von Bezahlverfahren verspricht insgesamt den größten Erfolg? Diesen Fragen ist ibi research an der Universität Regensburg zusammen mit dem Partnerkonsortium des E-Commerce-Leitfadens auf den Grund gegangen. Mehr als 1.300 Endkunden haben sich an der Umfrage beteiligt. Ihnen wurden verschiedene realitätsnahe Si...

  16. Nanoporöses Aluminiumoxid als funktionale Beschichtung auf Biomaterialien

    OpenAIRE

    Pedimonte, Birgit Joana

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterialien im Hartgewebekontakt setzen unterschiedliche Eigenschaften, wie hohe mechanische Stabilität bei geringem Reibungsverlust, eine gute Anbindung in das Empfängergewebe und einen hemmenden Einfluss auf die Bildung von Biofilmen, voraus. Insbesondere Beschichtungen welche eine gezielte Modifikation von topologischen, mechanischen und chemischen Oberflächeneigenschaften bewirken, haben sich als aussichtsreich erwiesen, um eine stabile Knochen/Implantat Anbindung herzustellen. Nanostr...

  17. Die Schweiz auf dem Weg zu einer tiefgreifenden Dekarbonisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Betschart, Mario; Füssler, Jürg; Iten, Rolf; Bertschmann, Damaris; Thalmann, Philippe; Vielle, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Die Schweiz kann ihre CO2-Emissionen aus dem Energieverbrauch bis zum Jahr 2050 um 4 Tonnen pro Einwohner reduzieren und damit die Vorgaben des international angestrebten Ziels einer globalen Klimaerwärmung von 2°C einhalten. Eine detaillierte Analyse mit ver-schiedenen Szenarien im Rahmen des Deep Decarbonization Pathways Projects konnte auf-zeigen, dass die damit verbundenen Kosten für die Wirtschaft verkraftbar sind.

  18. Der Einfluss der Expertise auf das Antwortverhalten in Delphi-Studien : ein Hypothesentest

    OpenAIRE

    Blind, Knut; Cuhls, Kerstin

    2001-01-01

    'Basierend auf den Ergebnissen von Delphi'98, einer Delphi-Studie zur globalen Entwicklung von Wissenschaft und Technik im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), wurde der Einfluss der Expertise der beteiligten Experten auf das Antwortverhalten getestet. Eine erste Hypothese, dass Experten mit geringem Expertenwissen mit geringerer Wahrscheinlichkeit an der zweiten Befragungsrunde teilnehmen, konnte für die Mehrheit der zwölf Technikfelder bestätigt werden. Auf Basis...

  19. Entwicklung und Optimierung eines biotechnologischen Prozesses zur Herstellung mikrobieller Rhamnolipide auf Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Leitermann, Frank Paul

    2008-01-01

    Im Fokus dieser Arbeit steht die Entwicklung und Optimierung eines biotechnologischen Prozesses zur Herstellung von Rhamnolipiden auf Basis von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen. Ein Schwerpunkt lag hierbei auf der Entwicklung und Evaluierung einer Standardprozessführung, sowie eines auf einem Parallelbioreaktor basierenden, effizienten Screening-Systems. Ein Produk­tions­stammvergleich wurde durchgeführt. Zur Produktanalyse sollte FTIR-Spektroskopie als alternative Analysemethode eingesetzt werden.

  20. E-Commerce. Auswirkungen auf den Bucheinzelhandel. Mit Ergebnissen der zweiten Branchenumfrage in der Region Franken

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Axel

    2008-01-01

    2004 erschienen mit E-Commerce. Auswirkungen auf den Bucheinzelhandel die Ergebnisse einer empirischen Studie des Forschungsprojekts Electronic Publishing und E-Commerce im Buchhandel, welche die Auswirkungen des elektronischen Handels auf die Strukturen des Buchhandels untersuchten. Die Studie wurde 2007 wiederholt, um aus den Veränderungen Erkenntnisse über die Etablierung des elektronischen Handels im Bucheinzelhandel zu gewinnen. Die hier vorliegenden Ergebnisse zeigen auf, wie sich die E...

  1. Effekte spezifischer Interventionen im Sportunterricht auf die exekutiven Funktionen von Primarschulkindern

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Mirko; Jäger, Katja; Roebers, Claudia M.; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Einleitung Die Annahme, dass Sport nicht nur positive Effekte auf die körperliche Gesundheit, sondern auch auf die kognitive Leistung haben kann, konnte anhand experimenteller Studien mit Erwachsenen weitgehend bestätigt werden. Ob dieselben Effekte auch bei Kindern und Jugendlichen vorzufinden sind, kann mit Blick auf die mangelnde empirische Evidenz in dieser Altersgruppe kaum zufriedenstellend beantwortet werden (Chang et al., 2012). Will man zudem der Frage nach den Wirkmechanismen nac...

  2. Untersuchungen zu kumulativen psychischen und physiologischen Effekten des fliegenden Personals auf der Kurzstrecke

    OpenAIRE

    Niederl, Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Die fliegerische Tätigkeit auf der Kurzstrecke in der zivilen Luftfahrt unterliegt arbeitsspezifischen Belastungsfaktoren, die sich in wesentlichen Punkten von denen auf der Langstrecke unterscheiden. Eine hohe Arbeitsbelastung auf der Kurzstrecke ist mit vielen Starts und Landungen am Tag verbunden. Neben der Anzahl der Flugabschnitte können auch lange Flugdienstzeiten und/oder unregelmäßige Arbeitszeiten sowie der Zeitdruck während der Einsätze auf der Kurzstrecke zur Belastung für Cockpitb...

  3. Dissoziation von Sauerstoffmolekülen auf der Al(111) Oberfläche

    OpenAIRE

    Behler, J.

    2004-01-01

    Die Dissoziation von Sauerstoffmolekülen auf der Al(111) Oberfläche ist eine wichtige Modellreaktion für die Adsorption einfacher Moleküle auf Metalloberflächen. Zahlreiche Experimente haben gezeigt, dass die anfängliche Haftwahrscheinlichkeit thermischer Sauerstoffmoleküle beim Auftreffen auf die Al(111) Oberfläche nur etwa ein Prozent beträgt. Eine einfache Erklärung wäre die Existenz von Energiebarrieren auf dem Dissoziationsweg, die nur von Molekülen höherer kinetischer Energie überwunden...

  4. Der Tempel des Chnum der 18. Dyn. auf Elephantine

    OpenAIRE

    Bommas, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Rekonstruktion des Chnumtempels der 18. Dyn. auf Elephantine aufgrund der in späteren Bauwerken sekundär verbauten oder vor Ort frei herumliegenden Architekturfragmente. Ausser einem in der Mitte der 90-er Jahre erschienenen Vorbericht ist über den Chnumtempel der 18. Dyn. nie zuvor umfassend geforscht worden. Da aus verschiedenen Gründen Ausgrabungen, die zur Gewinnung des Grundrisses hätten führen können, bis in das Jahr 2000 nicht durchgeführt wurden, s...

  5. Naturliche Stadtformen. Mariout, Szenen des Verfalls oder Hoffnung auf Erhaltung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Aref

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandrias Stadttausdehnung ist groesstenteils festgelegt worden durch zwei Naturelemente: das Mittelmeer und den Mariout See. Erholung und Tourismus konzentriert sich an Alexandrias Mittelmeerkueste, waehrend Industrie und Abwassergraeben um den Mariout See gelegen sind. Trotz vieler Plaene und Strategien, den See zu erhalten, haben Stadtaussdehnung, industrielle Verschmutzung und Abwasser einem sehr negatives Einfluss auf das Oekosystem des Sees. Auserdem hat sich der See waehrend der letzen Jahrzente wegen der Landanschemmungen aus dieser ueberbevoelkerten Grossstadt dramatisch verkleinert. Das Essay debattiert die sehr schwierige Frage: welches ist die Zukunft des Sees?Und wie kann man ein Gleichgewicht finden zwischen der Erhaltung des Oekosystems und der notwendingen Stadtendwicklung?

  6. NMR, water and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    1982-01-01

    This Thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and

  7. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  8. NMR for chemists and biologists

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajo, Rodrigo J

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance or NMR. It presents the basic foundations of NMR in a non-mathematical way and provides an overview of both recent and important biological applications of NMR.

  9. Einflüsse vergesellschaftender Faktoren auf posttraditionale Vergemeinschaftungsformen am Beispiel der eSport-Szene

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuck, André; Schmuck, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    "Dieses Paper stellt Erkenntnisse vor, die im Rahmen einer empirischen Untersuchung der 'eSport-Szene' gewonnen werden konnten. Einerseits werden Einflüsse und Auswirkungen gesellschaftlicher Wandlungs- und Veränderungsprozesse (Technisierung, Kommerzialisierung, Wettbewerb) auf posttraditionale Vergemeinschaftungsformen und auf die sozialen Beziehungen involvierter Akteure dargestellt. Andererseits werden daraus ableitbare Überlegungen zum Beitrag technikzentrierter jugendkultureller Szenen ...

  10. Isoflavone und Soja haben keine Wirkung auf die Knochendichte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burckhardt P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavone sind eine Untergruppe von östrogenähnlichen Pflanzensteroiden, welche sich vor allem in Sojaprodukten finden. Es wird ihnen eine östrogenähnliche, knochenschützende Wirkung zugeschrieben. Aber die genaue Analyse der wissenschaftlichen Literatur ergibt, dass abgesehen von den Tierversuchen nur wenige klinische Versuche mit diesen Substanzen als kontrollierte, randomisierte Studien durchgeführt worden sind. Dabei wurden positive Teilresultate hochgespielt. Wissenschaftliche Metaanalysen dieser Versuche kamen eindeutig zum Schluss, dass Soja und Isoflavone keine Wirkung auf die Knochendichte aufzeigen. Es hat sich aber ergeben, dass Equol, das von bestimmten Bakterien im Darm aus dem Isoflavon Daidzein gebildet wird, die Substanz ist, welche am meisten mit den Östrogen-Rezeptoren beta bindet, und dass nur ca. 30 % der Frauen zur Equol-Bildung befähigt sind, in Asien aber 50 %. Deswegen wurden auch mit Equol klinische Versuche durchgeführt, und zwar bei Frauen, die kein Equol bilden konnten. Aber wiederum blieben die Resultate negativ bezüglich einer Wirkung auf die Knochendichte. Es muss daher geschlossen werden, dass Isoflavone und Equol in der Prävention und Therapie der Osteoporose wirkungslos sind.

  11. Isovlavone und Soja haben keine Wirkung auf die Knochendichte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burckhardt P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavone sind eine Untergruppe von östrogenähnlichen Pflanzensteroiden, welche sich vor allem in Sojaprodukten finden. Es wird ihnen eine östrogenähnliche, knochenschützende Wirkung zugeschrieben. Aber die genaue Analyse der wissenschaftlichen Literatur ergibt, dass abgesehen von den Tierversuchen nur wenige klinische Versuche mit diesen Substanzen als kontrollierte, randomisierte Studien durchgeführt worden sind. Dabei wurden positive Teilresultate hochgespielt. Wissenschaftliche Metaanalysen dieser Versuche kamen eindeutig zum Schluss, dass Soja und Isoflavone keine Wirkung auf die Knochendichte aufzeigen. Es hat sich aber ergeben, dass Equol, das von bestimmten Bakterien im Darm aus dem Isoflavon Daidzein gebildet wird, die Substanz ist, welche am meisten mit den Östrogen-Rezeptoren beta bindet, und dass nur ca. 30 % der Frauen zur Equol-Bildung befähigt sind, in Asien aber 50 %. Deswegen wurden auch mit Equol klinische Versuche durchgeführt, und zwar bei Frauen, die kein Equol bilden konnten. Aber wiederum blieben die Resultate negativ bezüglich einer Wirkung auf die Knochendichte. Es muss daher geschlossen werden, dass Isoflavone und Equol in der Prävention und Therapie der Osteoporose wirkungslos sind.

  12. Einfluss von Mykorrhizapilzen und assoziativen Bakterien auf die Bioverfügbarkeit von Nähr- und Schadelementen bei Kulturpflanzen auf Schwermetall belasteten Böden

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Celia

    2008-01-01

    In Freiland- und Gefäßversuchen sollten Aufnahme der Schwermetalle (SM) und Wuchsverhalten an Kulturpflanzen im Hinblick auf die Wirkung von arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilzen (AM) Glomus intraradices, des Bakterienstammes Pseudomonas fluorescens (RA56) und als Dualinokulation auf Schwermetall belasteten Böden untersucht werden. Als Versuchspflanzen wurden Mais (Zea maize L.) und Weidelgras (Lolium multiflorum L.) und zusätzlich die Sonnenblume (Helianthus annuus L.) in Gefäßversuchen eingesetzt...

  13. ING4 inhibits the translation of proto-oncogene MYC by interacting with AUF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiling; Pan, Chunyang; Zhang, Lantian; Ding, Chenhong; Chen, Fei; Wang, Qinwan; Wang, Kesheng; Zhang, Xin

    2013-06-05

    The ING4 tumor suppressor plays a significant role in various cancer-related cellular processes. AUF1 affects the stability and/or translation of multiple mRNAs via binding to an AU-rich element in the 3'-untranslated regions. In this study, we identify AUF1 as a novel and direct binding partner of ING4. mRNP immunoprecipitation assays indicated that ING4, AUF1 and MYC mRNA present in the same mRNP complex. ING4 suppressed MYC protein expression without altering MYC mRNA levels, and abolished the cell proliferation induced by AUF1 in K562 cells. These results suggest that ING4 may regulate MYC translation by its association with AUF1. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NMR Studies of Peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Nigel Charles

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Peroxidases are a haem-containing group of enzymes with a wide diversity of function within biological systems. While a common characteristic is the ability to catalyse the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water, it is the accompanying processes of hormone synthesis and degradation which have generated such a high level of interest. However, information at the molecular level is limited to a single well-resolved crystal structure, that of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. This thesis presents a strategy for the investigation of peroxidase structure and function based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a technique which has the ability to address aspects of both protein structure and protein dynamics in solution. The application of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques has been developed in the context of plant peroxidases, notably the isoenzyme HRP-C derived from the horseradish root. Characterisation of the proton NMR spectra of HRP -C in resting and ligated states provided new information enabling the structure of the binding site for aromatic donor molecules, such as indole-3-propionic, ferulic and benzhydroxamic acids, to be resolved. In order to overcome difficulties encountered with a protein of the complexity of peroxidase, additional information was obtained from chemical shift parameters and the use of peroxidase variants produced by site-directed mutagenesis. A comparative study using NMR spectroscopy was undertaken for wild-type recombinant HRP-C expressed in Escherichia coli, and two protein variants with substitutions made to residues located on the distal side of the haem pocket, Phe41 to Val and Arg38 to Lys. NMR analyses of a plant peroxidase from barley grains and the fungal peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus were also successful using methods conceived with HRP-C. Examination of three specifically constructed recombinant protein variants of C. cinereus

  15. NMR spectroscopic study and DFT calculations of GIAO NMR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1H, proton coupled and decoupled 13C, DEPT, HETCOR NMR spectra, the magnitude of one bond 1JCH coupling constants and 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of 1,9-diaminononane (danon, C9H22N2) have been reported for the first time. 1H, 13C NMR chemical shifts and 1JCH coupling constants of danon ...

  16. Solution NMR in structural genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Adelinda; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H

    2006-10-01

    Structural genomics (also known as structural proteomics) aims to generate accurate three-dimensional models for all folded, globular proteins and domains in the protein universe to understand the relationship between protein sequence, structure and function. NMR spectroscopy of small (structural genomics projects for more than six years now. Recent advances coming from traditional NMR structural biology laboratories as well as large scale centers and consortia using NMR for structural genomics promise to facilitate NMR analysis making it even a more efficient and increasingly automated procedure.

  17. Magic Angle Spinning NMR Metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive, quantitative, reproducible, untargeted and unbiased method that requires no or minimal sample preparation, and is one of the leading analytical tools for metabonomics research [1-3]. The easy quantification and the no need of prior knowledge about compounds present in a sample associated with NMR are advantageous over other techniques [1,4]. 1H NMR is especially attractive because protons are present in virtually all metabolites and its NMR sensitivity is high, enabling the simultaneous identification and monitoring of a wide range of low molecular weight metabolites.

  18. Market analysis offshore wind energy; Marktanalyse Windenergie auf See

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    will implement against the background of high Investment volumes and technical challenges each but usually only a manageable number of projects in Europe per year. The various legal requirements in the area of offshore wind energy, and in particular planning, Licensing and network side should be further coordinated and more interlinked. Considerations are also European regulations and the support systems of our European neighbors. [German] Der Nordsee kommt im Vergleich zur Ostsee aufgrund des verfuegbaren Flaechenangebots ein deutlich groesseres Potenzial zu. Im Vergleich zur Nordsee liegen die erschliessbaren Potenziale der Ostsee allerdings deutlich kuestennaeher, was nicht nur beim Netzanschluss sondern auch beim Bau und Betrieb der Anlagen Effizienzvorteile haben kann. Noch ist unklar, ob die verfuegbaren Flaechen im Kuestenmeer der Ostsee in relevanten Groessenordnung erweitert werden koennen. Der entsprechende Raumplanungsprozess wurde im Jahr 2014 durch Mecklenburg-Vorpommern angestossen. Die Analyse der im Bundesfachplan Offshore festgelegten Cluster, die der Offshore-Netzentwicklungsplan in Zonen fuer die Nord- und Ostsee (1-5) strukturiert, zeigt, dass zumindest in der Ausbauphase bis 2025, ggf. auch bis 2030 die kuestennaeheren Zonen 1 und 2 in Nord- und Ostsee ein ausreichendes Flaechenpotential bieten und zugleich im Hinblick auf einen effizienten und strukturierten Netzausbau erschlossen werden sollten. Der Ausbaupfad bis 2020 ermoeglicht die von der Industrie in Aussicht gestellten Kostendegressionen in Hoehe von ueber 30 Prozent. Die bereits heute erkennbaren Kostensenkungen muessen insofern im Rahmen der Erarbeitung des Ausschreibungsdesigns beruecksichtigt werden. Dies gilt auch fuer die Frage eines optimalen Park- und Anlagendesigns aus energiewirtschaftlicher Sicht. Neben jeweils projektinternen Schwierigkeiten auf Netz- wie auf Windparkseite liegen erhebliche Schnittstellenprobleme zwischen Windpark und Netzanschluss. Dies liegt u.a. an den

  19. Künstliche neuronale Netze zur Beschreibung des Anlegerverhaltens auf spekulativen Märkten

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    Künstliche neuronale Netze zur Beschreibung des Anlegerverhaltens auf spekulativen Märkten : eine theoretisch-experimentelle Analyse. - Berlin : Tenea, 1999. - 190 S. - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 1999

  20. Ökonomische Auswirkungen der Umstellung auf ökologische Erzeugung in der Karpfenteichwirtschaft – Projektkonzept

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle, Martin; Aas, Manuel; Hamm, Ulrich; Lasner, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Die traditionelle Karpfenteichwirtschaft ist eine sehr naturnahe Form der Aquakultur. Deshalb ist der Karpfen prädestiniert für eine Erzeugung nach ökologischen Maßstäben. Derzeit liegen in Deutschland keine Publikationen über die betriebswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen der Umstellung von Betrieben der Karpfenteichwirtschaft auf ökologische Wirtschaftsweise vor. Auf Grundlage von Deckungsbeitragsrechnungen der konventionellen Erzeugung werden betriebswirtschaftliche Konsequenzen der Umstellung ...

  1. Gefahrenfall und Entempirisierung. Anmerkungen zur Unterscheidung literarischer Akteure und Personen mit Bezug auf Oliver Jahraus’ Replik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David-Christopher Assmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anmerkungen zur Unterscheidung literarischer Akteure und Personen mit Bezug auf Oliver Jahraus’ Replik. Die Replik setzt die seit der ersten Ausgabe von Textpraxis geführte Diskussion um eine Neufokussierung der systemtheoretischen Literaturwissenschaft fort. David-Christopher Assmann antwortet auf Oliver Jahraus’ Kritik an der Unterscheidung von Akteuren und Personen im Literatursystem, die jener in Ausgabe #3 in die Debatte eingeführt hat.

  2. Reaktionen auf das Stigma psychischer Erkrankung : Sozialpsychologische Modelle und empirische Befunde

    OpenAIRE

    Rüsch, N

    2010-01-01

    Zusammenfassung. In der jüngeren Forschung zu Stigma und Diskriminierung gewinnt die Frage an Bedeutung, wie Angehörige einer stigmatisierten Minderheit ihre eigene Stigmatisierung wahrnehmen und auf sie reagieren. Aus der sozialpsychologischen Literatur zu anderen Gruppen, etwa ethnischen Minderheiten, liegen gut belegte Modelle zu diesem Thema vor, die bisher jedoch noch kaum auf Menschen mit psychischen Erkrankungen angewandt wurden. Dazu zählen (1) ein Stress-Coping-Modell von St...

  3. Einfluss reduzierter Grundbodenbearbeitung auf Erträge und Bodenparameter im Dauerfeldversuch Gladbacherhof

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Auf dem Lehr- und Versuchsbetrieb für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität Gießen, Gladbacherhof, wurde seit 1998 ein 2-faktorieller Dauerfeldversuch durchgeführt. Der Einfluss verschiedener Fruchtfolgen und unterschiedlicher Systeme der Grundbodenbearbeitung (konventioneller Streichblechpflug, Zweischichtenpflug und pfluglose Bearbeitung) auf Pflanzen, Boden und Umwelt wurden untersucht. In diesem Artikel werden die Ergebnisse von Pflanzenerträgen und mehreren Bodenparametern bezüglich der B...

  4. Einfluss der Transportvorgänge auf die Effizienz von Harnstoffkatalysatoren in SCR-Abgasanlagen

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    Die Arbeit untersucht die Transportvorgänge in metallischen, beschichteten Hydrolysekatalysatoren sowie den Einfluss der Homogenisierung des Reduktionsmittels gasseitig vor dem Katalysator auf den Harnstoffumsatz. Die Steigerung desselben gegenüber unstrukturierten Trägern wird im Wesentlichen durch drei Aspekte bestimmt. Die Formgebung der Substratkanäle erzwingt eine Strömungsumlenkung im Substrat, wodurch es zur (1) Ablagerung des Reduktionsmittels auf der Substratoberfläche kommt. Bei die...

  5. Einfluss von organischen Umweltpartikeln auf die rBet v 1-induzierte Basophilenaktivierung birkenpollenallergischer Individuen

    OpenAIRE

    Belloni, Benedetta

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss von organischen Umweltpartikeln auf die allergeninduzierte Basophilenaktivierung untersucht. Als Maß für die Aktivierung wurden basophile Granulozyten mit Hilfe der Durchflußzytometrie auf ihre CD63-Expression analysiert. Es konnte eine Erhöhung der CD63-Expression birkenpollenallergischer Patienten bei Inkubation mit organischem Umweltextrakt und rBet v 1 (Hauptallergen der Birkenpollen) im Vergleich zu alleiniger Inkubation mit rBet v 1 beobacht...

  6. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  8. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  9. Saualpe, ihr Mineralienreichtum und die auf ihr zuerst entdeckten Mineralien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Faninger

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel befaßt sich mit der Geologie der Saualpe in Kärnten und der benachbarten Koralpe, insbesondere noch mit den zu Anfang des vorigen Jahrhunderts auf der Saualpe zuerst entdeckten Mineralien. Es handelt sich dabei um Zoisit, Karinthin und Löllingit. Was der Saualpe anbelangt, muß im letztem Zeitabschnitt noch Kahlerit dazugezählt werden, während im Zusammenhang mit der Koralpe als neu entdecktes Mineral Weinebeneit erwähnt werden soll. Die Saualpe wurde auch die Typusfundstätte für die Gesteinsart Eklogit.Femer befaßt sich der Artikel mit Personen, die mit der Entdeckung derSaualpe im Pionierzeitalter der Mineralogie verbunden gewesen sind. Von diesen müssen jedenfalls Freiherr Sigmund Zois (1747-1819, der Mineralienhändler Simon Preschern, der bischöfliche Generalvikar von Klagenfurt bzw. später Bischof von Linz Sigismund von Hohenwart (1745-1825 und der Mineraloge Friederich Mohs (1773-1836 erwähnt werden.

  10. Applications of unilateral NMR in nondestructive testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shatrughan

    2004-01-01

    In general, in NMR spectroscopy a sample is prepared for the NMR measurement, positioned in the magnet, measured, and discarded. But when non-destructiveness of the sample is more important, it becomes important to rely on relaxation analysis at low resolution NMR. If the samples are big in size the unilateral or single-sided NMR in inhomogeneous fields is an important choice. Unilateral NMR or inside-out NMR is one recognized technique in the field of low resolution NMR. The NMR-MOUSE (Mobil...

  11. Bodenüberwachung nach der Umstellung des Guts Rheinau auf biologische Bewirtschaftung - Berichtsperiode 1999-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Paul; Pfiffner, Lukas; Fließbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Mit der Umstellung des Gutes Rheinau von konventionell integrierter Bewirtschaftung auf bio-dynamische Wirtschaftsweise im Jahre 1998 wurde ein Monitoring der Bodenfruchtbarkeit begonnen, dass die biologische Veränderung im Boden während der Umstellungsphase dokumentieren sollte. Die ersten Bodenproben wurden 1999 auf drei Ackerschlägen und einer permanenten Naturwiese gezogen und dann wurden im Jahr 2002, 2005 und 2010 auf den in 1999 definierten Teilflächen je Schlag weitere Bodenproben ent...

  12. Annual reports on NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Graham A; McCarthy, M J

    1995-01-01

    Over recent years, no other technique has grown to such importance as that of NMR spectroscopy. It is used in all branches of science where precise structural determination is required and where the nature of interactions and reactions in solution is being studied. Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy has established itself as a means for the specialist and non-specialist alike to become familiar with new applications of the technique in all branches of chemistry, including biochemistry, and pharmaceutics. This volume focuses on theoretical aspects of NMR nuclear shielding and on applications of

  13. NMR Studies of Polymer Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenbaum, Steve

    2001-01-01

    .... The primary tool is pulsed field gradient NMR. A static field gradient method was developed which makes possible variable pressure diffusion measurement, and the application to the important fuel cell membrane NAFION constitute the first results...

  14. β-NMR sample optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zakoucka, Eva

    2013-01-01

    During my summer student programme I was working on sample optimization for a new β-NMR project at the ISOLDE facility. The β-NMR technique is well-established in solid-state physics and just recently it is being introduced for applications in biochemistry and life sciences. The β-NMR collaboration will be applying for beam time to the INTC committee in September for three nuclei: Cu, Zn and Mg. Sample optimization for Mg was already performed last year during the summer student programme. Therefore sample optimization for Cu and Zn had to be completed as well for the project proposal. My part in the project was to perform thorough literature research on techniques studying Cu and Zn complexes in native conditions, search for relevant binding candidates for Cu and Zn applicable for ß-NMR and eventually evaluate selected binding candidates using UV-VIS spectrometry.

  15. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Two-dimensional NMR, COSY,. NOESY, 2D MRI, biomolecular structure determination. The development of Fourier transform NMR in the mid. 1960's, did parallel processing of the collection of NMR data, increased the signal/noise ratio by two orders of magnitude and made it possible to record the proton NMR spectra of.

  16. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, M. Daniel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  17. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  18. Synthese von analogen Filtern auf einer rekonfigurierbaren Hardware-Architektur mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trendelenburg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rekonfigurierbare Analog-Arrays (FPAAs sind der Versuch, die Vorteile der aus der digitalen Welt bekannten FPGAs (Flexibilität, Entwurfsgeschwindigkeit auch für analoge Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der analogen Schaltungstechnik ist die Abbildung von vorgegebenen Schaltungskonzepten auf eine FPAA-Architektur nicht immer einfach lösbar.

    Diese Arbeit stellt einen neuen Ansatz für die Synthese von Filtern auf einer FPAA-Architektur für zeitkontinuierliche Analogfilter mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus (GA vor. Anhand eines Matlab-Modells des FPAA, das eine gute übereinstimmung mit Simulationen des FPAA auf Transistorebene aufweist, wurde gezeigt, dass eine große Vielzahl verschiedener Filterstrukturen auf dieser Architektur dargestellt werden kann. Daraufhin wurde ein Genetischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der es erlaubt, aus einer gegebenen Filterspezifikation Konfigurationsdatensätze zu synthetisieren, die den gewünschten Filter auf die FPAA-Architektur abbilden.

  19. Phase stability, ordering tendencies, and magnetism in single-phase fcc Au-Fe nanoalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, I. A.; Barabash, S. V.; An, J. M.; Belashchenko, K. D.

    2017-10-01

    Bulk Au-Fe alloys separate into Au-based fcc and Fe-based bcc phases, but L1 0 and L1 2 orderings were reported in single-phase Au-Fe nanoparticles. Motivated by these observations, we study the structural and ordering energetics in this alloy by combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations with effective Hamiltonian techniques: a cluster expansion with structural filters, and the configuration-dependent lattice deformation model. The phase separation tendency in Au-Fe persists even if the fcc-bcc decomposition is suppressed. The relative stability of disordered bcc and fcc phases observed in nanoparticles is reproduced, but the fully ordered L1 0 AuFe, L1 2Au3Fe , and L1 2AuFe3 structures are unstable in DFT. However, a tendency to form concentration waves at the corresponding [001] ordering vector is revealed in nearly random alloys in a certain range of concentrations. This incipient ordering requires enrichment by Fe relative to the equiatomic composition, which may occur in the core of a nanoparticle due to the segregation of Au to the surface. Effects of magnetism on the chemical ordering are also discussed.

  20. Medical applications of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy with stable isotopes. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy are summarized. For the most part examples from the March 1983 Puerto Rico symposium are used to illustrate the utility of NMR in medicine. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Dichtefunktionaltheorie und Quantenchemische Untersuchungen auf reinen und benetzten NaCl(001)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, B.

    2009-01-01

    Gewöhnliches Kochsalz, Natriumchlorid (NaCl), ist ein aus dem Alltag bekannter Stoff, mit dem wir alle vertraut sind. Mindestens seit dem Mittelalter, als (Koch-)Salz auf Grund seiner Verwendung als Konservierungsstoff asl "weißes Gold" bekannt war, hat es eine Faszination auf Menschen ausgeübt und eine zentrale Rolle in der Gesellschaft gespielt. Viele fundamentale physikalische und chemische Eigenschaften von NaCl und insbesondere Oberflächen von Kochsalzkristallen sind jedoch noch immer un...

  2. Gasgenerator-Treibstoff auf der Basis von Ammoniumdinitramid (ADN) und Verfahren zu seiner Herstellung

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Horst; Schlechtriem, Stefan; Weiser, Volker; Schaller, Uwe; Hürttlen, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Es wird ein Gasgenerator-Treibstoff vorgeschlagen, welcher einen monergolen Treibstoff auf der Basis von Ammoniumdinitramid (ADN) und wenigstens ein Lösungsmittel enthält, wobei der Gasgenerator-Treibstoff wenigstens 65 Mass.-% ADN und höchstens 5 Mass.-% Wasser, jeweils bezogen auf die Mischung aus ADN und Lösungsmittel, enthält, und wobei wenigstens ein Lösungsmittel von Ammoniak (NH3) gebildet ist. Der Gasgenerator-Treibstoff ist vorzugsweise im Wesentlichen wasserfrei und enthält keine we...

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Coaquira, L. León Fénix J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. de los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of = (6.9\\pm 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe_3O_4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe_3O_4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell...

  4. Flow NMR of complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, U.; Bagusat, F. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A combination of NMR imaging and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR is applied to investigate flow. NMR longitudinal relaxation is used to generate contrast in a binary system of oil and water. The spatial distribution of each component and its flow pattern are measured separately. As a model a Couette cell with an additional area of high shear is used as model geometry. While a flat smooth interface is found at rest, the interface become bent under rotation, finally emulgation starts because of the velocity differences between the components. Flow from a submillimeter tube into a wide box and out of the box is investigated as well to understand shear-induced mixing and demixing. (orig.)

  5. NMR and dynamics of biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, L.Y.; Barsukov, I.L. [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Several basic experimental analytical NMR techniques that are frequently used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of dynamic and exchange processes, focusing on proteins systems, are described: chemical exchange (slow exchange, fast exchange, intermediate exchange), heteronuclear relaxation measurements (relaxation parameters, strategy of relaxation data analysis, experimental results and examples, motional model interpretation of relaxation data, homonuclear relaxation); slow large-scale exchange and hydrogen-deuterium exchange are also studied: mechanisms of hydrogen exchange in a native protein, methods for measuring amide exchange rates by NMR, interpretation of amide exchange rates. 9 fig., 3 tab., 56 ref.

  6. Die von Dr. F. Kopstein auf den Molukken und einigen benachbarten Inseln gesammelten Froschlurche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, R.

    1930-01-01

    Im Vergleich zu der Reptilien-Ausbeute Kopstein's (1926, S. 71) sind die von ihm auf den Molukken und einigen benachbarten Eilanden während der Jahre 1922/24 zusammengebrachten Amphibien naturgemäss wesentlich artenärmer. Durch mehrere bemerkenswerte Neunachweise und zwei fiir die Wissenschaft neue

  7. Psychographische Verortung von Menschen mit Diabetes: Auswirkungen auf die Produktgestaltung und Kommunikation

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczak, Uwe; Aranda, Guillem; Broitzmann, Reiner; Flatau, Gero; Friedrich, Peter; Goda, Steffen; Grell, Benjamin; Hagemann, Dennis; Kaiser, Axel; Kleine, Christoph; Klimmeck, Jan; Lang, Evelyn; Preß, Andrea; Pukelsheim, Christian; Rösing, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Für den Erfolg eines Produktes oder einer Dienstleistung ist die umfassende Kenntnis der Bedürfnisse, Wahrnehmungs- und Entscheidungsfilter von Zielgruppen entscheidend. Nur eine zielgerichtete, zur Zielgruppe passende Produktentwicklung und -vermarktung kann Auf Dauer erfolgreich sein. Da soziodemographische Zielgruppendefinitionen heute alleine nicht valide genug sind, um Zielgruppen umfassend zu verstehen, werden im Marketing zu-nehmend psychographische Verortungen von Zielgruppen verwende...

  8. Magnetic behaviour of AuFe and NiMo alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be prepared in the disordered phase by fast quenching from the melt. Their magnetic behaviours are very different. AuFe is the archetypal 'spin-glass' which shows a .... For energy differences less than this, our statements will be qualitative. The calculations are LSDA-self-consistent and the Madelung energy is constructed.

  9. Electrosmog - effects of electrotechnical fields on the human organism; Elektrosmog - Wirkungen elektrotechnischer Felder auf den Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E. [Forschungsstelle fuer Elektropathologie, Physiologischen Inst., Univ. Witten/Herdecke (Germany); Palic, M.

    1994-02-01

    The present article gives an overview of the currently known basic effects of fields emanating from electrical devices and plants on the human organisation and explains the defined limit values. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die wesentlichen Wirkungen der von elektrischen Anlagen und Geraeten ausgehenden Felder auf den menschlichen Organismus gegeben sowie die Grenzwerte erlaeutert. (orig./MG)

  10. [Heinz von zur Mühlen. Auf den Spuren einiger revlaer Firmen und Familien] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Auf den Spuren einiger revlaer Firmen und Familien. In : Buch und Bildung im Baltikum. Münster : LIT, 2005, lk. 527-541. Pika tänava majade omanikest alates 17. sajandist - perekonnad Koch, Meyer, Kluge, Ströhm, Wassermann, Glehn, Eggers, Koppelson, Weiss. Nii loob autor pildi Tallinna "firmade ajaloost"

  11. Rheumapatienten im OP und auf der Intensivstation: Worauf muss geachtet werden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polster B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In den vergangenen Jahren hat das Verständnis für rheumatologische Krankheitsbilder deutlich zugenommen. Dies ergibt sowohl bei geplanten als auch bei akuten Eingriffen einige prä-, peri- als auch postoperativ zu berücksichtigende Aspekte, auf die im Folgenden eingegangen wird. Besonders wichtig ist eine genaue Risikoevaluierung und damit auch -minimierung.

  12. Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-pot synthesis, biofunctionalization and toxicity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariti, A.; Desai, P.; Maddirala, S. K. Y.; Ercal, N.; Katti, K. V.; Liang, X.; Nath, M.

    2014-09-01

    Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles have been synthesized using a single step hot-injection precipitation method. The synthesis involved using Fe(CO)5 as iron precursor and HAuCl4 as gold precursor in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. Oleylamine helps in reducing Au3+ to Au0 seeds which simultaneously oxidizes Fe(0) to form Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles. Triton® X-100 was employed as a highly viscous solvent to prevent agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Detailed characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Mössbauer and magnetometry studies. To evaluate these nanoparticles’ applicability in biomedical applications, L-cysteine was attached to the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was tested using CHO cells by employing MTS assay. L-cysteine modified Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were qualitatively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; and quantitatively using acid ninhydrin assay. Investigations reveal that that this approach yields Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles with an average particle size of 80 nm. Mössbauer studies indicated the presence of Fe in Fe3+ in A and B sites (tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively) and Fe2+ in B sites (octahedral). Magnetic measurements also indicated that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic in nature due to Fe3O4 region. The saturation magnetization for the bifunctional nanoparticles was observed to be ˜74 emu g-1, which is significantly higher than the previously reported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mössbauer studies indicated that there was no significant Fe(0) impurity that could be responsible for the superparamagnetic nature of these nanoparticles. None of the investigations showed any presence of other impurities such as Fe2O3 and FeOOH. These Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional

  13. Push-through Direction Injectin NMR Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) are the two major spectroscopic techniques successfully used in metabolomics studies. The non-invasive, quantitative and reproducible characteristics make NMR spectroscopy an excellent technique for detection of endogeno...

  14. Biomolecular NMR: Past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, John L; Westler, William Milo

    2017-08-15

    The editors of this special volume suggested this topic, presumably because of the perspective lent by our combined >90-year association with biomolecular NMR. What follows is our personal experience with the evolution of the field, which we hope will illustrate the trajectory of change over the years. As for the future, one can confidently predict that it will involve unexpected advances. Our narrative is colored by our experience in using the NMR Facility for Biomedical Studies at Carnegie-Mellon University (Pittsburgh) and in developing similar facilities at Purdue (1977-1984) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1984-). We have enjoyed developing NMR technology and making it available to collaborators and users of these facilities. Our group's association with the Biological Magnetic Resonance data Bank (BMRB) and with the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) has also been rewarding. Of course, many groups contributed to the early growth and development of biomolecular NMR, and our brief personal account certainly omits many important milestones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deuterium Exchange Kinetics by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment which allows such concepts as kinetics, catalysis, isotope shifts, coupling constants, and the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for quantitative work to be covered in the same exercise. Background information, experimental procedures used, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  16. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  17. Time domain NMR applied to food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Voda, A.; Witek, M.M.; As, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Time-domain NMR is being used throughout all areas of food science and technology. A wide range of one- and two-dimensional relaxometric and diffusometric applications have been implemented on cost-effective, robust and easy-to-use benchtop NMR equipment. Time-domain NMR applications do not only

  18. nmr spectroscopic study and dft calculations of giao nmr shieldings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    bond 1JCH coupling constants and 13C NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of 1,9-diaminononane (danon,. C9H22N2) ... The 13C spin-lattice relaxation time is the important experimental quantity for examining the dynamical ..... Montgomery, J.A.; Vreven, T.; Kudin, K.N.; Burant, J.C.; Millam, J.M.; Iyengar, S.S.;. Tomasi, J.

  19. Polymers under mechanical stress- an NMR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Ute; Scheler, Ulrich [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (Germany); Xu, Bo; Leisen, Johannes; Beckham, Haskell W. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Low-field NMR using permanent magnets in Halbach arrangements permit NMR investigation without the limits present in high-field NMR. The lower field in conjunction with confined stray field permit the application of NMR, in particular relaxation NMR in a stretching apparatus and a rheometer. Crystalline and amorphous fraction of semi-crystalline polymers are distinguished by their transverse relaxation times. Upon mechanical load the relaxation times of the amorphous fraction changes as seen in in-situ measurements on polypropylene rods. During the formation of a neck the crystalline fraction becomes more prominent.

  20. PVT Degradation Studies: NMR Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Herman M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Under certain environmental conditions, polyvinyl toluene (PVT) plastic scintillator has been observed to undergo internal fogging. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the state of water inside the PVT. The deuterium NMR results show that water absorbed by PVT under warm, humid conditions enters several distinct environments, and when the PVT is transferred from incubation to ambient temperature and humidity the water is lost on a time scale of a few hours from these samples. Most of the deuterium NMR peaks can be assigned to bulk liquid water, but almost 35% of the detected signal intensity is contained in a resonance that resembles spectra of water contained in nanometer-scale pores in mesoporous carbon.

  1. Sorption isotherm measurements by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisen, Johannes; Beckham, Haskell W; Benham, Michael

    2002-01-01

    An experimental setup is described for the automated recording of sorption isotherms by NMR experiments at precisely defined levels of relative humidity (RH). Implementation is demonstrated for a cotton fabric; Bloch decays. T1 and T2* relaxation times were measured at predefined steps of increasing and decreasing relative humidities (RHs) so that a complete isotherm of NMR properties was obtained. Bloch decays were analyzed by fitting to relaxation functions consisting or a slow- and a fast-relaxing component. The fraction of slow-relaxing component was greater than the fraction of sorbed moisture determined from gravimetric sorption data. The excess slow-relaxing component was attributed to plasticized segments of the formerly rigid cellulose matrix. T1 and T2* sorption isotherms exhibit hysteresis similar to gravimetric sorption isotherms. However, correlating RH to moisture content (MC) reveals that both relaxation constants depend only on MC, and not on the history of moisture exposure.

  2. NMR hyperpolarization techniques for biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2015-02-16

    Recent developments in NMR hyperpolarization have enabled a wide array of new in vivo molecular imaging modalities, ranging from functional imaging of the lungs to metabolic imaging of cancer. This Concept article explores selected advances in methods for the preparation and use of hyperpolarized contrast agents, many of which are already at or near the phase of their clinical validation in patients. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Differences in the deposition of radionuclides to leafy vegetables; Unterschiede bei der Ablagerung von Radionukleiden auf verschiedene Blattgemuesearten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschiersch, J.; Shinonaga, T.; Heuberger, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Gemuesebau; Bunzl, K.; Pliml, A.; Dietl, F.; Keusch, M.

    2003-07-01

    Experimenten in einer Depositionskammer die trockene Ablagerung von elementarem, gasfoermigem Radiojod und partikelgebundenem Radiocaesium auf erntereife Blattgemuesearten untersucht. Die gleichzeitige Exposition von Endivie, Kopfsalat, Pfluecksalat, Gruenkohl, Weisskohl und Spinat fand unter homogenen Bedingungen mit Kontrolle der relevanten Parameter ({sup 131} vertical stroke {sub 2}-Anteil, Partikelmedian, Stomataoeffnung, Luftfeuchte und -temperatur) statt. Bei der (gewichtsbezogenen) Jodablagerung wurden fuer alle Fruehlingsarten signifikante Unterschiede festgestellt: Auf Blattspinat wurde grob 3mal mehr {sup 131} vertical stroke abgelagert als auf Pfluecksalat, 4mal mehr als auf Endievie und 9mal mehr als auf Kopfsalat. Bei Caesium konnte nicht zwischen der Disposition auf Spinat und Pfluecksalat unterschieden werden, auf beide Arten wurde signifikant grob doppelt so viel {sup 134}Cs wie auf Endivie und 3mal so viel wie auf Kopfsalat abgelagert. Bei den Sommerarten wurden fuer alle Spezies signifikante Unterschiede gemessen. In beiden Experimenten ergab sich, dass {sup 131} vertical stroke auf Spinat am meisten deponiert wurde, grob 3mal bzw. 6mal mehr als auf Gruenkohl und 35mal bzw. 100mal mehr als auf Weisskohl. Caesium wurde jedoch am meisten auf Gruenkohl deponiert, gut doppelt so viel wie auf Spinat und 35mal bzw. 80mal so viel wie auf Weisskohl. Auf die geschlossenen Koepfe von Weisskohl und Kopfsalat wurde also immer am wenigsten abgelagert, bei der Gasdeposition erwiesen sich die vielen geoeffneten Stomata bei Spinat als effizienzerhoehend, bei der Partikeldeposition zusaetzlich die gekraeuselten, rauhen Blaetter von Gruenkohl und Endivie. Die Abschaetzung der Depositionsgeschwindigkeiten ergab, dass die Ablagerung von {sup 131} vertical stroke {sub 2} im Mittel etwa eine Groessenordnung effektiver als die von partikulaerem {sup 134}Cs war, wobei allerdings die Joddeposition bei Spinat besonders hoch ausfiel. Die Verdopplung des Partikeldurchmessers bei sonst

  4. [Auf Wache für die Nation : Erinnerungen der Weltkriegsagent Juozas Gabrys berichtet (1911-1918)] / Mart Kuldkepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuldkepp, Mart, 1983-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Auf Wache für die Nation : Erinnerungen der Weltkriegsagent Juozas Gabrys berichtet (1911-1918). Hrsg. von Eberhard Demm und Christina Nikolajew. Verlag Peter Land. Frankfurt am Main u.a. 2013

  5. Einfluss von Thujonen und Omeprazol auf die Aktivität der glatten Muskelzelle im Ileum der Ratte

    OpenAIRE

    Huhnstock, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Untersucht wurde der Einfluss von Thujonen (α Thujon, αβThujon, natürliches Mischthujon) und Omeprazol auf die Ruheaktivität, den Basaltonus, die pharmakologisch vorstimulierte glatte Muskulatur ,sowie die elektrisch induzierte Kontraktionen und die elektrisch induzierte Relaxation unter nicht-adrenergen nicht-cholinergen Bedingungen an der glatten Muskelzelle im Ileum von Ratten. Auf die Ruheaktivität und den Basaltonus hatten die Substanzen keinen Einfluss. Thujone hatten einen signifikante...

  6. Auswirkungen des Urin-pH auf das Ballonvolumen bei Dauerkathetern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannek J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Eine häufige Komplikation der transurethralen oder suprapubischen Dauerkatheterversorgung ist die Dislokation durch eine insuffiziente Katheterblockung. Die Auswirkungen des Urin-pH auf das Ballonvolumen sind dabei bisher nicht untersucht. Methodik: In einer In-vitro-Studie wurden Dauerkatheter aus Silikon und Latex mit entweder 10%iger Glyzerinlösung oder mit 0,9%iger NaCl-Lösung geblockt und 14 Tage bei verschiedenen pH-Werten in künstlichem Urin gelagert. Nach diesem Zeitraum wurde die rückgewonnene Flüssigkeit aus dem Katheterballon gemessen. Ergebnisse: Bei allen Katheterballons wurde eine Reduktion des Ballonvolumens von maximal 20 % festgestellt. Weder das verwendete Füllmedium noch das Kathetermaterial hatte signifikante Auswirkungen auf das Ausmaß der Volumenänderung. Schlußfolgerung: Die Änderung des Urin-pH führt nicht zu Volumenverschiebungen im Katheterballon.

  7. Optical trapping of Au-Fe alloyed nanoparticles: a theoretical calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Ebrahim

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles, such as Au-Fe alloys, are very interesting for their properties. In this article, the optical trapping of Au-Fe nanoparticles are investigated as a function of Fe atomic percent doped in gold nanoparticles, theoretically. Using a generalized Lorenz–Mie theory, it is shown that the maximum force exerted on the alloyed nanoparticles enhances about 75% with increasing Fe atomic percent. It is shown that the trapping strength is depth-dependent and shows a 20% increment in shallow positions and a 17% decrement in the axial direction in the optimal depth, which is 7 μ {{m}} deep inside the sample. Wavelength dependence of alloyed nanoparticles is studied too.

  8. Hoffen auf den guten Willen – von der unverbindlichen Institutionalisierung feministischer Forderungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Bußmann

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nachdem die Protagonistinnen der ersten Frauenbewegung prinzipiell den Zugang in die Institutionen erstritten hatten, wurde seit den 1968ern der Marsch durch die Institutionen angetreten. Diesen untersucht Stefanie Ehmsen für die Vereinigten Staaten und die Bundesrepublik, wobei sie die Unterschiede als Resultat der jeweiligen politischen Traditionen interpretiert. Zwar wartet sie mit gut recherchierten und lesenswerten Fallbeispielen auf, doch das Potential der Analyse wird leider nicht ausgeschöpft.

  9. Laufen humanoider Roboter auf regelungstechnischer Basis mit Echtzeitmodifikation der Fußpositionen

    OpenAIRE

    Urbann, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Humanoide Roboter werden allgemein angenommen als die universelle Maschine, die in Zukunft dem Menschen gefährliche oder unzumutbare Arbeit abnehmen kann, wie beispielsweise Rettungsmissionen in Erdbebengebieten oder ähnliche Katastrophenszenarien. Zweibeiniges Laufen hat hier entscheidende Vorteile gegenüber anderen Fortbewegungsmethoden in vielen Situationen: unwegsames Gelände, enge Passagen oder ähnliches. Die Stabilität selbst auf ebenem Boden ist bei weitem noch nicht mit menschlichem L...

  10. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy, E-mail: cvipulanandan@uh.edu

    2013-10-15

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10 mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Modeled the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production. • Effects of Au/Fe nonoparticles on Serratia Bacterial Growth and Production of Biosurfactant. • Scanning Electron Micrograph of bacteria-nanoparticles interaction.

  11. Auswirkungen pränataler Stressbelastung auf die Verhaltensregulation des Kindes

    OpenAIRE

    Riecker, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Zielsetzung: In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wurden die Auswirkungen pränataler Stressbelastung auf die Verhaltensregulation des Kindes bis zum Alter von 6 Monaten im prospektiven Längsschnitt untersucht. Design: Prospektive Langzeitstudie mit Messzeitpunkten während der Schwangerschaft, sowie 2-4 Tage, 6 Wochen, 3 und 6 Monate nach der Geburt. Methode: Die Untersuchungsstichprobe umfaßte 86 schwangere Frauen, die mittels standardisierter Fragebögen zu ihrer wahrgen...

  12. Der Einfluss von Johanniskraut (Hypericum perforatum L.) - Extrakt auf immunologische Prozesse in Mikroglia-Zellkulturen

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    Mikroglia besitzen zwei wichtige Aufgaben im Gehirn. Zum einen haben sie eine wichtige Rolle als Gliazellen, mit der Aufgabe Neuronen zu versorgen und zu schützen. Zum anderen stellen sie die immunkompetenten Zellen des Gehirns dar. Mikroglia sind die ersten Zellen im Gehirn, die auf Störung bzw. Verletzung und Infektionen reagieren. Die Aktivierung der Zellen ist durch mehrere funktionelle Änderungen gekennzeichnet, die darauf ausgelegt sind, der entstandenen Störung entgegen zu wirken. Durc...

  13. Die Ultraschalluntersuchung der Beinvenen bei Verdacht auf Venenthrombose - eine Übersicht

    OpenAIRE

    Schellong SM

    2009-01-01

    Der Ultraschall der Beinvenen ist das wichtigste bildgebende Verfahren zum Nachweis oder Ausschluss einer tiefen Beinvenenthrombose. Er ist vollständig nicht-invasiv, beliebig oft wiederholbar und lässt sich bei entsprechender Übung in wenigen Minuten durchführen. Bei sicherer Beherrschung sollte die Zahl unklarer Befunde im Bereich von nicht mehr als 12 % liegen. Der folgende Übersichtsartikel beschreibt den Untersuchungsablauf auf der Basis der Anatomie der Beinvenen, wie er sich ...

  14. Einfluss von Hypoxie auf das Transkriptom und das mitochondriale Proteom von Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Willeke, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxie beeinflusst Wachstum und Entwicklung von Pflanzen. Da Sauerstoff als finaler Elektronenakzeptor der Atmungskette dient, sind Mitochondrien möglicherweise an der Wahrnehmung von Hypoxie und der Weiterleitung des Signals durch retrograde Regulierung beteiligt. In dieser Arbeit wurden daher die Auswirkungen von Hypoxie auf das Transkriptom und das mitochondriale Proteom von Arabidopsis thaliana untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Inkubationssysteme für Zellkulturen, Keimlinge und Pflanzen...

  15. Konzeption und Evaluation eines Laufbandtests zur Ableitung einer Trainingsempfehlung auf absolut maximalem Fettverbrennungs-Niveau

    OpenAIRE

    Zwingenberger, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Hintergrund: Ein Training bei absolut maximalem Fettumsatz ist interessant für Patienten, gesundheitsorientierte Freizeitsportler und leistungsorientierte Sportler. Der klassische Laktat-Laufband-Stufentest erlaubt keine direkten Schlüsse auf den Fettumsatz. Methoden: Es wurde ein modifizierter ergospirometrischer Laufband-Stufentest entwickelt, der eine 30 minütige Einlaufphase bei sehr geringer Intensität besitzt. In der darauf folgenden Auswertungsphase wurde alle 3 min die Geschwindigkei...

  16. Spiel auf Zeit - die Debatte um die Zukunft der europäischen Verfassung

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    "Mit Beginn der österreichischen Ratspräsidentschaft am 1. Januar 2006 hat die Debatte um die Zukunft der Europäischen Verfassung neuen Schwung erhalten. Die österreichische Regierung hatte auf der feierlich inszenierten Konferenz 'The Sound of Europe' erste Impulse zur Stimulierung der 'Reflexionsphase', die sich die EU nach den gescheiterten Verfassungsreferenden in Frankreich und den Niederlanden im Frühjahr 2005 verordnet hatte, gesendet. Schon bald meldeten sich zahlreiche Staats- und Re...

  17. Die Auswirkungen von Corporate Social Responsibility und Organisationsstolz auf Mitarbeiter im Kundenkontakt

    OpenAIRE

    Rhein, Miriam Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) leistet nicht nur einen Beitrag zum Wohle verschiedener Stakeholdergruppen, sondern kann sich über die Wahrnehmungen der Mitarbeiter positiv auf den Unternehmenserfolg auswirken. Es kann angenommen werden, dass eine von den Mitarbeitern als glaubwürdig wahrgenommene CSR das Potenzial besitzt, kurzfristige, äußerst intensive positive emotionale sowie längerfristig anhaltende einstellungsbezogene Reaktionen hervorzurufen und dadurch relevante Verhaltensweis...

  18. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05459a

  19. Automatische Indexierung auf Basis von Titeln und Autoren-Keywords – ein Werkstattbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Toepfer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatische Verfahren sind für Bibliotheken essentiell, um die Erschliessung stetig wachsender Datenmengen zu stemmen. Die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft sammelt seit Längerem Erfahrungen im Bereich automatischer Indexierung und baut hier eigene Kompetenzen auf. Aufgrund rechtlicher Restriktionen werden unter anderem Ansätze untersucht, die ohne Volltextnutzung arbeiten. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Einblick in ein laufendes Teilprojekt, das unter Verwendung von Titeln und Autoren [1]-Keywords auf eine Nachnormierung der inhaltsbeschreibenden Metadaten auf den Standard-Thesaurus Wirtschaft (STW abzielt. Wir erläutern den Hintergrund der Arbeit, betrachten die Systemarchitektur und stellen erste vielversprechende Ergebnisse eines dokumentenorientierten Verfahrens vor. Automatic systems are indispensable for libraries in order to make the rapidly growing number of publications accessible to their users. In the past the ZBW – German National Library of Economics – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics has gained practical experience in this field. Due to legal constraints it currently investigates methods that solely use author generated descriptive metadata. This article gives an insight into on-going developments and relates them to past activities. We report on a promising document-oriented approach, which uses author keywords and titles in combination to automatically assign subject headings from the STW Thesaurus for Economics to a document.

  20. A plasma protein corona enhances the biocompatibility of Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Lisa; Christner, Carolin; Storck, Wiebke; Schick, Isabel; Krumbein, Ines; Dähring, Heidi; Haedicke, Katja; Heinz-Herrmann, Karl; Teichgräber, Ulf; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles (JPs) are heteroparticles with discrete domains defined by different materials. Their tunable composition and morphology confer multimodal and versatile capabilities for use as contrast agents and drug carriers in future medicine. Au@Fe3O4 JPs have colloidal properties and surface characteristics leading to interactions with proteins in biological fluids. The resulting protein adsorption layer ("protein corona") critically affects their interaction with living matter. Although Au@Fe3O4 JPs displayed good biocompatibility in a standardized in vitro situation, an in-depth characterization of the protein corona is of prime importance to unravel underlying mechanisms affecting their pathophysiology and biodistribution in vitro and in vivo. Here, we comparatively analyzed the human plasma corona of Au-thiol@Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG JPs (NH2-functionalized and non-functionalized) and spherical magnetite (Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG) particles and investigated its effects on colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses revealed that complex coronas including almost 180 different proteins were formed within only one minute. Remarkably, in contrast to spherical magnetite particles with surface NH2 groups, the Janus structure prevented aggregation and the adhesion of opsonins. This resulted in an enhanced biocompatibility of corona sheathed JPs compared to spherical magnetite particles and corona-free JPs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Sørland, Geir Humborstad

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with the basics, theory and applications of dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR NMR (PFG NMR), this book describes the essential theory behind diffusion in heterogeneous media that can be combined with NMR measurements to extract important information of the system being investigated. This information could be the surface to volume ratio, droplet size distribution in emulsions, brine profiles, fat content in food stuff, permeability/connectivity in porous materials and medical applications currently being developed. Besides theory and applications it will provide the readers with background knowledge on the experimental set-ups, and most important, deal with the pitfalls that are numerously present in work with PFG-NMR. How to analyze the NMR data and some important basic knowledge on the hardware will be explained, too.

  2. The future of NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, John L; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Edison, Arthur S; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Powers, Robert; Raftery, Daniel; Wishart, David S

    2017-02-01

    The two leading analytical approaches to metabolomics are mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although currently overshadowed by MS in terms of numbers of compounds resolved, NMR spectroscopy offers advantages both on its own and coupled with MS. NMR data are highly reproducible and quantitative over a wide dynamic range and are unmatched for determining structures of unknowns. NMR is adept at tracing metabolic pathways and fluxes using isotope labels. Moreover, NMR is non-destructive and can be utilized in vivo. NMR results have a proven track record of translating in vitro findings to in vivo clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...

  4. Applications of NMR in Dairy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Maher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NMR is a robust analytical technique that has been employed to investigate the properties of many substances of agricultural relevance. NMR was first used to investigate the properties of milk in the 1950s and has since been employed in a wide range of studies; including properties analysis of specific milk proteins to metabolomics techniques used to monitor the health of dairy cows. In this brief review, we highlight the different uses of NMR in the dairy industry.

  5. observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si. NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic (AF) region besides the previously observed 29Si. NMR signals which come ...

  6. Spin-Exchange Pumped NMR Gyros

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Thad G

    2016-01-01

    We present the basic theory governing spin-exchange pumped NMR gyros. We review the basic physics of spin-exchange collisions and relaxation as they pertain to precision NMR. We present a simple model of operation as an NMR oscillator and use it to analyze the dynamic response and noise properties of the oscillator. We discuss the primary systematic errors (differential alkali fields, quadrupole shifts, and offset drifts) that limit the bias stability, and discuss methods to minimize them. We give with a brief overview of a practical implementation and performance of an NMR gyro built by Northrop-Grumman Corporation, and conclude with some comments about future prospects.

  7. NMR spectroscopy using liquid crystal solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Emsley, JW

    2013-01-01

    NMR Spectroscopy using Liquid Crystal Solvents covers the importance of using a liquid crystal solvent in NMR to derive nuclear dipolar spin-spin coupling constants. This book is composed of ten chapters, and begins with a brief description of the features and benefits of liquid crystal in NMR spectroscopic analysis. The succeeding chapters deal with the mode of operation of nuclear spin Hamiltonian for partially oriented molecules and the analysis of NMR spectra of partially oriented molecules, as well as the determination of rigid molecule structure. These topics are followed by discussions

  8. NMR-Based Metabolomics of Oral Biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Horst Joachim; Ford, Pauline J

    2017-01-01

    NMR-based metabolomics is an established technique for characterizing the metabolite profile of biological fluids and investigating how metabolite profiles change in response to biological and/or clinical stimuli. Thus, NMR-based metabolomics has the potential to discover biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and/or therapy of clinical conditions, as well as to unravel the physiology underlying clinical conditions. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for NMR-based metabolomics of oral biofluids, including sample collection, sample handling, NMR data acquisition, and processing. In addition, we give a general overview of the statistical analysis of the resulting metabolomic data.

  9. Die Quantifizierung von Aminosäurenisomeren in Lebensmitteln mittels chiraler Gaschromatographie-Massenspektrometrie im Hinblick auf die Relevanz und die Entstehungsmechanismen von D-Aminosäuren

    OpenAIRE

    Erbe, Thorsten

    2000-01-01

    1. Ziel und Gegenstand der Untersuchung Es wurden unterschiedliche, durch mikrobielle Fermentation gewonnene, Lebensmittelgruppen qualitativ und quantitativ auf ihren Gehalt an freien D- und L-Aminosäuren (AS) hin untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt lag dabei auf der Überprüfung der erhaltenen AS-Muster in bezug auf ihre Eignung zur Charakterisierung der entsprechenden Nahrungsmittel und in der Evaluierung typischer chemischer Marker-AS, die als Qualitäts- und Authentizitätsindikatoren ...

  10. Access to NMR Spectroscopy for Two-Year College Students: The NMR Site at Trinity University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nancy S.; Shanklin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Students at two-year colleges and small four-year colleges have often obtained their exposure to NMR spectroscopy through "canned" spectra because the cost of an NMR spectrometer, particularly a high-field spectrometer, is prohibitive in these environments. This article describes the design of a NMR site at Trinity University in which…

  11. NMR studies of oriented molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, S.W.

    1981-11-01

    Deuterium and proton magnetic resonance are used in experiments on a number of compounds which either form liquid crystal mesophases themselves or are dissolved in a liquid crystal solvent. Proton multiple quantum NMR is used to simplify complicated spectra. The theory of nonselective multiple quantum NMR is briefly reviewed. Benzene dissolved in a liquid crystal are used to demonstrate several outcomes of the theory. Experimental studies include proton and deuterium single quantum (..delta..M = +-1) and proton multiple quantum spectra of several molecules which contain the biphenyl moiety. 4-Cyano-4'-n-pentyl-d/sub 11/-biphenyl (5CB-d/sub 11/) is studied as a pure compound in the nematic phase. The obtained chain order parameters and dipolar couplings agree closely with previous results. Models for the effective symmetry of the biphenyl group in 5CB-d/sub 11/ are tested against the experimental spectra. The dihedral angle, defined by the planes containing the rings of the biphenyl group, is found to be 30 +- 2/sup 0/ for 5DB-d/sub 11/. Experiments are also described for 4,4'-d/sub 2/-biphenyl, 4,4' - dibromo-biphenyl, and unsubstituted biphenyl.

  12. Elektrochemische Kontrolle von Reibung auf Goldoberflächen in wässrigen Elektrolyten und ionischen Flüssigkeiten

    OpenAIRE

    Hausen, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Die Kontrolle von Reibung auf kleiner Skala ist von fundamentaler Bedeutung, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die fortschreitende Miniaturisierung von mechanischen Bauteilen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden hochaufgelöste Experimente zur Reibung in ultrasauberen Flüssigkeiten durchgeführt, um so die Möglichkeiten der Kontrolle von Reibungskräften auf Gold in wässrigen Elektrolyten und ionischen Flüssigkeiten auf atomare Mechanismen zurückführen zu können. Die Kombination der Rasterkraftmikroskopie...

  13. Farbe bekennen – Grüne Bibliotheken auf die Tagesordnung! Vortrag auf dem 103. Deutschen Bibliothekartag, Bremen, 5. Juni 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hauke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Was in vielen Ländern bereits im Alltag der Bibliotheken verankert ist, beginnt in Deutschland erst sehr zaghaft: Das Verantwortungsbewusstsein von Bibliotheken für die ökologische Bildung der Gesellschaft und die Konsequenzen daraus für die Bibliothekspraxis. Es ist höchste Zeit, in der deutschen Bibliothekslandschaft publik zu machen, was eine „Grüne Bibliothek“ sein kann – bezogen auf das Gebäude, die Ausstattung, das Management, die Services für die Nutzer. Anhand einer Checkliste wird gezeigt, wie Bibliotheken mit einem „grünen“ Konzept nicht nur selbst etwas für die ökologische Nachhaltigkeit tun können, sondern auch wie sie als Multiplikatoren in den Kommunen, Hochschulen und bei anderen Trägern Einfluss auf das ökologische Verhalten nehmen und damit einen wichtigen Beitrag für unsere Gesellschaft leisten. Bringing environmental awareness to libraries does not necessarily imply huge financial efforts or a big budget. Ecological sustainability is an undervalued aspect of the marketing strategy for libraries which has more impact on clients and on stakeholders than one would expect. Small steps in going green can make a big impact for the library’s image. Little financial input can produce an important marketing outcome. Activities in this field can be developed in cooperation with unpaid partners like non-governmental organisations (NGOs, Friends of the Library groups, library suppliers and, last but not least, the library users. A checklist on how to go green gives an overview of important aspects in planning, construction, and library operations in order to introduce the first “green footsteps”.

  14. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…

  15. A Guided Inquiry Approach to NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Laura E.; Lisensky, George C.; Spencer, Brock

    1998-04-01

    We present a novel way to introduce NMR spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum as part of a week-long aspirin project in our one-semester introductory course. Aspirin is synthesized by reacting salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. Purity is determined by titration and IR and NMR spectroscopy. Students compare IR and NMR spectra of their aspirin product to a series of reference spectra obtained by the class. Students are able to interpret the IR spectra of their aspirin using IR data from previous experiments. NMR is introduced by having students collect 1H NMR spectra of a series of reference compounds chosen to include some of the structural features of aspirin and compare spectra and structures of the reference compounds to develop a correlation chart for chemical shifts. This process is done in small groups using shared class data and is guided by a series of questions designed to relate the different kinds of hydrogen atoms to number and position of peaks in the NMR spectrum. Students then identify the peaks in the NMR spectrum of their aspirin product and relate percent purity by titration with spectral results and percent yield. This is an enjoyable project that combines the synthesis of a familiar material with a guided inquiry-based introduction to NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Synthesis and NMR Elucidation of Novel Pentacycloundecane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herein we report the synthesis and NMR elucidation of five novel pentacycloundecane (PCU)-derived short peptides as potential HIV protease inhibitors. 1H and 13C spectral analysis show major overlapping of methine resonance of the PCU 'cage' thereby making it extremely difficult to assign the NMR signals. Attachment ...

  17. An Integrated Laboratory Project in NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Pendley, Bradford D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an advanced NMR project that can be done with a 60-MHz continuous-wave proton spectrometer. Points out the main purposes are to give students experience in second-order NMR analysis, the simplification of spectra by raising the frequency, and the effect of non-hydrogen nuclei on proton resonances. (MVL)

  18. Using Cloud Storage for NMR Data Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, David

    2012-01-01

    An approach using Google Groups as method for distributing student-acquired NMR data has been implemented. We describe how to configure NMR spectrometer software so that data is uploaded to a laboratory section specific Google Group, thereby removing bottlenecks associated with printing and processing at the spectrometer workstation. Outside of…

  19. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal RNA Recognition Motif of mRNA Decay Regulator AUF1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AU-rich element binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1 plays a role in destabilizing mRNAs by forming complexes with AU-rich elements (ARE in the 3′-untranslated regions. Multiple AUF1-ARE complexes regulate the translation of encoded products related to the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation. AUF1 contains two tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRM and a Gln- (Q- rich domain in their C-terminal region. To observe how the two RRMs are involved in recognizing ARE, we obtained the AUF1-p37 protein covering the two RRMs. However, only N-terminal RRM (RRM1 was crystallized and its structure was determined at 1.7 Å resolution. It appears that the RRM1 and RRM2 separated before crystallization. To demonstrate which factors affect the separate RRM1-2, we performed limited proteolysis using trypsin. The results indicated that the intact proteins were cleaved by unknown proteases that were associated with them prior to crystallization. In comparison with each of the monomers, the conformations of the β2-β3 loops were highly variable. Furthermore, a comparison with the RRM1-2 structures of HuR and hnRNP A1 revealed that a dimer of RRM1 could be one of the possible conformations of RRM1-2. Our data may provide a guidance for further structural investigations of AUF1 tandem RRM repeat and its mode of ARE binding.

  20. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy of biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Nicolau

    1995-01-01

    This book is intended to provide an in-depth understanding of 13C NMR as a tool in biological research. 13C NMR has provided unique information concerning complex biological systems, from proteins and nucleic acids to animals and humans. The subjects addressed include multidimensional heteronuclear techniques for structural studies of molecules in the liquid and solid states, the investigation of interactions in model membranes, the elucidation of metabolic pathwaysin vitro and in vivo on animals, and noninvasive metabolic studies performed on humans. The book is a unique mix of NMR methods and biological applications which makes it a convenient reference for those interested in research in this interdisciplinary area of physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.Key Features* An interdisciplinary text with emphasis on both 13C NMR methodology and the relevant biological and biomedical issues* State-of-the-art 13C NMR techniques are described; Whenever possible, their advantages over other approaches are empha...

  1. Challenges and perspectives in quantitative NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This perspective article summarizes, from the author's point of view at the beginning of 2016, the major challenges and perspectives in the field of quantitative NMR. The key concepts in quantitative NMR are first summarized; then, the most recent evolutions in terms of resolution and sensitivity are discussed, as well as some potential future research directions in this field. A particular focus is made on methodologies capable of boosting the resolution and sensitivity of quantitative NMR, which could open application perspectives in fields where the sample complexity and the analyte concentrations are particularly challenging. These include multi-dimensional quantitative NMR and hyperpolarization techniques such as para-hydrogen-induced polarization or dynamic nuclear polarization. Because quantitative NMR cannot be dissociated from the key concepts of analytical chemistry, i.e. trueness and precision, the methodological developments are systematically described together with their level of analytical performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. NMR and MRI apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, John; Kelso, Nathan; Lee, SeungKyun; Moessle, Michael; Myers, Whittier; McDermott, Robert; ten Haken, Bernard; Pines, Alexander; Trabesinger, Andreas

    2007-03-06

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. Additional signal to noise benefits are obtained by use of a low noise polarization coil, comprising litz wire or superconducting materials. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  3. Nitrogen emissions during pyrolysis and combustion; Einfluesse auf die Stickstofffreisetzung bei der Pyrolyse und Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepsel, R.F.; Friebel, J.; Halang, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. IEC

    1998-09-01

    Reduction of nitric oxide emissions during brown coal combustion is an important contribution to clean utilisation of this very important domestic primary energy source. In modern processes, the nitrogen contained in the fuels is the main source of oxides. The distribution of this nitrogen in the products can be influenced by modifying the degassing parameters especially in the first phase of combustion, i.e. pyrolysis. The heat-up rate, pressure, as well as the genesis and mineral content of the coal were found to be the main influencing paramters. Depending on the fuel characteristics (degree of coalification, concentration of volatile matter, ash composition), the nitrogen released during pyrolysis and the nitrogen retained in the solid residue contribute to the total emissions of nitric oxides in different degrees. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verminderung der Stickoxidemission bei der Verbrennung von Braunkohle stellt einen wichtigen Beitrag zur sauberen Verwertung dieses bedeutendsten einheimischen Primaerenergietraegers dar. In modernen Prozessen bildet dabei der im Brennstoff gebundene Stickstoff die Hauptquelle der Oxide. Insbesondere durch Einflussnahme auf die Entgasungsbedingungen waehrend der ersten Phase der Verbrennung - der Pyrolyse - kann die Verteilung dieses Stickstoffes auf die Produkte beeinflusst werden. Als wesentliche Einflussgroessen auf die Einbindung in den verbleibenden Koks und die Freisetzung fluechtiger N-haltiger Gase (HCN, NH{sub 3}) wurden die Aufheizgeschwindigkeit, der Druck und die Mineralsubstanz der Kohle gefunden. Eine wesentliche Einflussgroesse stellt daneben auch die Herkunft der Kohlen dar. In Abhaengigkeit von den Brennstoffeigenschaften (Inkohlungsgrad, Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen, Aschezusammensetzung) tragen der waehrend der Pyrolyse freigesetzte und der im festen Rueckstand verbleibende Stickstoff in unterschiedlichem Masse zur Gesamtemission an Stickoxiden bei. (orig.)

  4. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality...... and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive...

  5. NMR studies of sedimentary tetrapyrroles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keely, B.J.; Maxwell, J.R. (Univ. of Bristol (England))

    Structural assignments of sedimentary biological markers rely mostly on the use of GC and GC-MS techniques, involving both chromatographic and mass spectral comparisons with synthetic standards in addition to de facto mass spectral interpretation. Difficulties experienced in the analysis of sedimentary porphyrins by GC-MS (which until very recently required derivatization), and the desire to understand the origins and geochemical transformations of these components and their precursors, have led to more extensive structural investigations than usually accorded to other classes of biological marker. This paper briefly reviews recent developments in {sup 1}H NMR studies of chlorins and porphyrins of sedimentary origin, with particular reference to correlated spectroscopy (COSY), which allows elucidation of spin-coupled systems.

  6. NMR-based metabolomics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaccarino, Nunzia

    ’s phenotype. This approach finds an increasing number of applications in many areas including medical, pharmaceutical, food and environmental sciences. The combined use of NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics techniques, is able to provide the metabolic “fingerprint” of the various samples. This PhD project...... focused on the analysis of various samples covering a wide range of fields, namely, food and nutraceutical sciences, cell metabolomics and medicine using a metabolomics approach. Indeed, the first part of the thesis describes two exploratory studies performed on Algerian extra virgin olive oil and apple...... juice from ancient Danish apple cultivars. Both studies revealed variety-related peculiarities that would have been difficult to detect by means of traditional analysis. The second part of the project includes four metabolomics studies performed on samples of biological origin. In particular, the first...

  7. Preprocessing of NMR metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euceda, Leslie R; Giskeødegård, Guro F; Bathen, Tone F

    2015-05-01

    Metabolomics involves the large scale analysis of metabolites and thus, provides information regarding cellular processes in a biological sample. Independently of the analytical technique used, a vast amount of data is always acquired when carrying out metabolomics studies; this results in complex datasets with large amounts of variables. This type of data requires multivariate statistical analysis for its proper biological interpretation. Prior to multivariate analysis, preprocessing of the data must be carried out to remove unwanted variation such as instrumental or experimental artifacts. This review aims to outline the steps in the preprocessing of NMR metabolomics data and describe some of the methods to perform these. Since using different preprocessing methods may produce different results, it is important that an appropriate pipeline exists for the selection of the optimal combination of methods in the preprocessing workflow.

  8. Erkenntniszuwachs durch Analyse : populäre Musik auf dem Prüfstand

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeitskreis Studium Populärer Musik

    2000-01-01

    Es Ist schon richtig, daß in der populären Musik "wichtigere Dinge transportiert werden als etwa die Tatsache, daß hier ein Zweivierteltakt eingeschoben und dort etwas um einen Halbton erhöht wurde". Aber das Ist schließlich bei aller Musik der Fall und muß nicht im Affront gegen die "Unangemessenheit" akademischen Umgangs mit Pop-Musik" (Bernd Kühl; nachzulesen in NMZ, Dezember/Januar 1985/86, S. 13) eigens betont werden. Im übrigen wird die Angemessenheit analytischen Tuns auf allen Gebiete...

  9. Die Eigenschaft der Violinspielstechnik von C.Flesch : "Die allgemeine Technik" auf den Schwerpunkt legend

    OpenAIRE

    髙旗, 健次

    2015-01-01

    Um die Behauptung über die Kunst des Violinspiels von Carl Fresch zu systematisieren und anzuordnen, fokussiere ich mich auf “Die allgemeine Technik” als den Ausgangspunkt der von ihm vorgeschlagenen drei Säulen, “Die allgemeine Technik”, “Die angewandte Technik” und “Das künstlerische Spiel”. Über die Technik mit dem linken Arm hat er entdeckt, dass zwar das Geigenspiel “selbst das Intervall zu bestimmen fordert”, aber die linken Finger dies nicht bestimmen, sondern die Formen oder Bewegunge...

  10. Einfluss der Anwendererfahrung auf den Haftverbund von Dentinadhäsiven im Scherbindungsfestigkeitsversuch

    OpenAIRE

    Asef, Ghezal

    2015-01-01

    Adhäsive lassen als Haftvermittler einen Verbund zwischen Dentin und Komposit zu und ermöglichen in der prothetischen Zahnheilkunde u.a. den Aufbau stark zerstörter Zähne in Form eines adhäsiven Stumpfaufbaus. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, den Einfluss der Anwendererfahrung auf den Haftverbund von drei Adhäsivsystemen zu untersuchen und insbesondere die Handhabung der Druckluft unter den Anwendern zu überprüfen. Darüber hinaus wurden die Adhäsive anhand ihrer Scherbindungsfestigkei...

  11. Ein stochastisches Modell zur Beschreibung von Signalen in digitalen Schaltungen basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Maier, P.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2013-07-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem erhöhten Modellierungsbedarf verschiedenster Effekte, wie z.B. Alterung oder Stromverbrauch. Diese hängen von den auftretenden Signalen innerhalb der Schaltung ab, wodurch deren statistische Modellierung ein zentrales Problem darstellt. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode zur stochastischen Signalmodellierung basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung vor. Die Methode wird mit Hilfe von realen Daten mit existierenden Ansätzen verglichen. Die Testergebnisse zeigen hierbei im vorgestellten Modell einen Genauigkeitszuwachs von bis zu einem Faktor 10 im Vergleich zu bereits existierenden Modellen.

  12. Anabole Wirkungen auf den Knochen durch pulsatiles exogenes Parathormon - ein wiederentdecktes Therapieprinzip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernecker PM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathormon (PTH wird in den Zellen der Nebenschilddrüse produziert und in enger Abhängigkeit vom Serumspiegel des ionisierten Kalziums in die Zirkulation abgegeben. Ein Abfall des Serum-Kalziums führt zu einem augenblicklichen Ansteigen der PTH-Ausschüttung aus der Nebenschilddrüse, ohne daß "second messenger"-Mechanismen zum Tragen kommen; viel mehr wird die Kalziumkonzentration durch einen auf der Oberfläche der Nebenschilddrüsenzellen befindlichen Kalzium-empfindlichen Rezeptor direkt durch die Zelle erfaßt. PTH wirkt auf verschiedene Weise; Ziel der Wirkung ist in jedem Fall eine Anhebung des Serum-Kalzium-Spiegels. Aus der Extrazellulärflüssigkeit (ECF des Knochens, die durch das Havers'sche Kanalsystem zirkuliert, kann recht rasch Kalzium mobilisiert werden. In der Knochen-ECF sind ca. 1-3 Gramm Kalzium in lockerer Ionenbindung gespeichert; diese können unter dem Einfluß von Parathormon sehr rasch in das Blutkompartment übergeführt werden. Am Knochen stimuliert Parathormon die Knochenresorption, auch hier mit dem physiologischen Ziel, Kalzium freizusetzen. Da der Knochenstoffwechsel jedoch in definierten "Knochenumbaueinheiten" (bone remodelling units = BMU erfolgt, in denen Knochenresorption und Knochenformation eng gekoppelt sind und sequentiell ablaufen, wurde die Steuerung dieser Umbauvorgänge durch PTH schon vor längerer Zeit untersucht. Die Überraschung war groß, als man feststellen mußte, daß die den Knochen abbauenden Osteoklasten keinerlei Rezeptoren für PTH, sondern nur für dessen physiologischen Gegenspieler, das Calcitonin, besitzen. PTH-Rezeptoren wurden dagegen in großer Dichte auf Osteoblasten, also Knochen-aufbauenden Zellen, gefunden. Es wird daher angenommen, daß der initiale Reiz für die Knochenresorption auf die Osteoklasten indirekt übermittelt wird, und zwar über bisher unbekannte second-messaging-Mechanismen; Prostaglandine der E- und F-Serien als auch Interleukin-1 wurden hier als solche

  13. Einfluss von abiotischen Faktoren auf Wuchs und Scopolamin-Biosynthese in Duboisia myoporoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich, Sophie Friederike

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Duboisia ist eine in Australien beheimatete Pflanze aus der Familie der Nachtschattengewächse, die Tropanalkaloide als sekundäre Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe enthält, deren quantitativ und ökonomisch bedeutsamstes Scopolamin ist. Um neue Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich des Einflusses abiotischer Faktoren auf Wuchs und Scopolamin-Biosynthese zu gewinnen, wurden Pflanzen der Art Duboisia myoporoides in Hydrokultur in Klimakammern unter streng kontrollierten Bedingungen angebaut (kalibrierte Einstellungen für Beleuchtungsdauer, Lichtintensität und Temperatur. Wichtige Messgrößen stellten dabei Biomasse und Alkaloidgehalt dar, letzterer gemessen mittels UHPLC und LC-MS.

  14. Schweizer Private Banking Kunden - Eine Kundenbefragung mit speziellem Fokus auf die Kundenberatung im Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Cocca, Teodoro D; von Siebenthal, Pablo; Volkart, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Vermögende Kunden weisen eine ausgeprägte Wertschätzung für persönliche Anlageberatung auf. Dies zeigt eine repräsentative Studie des Institutes für schweizerisches Bankenwesen der Universität Zürich. Befragt wurden Schweizer Private Banking Kunden sowie Kundenberater und Exponenten des Managements Schweizer Vermögensverwalter. Allerdings geht aus der Studie auch hervor, dass sich die kommende Erbengeneration (bis 49 Jahre) auch sehr offen gegenüber Online-Lösungen im Private Banking zeigt. T...

  15. Einfluss von Umweltbedingungen und Entwicklungsstadium auf Ertragsparameter und sekundäre Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe von Zitronenmelisse (Melissa officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Um die Qualität von Arznei- und Gewürzpflanzen langfristig sichern zu können, ist eine genauere Kenntnis der sie beeinflussenden Faktoren von Interesse. Am Beispiel der Zitronenmelisse (Melissa officinalis L. wurden in zwei Feldversuchen an unterschiedlichen Standorten die Einflüsse der Faktoren Lichtintensität, Sorte und Erntezeitpunkt auf Ertragsparameter sowie sekundäre Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe untersucht. Es konnten teilweise deutliche Effekte der unterschiedlichen Lichtbedingungen auf die Gesamtphenole und die antioxidative Kapazität beobachtet werden, die zum Teil signifikanten Wechselwirkungen zwischen den Prüffaktoren unterlagen.

  16. Filme, die beflügeln : Einflüsse von Filmen auf die Reisemotivation, Raumwahrnehmung und Imagebildung

    OpenAIRE

    Siehl, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Populäre Filme, TV-Serien, Werbespots oder bekannte Filmfiguren haben einen enormen Einfluss auf das Image ihrer Schauplätze und auf unsere kulturräumlichen Vorstellungen. Erfolgreiche Filme erreichen ein Millionenpublikum und in der Folge dessen gewinnt Filmtourismus weltweit an Bedeutung. Filme haben sich zu einer Institution für den Tourismusmarkt entwickelt. Ein Grund liegt in der Gemeinsamkeit des Films und der Reise – beide entführen für eine gewisse Zeit aus dem Alltag heraus in eine W...

  17. Der Einfluss von rechtsgerichtetem Autoritarismus und sozialer Dominanzorientierung auf homophobe Einstellungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Andrejewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Das Thema Homophobie geriet seit 2012 verstärkt in das Interesse der Medien. Ursachen waren u.a. die Erlassung homophober Gesetze in Russland, Outings von prominenten Persönlichkeiten wie Fußballspieler und Politiker oder die in Frankreich auftretenden Massendemonstrationen zur Verhinderung der gleichgeschlechtlichen Ehe. Durch das kürzlich stattfindende Attentat in einem beliebten Club der LGBT-Community in Orlando ist das Thema präsenter denn je. Neben Untersuchungen, die aufdecken, welchen Vorurteilen Menschen mit einer homosexuellen Ausrichtung ausgesetzt sind und wie sich diese im Alltag der Betroffenen niederschlagen, suchen vermehrt Studien nach den Gründen dieser Vorurteile. Die vorliegende Arbeit bedient sich dazu etablierter Konzepte aus der Vorurteilsforschung, um diese in einen Zusammenhang mit homophoben Einstellungen und Verhaltensweisen zu bringen. Mithilfe einer Online-Befragung von 249 heterosexuellen Teilnehmern wurde der Einfluss von rechtsgerichteten Autoritarismus (RWA, sozialer Dominanzorientierung (SDO und sozialer Identität (SI auf homophobe Einstellungen ermittelt. Es konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die untersuchten Variablen negativ auf die Einstellungen der Untersuchungsteilnehmer gegenüber Schwulen und Lesben wirken. Gleichzeitig wurde die Mediatorrolle der sozialen Identität als Identifikation mit der eigenen heterosexuellen Orientierung getestet und nachgewiesen, dass diese als Mediator zwischen RWA, SDO und homophoben Einstellungen fungiert.

  18. Der westliche Blick auf den Orient The Western Gaze on the Orient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Schrupp

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Angesichts der aktuellen Debatten über den Islam zeigen Christina von Braun und Bettina Mathes die viele Jahrhunderte alte Interpretationsgeschichte des Orients aus westlicher Perspektive auf. In ihrem materialreichen Band schildern sie die historische und geografische Vielfalt des Phänomens „Islam“ und zeigen, wie westliches Selbstverständnis und Projektionen das Bild des Okzidents vom Orient seit langem und bis heute prägen – auch da, wo man es auf den ersten Blick nicht vermuten würde.In the face of current debates on the subject of Islam, Christina von Braun and Bettina Mathes point to the centuries-old history of interpreting the orient from the western perspective. The material-rich volume sketches the historical and geographical diversity of the phenomenon of “Islam,” showing how the western world has long taken for granted their projection of an image of the occidental orient and how these images persist, even where they might be least expected.

  19. Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse; Kinderradiologische Diagnostik bei Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfurt, C.; Schmidt, U. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultaet, Dresden (Germany); Hahn, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Roesner, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinderchirurgie, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare. (orig.) [German] Klinisch diagnostizierte Verletzungen an Kopf, Thorax, Abdomen oder Extremitaeten eines Kindes bei scheinbar leerer Anamnese oder Angabe eines inadaequaten Traumas erfordern beim Verdacht auf ein Battered-Child-Syndrom eine erweiterte und spezialisierte radiologische Diagnostik. Diese soll insbesondere im Bereich des ZNS Verletzungsfolgen erfassen, um therapeutische Massnahmen einleiten zu koennen. Bei typischen, auf eine Misshandlung hinweisenden radiologischen Befunden ist eine praezise beweissichere Befunddokumentation erforderlich, um eine weitere Kindeswohlgefaehrdung zu vermeiden. (orig.)

  20. Review: Eine Replik auf: Schmitt, Rudolf (2011. Review Essay: Rekonstruktive und andere Metaphernanalysen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kruse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available udolf SCHMITT ist unbestreitbar ein fundierter Experte im deutschsprachigen Raum im Hinblick auf eine umfassende und fokussierte Metaphernanalyse als ein spezifisches Verfahren der Analyse qualitativer Daten. Mit seiner in FQS erschienenen Rezension zu unserem Buch "Metaphernanalyse. Ein rekonstruktiver Ansatz" wird dies abermals deutlich. SCHMITT ordnet unser Verfahren zur rekonstruktiven Metaphernanalyse in andere sozialwissenschaftliche Metaphernanalysen ein und versucht auf dieser Grundlage, Vor- und Nachteile unseres metaphernanalytischen Zugangs hervorzuheben. Ausgehend von diesem Vergleichshorizont gelingt ihm die Besprechung eines grundlegenden Buches zur Einführung in die sozialwissenschaftliche Metaphernanalyse – welches unser Buch aber weder ist noch vorgibt zu sein. Wir begrüßen seine breit gefächerte Auswahl sozialwissenschaftlicher metaphernanalytischer Zugänge, glauben aber, dass die Zielsetzungen unseres Ansatzes (und unseres Buches in seinem Review-Essay zu sehr in den Hintergrund treten. Wir haben uns daher zu dieser Replik entschlossen, um die "sozialwissenschaftliche Metaphernanalyse" weiter in einem diskursiven Prozess zu halten. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202102

  1. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Boqin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C60 is analyzed.

  2. Graphical programming for broadband pulse NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.B. [Universidade do Estado (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica; Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    In a broadband pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer we often need to sweep the excitation frequency over a wide range, and acquire the spin echo components in quadrature for further spectral analysis. Computer languages such as C or Pascal have been traditionally applied to the development of software control of laboratory equipment, and consequently, the automatization of NMR experiments. However, the use of graphical languages have proved to be a flexible and convenient way for experiment and data acquisition control. In our application we use the graphical language Labview for the automatic control of a broadband pulse NMR spectrometer, dedicated to the study of magnetic metal systems. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Graphical programming for pulse automated NMR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.B. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-01-01

    We describe a software program designed to control a broadband pulse Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer used in zero-field NMR studies of magnetic metals. The software is written in the graphical language LabVIEW. This type of programming allows modifications and the inclusion of new routines to be easily made by the non-specialist, without changing the basic structure of the program. The program corrects for differences in the gain of the two acquisition channels [U (phase) and V (quadrature)], and automatic baseline subtraction. We present examples of measurements of NMR spectra, spin-echo decay (T{sub 2}), and quadrupolar oscillations, performed in magnetic intermetallic compounds. (author)

  4. NMR reaction monitoring in flow synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Gomez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of flow chemistry with in-line and on-line analysis by NMR are presented. The use of macro- and microreactors, coupled with standard and custom made NMR probes involving microcoils, incorporated into high resolution and benchtop NMR instruments is reviewed. Some recent selected applications have been collected, including synthetic applications, the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and reaction optimization, even in single experiments and on the μL scale. Finally, software that allows automatic reaction monitoring and optimization is discussed.

  5. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  6. Novel fabrication method of self-organized FePd multilayer nanodots using the agglomeration of Au/Fe bilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Geun; Koo, Jung-Woo; Koo, Sang-Mo; Arisawa, Shunichi; Koh, Jung-Hyuk; Kamiko, Masao

    2017-07-01

    We fabricated self-organized FePd multilayer films with specific nanostructures by using Au/Fe bilayer films as a template. Au/Fe bilayer films were prepared as a template layer by forming a self-organized nanostructure through the agglomeration phenomenon. Using this Au/Fe bilayer as a template, FePd multilayers were deposited. The surface morphologies of FePd multilayer closely resembled the self-organized Au/Fe bilayer. As a result, we successfully manufactured self-organized FePd nanodots, with a shape closely resembling that of the agglomerated Au/Fe bilayer. In addition, it is confirmed that the agglomerated FePd nanodots were formed in the L10 phase by annealing at 350 °C.

  7. Rheology of Blood by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-I.; Marseille, Oliver; Gehlen, Christa; Blümich, Bernhard

    2001-09-01

    Pipe flow of blood in tubes of 1 and 7 mm inner diameter, respectively, was investigated employing two-dimensional NMR velocity imaging and PFG propagator measurements at different Reynolds numbers between 10 and 3500. The results are compared to flow of a water/glycerol mixture of matching viscosity under identical conditions. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow is observed by both a flattening of the velocity profile and a change of the propagator shape. For blood flow this transition is found to be shifted toward higher Reynolds numbers as compared to the transition of the water/glycerol mixture. This observation is in agreement with predictions from hydraulic measurements and is a consequence of the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of blood as a suspension of erythrocytes and plasma. Likewise, a deviation from the laminar flow condition is observed for blood at low Reynolds numbers between 10 and 100. This phenomenon is unknown for Newtonian liquids and is explained by the onset of a geometrical arrangement of the erythrocytes, the so-called rouleaux effect.

  8. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  9. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  10. NMR analysis of compositional heterogeneity in polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many copolysaccharides are compositionally heterogeneous, and the composition determined by the usual analytical or spectroscopic methods provides only an average value. For some polysaccharides, the NMR data contain copolymer sequence information, such as diad, triad, and tetrad sequence intensiti...

  11. Relaxation time estimation in surface NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Elliot D.; Walsh, David O.

    2017-03-21

    NMR relaxation time estimation methods and corresponding apparatus generate two or more alternating current transmit pulses with arbitrary amplitudes, time delays, and relative phases; apply a surface NMR acquisition scheme in which initial preparatory pulses, the properties of which may be fixed across a set of multiple acquisition sequence, are transmitted at the start of each acquisition sequence and are followed by one or more depth sensitive pulses, the pulse moments of which are varied across the set of multiple acquisition sequences; and apply processing techniques in which recorded NMR response data are used to estimate NMR properties and the relaxation times T.sub.1 and T.sub.2* as a function of position as well as one-dimensional and two-dimension distributions of T.sub.1 versus T.sub.2* as a function of subsurface position.

  12. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  13. The eNMR platform for structural biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Rosato, A.; Wassenaar, T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297077775

    2010-01-01

    The e-NMR project is a European cooperation initiative that aims at providing the bio-NMR user community with a software platform integrating and streamlining the computational approaches necessary for the analysis of bio-NMR data. The e-NMR platform is based on a Grid computational infrastructure.

  14. Frontiers of NMR in Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    NMR spectroscopy is expanding the horizons of structural biology by determining the structures and describing the dynamics of blobular proteins in aqueous solution, as well as other classes of proteins including membrane proteins and the polypeptides that form the aggregates diagnostic of prion and amyloid diseases. Significant results are also emerging on DNA and RNA oligomers and their complexes with proteins. This meeting focused attention on key structural questions emanating from molecular biology and how NMR spectroscopy can be used to answer them.

  15. NMR studies of multiphase flows II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altobelli, S.A.; Caprihan, A.; Fukushima, E. [Lovelace Institutes, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    NMR techniques for measurements of spatial distribution of material phase, velocity and velocity fluctuation are being developed and refined. Versions of these techniques which provide time average liquid fraction and fluid phase velocity have been applied to several concentrated suspension systems which will not be discussed extensively here. Technical developments required to further extend the use of NMR to the multi-phase flow arena and to provide measurements of previously unobtainable parameters are the focus of this report.

  16. Physiological monitoring during nmr measurements of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Paul G.; Smith, E. Norbert

    With the introduction of whole animal NMR, simultaneous measurement of various physiological parameters becomes desirable. Described is a system for monitoring body temperature, electrocardiogram, and respiration during surface coil measurement of 31P NMR using unanesthetized animals. Passive filtering is used to remove rf pulses from the physiological signals. Provision is made for electrically stimulating the animal. The principles are adaptable to other physiological parameters, and the probe could be modified for other nuclei.

  17. NMRbox: A Resource for Biomolecular NMR Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Mark W; Schuyler, Adam D; Gryk, Michael R; Moraru, Ion I; Romero, Pedro R; Ulrich, Eldon L; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Livny, Miron; Delaglio, Frank; Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2017-04-25

    Advances in computation have been enabling many recent advances in biomolecular applications of NMR. Due to the wide diversity of applications of NMR, the number and variety of software packages for processing and analyzing NMR data is quite large, with labs relying on dozens, if not hundreds of software packages. Discovery, acquisition, installation, and maintenance of all these packages is a burdensome task. Because the majority of software packages originate in academic labs, persistence of the software is compromised when developers graduate, funding ceases, or investigators turn to other projects. To simplify access to and use of biomolecular NMR software, foster persistence, and enhance reproducibility of computational workflows, we have developed NMRbox, a shared resource for NMR software and computation. NMRbox employs virtualization to provide a comprehensive software environment preconfigured with hundreds of software packages, available as a downloadable virtual machine or as a Platform-as-a-Service supported by a dedicated compute cloud. Ongoing development includes a metadata harvester to regularize, annotate, and preserve workflows and facilitate and enhance data depositions to BioMagResBank, and tools for Bayesian inference to enhance the robustness and extensibility of computational analyses. In addition to facilitating use and preservation of the rich and dynamic software environment for biomolecular NMR, NMRbox fosters the development and deployment of a new class of metasoftware packages. NMRbox is freely available to not-for-profit users. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations; Stellenwert der MRT bei Verdacht auf Innenohrmissbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, S.; Juettemann, S.; Amaya, B. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Rasinski, C.; Bloching, M. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Klinik fuer Hals-, Nasen-, Ohrenkrankheiten; Koenig, E. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Hals-, Nasen-, Ohrenkrankheiten

    2003-12-01

    Purpose: This is a prospective analysis of the value of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations. Materials and Methods: In 50 patients (43 children and young adults, 7 adults) with suspected inner ear malformation MRI (1.5 T) was performed. In addition, 42 of these patients underwent CT. For the analysis of the inner ear structures, the constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence with 0.7 mm slice thickness was used. Functional tests revealed a sensorineural hearing loss or deafness in 82 temporal bones (TB) and a combined hearing loss in 4 TB. The hearing loss was unilateral in 14 patients. MRI and CT findings were compared. Results: Imaging findings were normal in 58 TB. The pathological findings included inner ear malformations (35 TB), inflammatory changes (4 TB), partial obliteration of labyrinth (2 TB) and congenital aural atresia (1 TB). An isolated absence of the cochlear nerve (1 TB) could only be found by MRI. In the remaining cases, an inner ear malformation was diagnosed by MRI and CT with the same confidence but MRI was superior in displaying the fine details. Conclusions: MRI will become the method of choice in the diagnosis of inner ear malformations. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Das Ziel der Arbeit bestand in einer prospektiven Analyse des Stellenwertes der MRT bei Verdacht auf eine Innenohrmissbildung. Material und Methodik: 50 Patienten (43 Kinder und Jugendliche, 7 Erwachsene) mit dringendem Verdacht auf eine Innenohrmissbildung erhielten eine MRT-Untersuchung (1,5 T), bei 42 dieser Patienten wurde auch eine CT durchgefuehrt. Bei der Beurteilung der Innenohrstrukturen kam die CISS-Sequenz mit einer Schichtdicke von 0,7 mm zur Anwendung. Durch Funktionstests wurde an 82 Schlaefenbeinen (SB) eine Innenohrhoerstoerung und an 4 SB eine kombinierte Hoerstoerung diagnostiziert. 14 Patienten hatten eine einseitige Hoerstoerung. MRT- und CT-Ergebnisse wurden verglichen. Ergebnisse: Einen bildgebenden Normalbefund wiesen 58 SB auf. Folgende

  19. Models for settlement prediction of structures in opencast dumps; Modelle zur Setzungsprognose von Bauwerken auf Tagebaukippen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birle, E.; Vogt, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum Geotechnik

    2016-05-01

    For construction projects at opencast dumps e.g. for planning of traffic routes or individual buildings a prognosis of dump subsicence after the establishment of the structures is required. It should be noted that on dump surfaces time-dependent subsidence are observed which can change by construction activities at the dump surface. As tools for describing the dump subsidence phenomenological models that have been developed based on the evaluation of dump characteristic subsidence and allow a one-dimensional analysis of creep deformation and visco-elastoplastic material models within the finite element method for analyzing complex geometric boundary conditions. [German] Fuer Baumassnahmen auf Tagebaukippen beispielsweise zur Planung von Verkehrswegen oder einzelnen Bauwerken ist eine Prognose der Kippensetzungen nach Errichtung der Bauwerke erforderlich. Dabei ist zu beachten, dass auf Kippenoberflaechen ausgepraegte zeitabhaengige Setzungen beobachtet werden, die sich durch Baumassnahmen an der Kippenoberflaeche aendern koennen. Als Werkzeuge zur Beschreibung der Kippensetzungen stehen prinzipiell phaenomenologische Modelle, die auf Basis der Auswertung von Kippeneigensetzungen entwickelt wurden und die eine ein-dimensionale Analyse der Kriechverformungen zulassen sowie visko-elastoplastische Stoffmodelle im Rahmen der FiniteElemente- Methode zur Analyse komplexer geometrischer Randbedingungen zur Verfuegung. In Abhaengigkeit vom Randwertproblem ist zu entscheiden, welches der Modelle zur Beschreibung der Kippensetzungen heranzuziehen ist. Mit phaenomenologischen Kriechmodellen und einer ein-dimensionalen Analyse der Verformungen koennen die sich nach Ende der Verkippung einstellenden Kippensetzungen in der Regel genuegend genau beschrieben werden, sofern an der Kippenoberflaeche keine signifikanten Spannungsaenderungen infolge von Baumassnahmen eingetragen werden. Kommt es dagegen zu Spannungsaenderungen, beispielsweise durch die Errichtung eines hohen

  20. Policy Challenges Related to Biofuel Development in Tanzania Politische Herausforderungen in Bezug auf Biokraftstoffe in Tansania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sosovele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, agricultural development and natural resource management. The growing demand for biofuels is being driven by high oil prices, energy security concerns and global climate change. In Tanzania there is growing interest on the part of foreign private investors in establishing biofuel projects, although globally there are concerns related to biofuel investments. Tanzania has approved a number of such projects, but the biofuel subsector faces several policy challenges that could clearly hamper its development. These include the lack of a holistic and comprehensive energy policy that addresses the broad spectrum of energy options and issues, and weak or absent institutional and legal frameworks. This article highlights some key policy issues critical to the development of biofuels and argues that if these challenges are not addressed at the national policy level, biofuel development may not result in the expected benefits to Tanzania and the majority of its local communities. Biokraftstoffe sind in jüngster Zeit in den Bereichen Energiepolitik, Landwirtschaftsentwicklung und nationales Ressourcenmanagement zu einem wichtigen Thema geworden. Die wachsende Nachfrage nach Biokraftstoffen wird durch die hohen Ölpreise, Befürchtungen in Bezug auf Energiesicherheit und den globalen Klimawandel vorangetrieben. In Tansania ist wachsendes Interesse ausländischer Privatinvestoren an Biokraftstoffprojekten zu beobachten, obwohl es weltweit Bedenken gegenüber solchen Investitionen gibt. Die tansanische Regierung hat einer ganzen Reihe entsprechender Projekte zugestimmt, doch mit dem Biokraftstoffsektor sind politische Herausforderungen verbunden, die diese Entwicklung behindern könnten. Dazu gehören das Fehlen einer ganzheitlichen und umfassenden Energiepolitik, die das ganze Spektrum energiepolitischer Fragestellungen und Optionen einschließt, wie auch schwache oder fehlende institutionelle

  1. Effekte von Produktvorankündigungen und des Appells an individuelle Restriktionen als Phantome auf Präferenzen

    OpenAIRE

    Gierl, Heribert

    2004-01-01

    Effekte von Produktvorankündigungen und des Appells an individuelle Restriktionen als Phantome auf Präferenzen / H. Gierl, C. Eleftheriadou. - In: Fundierung des Marketing / Klaus-Peter Wiedmann (Hrsg.). - Wiesbaden : Dt. Univ.-Verl., 2004. - S. 113-133. - (Gabler-Edition Wissenschaft)

  2. Palaeontologische Ergebnisse von Tiefbohrungen auf Java, nebst allgemeineren Studien ueber das Tertiaer von Java, Timor und einiger anderer Inseln

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1883-01-01

    In Padang auf Sumatra wurde der Zahn eines Elephanten gefunden, welcher mit den typischen Repraesentanten von E. sumatranus in jeder Hinsicht übereinstimmt. Die Art wurde früher bekanntlich mit dem E. indicus Cuv. zusammengeworfen, bis Temminck und vor allem auch Schlegel l. c. die Verschiedenheit

  3. Direct Comparison of 19F qNMR and 1H qNMR by Characterizing Atorvastatin Calcium Content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang Liu; Zhaoxia Liu; Huaxin Yang; Lan He

    2016-01-01

    .... Most of the reports were based on proton qNMR (1H qNMR) and only a few fluorine qNMR (19F qNMR) were reported. No research has been conducted to directly compare the advantage and disadvantage between these two methods...

  4. Quantenphysik und Kommunikationswissenschaft auf dem Weg zu einer allgemeinen Theorie der Kommunikation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamberger, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Der Quantenphysiker Herbert Pietschmann beschäftigt sich seit Jahrzehnten mit dem Phänomen Kommunikation. Der Kommunikationswissenschaftler Erich Hamberger setzt sich seit langem mit der Frage der Adaptierung erkenntnistheoretischer Einsichten der Quantentheorie für die Geistes- und Biowissenschaften auseinander. 2003 begegnen sich die beiden - und staunen über die „verschränkten Erkenntnisinteressen“. 2006 bestreiten sie eine erste gemeinsame universitäre Lehrveranstaltung. 2011 folgt Das Phänomen Kommunikation transdisziplinär betrachtet. Aus ihrer Zusammenarbeit ist dieses Buch entstanden. Naturwissenschaft arbeitet auf der Grundlage des mechanistischen Denkrahmens. Die bisher einzige Ausnahme ist die Quantenphysik. Weder Leben noch Kommunikation ist mittels des mechanistischen Denkrahmens zu verstehen. Auch der Denkrahmen der Quantenphysik reicht dazu nicht aus. Der Bedarf nach adäquatem Denken im Bereich der Kommunikation kann durch quantenphysikalisches Denken NICHT befriedigt werden, jedoc...

  5. Der Anspruch eines neuen Blicks auf den russischen Kulturraum Russian Culture: A New View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marchetta

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Monographie zur Filmgeschichte der Sowjetunion und Rußlands erhebt den Anspruch, die erste und aktuellste Gesamtdarstellung des „sowjetischen und russischen Films“ zu sein. Durch ein Überblenden von Innenperspektive und Außenperspektive versucht das international und interdisziplinär besetzte Autor/-innenteam um Christine Engel am Beispiel der Entwicklung des Filmgeschehens einen anderen, neuen Blick auf den russischen Kulturraum.This monograph deals with the history of film in Russia and the Soviet Union and claims to be the first and the most up-to-date of its kind. By alternating between the inside and the outside perspective, Christine Engel and her interdisciplinary as well as international team of authors attempt to look at Russia from a new angle, using the history of film as a paradigm.

  6. Influence of the engine oil on the oil consumption; Einfluss des Motorenoels auf den Oelverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voeltz, M.

    1997-05-01

    If no irregular leaks are given, the small but unavoidable loss of lubricant in to-days 4-stroke internal-combustion engines is happening predominantly between piston, rings and cylinder. Engine lubricants are having a well-known long-term effect upon this loss level through inhibition of deposits and wear, which are typical and important items of engine oil performance. This paper, however, will highlight short-term effects of oil formulations, that are less pronounced than believed amongst users, but they are existing. Earlier investigations have shown already effects from viscosity and volatility (boiling characteristics), but in recent projects of German research associations (FVV and DGMK), these effects and also other parameters of lubricant formulations have been studied in greater detail. The main conclusions of these studies, that are supported by earlier BP bench test results, are: - The `Noack` volatility has a `soft` correlation with oil consumption (ten-fold Noack gives duplicate consumption), but only if different boiling fractions of one type of base oil are compared. - When chemically different types of base oils are compared, the Noack figures can be completely misleading w.r.t. engine oil consumption. - Polymers (as VI improves) are very effective in reducing oil consumption of equiviscous formulations, i.e. non-newtonian multigrade oils are giving singificantly lower oil consumption than monograde formulations of same KV/100. - Viscosity effects are small and insignificant compared to effects from polymers and from alternative base stocks. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Beim Motor-Oelverbrauch ist es elementar wichtig, zu unterscheiden zwischen - den langfristigen Einfluessen eines Oeles (ueber Einlauf, Verschleiss, Kolbensauberkeit und Dichtungsvertraeglichkeit) und - dem sofortigen Verbrauchs-Einfluss eines Oels auf einen Motor im gegebenen Alters- und Betriebs-Zustand. Nur diesen Spontan-Oelverbrauchs-Unterschieden soll in diesem Beitrag nachgegangen

  7. Gender-Sketches of Spain. Karriere der Gynokritik und aktuelles weibliches Stellungsspiel auf der iberischen Halbinsel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rike Bolte

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Der von Elisabeth de Sotelo herausgegebene Sammelband New Women of Spain stellt einen substantiellen Beitrag zur hispanistischen und feministischen Forschung dar. In der sozialwissenschaftlich ausgerichteten Studie wird die Entwicklung des Feminismus in Spanien in den Blick genommen. Dabei werden auch dessen Interdependenzen mit den Varianten bzw. Etappen des U.S.-amerikanischen und deutschen Feminismus dargelegt. Die Evolution des iberischen Feminismus wird in dem informativen Band exemplarisch als Bewegung gegen prinzipielle Strukturen androzentrischer Gesellschaften verstanden. Dennoch wird dem eigenen Profil des spanischen Patriarchats – etwa mit seiner Apotheose während des Franquismus – präzise Rechnung getragen. Ein unentbehrliches Handbuch, auf das bald eine ähnlich ausgestattete Studie zur spanischen Karriere der ‚gender-queerness‘ folgen könnte.

  8. Driver's glance behaviour and secondary tasks; Einfluss von Nebenaufgaben auf das Fahrerblickverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweigert, M. [BMW Group Forschung und Technik, Muenchen (Germany); Bubb, H. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ergonomie

    2003-07-01

    This paper contains a proposal for the evaluation of drivers' glance behavior, focussing on the influence of secondary tasks during driving. In general, an evaluation can only be achieved by regarding the quality of a task completion, which can be calculated by a comparison of a measured, actual value or behavior and a defined target value or behavior. Due to this definition, a target glance behavior is defined by so called continous and situational visual tasks. As opposed to continuous visual tasks, situational visual tasks contain a concrete description for a target glance behavior. A field trial (N=30) showed, that the subjects' glance behavior fulfilled most of the defined visual tasks when driving without a secondary task. Driving with secondary tasks leads to an increasing subjects' reliance on the correct driving of the other road users, shown by decreasing visual monitoring. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung behandelt die Bewertung des Blickverhaltens von Fahrzeugfuehrern, wobei das Hauptaugenmerk auf dem Einfluss von Zusatzaufgaben liegt, die waehrend der Fahrt zu bearbeiten sind. Eine Bewertung ist immer eng mit dem Begriff der Qualitaet verknuepft, wobei ein Ist-Wert mit einem vorgegebenen Soll-Wert zu vergleichen ist. Nur wenn die Abweichung zwischen Soll und Ist gering ist, ist die Qualitaet hoch und die Bewertung somit positiv. Bei der Definition eines Soll-Blickverhaltens wird hier zwischen kontinuierlichen und situativen visuellen Aufgaben unterschieden. Letztere beinhalten konkrete Forderungen an das Fahrerblickverhalten in bestimmten Situationen, waehrend sich die Vorgabe eines Soll-Werts fuer kontinuierliche Aufgaben einer genauen Quantifizierung weitestgehend entzieht. Im Feldversuch (N=30) konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei den Fahrten ohne Zusatzaufgabenbearbeitung (Referenzbedingung) die definierten visuellen Aufgaben zum Grossteil erfuellt werden. Ist der Fahrer jedoch durch Zusatzaufgaben beansprucht, verlaesst er

  9. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  10. NMR Spectra through the Eyes of a Student: Eye Tracking Applied to NMR Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Topczewski, Anna M.; Tang, Hui; Kendhammer, Lisa K.; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) plays a key role in introductory organic chemistry, spanning theory, concepts, and experimentation. Therefore, it is imperative that the instruction methods for NMR are both efficient and effective. By utilizing eye tracking equipment, the researchers were able to monitor how second-semester organic…

  11. Performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schot, Gijs; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    2015-08-01

    We present here the performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR, the critical assessment of automated structure determination by NMR. The CS-Rosetta server uses only chemical shifts for structure prediction, in combination, when available, with a post-scoring procedure based on unassigned NOE lists (Huang et al. in J Am Chem Soc 127:1665-1674, 2005b, doi: 10.1021/ja047109h). We compare the original submissions using a previous version of the server based on Rosetta version 2.6 with recalculated targets using the new R3FP fragment picker for fragment selection and implementing a new annotation of prediction reliability (van der Schot et al. in J Biomol NMR 57:27-35, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10858-013-9762-6), both implemented in the CS-Rosetta3 WeNMR server. In this second round of CASD-NMR, the WeNMR CS-Rosetta server has demonstrated a much better performance than in the first round since only converged targets were submitted. Further, recalculation of all CASD-NMR targets using the new version of the server demonstrates that our new annotation of prediction quality is giving reliable results. Predictions annotated as weak are often found to provide useful models, but only for a fraction of the sequence, and should therefore only be used with caution.

  12. Continuous Flow 1H and 13C NMR Spectroscopy in Microfluidic Stripline NMR Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthoek-de Vries, Anna Jo; Bart, Jacob; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Janssen, Johannes W.G.; van Bentum, Jan (P.J.M.); Gardeniers, Han J.G.E.; Kentgens, Arno P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic stripline NMR technology not only allows for NMR experiments to be performed on small sample volumes in the submicroliter range, but also experiments can easily be performed in continuous flow because of the stripline's favorable geometry. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of

  13. Crystallographic and dynamic aspects of solid-state NMR calibration compounds: towards ab initio NMR crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Tapmeyer, Lukas; Bolte, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excellent results of dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for static systems have been well established over the past decade. The introduction of dynamics into DFT-D calculations is a target, especially for the field of molecular NMR crystallography. Four 13C ss-NMR...

  14. Semitrailers by rail or train on the road - intermodal transport or platooning; Nutzfahrzeug auf die Schiene oder Zug auf die Strasse - kombinierter Verkehr oder LKW-Konvois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuschoff, E.; Happe, J.; Sura, T.; Hermans, N.-H. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl Informatik im Maschinenbau

    2003-07-01

    For over 20 years, the ZLW/IMA researches in the field of freight transport and coordinates projects in this field of action. Both, individual elements of transport chains (e.g. terminals) and entire transport chains are conceived, developed and optimised. This contribution presents two current projects of research, which engage in the accomplishment of the increasing road transport. Since a development of the road infrastructure in equivalent for the rise of the traffic volume will not be possible in the next years, alternative strategies for the prevention of the threatening traffic collapse must be found. One possibility is given in the shifting of the freight transport on other transportation modes, e.g. the rail (solution: combined transport). An alternative strategy exists in the increase of the infrastructural efficiency available by electronic coupling of trucks (solution: Truck convoy). These two solutions must count themselves thereby both microeconomic for the freight forwarders and economic for the European society. For this reason the two solutions are compared macroeconomic with one another. (orig.) [German] Das ZLW/IMA bearbeitet und koordiniert seit ueber 20 Jahren Projekte zum Thema Gueterverkehr. Dabei werden sowohl einzelne Elemente der Transportketten (z.B. Umschlagbahnhoefe) als auch gesamte Transportketten konzipiert, entwickelt und optimiert. Dieser Beitrag stellt zwei aktuelle Forschungsarbeiten vor, die sich mit der Bewaeltigung des wachsenden Strassengueterverkehrsaufkommens beschaeftigen. Da ein zum Anstieg der Verkehrsbelastung aequivalenter Ausbau der Strasseninfrastruktur in den naechsten Jahren nicht zu leisten sein wird, muessen alternative Strategien fuer die Abwendung des drohenden Verkehrskollapses gefunden werden. Eine Moeglichkeit besteht in der Verlagerung des Gueterverkehrs auf andere Verkehrstraeger, wie z.B. die Schiene (Loesungsansatz: kombinierter Verkehr). Eine alternative Strategie besteht in der Erhoehung der

  15. NMR methodologies in the analysis of blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Donatella; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Delfini, Maurizio; Vista, Silvia; Antiochia, Riccarda; Proietti, Noemi; Bubici, Salvatore; Ferrante, Gianni; Carradori, Simone; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Mannina, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    An NMR analytical protocol based on complementary high and low field measurements is proposed for blueberry characterization. Untargeted NMR metabolite profiling of blueberries aqueous and organic extracts as well as targeted NMR analysis focused on anthocyanins and other phenols are reported. Bligh-Dyer and microwave-assisted extractions were carried out and compared showing a better recovery of lipidic fraction in the case of microwave procedure. Water-soluble metabolites belonging to different classes such as sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and phenolic compounds, as well as metabolites soluble in organic solvent such as triglycerides, sterols, and fatty acids, were identified. Five anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, and petunidin-3-glucoside) and 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl quercetin were identified in solid phase extract. The water status of fresh and withered blueberries was monitored by portable NMR and fast-field cycling NMR. (1) H depth profiles, T2 transverse relaxation times and dispersion profiles were found to be sensitive to the withering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Flow NMR of polymers in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Ute; Bagusat, Frank; Scheler, Ulrich [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Pulsed-field gradient NMR is applied to study the motion of polymers in an external electric field and under mechanical shear. The application of an electric field drives motion of charged species. In conjunction with the diffusion coefficient from the electrophoretic mobility the effective charge per molecule is derived. The electric field applicable in the aqueous system is too weak to deform the polymer or even abstract counterions. In a shear flow established in a Couette cell partial orientation of polymer chains is measured via residual dipolar couplings. The entire flow field in a non-symmetric flow cell is monitored by a combination of PFG NMR and NMR imaging exhibiting regions of high shear and locally low shear, where polymers relax.

  17. Characterization by NMR of ozonized methyl linoleate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Maritza F. [National Center for Scientific Research, Havana (Cuba). Ozone Research Center. Dept. of Ozonized Substances]. E-mail: maritza.diaz@cnic.edu.cu; Gavin, Jose A. [University of the Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    In the present study ozonized methyl linoleate with peroxide index of 1,800 mmol-equiv kg{sup -1} was chemically characterized. Ozonation of methyl linoleate produced hydroperoxides, ozonides and aldehydes which were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR two-dimensional. The standard methyl linoleate and ozonized methyl linoleate shown very similar {sup 1}H NMR spectra except for the signals at {delta} 9.7 and {delta} 9.6 that correspond to aldehydic hydrogen, {delta} 5.7 and {delta} 5.5 (olefinic signals from hydroperoxides) and {delta} 5.2 ppm (multiplet from ozonides methynic hydrogen). Other resonance assignments are based on the connectivities provided by the hydrogen scalar coupling constants. These results indicate that NMR spectroscopy can provide valuable information about the amount of formed oxygenated compounds in the ozonized methyl linoleate in order to use it to follow up ozone therapy and chemistry of ozonized vegetable oil. (author)

  18. NMR metabolomics of renal cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana M; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Monteiro, Márcia S; Duarte, Iola F

    2015-09-23

    This paper reviews the use of NMR metabolomics for the metabolic characterization of renal cancer. The existing challenges in the clinical management of this disease are first presented, followed by a brief introduction to the metabolomics approach, in the context of cancer research. A subsequent review of the literature on NMR metabolic studies of renal cancer reveals that the subject has been clearly underdeveloped, compared with other types of cancer, particularly regarding cultured cells and tissue analysis. NMR analysis of biofluids has focused on blood (plasma or serum) metabolomics, comprising no account of studies on human urine, in spite of its noninvasiveness and physiological proximity to the affected organs. Finally, some areas of potential future development are identified.

  19. The eNMR platform for structural biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Rosato, Antonio; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A.

    2010-01-01

    The e-NMR project is a European cooperation initiative that aims at providing the bio-NMR user community with a software platform integrating and streamlining the computational approaches necessary for the analysis of bio-NMR data. The e-NMR platform is based on a Grid computational infrastructure. A main focus of the current implementation of the e-NMR platform is on streamlining structure determination protocols. Indeed, to facilitate the use of NMR spectroscopy in the life sciences, the eN...

  20. New Designs for NMR Core Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemich, B.; Anferova, S.; Talnishnikh, E.; Arnold, J.; Clauser, C.

    2006-12-01

    Within the last ten years, mobile magnetic resonance has moved from the oil field to many new areas of application. While the focus of mobile NMR in the past was on single-sided or inside-out NMR, the advent of tube-shaped Halbach magnets has introduced the conventional outside-in NMR concept to mobile NMR where the object is inside a magnet. Our Halbach magnet is constructed from small magnet blocks at light weight and low cost with a magnetic field sufficiently homogeneous. To automatize NMR measurements, the Halbach magnet is mounted on a sliding table to scan long core sections without human interaction. In homogeneous magnetic fields, the longitudinal relaxation time T1 and even the transverse relaxation time T2 are proportional to the pore diameters of rocks. Hence, the T1 and T2 signals map the pore-size distribution of the studied rock cores. For fully saturated samples the integral of the distribution curve is proportional to porosity. The porosity values from NMR measurements with the Halbach magnet are used to estimate permability. The Halbach magnet can be used for certain sample geometries in combination with exchangeable radio frequency (rf) coils with different diameters from 24 mm up to 80 mm. To measure standard Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) cores, which have a standard diameter of 60 mm and are split lengthwise after recovery, we use a surface figure-8 rf coil with an inner diameter of 60 mm. Besides 1D T2 measurements, we perform relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments, where T1 and T2 are measured in parallel. In this way, the influence of diffusion on the shape of the T2 distribution function is probed. A gradient coil system was designed to perform Pulsed Field Gradients (PFG) experiments. As the gradient coils restrict the axial access to the magnet, only cylindrical core plugs with 20 mm in diameter can be analysed by PFG NMR methods. The homogeneity of the magnetic field in the sensitive volume

  1. Direct Comparison of 19F qNMR and 1H qNMR by Characterizing Atorvastatin Calcium Content

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Zhaoxia Liu; Huaxin Yang; Lan He

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a powerful tool in measuring drug content because of its high speed, sensitivity, and precision. Most of the reports were based on proton qNMR (1H qNMR) and only a few fluorine qNMR (19F qNMR) were reported. No research has been conducted to directly compare the advantage and disadvantage between these two methods. In the present study, both 19F and 1H qNMR were performed to characterize the content of atorvastatin calcium with the same intern...

  2. Man-made mineral fibres - effects on morphology of the lung; Pulmonale Reaktionsmuster auf kuenstliche Mineralfasern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Respondek, M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Krankenanstalten Bergmannsheil -Universitaetsklinik-, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Wiethege, T. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Krankenanstalten Bergmannsheil -Universitaetsklinik-, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Mueller, K.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Krankenanstalten Bergmannsheil -Universitaetsklinik-, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    1995-12-01

    Rockwool-Fasern (Steinwolle) im Tiermodell in vivo untersucht. Wistar-Ratten wurden 0,2 ml Rockwool-Feinfaser-Suspension (10 mg/ml physiologischer Kochsalzloesung) instilliert. Die Lungen wurden nach Zeitraeumen von 1 Tag bis zu 730 Tagen histomorphologisch, physikalisch-analytisch und molekularbiologisch untersucht. Die morphologischen und immunhistochemischen Untersuchungsergebnisse zeigten, dass die Fasern waehrend der ersten vierzehn Tage nach Faserinstillation eine zum Teil ausgepraegte, aber unspezifische, exsudative Entzuendungsreaktion verursachen. Im weiteren Beobachtungszeitraum waren eine wechselnd aktive Proliferationsphase mit Hyperplasien und Metaplasien des Bronchial- und Alveolarepithels, eine Ausbildung von Fasergranulomen und phasenartiger Dominanz unterschiedlicher Entzuendungszelltypen zu dokumentieren. Waehrend der gesamten Untersuchungsdauer zeigte sich eine ausgepraegte Clearance-Funktion der Alveolarmakrophagen. Die morphometrischen Faseruntersuchungen ergaben eine Abnahme des Medianwertes der Rockwoolfaserlaenge von 18 {mu}m zu Beginn des Versuches auf 7 {mu}m nach 730 Tagen. Die immunhistochemischen und molekulargenetischen Untersuchungen zur Rolle des Tumor Suppressor Gens p53 lieferten keinen Hinweis auf eine Mutation im Bereich des untersuchten Genlokus. Eine Akkumulation des P53 Porteins deutet jedoch auf eine Schaedigung einzelner Zellen durch die instillierten Fasern hin. Nach den vorliegenden Untersuchungsergebnissen hat die kuenstliche Rockwool-Faser ein im Vergleich zu Krokydolith-Asbest schwaecheres fibrogenes Potential. Tumoren entwickelten sich in dem Beobachtungszeitraum von 2 Jahren nicht. (orig./MG)

  3. Auswirkungen von transdermalem Testosterongel auf Marker des Knochenumsatzes und die Knochendichte bei hypogonadalen Männern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studienziel und Methodik: Eine Androgenersatztherapie soll die Knochendichte bei Männern mit Hypogonadismus erhöhen. Wir untersuchten die Auswirkungen einer sechsmonatigen Behandlung mit einem neuen transdermalen Testosterongel auf Knochenumsatzmarker und Knochendichte. Bei dieser Studie handelte es sich um eine prospektive, randomisierte, multizentrische Parallelgruppenstudie, bei der 227 Männer mit Hypogonadismus (mittleres Alter 51 Jahre, Bereich: 19-68 Jahre an 16 akademischen Einrichtungen in den USA untersucht wurden. Die Probanden erhielten randomisiert entweder 1 %iges Testosterongel mit 50 bzw. 100 mg Testosteron (Abgabe von etwa 5 und 10 mg Testosteron/Tag oder zwei Testosteronpflaster (Abgabe von 5 mg Testosteron/Tag über einen Zeitraum von 90 Tagen. Am Tag 91 wurde die Testosterongeldosis je nach Serumtestosteronspiegel auf 75 mg/Tag erhöht oder vermindert und entsprechend bis zum Studientag 180 fortgeführt. In der Testosteronpflaster-Gruppe erfolgte keine Dosisanpassung. Serumtestosteron, freies Testosteron und Östradiol, Knochenumsatzmarker und Knochendichte wurden am Tag 0, 30, 90 und 180 jeweils vor und nach der Behandlung bestimmt. Ergebnisse: Die Anwendung von täglich 100 mg Testosteron als Gel führte zu einem um den Faktor 1,4 bzw. 1,9 höheren Testosteronspiegel als die Anwendung von täglich 50 mg Testosteron als Gel oder des Referenzpflasters. Das Serumöstradiol stieg proportional an. Das Verhältnis von N-Telopeptid zu Kreatinin im Harn, ein Parameter spezifisch für die Knochenresorption, nahm nur in der Gruppe mit täglich 100 mg Testosteron als Gel signifikant ab (p = 0,0019. Die Serummarker für Osteoblastenaktivität im Knochen (Osteocalcin, Prokollagen und skelettspezifische alkalische Phosphatase stiegen während der ersten 90 Tage der Behandlung ohne Unterschied zwischen den Gruppen signifikant an, kehrten danach aber wieder auf den Ausgangswert zurück. Die Knochendichte wurde nur in der Gruppe mit t

  4. Auswirkungen des ePublic Services auf die Verwaltungsorganisation. Darstellung anhand Schweizer Benchmarks (verstanden als best practice-Städte)

    OpenAIRE

    Messerli, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Der Einfluss der IKT (Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien) auf die interne Organisation von Unternehmen wurde bereits zu Beginn der neunziger Jahre wissenschaftlich thematisiert 8 . Die theoretischen Überlegungen zu den Auswirkungen auf die Organisation wurden im privaten Sektor auch schon mittels Fallstudien empirisch erforscht 9 . Im öffentlichen Sektor sind in der Schweiz bislang zu dieser Problemstellung noch keine empirischen Untersuchungen angestellt worden 10 . Ziel der vorlie...

  5. Air pollution and climate change. Effects on vegetation, animals, and humans; Luftverschmutzung und Klimaaenderung. Auswirkungen auf Flora, Fauna und Mensch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellburn, A.R. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Biological Sciences Div.

    1997-12-31

    This is the first comprehensive review of the effects of air pollution and climate change on the biosphere. The emphasis is on the biochemical processes caused by specific pollutants in plants, animals, and humans, but global aspects of air pollution are gone into as well, e.g. greenhouse effect, acid rain, ozone depletion and forest decline. The reader is given a comprehensive outline of this interdisciplinary problem field. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Hier liegt die erste zusammenfassende Einfuehrung zu den Auswirkungen von Luftverschmutzung und Klimaaenderung auf die Biosphaere vor. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Erlaeuterung der durch die jeweiligen Luftschadstoffe ausgeloesten biochemischen Vorgaenge in Pflanze, Tier und Mensch. Daneben werden aber auch globale Aspekte der Luftverschmutzung wie Treibhauseffekt, Saurer Regen, Ozonloch und Waldsterben ausfuehrlich eroertert. Somit erhaelt der Leser einen umfassenden Einblick in diese fachuebergreifende Problematik. (orig.)

  6. Competing mechanisms for ordering tendencies in BCC CuAuZn{sub 2} and FCC AuFe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.D.; Althoff, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Staunton, J.B.; Ling, M.F. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Pinski, F.J. [Cincinnati Univ, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-07-01

    We have briefly discussed the ASRO (atomic short-range order) in AuFe and CuAuZn{sub 2}. General points are that (1) we have implemented a first-principles theory of ASRO in N-component alloys which allows determination of the electronic origins of said ASRO; (2) such calculations can provide much information on the high- and (sometimes) low-temperature alloys; and (3) this approach has identified the origin for the novel special-point ASRO in AuFe. Displacement effects, i.e., non-rigid lattice effects, as well as the other contributions beyond band-energy, are being incorporated into the multicomponent alloy calculations. Such improvements will allow us to investigate other alloys, where charge effects may play a role, to ``design`, for example, higher temperature intermetallics through alloying.

  7. Cardiac MRI in suspected myocarditis; MRT des Herzens bei Verdacht auf Myokarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, O.; Oberholzer, K.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologie der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Mohrs, O. [Klinik fuer Radiologie der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of ECG-gated breath-hold MRI in diagnosing acute myocardidits. Material and methods: Cardiac MRI was performed on 21 consecutive patients with suspected myocarditis. ECG-gated breath-hold T2-weighted images with fat suppression were acquired in 3 standard views. T1-weighted imaging (FLASH) was performed 10 min after IV administration of Gd-DTPA. Laboratory data included creatine kinase, troponin T and serological tests, ECG findings and echocardiography. Imaging findings were retrospectively compared to the discharge diagnoses. Signal alterations were semiquantitatively classified. Results: Acute myocarditis was diagnosed in 9 patients and cardiac sarcoidosis in 2 patients. Late enhancement was observed in 4 patients with acute myocarditis and in both patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. Semiquantitative evaluation revealed 9 true positive, 9 true negative, 1 false positive and 2 false negative results. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI has the potential to detect acute myocarditis and to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis. Late enhancement of Gd-DTPA can be found in both viral myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Beurteilung des diagnostischen Potenzials der MRT des Herzens bei Verdacht auf akute Myokarditis. Material und Methoden: 21 konsekutive Patienten mit Verdacht auf Myokarditis wurden mit einem standardisierten Protokoll untersucht. Zunaechst wurden T{sub 2}-gewichtete, EKG-getriggerte fettsupprimierte Sequenzen in den 3 Standardebenen angefertigt. 10 Minuten nach intravenoeser Injektion von GD-DTPA wurden T{sub 1}-gewichtete TurboFLASH-Sequenzen angefertigt. Von allen Patienten wurden EKG, Echokardiographie und die Laborbefunde einschliesslich Creatinin-Kinase, Troponin T und der Infektionsserologie protokolliert. Das Ausmass der Signalveraenderungen im MRT wurde semiquantitativ klassifiziert. Die Ergebnisse der MRT wurden retrospektiv mit den Entlassungsdiagnosen korreliert. Ergebnisse: Bei 9 Patienten lag nach

  8. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL NMR STUDY OF 4-(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    experimental and theoretical data have showed that the molecular geometry and the ... 1D and 2D hetero- and homonuclear NMR methods enable to ... The essence of this study is briefly to report experimental and theoretical NMR features of.

  9. nmrML: a community supported open data standard for the description, storage, and exchange of NMR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel; Jacob, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cruz, Joseph A; Marcu, Ana; Grant, Jason R; Moing, Annick; Deborde, Catherine; de Figueiredo, Luis F; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Easton, John M; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Hao, Jie; Ludwig, Christian; Günther, Ulrich L; Rosato, Antonio; Klein, Matthias S; Lewis, Ian; Luchinat, Claudio; Jones, Andrew R; Grauslys, Arturas; Larralde, Martin; Yokochi, Masashi; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Porzel, Andrea; Griffin, Julian; Viant, Mark R; Wishart, David S; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M; Neumann, Steffen

    2017-10-16

    NMR is a widely used analytical technique with a growing number of repositories available. As a result, demands for a vendor-agnostic, open data format for long-term archiving of NMR data have emerged with the aim to ease and encourage sharing, comparison and reuse of NMR data. Here we present nmrML, an open XML-based exchange and storage format for NMR spectral data. The nmrML format is intended to be fully compatible with existing NMR data for chemical, biochemical and metabolomics experiments. nmrML can capture raw NMR data, spectral data acquisition parameters and, where available, spectral metadata such as chemical structures associated with spectral assignments. The nmrML format is compatible with pure-compound NMR data for reference spectral libraries as well as NMR data from complex bio-mixtures i.e. metabolomics experiments. To facilitate format conversions, we provide nmrML converters for Bruker and Agilent/Varian vendor formats. In addition, easy-to-use web-based spectral viewing, processing and spectral assignment tools that read and write nmrML have been developed. Software libraries and web services for data validation are available for tool developers and end-users. The nmrML format has already been adopted for capturing and disseminating NMR data for small molecules by several open source data processing tools and metabolomics reference spectral libraries, e.g. serving as storage format for the MetaboLights data repository. The nmrML open access data standard has been endorsed by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI) and we here encourage user participation and feedback to increase usability and make it a successful standard.

  10. Kurze Halbwertszeit : Geschäftsberichte wirken nicht lange nach - Firmen besinnen sich bei der Information auf den gesunden Menschenverstand

    OpenAIRE

    Gysi, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Artikel von Beat Gysi mit Zitaten von Peter Leibfried: Unternehmen gelangen auf verschiedenen Kanälen an Investoren, Analytiker und Medienleute, aber der Geschäftsbericht bleibt zentral. Die oft aufwendig gestalteten Dokumente werden aber meist rasch weggelegt. Aus der kürzlich durchgeführten Befragung von Investoren, Finanzanalysten und Medienleuten zu den Themen Unternehmensberichterstattung sowie Firmenbewertung wurde die Erkenntnis gewonnen, dass persönliche Gespräche mit dem Mana...

  11. Das GENUS-Projekt - Einfluss der vertikal migrierenden pelagischen Crustaceen auf den Kohlenstoffkreislauf im nördlichen Benguelastrom

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Thorsten; Schukat, Anna; Buchholz, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Das interdisziplinäre GENUS-Projekt (Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System) ist ein vom BMBF gefördertes Verbundprojekt mit dem Ziel den Zusammenhang zwischen Klimavariabilität, biogeochemischen Stoffkreisläufen und der Ökosystemstruktur des nördlichen Benguelagebietes besser zu verstehen. Ein Schwerpunkt des GENUS-Projektes liegt dabei auf der Quantifizierung des aktiven Kohlenstoffflusses durch die vorherrschenden Zooplanktonarten. Das Benguelaauftriebsgebiet vor der Küs...

  12. Haben soziale Merkmale von Patientinnen und Patienten einen Einfluss auf die Anwendung von diagnostischen und therapeutischen Herzkathetern?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryl, Livia

    2007-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird untersucht, inwiefern sich soziale Ungleichheit in der akutkardiologischen Versorgung bezogen auf die Anwendung diagnostischer und therapeutischer Herzkatheter auswirkt. Die Brisanz des Themas für den Public-Health-Bereich ergibt sich aus der großen gesundheitspolitischen und gesellschaftlichen Bedeutung der Herzkrankheiten. Diese wird durch die Prävalenz, die erhöhte Mortalität und Folgeerkrankungen erzeugt. Betroffene erleben eine besondere Belastung, d...

  13. Wirtschaftliche Partnerschaftsabkommen (EPAs) der EU mit Afrika: Dominanz der EU Exportinteressen statt Partnerschaft auf Augenhöhe

    OpenAIRE

    Kohnert, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Angesichts des globalen Wettlaufs um Afrikas Ressourcen ist die EU darauf aus, Wirtschaftliche Partnerschaftsabkommen (EPAs) mit afrikanischen Staaten bis Oktober 2014 abzuschließen. Diese EPAs sind sollen nicht nur der Liberalisierung des Handels dienen, sondern auch die Wirtschaftsentwicklung in Afrika fördern und so eine win-win Situation in einer Partnerschaft auf Augenhöhe schaffen. Viele Afrikaner verdächtigen die EU jedoch mit doppelter Zunge zu reden und egoistisch eigene Exportintere...

  14. Effekte unterschiedlicher Konzentrationen einer kalziumhaltigen Salzhydratschmelze auf das erosive Potential säurehaltiger Getränke

    OpenAIRE

    Monova, Asya

    2011-01-01

    Das Phänomen „dentale Erosionen an Zahnhartsubstanz“ als Folge des erhöhten Konsums von sauren Getränken stand im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden in-vitro Studie. Das Ziel war, den remineralisierenden Einfluss einer neuartigen calciumhaltigen Salzhydratschmelze auf das erosive Potential handelsüblicher säurehaltigen Getränke wie Coca Cola, Orangensaft, Eistee u. a. zu untersuchen. Unterschiedliche Konzentrationen dieser calciumreichen Salzhydratschmelze (SHS) wurden den Testgetränken in Pulverfo...

  15. Randomisierte Doppelblindstudie zum Einfluss der Soft-Laser Ohrakupunktur auf die Angst von Kindern bei der Zahnbehandlung : Eine experimentelle Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Thiedemann, Nicol

    2004-01-01

    In dieser Studie wurde untersucht, in wieweit eine Laser- Ohrakupunktur Einfluss auf die Angst bei Kindern vor der Behandlung des Zahnarztes nehmen kann. Im Studiendesign unterscheiden sich zwei Gruppen, zum einen eine Gruppe mit einem aktiven Laserpen (grün) und zum anderen eine Gruppe mit einem Placebo-Laserpen (rot). Es war dem Untersucher und auch dem Probanden lediglich die Farbunterscheidung rot oder grün bekannt, nicht aber welcher der beiden Laser aktiv oder passiv war. Dieses erga...

  16. Linc-RoR promotes c-Myc expression through hnRNP I and AUF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianguo; Zhang, Ali; Ho, Tsui-Ting; Zhang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Nanjiang; Ding, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Min; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2016-04-20

    Linc-RoR was originally identified to be a regulator for induced pluripotent stem cells in humans and it has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of Linc-RoR-mediated gene expression in cancer is poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that Linc-RoR plays an oncogenic role in part through regulation of c-Myc expression. Linc-RoR knockout (KO) suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth. In particular, Linc-RoR KO causes a significant decrease in c-Myc whereas re-expression of Linc-RoR in the KO cells restores the level of c-Myc. Mechanistically, Linc-RoR interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) I and AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1), respectively, with an opposite consequence to their interaction with c-Myc mRNA. While Linc-RoR is required for hnRNP I to bind to c-Myc mRNA, interaction of Linc-RoR with AUF1 inhibits AUF1 to bind to c-Myc mRNA. As a result, Linc-RoR may contribute to the increased stability of c-Myc mRNA. Although hnRNP I and AUF1 can interact with many RNA species and regulate their functions, with involvement of Linc-RoR they would be able to selectively regulate mRNA stability of specific genes such as c-Myc. Together, these results support a role for Linc-RoR in c-Myc expression in part by specifically enhancing its mRNA stability, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Einfluss unterschiedlicher Kompressionsstrümpfe auf die Hauttemperatur und die Hautfeuchtigkeit während laufbandergometrischer Belastung

    OpenAIRE

    Sohns, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Fragestellung: In der vorliegenden Studie wurde der Einfluss zweier unterschiedlicher konfektionierter Kompressionsstrümpfe auf die folgenden Eigenschaften der Haut am Unterschenkel vor, während und nach einer standardisierten Belastung untersucht: Hauttemperatur, transepidermaler Wasserverlust und Hautfeuchtigkeit. Die Kompressionsprodukte wurden außerdem bezüglich der Aufnahme von Wasser, ihres Anpressdrucks, ihrer Wirksamkeit und des Tragekomforts miteinander verglichen. Material und Me...

  18. Unter dem Zeichen des Anderen : Jaspers’ Blick zurück auf den Ursprung Europas in der "Achsenzeit"

    OpenAIRE

    Gasché, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    In seinem Beitrag zu der ersten Tagung, die die 'Rencontres Internationales' 1946 in Genf zum Thema 'Europa' ausrichteten, merkt Karl Jaspers an, dass wir heutzutage, das heißt nach den zwei Weltkriegen, kein Vertrauen mehr in den Humanismus, in den Glauben an zivilisatorischen Fortschritt durch Wissenschaft und Technik, in eine Gesellschaft, die auf einem Gleichgewicht souveräner Staaten basiert, und in die lebendige geistige Kraft der christlichen Kirchen besitzen. Dies alles waren die Säul...

  19. Einfluss von Eugenol und Silikonöl auf die Dentinhaftung von adhäsiven Befestigungsmaterialien

    OpenAIRE

    Bigdali, Puria

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung Eugenolhaltige Zemente und Silikone stehen in Verdacht den Verbund von Kompositzementen zu beeinflussen. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es den Einfluss eugenolhaltiger und eugenolfreier Zemente und von Additions- und Kondensationssilikonen auf konventionell adhäsive und selbstadhäsive Kompositzemente zu untersuchen. Material und Methode Aus 200 extrahierten Rinderzähnen wurden 200 Dentinscheiben mit einer Dicke von 1 mm hergestellt, in welche eine definierte Kavität mit einem ...

  20. Experimentelle Nebenschilddrüsentransplantation : Untersuchungen zur Wirksamkeit einer temporären Immunsuppression auf die Transplantatfunktion

    OpenAIRE

    Begrich, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Erkrankungen der Nebenschilddrüsen stellen sich pathophysiologisch als Hyper- oder Hypoparathyreoidismus dar. Beim Hypoparathyreoidismus, der auf einer Nebenschilddrüsenunterfunktion basiert, wird zu wenig oder kein Parathormon gebildet. Infolgedessen kommt es pathophysiologisch zu einer Hypokalzämie und Hyperphosphatämie. Das Blut ist übersäuert, und die Betroffenen leiden unter Tetanie mit Stimmritzenkrampf und Pfötchenstellung aufgrund einer erhöhten neuromuskulären Erregbarkeit der Skelet...

  1. Der Einfluss Tiergestützter Therapie auf die Befindlichkeit und das Verhalten dementer und depressiver Patienten in der Gerontopsychiatrie

    OpenAIRE

    Schervier-Vogt, Antonia Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es zum einen, einen Einblick in die verschiedenen Formen Tiergestützter Therapie einschließlich der verwendbaren Tierarten sowie ihrer Vor- und Nachteile zu geben, zum anderen soll eine Literaturanalyse zu Tiergestützter Therapie bei Demenz und Depression den aktuellen Stand der Wissenschaft darlegen. Im experimentellen Teil der Arbeit soll gezeigt werden, welche Auswirkungen Tiergestützte Therapie auf das Verhalten (aktive Therapieteilnahme, Körperhaltung, Mimik, Komm...

  2. Kasuistik 2: 54-jähriger LKW-Fernfahrer mit Verdacht auf Schilddrüsenunterfunktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jockenhövel F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available 54-jähriger LKW-Fernfahrer mit Leistungsschwäche, Rückenschmerzen, erektiler Dysfunktion, vermehrter Müdigkeit. Wird vom Hausarzt mit der Frage einer eventuellen Schilddrüsenunterfunktion (Hypothyreose vorgestellt. Keine relevanten Vorerkrankungen, gelegentlich Voltaren als Medikation gegen Rückenschmerzen. Auf Befragen erektile Dysfunktion mit mangelnder Rigidität zur Emission, bzw. zu schnellem Verlust der Rigidität.

  3. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  4. Synthesis and NMR Elucidation of Novel Pentacycloundecane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Herein we report the synthesis and NMR elucidation of five novel pentacycloundecane (PCU)-derived short peptides as potential. HIV protease inhibitors. 1H and 13C spectral analysis show major overlapping of methine resonance of the PCU 'cage' thereby making it extremely difficult to assign the NMR ...

  5. Developments in Solid-State NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Developments in Solid-State NMR. K V Ramanathan. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1040-1052. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/11/1040-1052 ...

  6. Bench-top NMR-food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voda, M.A.; Duynhoven, Van J.

    2016-01-01

    In food research and development, relaxometric and diffusometric benchtop NMR methods have been used to obtain quantitative phase compositional and food microstructural parameters in a routine manner. The most commonly used applications are assessment of solid fat content, and water and oil

  7. NMR Analysis of Some Pentacycloundecanedione Derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    In the proton NMR spectrum the methylene protons are registered as an AB spin system at 2.03 and 1.89 ppm. A relatively complex pattern between 2.68 and 3.15 ppm, which integrates to eight protons represents the eight methine protons. The signals of the geminal PCU bridge methylene protons. (H-4) are registered as ...

  8. Quantification of complex mixtures by NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Velzen, van E.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    NMR has firmly established itself as an analytical tool that can quantify analyte concentrations in complex mixtures in a rapid, cost-effective, accurate and precise manner. Here, the technological advances with respect to instrumentation, sample preparation, data acquisition and data processing

  9. Structures of Biomolecules by NMR Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Structures of Biomolecules by NMR Spectroscopy. Hanudatta S Atreya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1033-1039. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Solid-state NMR for bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Cegelski, Lynette

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria associate with surfaces and one another by elaborating an extracellular matrix to encapsulate cells, creating communities termed biofilms. Biofilms are beneficial in some ecological niches, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of serious and chronic infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative measurements are needed to define the composition and architecture of bacterial biofilms to help drive the development of strategies to interfere with biofilm assembly. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to the examination of insoluble and complex macromolecular and whole-cell systems. This article highlights three examples that implement solid-state NMR to deliver insights into bacterial biofilm composition and changes in cell-wall composition as cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle. Most recently, solid-state NMR measurements provided a total accounting of the protein and polysaccharide components in the extracellular matrix of an Escherichia coli biofilm and transformed our qualitative descriptions of matrix composition into chemical parameters that permit quantitative comparisons among samples. We present additional data for whole biofilm samples (cells plus the extracellular matrix) that complement matrix-only analyses. The study of bacterial biofilms by solid-state NMR is an exciting avenue ripe with many opportunities and we close the article by articulating some outstanding questions and future directions in this area.

  11. NMR and mushrooms : imaging post harvest senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, H.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this thesis was to explore the potentials of NMR for the study of water relations in harvested mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ). Since harvested mushrooms tend to continue their growth after harvest, their morphogenesis is heavily

  12. NMR characterization of polymers: Review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    NMR spectroscopy is a major technique for the characterization and analysis of polymers. A large number of methodologies have been developed in both the liquid and the solid state, and the literature has grown considerably (1-5). The field now covers a broad spectrum of activities, including polym...

  13. Theoretical molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and NMR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretical results have been successfully compared with available experimental data in the literature. Regarding the calculations, 2mpe-4bb prefers enol-imine form and DFT method is superior to HF approach except for predicting bond lengths. KEY WORDS: Schiff bases, Normal mode frequencies, HF, DFT, NMR. Bull.

  14. NMR Analysis of Some Pentacycloundecanedione Derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The complete NMR elucidation of four pentacycloundecanedione (PCUdione) derivatives is described. Major proton shifts occur when additions are performed on the carbonyl carbons. Some of the carbon signals are also transposed. Despite the fact that the signals of the methine protons on the cage skeleton experience ...

  15. AB INITIO STUDY, INVESTIGATION OF NMR SHIELDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Ab initio study, investigation of NMR shielding tensors, NBO and vibrational frequency. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010, 24(2). 231. Gas phase results. In order to study mechanism of the reactions, structure corresponding to reactants, transition states and products were optimized in level of theory. Figure 1 shows the ...

  16. Al NMR: a novel NMR data processing program optimized for sparse sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, John M.; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@mail.med.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Graduate Group in Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Perelman School of Medicine (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Sparse sampling in biomolecular multidimensional NMR offers increased acquisition speed and resolution and, if appropriate conditions are met, an increase in sensitivity. Sparse sampling of indirectly detected time domains combined with the direct truly multidimensional Fourier transform has elicited particular attention because of the ability to generate a final spectrum amenable to traditional analysis techniques. A number of sparse sampling schemes have been described including radial sampling, random sampling, concentric sampling and variations thereof. A fundamental feature of these sampling schemes is that the resulting time domain data array is not amenable to traditional Fourier transform based processing and phasing correction techniques. In addition, radial sampling approaches offer a number of advantages and capabilities that are also not accessible using standard NMR processing techniques. These include sensitivity enhancement, sub-matrix processing and determination of minimal sets of sampling angles. Here we describe a new software package (Al NMR) that enables these capabilities in the context of a general NMR data processing environment.

  17. CASD-NMR: critical assessment of automated structure determination by NMR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosato, A.; van der Schot, G.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238

    2009-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is currently the only technique for determining the solution structure of biological macromolecules. This typically requires both the assignment of resonances and a labor-intensive analysis of multidimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) spectra, in which peaks

  18. Bottom-up substitution assembly of AuF4-n0,-+nPO3 (n = 1-4): a theoretical study of novel oxyfluoride hyperhalogen molecules and anions AuF4-n(PO3)n0,-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-fan; Cui, Zhong-hua; Ding, Yi-hong

    2014-06-01

    Compounds with high electron affinity, i.e. superhalogens, have continued to attract chemists' attention, due to their potential importance in fundamental chemistry and materials science. It has now proven very effective to build up novel superhalogens with multi-positively charged centres, which are usually called 'hyperhalogens'. Herein, using AuF4- and PO3 as the model building blocks, we made the first attempt to design the Au,P-based hyperhalogen anions AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)&SDD and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d)&SDD (single-point) levels (6-311+G(d) for O, F, P and SDD for Au). Notably, for all the considered Au,P systems, the ground state bears a dioxo-bonded structure with n ≤ 3, which is significantly more stable than the usually presumed mono-oxo-bonded one. Moreover, the clustering of the -PO3 moieties becomes energetically favoured for n ≥ 3. The ground states of AuP4O120,- are the first reported cage-like oxide hyperhalogens. Thus, the -PO3 moiety cannot be retained during the 'bottom-up' assembly. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) value of the most stable AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) ranges from 7.16 to 8.20 eV, higher than the VDE values of the corresponding building blocks AuF4- (7.08 eV) and PO3- (4.69 eV). The adiabatic detachment energy values of these four hyperhalogens exceed 6.00 eV. Possible generation routes for AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) were discussed. The presently designed oxyfluorides not only enriches the family of hyperhalogens, but also demonstrates the great importance of considering the structural transformation during the superhalogen → hyperhalogen design such as for the present Au-P based systems.

  19. Petrophysical properties of greensand as predicted from NMR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zakir; Grattoni, Carlos A.; Solymar, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a useful tool in reservoir evaluation. The objective of this study is to predict petrophysical properties from NMR T2 distributions. A series of laboratory experiments including core analysis, capillary pressure measurements, NMR T2 measurements...

  20. Recent excitements in protein NMR: Large proteins and biologically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-14

    Oct 14, 2016 ... Paramagnetic NMR. Paramagnetism arises from unpaired electrons. As the mag- netic moment of electrons is ~1000 times more than protons, the presence of an unpaired electron near the nucleus causes pronounced paramagnetic effects; leading to dramatic out- come of NMR spectra. As, NMR restraints ...

  1. Aktivitätsmessung auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Oberflächen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter Michael

    2003-06-01

    Im Bereich der medizinischen Diagnostik spielen DNA-Chips eine immer wichtigere Rolle. Dabei werden Glas- oder Silikon-Oberflächen mit Tausenden von einzelsträngigen DNA-Fragmenten, sog. Sonden, bestückt, die mit den passenden DNA-Fragmenten in der zugefügten Patientenprobe verschmelzen. Die Auswertung solcher Messungen liefert die Diagnose für Krankheiten wie z.B. Krebs, Alzheimer oder für den Nachweis pathogener Erreger. Durch fortschreitende Miniaturisierung dieser Meßsysteme können bis zu 40.000 Genfragmente des Menschen in einer einzigen Messung analysiert werden. Neben den DNA-Fragmenten können Bio-Chips auch für andere biologische Komponenten wie Antikörper und Proteine eingesetzt werden, wobei bei letzteren neben der Bindung auch die Aktivität ein wichtiger Diagnoseparamter ist. Am Fraunhofer-Institut für medizinische Technik und am Lehrstuhl für Analytische Biochemie der Universität Potsdam wurden im Rahmen einer Doktorarbeit Methoden entwickelt, die es ermöglichen auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Sensoroberflächen die Aktivität von Proteinen zu messen. Es wurden Nukleinsäuren auf Oberflächen optischer Sensoren verankert. Diese fungierten als Rezeptor für die Proteine sowie auch als Substrat für Restriktionsenzyme, die Nukleinsäuren schneiden und Polymerasen, die Nukleinsäuren synthetisieren und verlängern können. Seine Anwendung fand diese Messmethode in der Messung der Aktivität des Proteins Telomerase, das in 90% aller Tumore erhöhte Aktivität gegenüber gesunden Zellen aufweist. Die Vorteile dieses neuen Assays gegenüber älteren Methoden liegt im Verzicht auf radioaktiv-markierten Komponenten und einer deutlich verkürzten Analysezeit. Die Arbeit schliesst mit einem funktionsfähigen Nachweis der Telomeraseaktivität im Zellextrakt von gesunden und kranken Zellen. Der direkte Einfluß von Hemmstoffen auf die Aktivität konnte sichtbar gemacht werden, und steht daher bei der Entwicklung neuer Tumor-Diagnostika und

  2. Influence of the composition on the radiation embrittlement alloys; Einfluss der Zusammensetzung auf die Strahlenversproedungslegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmert, J.; Kryukov, A.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Erak, D.Yu.; Gerashenko, S.S.

    1999-02-01

    behaviour as the weld metal. For the Ni rich alloys such well-validated references are missing. The experiment is part of an extended research programme. It is supposed to continue in order to gain information about the synergistic effects of these elements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Strahlenversproedung der Reaktordruckbehaelter ist bei Reaktoren des Types WWER ein Problem von hoher sicherheitstechnischer Relevanz. Sie wird entscheidend durch die Zusammensetzung des Druckbehaeltermaterials bestimmt. Mit einem Bestrahlungsexperiment auf Surveillancepositionen zweier russischer WWER-440-Reaktoren sollte der Einfluss von Kupfer, Phosphor und Nickel auf die Strahlenversproedung nachgewiesen werden. Dazu wurden 8 Testlegierungen ausgewaehlt, deren Zusammensetzung zwischen 0,015-0,42% Cu, 0,002-0,039% P, 0,01-1,98% Ni, 0,09-0,37% Si und 0,35-0,49% Mn variierte. An Proben aus diesen Legierungen wurden Kerbschlagbiege- und Zugversuche im Ausgangszustand, in 2 bestrahlten Zustaenden (Fluenx: 1x10{sup 19} und 8x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} [E>0,5 MeV]) und nach einer Ausheilgluehung bei 475 C/100 h durchgefuehrt. Die Legierungen haben im Ausgangszustand ein ferritisches Gefuege, die Legierungselemente koennen, vom Kupfer abgesehen, als geloest angenommen werden. Nach Bestrahlung tritt ein ausgepraegter Haertungs- und Versproedungseffekt auf. Der Effekt steigt mit dem Gehalt an Cu und P. Im Bereich von 1,1-1,98% bewirkt Nickel eine zusaetzliche, von der Ni-Konzentration unabhaengige Versproedung. Sie manifestiert sich in einer Verschiebung der Uebergangstemperatur bei einer Fluenz von 1x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} und einer Flussdichte von 4x10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s [E>0,5 MeV] um ca. 120 C, die nicht abhaengig vom Cu- und P-Gehalt ist. Ausserdem wird bei Ni-Legierungen die Kerbschlagarbeit in der Zaehigkeitshochlage besonders stark abgesenkt. Bei sehr niedrigen Gehalten an P und Cu gelten diese Zusammenhaenge nicht. Durch eine Ausheilgluehung kann bei Legierungen mit niedrigem Cu- und P-Gehalt der

  3. Waste incineration on its way to the power plants; Muellverbrennung auf dem Weg zum Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany); Neukirchen, B. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Looking at the year 2005 and the end of disposal of untreated domestic waste the politic hopes that the prognosticated lack of waste treatment capacity is remedied by coal-fired power plants. The classical municipal waste incinerators by contrast want to get recognition as energetic recycler in comparison with power stations. The decision of the European Court of Justice concerning recycling and disposal of domestic waste by incineration has started the discussion and competition on fuel-rich commercial waste. Are municipal waste incineration plants power stations or must power plants be regarded as incinerators? These questions are still open. (orig.) [German] Mit Blick auf das Jahr 2005 und das Ende der Ablagerung von unbehandeltem Siedlungsabfall hofft die Politik, dass der prognostizierte Mangel an Vorbehandlungskapazitaeten von den Kohlekraftwerken behoben wird. Die klassischen Muellverbrennungsanlagen wollen dagegen mit dem Kraftwerksvergleich die Anerkennung als energetische Verwerter erreichen. Das EuGH-Urteil zur Verwertung oder Beseitigung von Siedlungsabfall durch Verbrennen hat in diesem Jahr die Diskussion und den Kampf um den heizwertreichen Gewerbeabfall angeheizt. Die Frage, wie weit in Zukunft die Muellverbrennungsanlagen als Kraftwerke, aber auch die Kraftwerke als Muellverbrennungsanlagen angesehen werden muessen, ist noch offen. (orig.)

  4. OPENCORE NMR: open-source core modules for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A tool kit for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer [K. Takeda, A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007) 033103], referred to as the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer, is open to public. The system is composed of an FPGA chip and several peripheral boards for USB communication, direct-digital synthesis (DDS), RF transmission, signal acquisition, etc. Inside the FPGA chip have been implemented a number of digital modules including three pulse programmers, the digital part of DDS, a digital quadrature demodulator, dual digital low-pass filters, and a PC interface. These FPGA core modules are written in VHDL, and their source codes are available on our website. This work aims at providing sufficient information with which one can, given some facility in circuit board manufacturing, reproduce the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer presented here. Also, the users are encouraged to modify the design of spectrometer according to their own specific needs. A home-built NMR spectrometer can serve complementary roles to a sophisticated commercial spectrometer, should one comes across such new ideas that require heavy modification to hardware inside the spectrometer. This work can lower the barrier of building a handmade NMR spectrometer in the laboratory, and promote novel and exciting NMR experiments.

  5. NMR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF HETEROGENEOUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.T. Philip Chang; Changho Choi; Jeromy T. Hollenshead; Rudi Michalak; Jack Phan; Ramon Saavedra; John C. Slattery; Jinsoo Uh; Randi Valestrand; A. Ted Watson; Song Xue

    2005-01-01

    A critical and long-standing need within the petroleum industry is the specification of suitable petrophysical properties for mathematical simulation of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterization). The development of accurate reservoir characterizations is extremely challenging. Property variations may be described on many scales, and the information available from measurements reflect different scales. In fact, experiments on laboratory core samples, well-log data, well-test data, and reservoir-production data all represent information potentially valuable to reservoir characterization, yet they all reflect information about spatial variations of properties at different scales. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) provide enormous potential for developing new descriptions and understandings of heterogeneous media. NMR has the rare capability to probe permeable media non-invasively, with spatial resolution, and it provides unique information about molecular motions and interactions that are sensitive to morphology. NMR well-logging provides the best opportunity ever to resolve permeability distributions within petroleum reservoirs. We develop MRI methods to determine, for the first time, spatially resolved distributions of porosity and permeability within permeable media samples that approach the intrinsic scale: the finest resolution of these macroscopic properties possible. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the permeability is actually resolved at a scale smaller than the sample. In order to do this, we have developed a robust method to determine of relaxation distributions from NMR experiments and a novel implementation and analysis of MRI experiments to determine the amount of fluid corresponding to imaging regions, which are in turn used to determine porosity and saturation distributions. We have developed a novel MRI experiment to determine velocity distributions within flowing experiments, and

  6. Solid state NMR of biopolymers and synthetic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinski, Lynn W. [Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Solid state NMR has been invaluable in evaluating the structure, phase separation, and dynamics of polymers. Because polymers are generally used in the solid state, solid state NMR is especially powerful because it provides information about the materials in their native state. This review gives a general overview of solid state NMR, concentrating on solid state {sup 13} C and {sup 2} H NMR. It then focuses on two examples: the biopolymer spider silka and the engineering material polyurethane. It illustrates how solid state NMR can provide new information about synthetic and bio-polymers. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. NMR shielding calculations across the periodic table: diamagnetic uranium compounds. 2. Ligand and metal NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenbach, Georg

    2002-12-16

    In this and a previous article (J. Phys. Chem. A 2000, 104, 8244), the range of application for relativistic density functional theory (DFT) is extended to the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings and chemical shifts in diamagnetic actinide compounds. Two relativistic DFT methods are used, ZORA ("zeroth-order regular approximation") and the quasirelativistic (QR) method. In the given second paper, NMR shieldings and chemical shifts are calculated and discussed for a wide range of compounds. The molecules studied comprise uranyl complexes, [UO(2)L(n)](+/-)(q); UF(6); inorganic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)Cl(n), n = 0-6; and organometallic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n), n = 0-5. Uranyl complexes include [UO(2)F(4)](2-), [UO(2)Cl(4)](2-), [UO(2)(OH)(4)](2-), [UO(2)(CO(3))(3)](4-), and [UO(2)(H(2)O)(5)](2+). For the ligand NMR, moderate (e.g., (19)F NMR chemical shifts in UF(6-n)Cl(n)) to excellent agreement [e.g., (19)F chemical shift tensor in UF(6) or (1)H NMR in UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n)] has been found between theory and experiment. The methods have been used to calculate the experimentally unknown (235)U NMR chemical shifts. A large chemical shift range of at least 21,000 ppm has been predicted for the (235)U nucleus. ZORA spin-orbit appears to be the most accurate method for predicting actinide metal chemical shifts. Trends in the (235)U NMR chemical shifts of UF(6-n)L(n) molecules are analyzed and explained in terms of the calculated electronic structure. It is argued that the energy separation and interaction between occupied and virtual orbitals with f-character are the determining factors.

  8. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  9. Multiecho scheme advances surface NMR for aquifer characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Elliot; Walsh, David

    2013-12-01

    nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is increasingly used as a method to noninvasively characterize aquifers. This technology follows a successful history of NMR logging, applied over decades to estimate hydrocarbon reservoir properties. In contrast to logging, however, surface methods have utilized relatively simple acquisition sequences, from which pore-scale properties may not be reliably and efficiently estimated. We demonstrate for the first time the capability of sophisticated multiecho measurements to rapidly record a surface NMR response that more directly reflects aquifer characteristics. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the multipulse Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, widely used in logging, to measure the T2 relaxation response in a single scan. We validate this approach in a field surface NMR data set and by direct comparison with an NMR log. Adoption of the CPMG marked a landmark advancement in the history of logging NMR; we have now realized this same advancement in the surface NMR method.

  10. NMR-based diffusion lattice imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Frederik Bernd; Müller, Lars; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments are widely employed as they yield information about structures hindering the diffusion process, e.g., about cell membranes. While it has been shown in recent articles that these experiments can be used to determine the shape of closed pores averaged over a volume of interest, it is still an open question how much information can be gained in open well-connected systems. In this theoretical work, it is shown that the full structure information of connected periodic systems is accessible. To this end, the so-called "SEquential Rephasing by Pulsed field-gradient Encoding N Time intervals" (SERPENT) sequence is used, which employs several diffusion encoding gradient pulses with different amplitudes. Two two-dimensional solid matrices that are surrounded by an NMR-visible medium are considered: a hexagonal lattice of cylinders and a rectangular lattice of isosceles triangles.

  11. NMR-based diffusion lattice imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Frederik Bernd; Müller, Lars; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments are widely employed as they yield information about structures hindering the diffusion process, e.g., about cell membranes. While it has been shown in recent articles that these experiments can be used to determine the shape of closed pores averaged over a volume of interest, it is still an open question how much information can be gained in open well-connected systems. In this theoretical work, it is shown that the full structure information of connected periodic systems is accessible. To this end, the so-called "SEquential Rephasing by Pulsed field-gradient Encoding N Time intervals" (SERPENT) sequence is used, which employs several diffusion encoding gradient pulses with different amplitudes. Two two-dimensional solid matrices that are surrounded by an NMR-visible medium are considered: a hexagonal lattice of cylinders and a rectangular lattice of isosceles triangles.

  12. Strange kinetics, porous media, and NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmich, Rainer

    2002-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques cover a broad range of length and time scales on which dynamic properties of fluids confined in porous media can be investigated. This report refers to field-cycling NMR relaxometry, field gradient NMR diffusometry and NMR microscopy. The objective was to examine diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, flow, and thermal convection under the influence of geometrical confinements and surface interactions in porous media. The anomalous character of these phenomena will be demonstrated and discussed in comparison with computer simulations and theoretical concepts. The first part of this presentation is devoted to nanoporous samples. It is shown that molecular Levy walks along inner surfaces occur under certain conditions. Mutual 'obstruction' of molecules in molecular sieves and zeolites is another source of diffusion anomaly known as single-file diffusion which can be described by Gaussian propagators with a diffusion coefficient depending on time in a certain limit. In the case of polymers confined in narrow artificial tubes of a porous solid matrix, the characteristics of reptation were experimentally verified. The second part mainly refers to 'trapping' effects as a source of anomalous transport characterised by non-Gaussian propagators. Model objects fabricated on the basis of percolation cluster models were examined with respect to flow, diffusion, thermal convection and hydrodynamic dispersion. The elucidation of transport laws in model systems of well defined and mathematically describable geometries is considered to be a promising way for the exploration of the structure/dynamics relationship in porous media as a long-term objective.

  13. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  14. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors.

  15. Quantitative calibration of radiofrequency NMR Stark effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasek, Matthew R; Kempf, James G

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Stark responses can occur in quadrupolar nuclei for an electric field oscillating at twice the usual NMR frequency (2ω(0)). Calibration of responses to an applied E field is needed to establish nuclear spins as probes of native E fields within material and molecular systems. We present an improved approach and apparatus for accurate measurement of quadrupolar Stark effects. Updated values of C(14) (the response parameter in cubic crystals) were obtained for both (69)Ga and (75)As in GaAs. Keys to improvement include a modified implementation of voltage dividers to assess the 2ω(0) amplitude, |E|, and the stabilization of divider response by reduction of stray couplings in 2ω(0) circuitry. Finally, accuracy was enhanced by filtering sets of |E| through a linear response function that we established for the radiofrequency amplifier. Our approach is verified by two types of spectral results. Steady-state 2ω(0) excitation to presaturate NMR spectra yielded C(14) = (2.59 ± 0.06) × 10(12) m(-1) for (69)Ga at room-temperature and 14.1 T. For (75)As, we obtained (3.1 ± 0.1) × 10(12) m(-1). Both values reconcile with earlier results from 77 K and below 1 T, whereas current experiments are at room temperature and 14.1 T. Finally, we present results where few-microsecond pulses of the 2ω(0) field induced small (tens of Hz) changes in high-resolution NMR line shapes. There too, spectra collected vs |E| agree with the model for response, further establishing the validity of our protocols to specify |E|.

  16. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  17. NMR studies of dynamic biomolecular conformational ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchia, Dennis A

    2015-02-01

    Multidimensional heteronuclear NMR approaches can provide nearly complete sequential signal assignments of isotopically enriched biomolecules. The availability of assignments together with measurements of spin relaxation rates, residual spin interactions, J-couplings and chemical shifts provides information at atomic resolution about internal dynamics on timescales ranging from ps to ms, both in solution and in the solid state. However, due to the complexity of biomolecules, it is not possible to extract a unique atomic-resolution description of biomolecular motions even from extensive NMR data when many conformations are sampled on multiple timescales. For this reason, powerful computational approaches are increasingly applied to large NMR data sets to elucidate conformational ensembles sampled by biomolecules. In the past decade, considerable attention has been directed at an important class of biomolecules that function by binding to a wide variety of target molecules. Questions of current interest are: "Does the free biomolecule sample a conformational ensemble that encompasses the conformations found when it binds to various targets; and if so, on what time scale is the ensemble sampled?" This article reviews recent efforts to answer these questions, with a focus on comparing ensembles obtained for the same biomolecules by different investigators. A detailed comparison of results obtained is provided for three biomolecules: ubiquitin, calmodulin and the HIV-1 trans-activation response RNA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  19. Structural characterization of Heusler compounds using NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurmehl, Sabine; Fecher, Gerhard; Balke, Benjamin; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Jung, Verena; Felser, Claudia [Johannes Gutenberg - Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Wojcik, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    The L2{sub 1} ordered Heusler alloys Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si with 0{<=}x{<=}1 attracted much scientific interest, as they are predicted to show high spin polarisation at the Fermi-energy. Therefore Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si samples were investigated using spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. This method provides a tool to measure the hyperfine fields. The hyperfine fields represent a very sensitive local probe to order-disorder phenomena. The NMR measurements of polycrystalline Co{sub 2}FeSi samples exhibit a two-peak spectrum with an additional shoulder. This additional signals are attributed to second-order quadrupole splitting, a so called asymmetric line broadening and might be caused by tension within the structure (strain). This effect occurs even in highly ordered systems. Thus previous structural results are corroborated, demonstrating even locally a very high degree of order in Co{sub 2}FeSi. The NMR spectra of the series Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si (0.1{<=}x{<=}0.9) exhibit multiplet structures. These might be explained by quadrupole splitting and statistical distribution of Mn and Fe atoms on the Mn site. In summary, the high degree of order in Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si is shown.

  20. Multispectral dual isotope and NMR image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannier, M.W.; Beihn, R.M.; Butterfield, R.L.; De Land, F.H.

    1985-05-01

    Dual isotope scintigraphy and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging produce image data that is intrinsically multispectral. That is multiple images of the same anatomic region are generated with different gray scale distribution and morphologic content that is largely redundant. Image processing technology, originally developed by NASA for satellite imaging, is available for multispectral analysis. These methods have been applied to provide tissue characterization. Tissue specific information encoded in the grapy scale data from dual isotope and NMR studies may be extracted using multispectral pattern recognition methods. The authors used table lookup minimum distance, maximum likelihood and cluster analysis techniques with data sets from Ga-67 / Tc-99m, 1-131 labeled antibodies / Tc-99m, Tc-99m perfusion / Xe-133 ventilation, and NMR studies. The results show; tissue characteristic signatures exist in dual isotope and NMR imaging, and these spectral signatures are identifiable using multispectral image analysis and provide tissue classification maps with scatter diagrams that facilitate interpretation and assist in elucidating subtle changes.

  1. Protein NMR structures refined without NOE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyojung; Kim, Tae-Rae; Ahn, SeonJoo; Ji, Sunyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of low-quality structures is an important challenge in protein structure prediction. Many studies have been conducted on protein structure refinement; the refinement of structures derived from NMR spectroscopy has been especially intensively studied. In this study, we generated flat-bottom distance potential instead of NOE data because NOE data have ambiguity and uncertainty. The potential was derived from distance information from given structures and prevented structural dislocation during the refinement process. A simulated annealing protocol was used to minimize the potential energy of the structure. The protocol was tested on 134 NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that also have X-ray structures. Among them, 50 structures were used as a training set to find the optimal "width" parameter in the flat-bottom distance potential functions. In the validation set (the other 84 structures), most of the 12 quality assessment scores of the refined structures were significantly improved (total score increased from 1.215 to 2.044). Moreover, the secondary structure similarity of the refined structure was improved over that of the original structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two energy potentials, statistical torsion angle potential (STAP) and the flat-bottom distance potential, can drive the refinement of NMR structures.

  2. Das Problem der sogenannten zusammengesetzten Bezirke auf dem Balkan im 11. Jahrhundert: Zwei fallbeispiele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsmanović Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Charakteristika der sogenannten zusammengesetzten militärisch-zivilen Bezirke behandelt, die aus zwei oder drei Untereinheiten bestanden. Diese Untereinheiten der zusammengesetzten Bezirke hatten in der Regel feste zivile und militärische Verwaltungsstrukturen, d.h. sie hatten eine gewisse Unabhängigkeit. Ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk konnte in den Quellen als ein 'thema' (im Singular bezeichnet werden oder auch im Plural als 'themata'. An seiner Spitze befand sich ein Dux/katepano oder gelegentlich auch ein Stratege. Der zivilen Verwaltung stand ein Richter/Prätor vor, welcher häufig das Amt eines anagrapheus innehatte. Weiterhin wurde der zusammengesetzte Bezirk Voleron-Strymon-Thessalonike naher untersucht sowie die Probleme, die mit dem Status seiner Unterheiten, insbesondere mit Voleron, zusammenhängen. Es ist möglich, dass aus denjenigen Gebieten des Balkans, die nach dem Jahr 1018 unter byzantinische Herrschaft gefallen waren, ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk gebildet wurde. Die Rede ist von dem Thema Bulgaria-Sirmium-Paradounavon. Es wird vermutet, dass die demographischen Umstände sowie die ethnische Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung der Region Einfluss auf die Charakteristika des zusammengesetzten Bezirks hatten. Die zivile Verwaltungsstruktur war hier nicht derart beständig wie in den anderen Gebieten des Balkans, die bereits vor dem Krieg von 976-1018 unter byzantinischer Herrschaft standen. Sirmium und Paradounavon scheinen im zivilen Bereich der Verwaltung von Amtsträgern aus Bulgarien geleitet worden zu sein, wahrend die militärische Führung anscheinend unabhängig von Bulgarien war.

  3. Ein kombinierter Operationsansatz zur Therapie der rektovaginalen Endometriose auf der Basis histologischer Befunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köhler C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Eine Endometriose des Septum rectovaginale kann oberflächlich dem Darm aufliegen oder die Darmwand infiltrieren. Durch bildgebende Verfahren kann jedoch präoperativ eine Infiltration des Darms weder hinreichend bestätigt noch ausgeschlossen werden, was zu einem therapeutischen Dilemma führt, da nur die Darmwand eindeutig infiltrierende Endometrioseprozesse durch eine Darmresektion behandelt werden sollten. Wir möchten ein neues Operationsverfahren vorstellen, das eine intraoperative Differenzierung zwischen einer oberflächlichen und einer infiltrativen Darmendometriose erlaubt. Patienten und Methodik: 70 Patientinnen mit rektovaginaler Endometriose wurden nach einem neu entwickelten kombinierten vaginal-laparoskopisch-abdominalen Verfahren operiert. Diese Operationsmethode wird Schritt für Schritt vorgestellt. Die Entscheidung zur Darmresektion wurde dabei allein aufgrund der intraoperativen Befunde und nicht aufgrund der präoperativen bildgebenden Diagnostik getroffen. Alle Resektate wurden standardisiert histologisch aufgearbeitet. Ergebnisse: Ob eine Darmresektion notwendig war, ließ sich intraoperativ anhand der Präparation des rektovaginalen Septums entscheiden. Daher wurden nur bei Patientinnen mit gesichertem infiltrativem Darmbefall Darmresektionen unter Erhalt des Mesointestinums durchgeführt. Weder intraoperative noch postoperative Komplikationen wie Anastomoseninsuffizienzen oder Restharnmengen traten auf. Diskussion: Die vorgestellte Operationsmethode zur Therapie der rektovaginalen Endometriose erlaubt eine exakte Diagnosestellung und präzise Therapieentscheidung bei minimaler Morbidität. Die Resektion des Darmschlauches ohne Mesoresektion ist ausreichend, da sich die Endometrioseknoten – wie histologisch bewiesen wurde – nur im ventralen Darmbereich befinden. Durch die Mesoerhaltung werden die vegetativen Funktionen des kleinen Beckens nicht beeinträchtigt.

  4. Guiding automated NMR structure determination using a global optimization metric, the NMR DP score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Mao, Binchen; Xu, Fei; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2015-08-01

    ASDP is an automated NMR NOE assignment program. It uses a distinct bottom-up topology-constrained network anchoring approach for NOE interpretation, with 2D, 3D and/or 4D NOESY peak lists and resonance assignments as input, and generates unambiguous NOE constraints for iterative structure calculations. ASDP is designed to function interactively with various structure determination programs that use distance restraints to generate molecular models. In the CASD-NMR project, ASDP was tested and further developed using blinded NMR data, including resonance assignments, either raw or manually-curated (refined) NOESY peak list data, and in some cases (15)N-(1)H residual dipolar coupling data. In these blinded tests, in which the reference structure was not available until after structures were generated, the fully-automated ASDP program performed very well on all targets using both the raw and refined NOESY peak list data. Improvements of ASDP relative to its predecessor program for automated NOESY peak assignments, AutoStructure, were driven by challenges provided by these CASD-NMR data. These algorithmic improvements include (1) using a global metric of structural accuracy, the discriminating power score, for guiding model selection during the iterative NOE interpretation process, and (2) identifying incorrect NOESY cross peak assignments caused by errors in the NMR resonance assignment list. These improvements provide a more robust automated NOESY analysis program, ASDP, with the unique capability of being utilized with alternative structure generation and refinement programs including CYANA, CNS, and/or Rosetta.

  5. CcpNmr AnalysisAssign: a flexible platform for integrated NMR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Simon P.; Fogh, Rasmus H. [University of Leicester, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Leicester Institute for Structural- and Chemical Biology (United Kingdom); Boucher, Wayne [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Ragan, Timothy J.; Mureddu, Luca G.; Vuister, Geerten W., E-mail: gv29@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Leicester Institute for Structural- and Chemical Biology (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    NMR spectroscopy is an indispensably powerful technique for the analysis of biomolecules under ambient conditions, both for structural- and functional studies. However, in practice the complexity of the technique has often frustrated its application by non-specialists. In this paper, we present CcpNmr version-3, the latest software release from the Collaborative Computational Project for NMR, for all aspects of NMR data analysis, including liquid- and solid-state NMR data. This software has been designed to be simple, functional and flexible, and aims to ensure that routine tasks can be performed in a straightforward manner. We have designed the software according to modern software engineering principles and leveraged the capabilities of modern graphics libraries to simplify a variety of data analysis tasks. We describe the process of backbone assignment as an example of the flexibility and simplicity of implementing workflows, as well as the toolkit used to create the necessary graphics for this workflow. The package can be downloaded from www.ccpn.ac.uk/v3-software/downloads http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/v3-software/downloads and is freely available to all non-profit organisations.

  6. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  7. Von kleinen Stupsern und großen Schubsern – Politik und Ethik des Libertären Paternalismus auf dem Prüfstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drerup Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Das von Cass Sunstein und Richard Thaler ausgearbeitete Projekt eines Libertären Paternalismus stellt fraglos einen der zurzeit meistdiskutierten neopaternalistischen Theorieentwürfe dar. Als hybride Mischung zwischen Theorieprogramm, politischer Bewegung und praxis- und anwendungsorientiertem Policy-Manual, das zuweilen Züge eines populären philosophischen Lebensratgebers trägt, hat Libertärer Paternalismus viel Zuspruch, aber auch heftige Kritik auf sich gezogen, die in diesem Aufsatz auf ihre Plausibilität geprüft werden. Zu diesem Zweck geben die Autoren zunächst einen kurzen Überblick über Ausgangspunkte, Leitorientierungen und Problemvorgaben des Theorie- und Politikprogramms des Libertären Paternalismus. In einem zweiten Schritt werden zentrale (metaphorische Konzepte und Unterscheidungen des libertär paternalistischen Rationales vorgestellt und problematisiert. Daran anschließend werden drei der prominentesten Kritikpunkte an Libertärem Paternalismus auf den Prüfstand gestellt. Hierzu gehören der Manipulationseinwand, Kritiken, die sich auf grundlegende Rechtfertigungsprobleme des Libertären Paternalismus beziehen, und Einwände, die auf langfristige negative Folgen des Nudging verweisen („Slippery-Slope-Argumente“.

  8. Protein Structure Determination Using Protein Threading and Sparse NMR Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, O.H.; Einstein, J.R.; Xu, D.; Xu, Y.

    1999-11-14

    It is well known that the NMR method for protein structure determination applies to small proteins and that its effectiveness decreases very rapidly as the molecular weight increases beyond about 30 kD. We have recently developed a method for protein structure determination that can fully utilize partial NMR data as calculation constraints. The core of the method is a threading algorithm that guarantees to find a globally optimal alignment between a query sequence and a template structure, under distance constraints specified by NMR/NOE data. Our preliminary tests have demonstrated that a small number of NMR/NOE distance restraints can significantly improve threading performance in both fold recognition and threading-alignment accuracy, and can possibly extend threading's scope of applicability from structural homologs to structural analogs. An accurate backbone structure generated by NMR-constrained threading can then provide a significant amount of structural information, equivalent to that provided by the NMR method with many NMR/NOE restraints; and hence can greatly reduce the amount of NMR data typically required for accurate structure determination. Our preliminary study suggests that a small number of NMR/NOE restraints may suffice to determine adequately the all-atom structure when those restraints are incorporated in a procedure combining threading, modeling of loops and sidechains, and molecular dynamics simulation. Potentially, this new technique can expand NMR's capability to larger proteins.

  9. Behandlungspräferenzen für Biologika bei Psoriasis: erfahrene Patienten legen Wert auf Nachhaltigkeit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, Christian; Peitsch, Wiebke K; Herr, Raphael; Schmieder, Astrid; Sonntag, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Die Therapiezufriedenheit kann durch die Berücksichtigung von Patientenpräferenzen in der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung verbessert werden. Kürzlich untersuchten wir Patientenpräferenzen für Eigenschaften von Biologika und fanden starke Präferenzen für Sicherheit und Wirksamkeit. Die vorliegende Studie hatte das Ziel, Auswirkungen von Therapieerfahrung auf diese Präferenzen zu erheben. Präferenzen für Ergebnis- (Wahrscheinlichkeit einer 50%igen und 90%igen Verbesserung, Zeit bis zum Ansprechen, Nachhaltigkeit des Erfolgs, Wahrscheinlichkeit von leichten und schweren Nebenwirkungen und Wahrscheinlichkeit eines ACR-20-Ansprechens) und Prozesseigenschaften (Behandlungsort, Behandlungshäufigkeit, Zeitaufwand und Applikationsweise) wurden bei 200 Teilnehmern mit mittelschwerer bis schwerer Psoriasis mit Hilfe von Conjoint-Analyse ermittelt. Der Einfluss aktueller und früherer Therapien, der Krankheitsdauer und der Behandlungszufriedenheit auf die "Relative Importance Scores" wurde durch Varianz-analysen, Post-hoc-Tests und multivariate Regressionen bestimmt. Teilnehmer, die aktuell eine topische Therapie (p = 0,02) oder eine Phototherapie (p = 0,032) erhielten, hielten den Zeitaufwand der Behandlung für wichtiger als andere. Diejenigen, denen zuvor traditionelle Systemtherapien (p = 0,028) oder Biologika (p = 0,044) verordnet worden waren, legten mehr Wert auf die Nachhaltigkeit als andere. Diese Eigenschaft gewann mit steigender Anzahl zuvor verabreichter systemischer Therapien (p = 0,045) und längerer Krankheitsdauer (p = 0,018) an Bedeutung. Patientenpräferenzen für Biologika variieren abhängig von der Therapieerfahrung und Krankheitsdauer. Diese Aspekte sollten bei der gemeinsamen Entscheidungsfindung berücksichtigt werden. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Knowns and unknowns in metabolomics identified by multidimensional NMR and hybrid MS/NMR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingol, Kerem; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Metabolomics continues to make rapid progress through the development of new and better methods and their applications to gain insight into the metabolism of a wide range of different biological systems from a systems biology perspective. Customization of NMR databases and search tools allows the faster and more accurate identification of known metabolites, whereas the identification of unknowns, without a need for extensive purification, requires new strategies to integrate NMR with mass spectrometry, cheminformatics, and computational methods. For some applications, the use of covalent and non-covalent attachments in the form of labeled tags or nanoparticles can significantly reduce the complexity of these tasks.

  11. Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C.; Markley, John L.

    2013-11-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-13C, U-15N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use.

  12. Eine Frage des Alters – Deutsche Weintrinker und ihr Konsumverhalten mit dem Fokus auf die jüngere Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szolnoki Gergely

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deutschland ist mit einer durchschnittlichen Produktionsmenge von durchschnittlich 9,5 Millionen hl sowie mit 15 Millionen hl importiertem Wein einer der wichtigsten Weinmärkte der Welt. Dass der Wein ein beliebtes alkoholisches Getränke in Deutschland ist, zeig der Pro-Kopf-Verbrauch von Still- (21  l und von Schaumwein (3  l. Was ist die Rolle und was für eine Bedeutung haben jüngere Konsumenten auf dem deutschen Weinmarkt? Unterscheiden sich ihre Geschmackspräferenz und Konsumverhalten von den älteren Konsumenten? Um den deutschen Weinmarkt auf die nächste Generation vorzubereiten, ist es von Bedeutung, die Altersgruppe jüngerer Konsumenten besser zu verstehen. Dafür wurde 2016 eine repräsentative Befragung durchgeführt und die 2078 Befragten in vier Kategorien unterteilt: Jüngste Konsumenten zwischen 16–29 Jahren, die noch in Ausbildung sind oder gerade mit dem Arbeiten anfingen; Konsumenten zwischen 30–49 Jahren, die bereits einen festen Job und ein regelmäßiges Gehalt haben; Konsumenten zwischen 50–65 Jahren, die auf der Höhe ihrer Karriere stehen und ein fundiertes Weinwissen besitzen; und Konsumenten über 65 Jahre, die bereits in Rente sind und das höchste Weinwissen aufweisen. Nach der Analyse der Präferenzen, des Konsumentenverhaltens und der wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung der Gruppen kann festgestellt werden, dass sich das erste Alterssegment von den anderen Konsumenten in allen Bereichen signifikant unterscheidet. Die jüngste Generation trinkt am seltensten Wein und hat niedrigeres Involvement. Aufgrund der in der Kindheit etablierten Präferenzen, bevorzugen sie eher Weißweine mit höherem Restzuckergehalt. Bedingt durch den eher unregelmäßigen Weinkonsum, das niedrige Involvement und durch die niedrige Zahlungsbereitschaft, hat diese Altersgruppe zurzeit eine eher marginale wirtschaftliche Bedeutung auf dem deutschen Weinmarkt. Jedoch als zukünftiges Rückgrat des deutschen Weinmarktes besitzen

  13. Therapeutisches Drug Monitoring von Efavirenz - Einfluß auf Protease-Hemmer-Konzentrationen und Anwendung bei Patienten mit chronischer Lebererkrankung

    OpenAIRE

    Katsounas, Antonios

    2006-01-01

    64 HIV-Patienten unter einer EFV-Therapie, darunter 30 Patienten im Stadium B2 und 20 im Stadium C3 wurden über bis zu 4 Jahre beobachtet. Ca. 80% aller EFV-Spiegel lagen während dieser Beobachtungszeit innerhalb des anzustrebenden Konzentrationsbereiches von 1000 - 4000 ng/ml. Bei den gemessenen EFV-Spiegeln fiel eine erhebliche inter- und intraindividuelle Schwankungsbreite auf. EFV-Spiegel im Serum waren tendenziell nicht signifikant niedriger als EFV-Spiegel im Plasma. Patienten mit einem...

  14. Auf dem Weg zu einer wissenssoziologischen Architektursoziologie? Rezension zu Silke Steets (2015: Der sinnhafte Aufbau der gebauten Welt. Berlin: Suhrkamp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa Müller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silke Steets zielt mit ihrem Buch Der sinnhafte Aufbau der gebauten Weltauf eine Untersuchung der „Rolle von Dingen und Gebäuden für die gesellschaftlicheKonstruktion von Wirklichkeit“ (58 und damit auf eine systematischeAnalyse, wie Wissen und Materialität in Gesellschaften zusammenhängen.Nicht zuletzt geht es ihr dabei auch darum, die seit einiger Zeitvor allem im deutschsprachigen Raum vorliegenden Versuche, eine neueArchitektursoziologie zu formulieren, aufzuarbeiten, zu kontextualisierenund wissenssoziologisch zu fassen.

  15. Risks of increased UV-B radiation for phytoplankton; Risiken erhoehter UV-B-Strahlung auf Phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeder, D.P. [Inst. fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Erlangen (Germany); Gerber, S. [Inst. fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Erlangen (Germany)

    1994-03-01

    , die wahrscheinlich als Schutzpigmente fungieren, rot gefaerbt. Kuenstliche, erhoehte UV-B-Strahlung schaedigt die Orientierung der Algen, verlangsamt ihre Schwimmgeschwindigkeit und bleicht das Chlorophyll a aus. Die Expositionszeiten, die zu einer Schaedigung fuehren, unterscheiden sich nicht von denen von im Labor gezogenen `empfindlichen` Organismen. Ausserdem wurden Arbeiten im Freiland durchgefuehrt, d.h. Algen wurden in verschiedenen Hoehenstufen, in Erlangen und auf der Zugspitze, unter natuerlicher, erhoehter UV-B-Strahlung exponiert. Die Versuche zeigen, dass die Pigmente der drei untersuchten Organismen auf der Zugspitze schneller ausgleichen als in Erlangen. Auch die Beweglichkeit der Organismen nimmt auf der Zugspitze schneller ab als in Erlangen. Filter, die die UV-(B)-Strahlung herausfiltern, schuetzen die Algen in gewissem Masse: Das Ausbleichen und die Immotilitaet der Zellen tritt spaeter auf. (orig.)

  16. "Die Werke warten auf ihre Interpretation" : kunstsoziologische Betrachtungen über Rätselcharakter, Werkanalyse und Autonomie des Kunstwerks

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, Bertram

    2005-01-01

    Vortrag an der "Die Lebendigkeit kritischer Gesellschaftstheorie", einer Arbeitstagung aus Anlass des 100. Geburtstages von Theodor W. Adorno, die am 4. - 6. Juli 2003 an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main statfand. Koordiniert von Prof. Dr. Andreas Gruschka und Prof. Dr. Ulrich Oevermann. Die Tagungsbeiträge können auch auf CD (je CD ein Vortrag) oder als DVD (alle Vorträge im MP3-Format) käuflich erworben werden. S.a. "Die Lebendigkeit der kritischen Gesellschaftsth...

  17. Auf dem Weg zur Smart Factory: modulare, intelligente Konzepte für die Produktion von Spezialchemikalien der Zukunft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitze, Arnulf; Jürgensmeyer, Nikolas; Lier, Stefan; Kohnke, Marco; Riese, Julia; Grünewald, Marcus

    2018-01-03

    Die Digitalisierung und Flexibilisierung von Produktionsprozessen bieten in der Spezialchemie die Chance auf marktseitige Herausforderungen adäquat zu reagieren. Kürzer werdende Pro-duktlebenszyklen, zunehmende Produktindividualisierung und die daraus resultierende Volatili-tät der Märkte stellen neue Anforderungen an Anlagenbetreiber. Neuartige Konzepte wie modu-lare Produktionsanlagen sowie Technologieentwicklungen im Rahmen der Industrie 4.0 können dabei helfen, die Smart Factory in der Spezialchemie umzusetzen. Im Folgenden werden die für diesen Wandel notwendigen Konzepte vorgestellt. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Acute pain treatment on postoperative and medical non-surgical wards [Akutschmerztherapie auf operativen und konservativen Stationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] The effectiveness of acute pain treatment in hospitals is examined. An efficient therapy of acute pain is efficient and cost-effective. Although every patient is entitled for the relief of pain, many hospitals do not treat acute pain in an optimal manner.[german] Es wird die Effektivität der Akutschmerztherapie in Krankenhäusern untersucht. Eine effiziente Behandlung akuter Schmerzen ist wirksam und spart Kosten. Obwohl jeder Patient Anspruch auf Linderung seiner Schmerzen hat, behandeln viele Krankenhäuser akute Schmerzen noch nicht optimal.

  19. Direct Comparison of 19F qNMR and 1H qNMR by Characterizing Atorvastatin Calcium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR is a powerful tool in measuring drug content because of its high speed, sensitivity, and precision. Most of the reports were based on proton qNMR (1H qNMR and only a few fluorine qNMR (19F qNMR were reported. No research has been conducted to directly compare the advantage and disadvantage between these two methods. In the present study, both 19F and 1H qNMR were performed to characterize the content of atorvastatin calcium with the same internal standard. Linearity, precision, and results from two methods were compared. Results showed that 19F qNMR has similar precision and sensitivity to 1H qNMR. Both methods generate similar results compared to mass balance method. Major advantage from 19F qNMR is that the analyte signal is with less or no interference from impurities. 19F qNMR is an excellent approach to quantify fluorine-containing analytes.

  20. Direct Comparison of 19F qNMR and 1H qNMR by Characterizing Atorvastatin Calcium Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Zhaoxia; Yang, Huaxin

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a powerful tool in measuring drug content because of its high speed, sensitivity, and precision. Most of the reports were based on proton qNMR (1H qNMR) and only a few fluorine qNMR (19F qNMR) were reported. No research has been conducted to directly compare the advantage and disadvantage between these two methods. In the present study, both 19F and 1H qNMR were performed to characterize the content of atorvastatin calcium with the same internal standard. Linearity, precision, and results from two methods were compared. Results showed that 19F qNMR has similar precision and sensitivity to 1H qNMR. Both methods generate similar results compared to mass balance method. Major advantage from 19F qNMR is that the analyte signal is with less or no interference from impurities. 19F qNMR is an excellent approach to quantify fluorine-containing analytes. PMID:27688925

  1. Direct 13C NMR Detection in HPLC Hyphenation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Johansen, Kenneth; Nyberg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    is indubitable in simplifying structural elucidations. In the current study, we demonstrated direct (13)C NMR detection of triterpenoids from a Ganoderma lucidum extract in hyphenation mode. The combined advantage of a cryogenically cooled probe, miniaturization, and multiple trapping enabled the first reported......Solid phase extraction (SPE) was introduced as a crucial step in the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique to enable online analyte enrichment from which proton-detected NMR experiments on submicrogram amounts from complex mixtures were possible. However, the significance of direct-detected (13)C NMR experiments...... application of HPLC-SPE-NMR analysis using direct-detected (13)C NMR spectra. HPLC column loading, accumulative SPE trappings, and the effect of different elution solvents were evaluated and optimized. A column loading of approximately 600 mug of a prefractionated triterpenoid mixture, six trappings...

  2. (S)Pinning down protein interactions by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Kunze, Micha Ben Achim; Erlendsson, Simon

    2017-01-01

    all types of protein reactions, which can span orders of magnitudes in affinities, reaction rates and lifetimes of states. As the more versatile technique, solution NMR spectroscopy offers a remarkable catalogue of methods that can be successfully applied to the quantitative as well as qualitative...... descriptions of protein interactions. In this review we provide an easy-access approach to NMR for the non-NMR specialist and describe how and when solution state NMR spectroscopy is the method of choice for addressing protein ligand interaction. We describe very briefly the theoretical background...... and illustrate simple protein-ligand interactions and as well as typical strategies for measuring binding constants using NMR spectroscopy. Finally, this review provides examples of caveats of the method as well as the options to improve the outcome of an NMR analysis of a protein interaction reaction...

  3. Modellierung des Einflusses der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung in der Mesoskala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    Seit 1990 waren mehrere der großen Flussgebiete Mitteleuropas wiederholt von extremen Hochwassern betroffen. Da sowohl die Landoberfläche als auch die Flusssysteme weiter Teile Mitteleuropas in der Vergangenheit weitreichenden Eingriffen ausgesetzt gewesen sind, wird bei der Suche nach den Ursachen für diese Häufung von Extremereignissen auch die Frage nach der Verantwortung des Menschen hierfür diskutiert. Gewässerausbau, Flächenversiegelung, intensive landwirtschaftliche Bodenbearbeitung, Flurbereinigung und Waldschäden sind nur einige Beispiele und Folgen der anthropogenen Eingriffe in die Landschaft. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der beteiligten Prozesse und deren Wechselwirkungen gibt es allerdings bislang nur Schätzungen darüber, wie sehr sich die Hochwassersituation hierdurch verändert hat. Vorrangiges Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, mit Hilfe eines hydrologischen Modells systematisch darzustellen, in welcher Weise, in welcher Größenordnung und unter welchen Umständen die Art der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung Einfluss nimmt. Dies wird anhand exemplarischer Modellanwendungen in der hydrologischen Mesoskala untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck wurde das deterministische und flächendifferenzierte hydrologische Modell wasim-eth ausgewählt, das sich durch eine ausgewogene Mischung aus physikalisch begründeten und konzeptionellen Ansätzen auszeichnet. Das Modell wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit um verschiedene Aspekte erweitert, die für die Charakterisierung des Einflusses der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung wichtig sind: (1) Bevorzugtes Fließen in Makroporen wird durch eine Zweiteilung des Bodens in Makroporen und Bodenmatrix dargestellt, die schnelle Infiltration und Perkolation jenseits der hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit der Bodenmatrix ermöglicht. (2) Verschlämmung äußert sich im Modell abhängig von Niederschlagsintensität und Vegetationsbedeckungsgrad als Verschlechterung der Infiltrationsbedingungen an der Bodenoberfläche. (3) Das

  4. Impact of aircraft emissions above the tropopause on stratospheric ozone; Auswirkungen der Emissionen des Luftverkehrs oberhalb der Tropopause auf die stratosphaerische Ozonschicht (ALTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (DE)); Peter, T. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Meilinger, S.; Luo, B.; Hirschberg, M.; Fabian, P.

    2000-05-01

    The physical and chemical transformations of aircraft emissions above the tropopause, from the scale of the plume up to the synoptic scale, were investigated by means of numerical simulations. In particular, the impact of emissions on ozone chemistry was studied. Besides a description of model assumptions and the work performed, results of the simulations are assessed and open issues are discussed. Recommendations for future research topics are given which need to be studied in order to resolve remaining uncertainties in the chemical impact of aircraft emissions. (orig.) [German] Auf der Basis numerischer Prozessstudien wurden die durch den gegenwaertigen und zukuenftigen Flugverkehr oberhalb der Tropopause induzierten, physiko-chemischen Stoffumwandlungen vom Austritt aus dem Triebwerk bis zum Ferntransport auf synoptischer Ebene aufgeklaert und in Hinblick auf ihr Ozonzerstoerungspotential untersucht. Neben einer Diskussion der Modellannahmen und der durchgefuehrten Arbeiten werden die Ergebnisse der Simulationen bewertet und offene Fragen diskutiert. Daraus werden Empfehlungen fuer vordringliche Forschungsthemen abgeleitet, fuer die bislang nur unzureichende Erkenntnisse vorliegen. (orig.)

  5. Dauerhafter Zugriff auf digitale Publikationen – das DFG-Projekt NatHosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegard Schäffler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Das Arbeiten mit digitalen Veröffentlichungen und Daten in Forschung, Lehre und Studium erfordert eine kontinuierliche und möglichst störungsfreie Verfügbarkeit dieser Inhalte. Bei Publikationen, die von wissenschaftlichen Fachverlagen lizenzpflichtig vertrieben werden, können verschiedene Typen von Störungsfällen wie temporäre oder längerfristige Ausfälle von Verlagsservern, der Transfer von Zeitschriftentiteln zu anderen Verlagen, das komplette Ausscheiden von Verlagen aus dem Markt oder die Abbestellung der elektronischen Ressourcen durch die lizenznehmende Einrichtung zu Zugriffsunterbrechungen führen. Das DFG-Projekt „Nationales Hosting elektronischer Ressourcen“ (NatHosting untersucht, wie unter Berücksichtigung bereits existierender Lösungsansätze eine nationale Strategie zur Absicherung des dauerhaften Zugriffs auf digitale Publikationen entwickelt werden kann. Das vom Projekt erarbeitete Lösungskonzept umfasst eine zweigleisige Strategie der Teilnahme eines nationalen Konsortiums bei Portico bei gleichzeitigem Aufbau eines „Private LOCKSS Networks“ für die durch Portico nicht abgedeckten Inhalte. Weitere Komponenten sind der Aufbau eines rechnergestützten Rechtemanagements und die Einrichtung einer „Hosting-Agentur“ mit Koordinationsaufgaben für das nationale Hosting. In order to work with digital publications and data in a reliable and sustainable way, researchers need to be sure that access to and immediate availability of the content is provided continuously and free of faults. An interruption of access to licensed content can occur for various reasons such as temporary or long-term breakdown of publishers’ servers, the transfer of journals to another publisher, the withdrawal of publishers from the market or the termination of electronic resource subscriptions by the licensee. Against the background of existing solutions, the project NatHosting (National Hosting of Electronic Resources aims at

  6. Rovibrational and temperature effects in theoretical studies of NMR parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Rasmus; Kaminsky, Jakub; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    The demand for high precision calculations of NMR shieldings (or their related values, chemical shifts δ) and spin-spin coupling constants facilitating and supporting detailed interpretations of NMR spectra increases hand in hand with the development of computational techniques and hardware...... resources. Highly sophisticated calculations including even relativistic effects are nowadays possible for these properties. However, NMR parameters depend not only on molecular structure and environment but also on molecular flexibility and temperature and the apparent success of theoretical predictions...

  7. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging While Drilling (NMR-LWD)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanz, Martin; Kruspe, Thomas; Thern, Holger Frank; Kurz, Gerhard Alfons

    2015-01-01

    NMR T2 distribution measurement is our chosen everyday method for NMR logging while drilling oil and gas wells. This method yields straightforward preparation and execution of the job as well as a normally easy interpretation of the measured data. For instance, gas and light oil discrimination against water is feasible by direct observation of the T2 distribution. A condition for this measurement method is a NMR logging tool that hardly moves while drilling and in addition uses a small static...

  9. Metal glasses in microscopic scale: NMR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompa, K.; Bakonyi, I.; Varga, L. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1984-01-01

    A variety of amorphous metallic glasses was prepared by electrolysis, chemical reduction or fast cooling. Local orders, structural symmetry and topology were studied by means of NMR. Dipole-dipole and quadrupole interactions were analysed in Ni-P, Ni-Cu-P and Ni-B metallic glasses containing sup(31)P or sup(11)B nuclei. Experimentally determined signal widths were compared with the calculated values of model structures. The good agreement indicates structural identities of the nickel-containing glasses and the assumed models.

  10. Multiple-quantum NMR in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Yu-Sze [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Time domain multiple-quantum (MQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for spectral simplification and for providing new information on molecular dynamics. In this thesis, applications of MQ NMR are presented and show distinctly the advantages of this method over the conventional single-quantum NMR. Chapter 1 introduces the spin Hamiltonians, the density matrix formalism and some basic concepts of MQ NMR spectroscopy. In chapter 2, 14N double-quantum coherence is observed with high sensitivity in isotropic solution, using only the magnetization of bound protons. Spin echoes are used to obtain the homogeneous double-quantum spectrum and to suppress a large H2O solvent signal. Chapter 3 resolves the main difficulty in observing high MQ transitions in solids. Due to the profusion of spin transitions in a solid, individual lines are unresolved. Excitation and detection of high quantum transitions by normal schemes are thus difficult. To ensure that overlapping lines add constructively and thereby to enhance sensitivity, time-reversal pulse sequences are used to generate all lines in phase. Up to 22-quantum 1H absorption in solid adamantane is observed. A time dependence study shows an increase in spin correlations as the excitation time increased. In chapter 4, a statistical theory of MQ second moments is developed for coupled spins of spin I = 1/2. The model reveals that the ratio of the average dipolar coupling to the rms value largely determines the dependence of second moments on the number of quanta. The results of this model are checked against computer-calculated and experimental second moments, and show good agreement. A simple scheme is proposed in chapter 5 for sensitivity improvement in a MQ experiment. The scheme involves acquiring all of the signal energy available in the detection period by applying pulsed spinlocking and sampling between pulses. Using this technique on polycrystalline

  11. Autotaxin Expression Is Regulated at the Post-transcriptional Level by the RNA-binding Proteins HuR and AUF1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Lyu, Lin; Li, Xixi; Yao, Siliang; Zhang, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a key enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lysophospholipid mediator that regulates cellular activities through its specific G protein-coupled receptors. The ATX-LPA axis plays an important role in various physiological and pathological processes, especially in inflammation and cancer development. Although the transcriptional regulation of ATX has been widely studied, the post-transcriptional regulation of ATX is largely unknown. In this study, we identified conserved adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich elements in the ATX mRNA 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). The RNA-binding proteins HuR and AUF1 directly bound to the ATX mRNA 3′UTR and had antagonistic functions in ATX expression. HuR enhanced ATX expression by increasing ATX mRNA stability, whereas AUF1 suppressed ATX expression by promoting ATX mRNA decay. HuR and AUF1 were involved in ATX regulation in Colo320 human colon cancer cells and the LPS-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells. HuR knockdown suppressed ATX expression in B16 mouse melanoma cells, leading to inhibition of cell migration. This effect was reversed by AUF1 knockdown to recover ATX expression or by the addition of LPA. These results suggest that the post-transcriptional regulation of ATX expression by HuR and AUF1 modulates cancer cell migration. In summary, we identified HuR and AUF1 as novel post-transcriptional regulators of ATX expression, thereby elucidating a novel mechanism regulating the ATX-LPA axis. PMID:27784781

  12. Mechanism of Regulation of bcl-2 mRNA by Nucleolin and A+U-rich Element-binding Factor 1 (AUF1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Daniella; Zuraw, Lisa; Ramalingam, Sivakumar; Sengupta, Tapas K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sumita; Reuben, Adrian; Fernandes, Daniel J.; Spicer, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, particularly leukemias. In some cell types this is the result of enhanced stability of bcl-2 mRNA, which is controlled by elements in its 3′-untranslated region. Nucleolin is one of the proteins that binds to bcl-2 mRNA, thereby increasing its half-life. Here, we examined the site on the bcl-2 3′-untranslated region that is bound by nucleolin as well as the protein binding domains important for bcl-2 mRNA recognition. RNase footprinting and RNA fragment binding assays demonstrated that nucleolin binds to a 40-nucleotide region at the 5′ end of the 136-nucleotide bcl-2 AU-rich element (AREbcl-2). The first two RNA binding domains of nucleolin were sufficient for high affinity binding to AREbcl-2. In RNA decay assays, AREbcl-2 transcripts were protected from exosomal decay by the addition of nucleolin. AUF1 has been shown to recruit the exosome to mRNAs. When MV-4-11 cell extracts were immunodepleted of AUF1, the rate of decay of AREbcl-2 transcripts was reduced, indicating that nucleolin and AUF1 have opposing roles in bcl-2 mRNA turnover. When the function of nucleolin in MV-4-11 cells was impaired by treatment with the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411, association of AUF1 with bcl-2 mRNA was increased. This suggests that the degradation of bcl-2 mRNA induced by AS1411 results from both interference with nucleolin protection of bcl-2 mRNA and recruitment of the exosome by AUF1. Based on our findings, we propose a model that illustrates the opposing roles of nucleolin and AUF1 in regulating bcl-2 mRNA stability. PMID:20571027

  13. Mechanism of regulation of bcl-2 mRNA by nucleolin and A+U-rich element-binding factor 1 (AUF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Daniella; Zuraw, Lisa; Ramalingam, Sivakumar; Sengupta, Tapas K; Bandyopadhyay, Sumita; Reuben, Adrian; Fernandes, Daniel J; Spicer, Eleanor K

    2010-08-27

    The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, particularly leukemias. In some cell types this is the result of enhanced stability of bcl-2 mRNA, which is controlled by elements in its 3'-untranslated region. Nucleolin is one of the proteins that binds to bcl-2 mRNA, thereby increasing its half-life. Here, we examined the site on the bcl-2 3'-untranslated region that is bound by nucleolin as well as the protein binding domains important for bcl-2 mRNA recognition. RNase footprinting and RNA fragment binding assays demonstrated that nucleolin binds to a 40-nucleotide region at the 5' end of the 136-nucleotide bcl-2 AU-rich element (ARE(bcl-2)). The first two RNA binding domains of nucleolin were sufficient for high affinity binding to ARE(bcl-2). In RNA decay assays, ARE(bcl-2) transcripts were protected from exosomal decay by the addition of nucleolin. AUF1 has been shown to recruit the exosome to mRNAs. When MV-4-11 cell extracts were immunodepleted of AUF1, the rate of decay of ARE(bcl-2) transcripts was reduced, indicating that nucleolin and AUF1 have opposing roles in bcl-2 mRNA turnover. When the function of nucleolin in MV-4-11 cells was impaired by treatment with the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411, association of AUF1 with bcl-2 mRNA was increased. This suggests that the degradation of bcl-2 mRNA induced by AS1411 results from both interference with nucleolin protection of bcl-2 mRNA and recruitment of the exosome by AUF1. Based on our findings, we propose a model that illustrates the opposing roles of nucleolin and AUF1 in regulating bcl-2 mRNA stability.

  14. Touch NMR: An NMR Data Processing Application for the iPad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyue; Chen, Zhiwei; Yan, Zhiping; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most powerful technologies to aid research in numerous scientific disciplines. With the development of consumer electronics, mobile devices have played increasingly important roles in our daily life. However, there is currently no application available for mobile devices able to…

  15. Extracting protein dynamics information from overlapped NMR signals using relaxation dispersion difference NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konuma, Tsuyoshi [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Structural and Chemical Biology (United States); Harada, Erisa [Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Bioorganic Research Institute (Japan); Sugase, Kenji, E-mail: sugase@sunbor.or.jp, E-mail: sugase@moleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Protein dynamics plays important roles in many biological events, such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. NMR is mostly used for investigating such protein dynamics in a site-specific manner. Recently, NMR has been actively applied to large proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins, which are attractive research targets. However, signal overlap, which is often observed for such proteins, hampers accurate analysis of NMR data. In this study, we have developed a new methodology called relaxation dispersion difference that can extract conformational exchange parameters from overlapped NMR signals measured using relaxation dispersion spectroscopy. In relaxation dispersion measurements, the signal intensities of fluctuating residues vary according to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboon-Gill pulsing interval, whereas those of non-fluctuating residues are constant. Therefore, subtraction of each relaxation dispersion spectrum from that with the highest signal intensities, measured at the shortest pulsing interval, leaves only the signals of the fluctuating residues. This is the principle of the relaxation dispersion difference method. This new method enabled us to extract exchange parameters from overlapped signals of heme oxygenase-1, which is a relatively large protein. The results indicate that the structural flexibility of a kink in the heme-binding site is important for efficient heme binding. Relaxation dispersion difference requires neither selectively labeled samples nor modification of pulse programs; thus it will have wide applications in protein dynamics analysis.

  16. 31 P-NMR, 77 Se-NMR and mass spectral studies on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of aminophosphines were prepared by controlled condensation reaction between PCl3 or PhPCl2 and amines, and they were converted into the corresponding chalcogenides. 31P-NMR and mass spectral data were collected for characterization of these asymmetrically substituted phosphines, and in addition, ...

  17. NMR structural studies of oligosaccharides and other natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Kjærulff, Louise; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2014-01-01

    NMR spektroskopi er et af de vigtigste værktøjer til analyse og strukturopklaring af kemiske stoffer og bruges inden for mange forskellige forskningsområder. Denne afhandling omhandler NMR-spektroskopisk strukturanalyse af små molekyler i vandig eller organisk opløsning, både i forhold til metodeudvikling og strukturopklaring vha. NMR spektroskopi. HMBC+ er et nyudviklet pseudo-3D NMR eksperiment til måling af n+1JHH homonukleare koblingskonstanter over 3-4 bindinger i små molekyler, observer...

  18. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)

  19. Evaluation of fast 2D NMR for metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennec, Adrien Le; Giraudeau, Patrick; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2014-06-17

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) is increasingly explored as a tool for metabolomics because of its superior resolution compared to one-dimensional NMR (1D NMR). However, 2D NMR is characterized by longer acquisition times, which makes it less suitable for high-throughput studies. In this Article, we evaluated two methods for the acceleration of nD NMR, ultrafast (UF) and nonuniform sampling (NUS), in the context of metabolomics. To this end, model samples mimicking the metabolic profile variations in serum from subjects affected by colorectal cancer and controls were analyzed by 1D (1)H NMR along with conventional and accelerated DQF-COSY and HSQC. A statistical analysis (OPLS-DA) yielded similar results for the group separation with all techniques, but biomarker identification from 2D spectra was substantially enhanced, both in terms of number of molecules and easiness of assignment. Most interestingly, fast 2D NMR techniques lead to similar results as conventional 2D NMR, opening the way for high-throughput metabolomics studies using 2D NMR.

  20. A modular, standardised power station concept based on steam and gas turbines; Ein modulares, standardisiertes Kraftwerkskonzept auf der Basis von Dampf- und Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeske, H.O.; Walter, P.; Pape, M. [GHH BORSIG Turbomaschinen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Power stations of intermediate capacity for industrial and community application can today be provided based on modern gas turbines and modularised plant concepts economically in respect of capital costs and operating costs because of the high efficiencies and adherence to environmental requirements. The modular plant concept permits short construction timescales. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kraftwerke mittlerer Leistung fuer industrielle und kommunale Anwendungen lassen sich heute auf der Basis moderner Gasturbinen und modularisierter Anlagenkonzeptionen wirtschaftlich im Hinblick auf die Investitions- und Betriebskosten durch die hohen Wirkungsgrade bei Einhaltung der Umweltauflagen verwirklichen. Die modulare Anlagenkonzeption ermoeglicht kurze Bauzeiten. (orig.)

  1. Auswirkungen verschiedener Tränken auf Stewart-Parameter des Säuren-Basen-Haushaltes bei Kälbern mit experimentell induzierter metabolischer Azidose

    OpenAIRE

    Schwedhelm, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss unterschiedlich zusammengesetzter Tränken auf den Säuren-Basen-Haushalt bei Kälbern mit experimentell induzierter metabolischer Azidose zu untersuchen. Bei gesunden Kälbern konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Fütterung von milchbasierten ORL mit einer [SID3] ≥92 mmol/l eine Erhöhung der Plasma-[SID3] zur Folge hat (BACHMANN et al. 2009b) und damit eine alkalische Wirkung auf den SBS. Zu prüfen galt die Hypothese, ob es bei Kälbern mit experimentell...

  2. Einfluss von Ernährungsfaktoren im ersten Lebensjahr auf die Entwicklung von Diabetes- und Zöliakie-assoziierter Autoimmunität

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Doris

    2005-01-01

    Eine Modulation von Ernährungsfaktoren wurde als möglicher Einflussfaktor auf das Risiko für Typ 1 Diabetes-assoziierte Autoimmunität vermutet. Ziel der Arbeit war es, festzustellen, ob die Stilldauer, die Einführung von industriell hergestellter Säuglingsmilchnahrung, das Zufüttern von Beikost oder der Zeitpunkt der erstmaligen Gabe glutenhaltiger Nahrungsmittel Einfluss auf die Entwicklung von Diabetes- oder Zöliakie-assoziierten Autoantikörper haben. Als Studienkollektiv dienten 1610 Kinde...

  3. Einfluß von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen gemessen anhand des Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventars (FPI) auf postanästhesiologisches Erbrechen

    OpenAIRE

    Löbmann, Ulrich B. H.

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung:In der vorliegenden prospektiven, randomisierten und mehrfach stratifizierten, doppelblinden, kontrollierten Studie mit faktoriellem Design sollte analysiert werden, ob die Ausprägung eines Persönlichkeitsmerkmals, welches mit dem Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (FPI) erhoben wurde, einen direkten Einfluß auf PÜ&E hat und welchen Stellenwert ein möglicher Einfluß auf das PÜ&E-Risiko im Kontext der sonstigen Einflußfaktoren hat. Insgesamt konnten 1180 Teilnehmer in die Studi...

  4. Kristalline Dünnschicht-Silizium-Solarzellen: Potenzial von Solarzellen auf kostengünstigen Si-Substraten mittels Flüssigphasenepitaxie

    OpenAIRE

    Hötzel, Jochen

    2001-01-01

    Diese Arbeit leistet einen Beitrag zur Kostenreduzierung bei der Herstellung von Si-Solarzellen durch die Anwendung einer speziellen LPE-Technologie auf UMG Si-Substraten. Dadurch wurde der Einsatz von EG-Si bei der LPE-Solarzellenherstellung erstmals völlig überflüssig. Eine neue, industriell kompatible Siebdrucktechnologie ermöglichte die Realisierung von kostengünstigen und effizienten Solarzellen.Hochwertige Si-Schichten wurden mit einer horizontalen LPE-Anlage auf unterschiedlichen Si-Su...

  5. Well prepared for the future - steel today, aluminium tomorrow; Verarbeitung von Stahl und Aluminium auf einer Anlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, G. [Schuler Automation GmbH und Co. KG (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Schuler Automation GmbH and Co. KG is underlining its claim to be the world's leading system supplier of automated stamping plants: for the first time, the company is supplying a complete blanking line to Shanghai Volkswagen in China. The system, which is equipped with a mechanical 630-tonne press, meets the high demands for the manufacture of automobile body parts with all its components. With aluminum constantly gaining significance in the automobile industry, all system components have been prepared to handle aluminum as well as steel coils in future. Therefore the blanking line for Shanghai VW is fitted with a washing machine which can be raised by a lifting table, as well as fully automatic cassette change in the straightener. The stacking system has been fitted with devices for the assembly of additional vacuum belts to transport and release aluminum blanks. The option of working steel and aluminum on one single plant is one of the outstanding features offered by Schuler-Automation, giving their clients a high degree of flexibility. (orig.) [German] Die Schuler Automation GmbH and Co. KG liefert erstmals eine komplette Schnittlinie an Shanghai Volkswagen nach China. Ein herausragendes Merkmal der neuen Fertigungseinrichtung ist die Moeglichkeit der Verarbeitung von Stahl und Aluminium auf einer Anlage, wodurch ein hohes Mass an Flexibilitaet fuer den Kunden gewaehrleistet ist. Ein weiteres technisches Highlight ist die Visualisierung auf der Basis von WinCC in einer besonders bedienungsfreundlichen grafischen Oberflaeche. (orig.)

  6. Method development in quantitative NMR towards metrologically traceable organic certified reference materials used as 31P qNMR standards

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Michael; Hellriegel, Christine; Rueck, Alexander; Wuethrich, Juerg; Jenks, Peter; Obkircher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is employed by an increasing number of analytical and industrial laboratories for the assignment of content and quantitative determination of impurities. Within the last few years, it was demonstrated that 1H qNMR can be performed with high accuracy leading to measurement uncertainties below 1?% relative. It was even demonstrated that the combination of 1H qNMR with metrological weighing can lead to measurement uncertainties below 0....

  7. Assessment of Bone Microstructural Changes by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qingwen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that age related increases in bone porosity without significant changes in bone mineral density (BMD) (without bone microstructural information) result in a decrease in bone strength. Bone fracture toughness is also significantly correlated to changes in porosity, microarchitecture, collagen integrity, microdamage, and water distribution, all of which are measures of bone quality. Unfortunately, current technology does not allow the non-destructive and non-invasive detection of bone water distribution or other measures of bone quality including microporosity. On the other hand, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) proton spin-spin (T2) relaxation time measurements and computational analytical method have been used to determine microstructural characteristics of various types of fluid filled porous materials. The study in here is to demonstrate that non-destructive and non-invasive NMR proton spin-spin (T2) relaxation techniques has been developed and applied to quantify the porosity, pore size distribution and water distribution in human cortical bone. This new bone microstructural information can then be used as descriptions of bone quality and, along or in combination with existing method (BMD) to more accurately assess bone fracture risk, and the results could help doctors and researchers to detect osteoporosis and other conditions related to weak bones in persons.

  8. NMR-based diffusion pore imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Frederik Bernd; Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Wetscherek, Andreas; Stieltjes, Bram; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments offer a unique opportunity to study boundaries restricting the diffusion process. In a recent Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 048102 (2011)], we introduced the idea and concept that such diffusion experiments can be interpreted as NMR imaging experiments. Consequently, images of closed pores, in which the spins diffuse, can be acquired. In the work presented here, an in-depth description of the diffusion pore imaging technique is provided. Image artifacts due to gradient profiles of finite duration, field inhomogeneities, and surface relaxation are considered. Gradients of finite duration lead to image blurring and edge enhancement artifacts. Field inhomogeneities have benign effects on diffusion pore images, and surface relaxation can lead to a shrinkage and shift of the pore image. The relation between boundary structure and the imaginary part of the diffusion weighted signal is analyzed, and it is shown that information on pore coherence can be obtained without the need to measure the phase of the diffusion weighted signal. Moreover, it is shown that quite arbitrary gradient profiles can be used for diffusion pore imaging. The matrices required for numerical calculations are stated and provided as supplemental material.

  9. NMR assessment on bone simulated under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Q.; Qin, Y.

    Introduction Microgravity-induced bone loss has been suggested to be similar to disuse-osteoporosis on Earth which constitutes a challenging public health problem No current non-destructive method can provide the microstructural changes in bone particularly on cortical bone Recently the authors have applied low field nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spin-spin relaxation technique and computational analysis method to determine the porosity pore size distribution and microdamage of cortical bone 1-3 The studies by the authors have shown that this technology can be used to characterize microstructural changes as well as bone water distribution bound and mobile water changes of weightless treated simulating a microgravity condition turkey and mouse cortical bone We further determinate that the NMR spin-spin relaxation time T 2 spectrum derived parameters can be used as descriptions of bone quality e g matrix water distribution and porosity size distributions and alone or in combination with current techniques bone mineral density measurements more accurately predict bone mechanical properties Methods underline Bone sample preparation Two kinds of animal samples were collected and prepared for designed experiments from SUNY Cortical bones of the mid-diaphyses of the ulnae of 1-year-old male turkeys were dissected from freshly slaughtered animals Eight samples were categorized from normal or control and four samples were 4-week disuse treated by functionally isolated osteotomies disuse A total of 12

  10. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1H NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foodstuff is discussed. The study of transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor") over-expressing the KNAT1 gene from Arabidopsis is presented as a novel study-case. The 1H NMR metabolic profiling was carried out. Twenty-two wat...

  11. nmr spectroscopic study and dft calculations of vibrational analyses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ANALYSES, GIAO NMR SHIELDINGS AND 1JCH, 1JCC SPIN-SPIN COUPLING. CONSTANTS ... proton coupled and uncoupled 13C, 15N, DEPT, COSY, HETCOR, INADEQUATE NMR spectra and the magnitude ... methodology an interesting variety of spin-spin coupling constants can be calculated with good accuracy in ...

  12. Facing and Overcoming Sensitivity Challenges in Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Boebinger, Gregory S.; Comment, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    In the Spring of 2013, NMR spectroscopists convened at the Weizmann Institute in Israel to brainstorm on approaches to improve the sensitivity of NMR experiments, particularly when applied in biomolecular settings. This multi‐author interdisciplinary Review presents a state‐of‐the‐art description...

  13. Advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingdong; Cao, Xiaoyan; Olk, Dan C; Chu, Wenying; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Solid-state NMR is essential for the characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) and is gaining importance in geosciences and environmental sciences. This review is intended to highlight advanced solid-state NMR techniques, especially a systematic approach to NOM characterization, and their applications to the study of NOM. We discuss some basics of how to acquire high-quality and quantitative solid-state 13 C NMR spectra, and address some common technical mistakes that lead to unreliable spectra of NOM. The identification of specific functional groups in NOM, primarily based on 13 C spectral-editing techniques, is described and the theoretical background of some recently-developed spectral-editing techniques is provided. Applications of solid-state NMR to investigating nitrogen (N) in NOM are described, focusing on limitations of the widely used 15 N CP/MAS experiment and the potential of improved advanced NMR techniques for characterizing N forms in NOM. Then techniques used for identifying proximities, heterogeneities and domains are reviewed, and some examples provided. In addition, NMR techniques for studying segmental dynamics in NOM are reviewed. We also briefly discuss applications of solid-state NMR to NOM from various sources, including soil organic matter, aquatic organic matter, organic matter in atmospheric particulate matter, carbonaceous meteoritic organic matter, and fossil fuels. Finally, examples of NMR-based structural models and an outlook are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  15. Designing of high-resolution photoresists: use of modern NMR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applications of improved 1-D/ 2-D NMR spectroscopic techniques have been reviewed for quantitatively estimating the incorporation of different monomers and degree of linearity in resin microstructure. Comparison of the NMR data with those from lithography leads to a distinct correlation between resin microstructure and ...

  16. Probe for high resolution NMR with sample reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, A.; Samoson, A.

    1990-02-06

    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions are zero. 8 figs.

  17. Bringing NMR and IR Spectroscopy to High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Hass, Alisa L.; Pollock, David W.; Huebner, Aaron; Frost, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Development of benchtop, portable Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectrometers has opened up opportunities for creating university-high school partnerships that provide high school students with hands-on experience with NMR and IR instruments. With recent changes to the international baccalaureate chemistry…

  18. Quantification of (1)H NMR Spectra from Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Robin A; Prinsen, Hetty; Giannini, Cosimo; Caprio, Sonia; Herzog, Raimund I

    2015-12-01

    Human plasma is a biofluid that is high in information content, making it an excellent candidate for metabolomic studies. (1)H NMR has been a popular technique to detect several dozen metabolites in blood plasma. In order for (1)H NMR to become an automated, high-throughput method, challenges related to (1) the large signal from lipoproteins and (2) spectral overlap between different metabolites have to be addressed. Here diffusion-weighted (1)H NMR is used to separate lipoprotein and metabolite signals based on their large difference in translational diffusion. The metabolite (1)H NMR spectrum is then quantified through spectral fitting utilizing full prior knowledge on the metabolite spectral signatures. Extension of the scan time by 3 minutes or 15% per sample allowed the acquisition of a (1)H NMR spectrum with high diffusion weighting. The metabolite (1)H NMR spectra could reliably be modeled with 28 metabolites. Excellent correlation was found between results obtained with diffusion NMR and ultrafiltration. The combination of minimal sample preparation together with minimal user interaction during processing and quantification provides a metabolomics technique for automated, quantitative (1)H NMR of human plasma.

  19. Rapid prediction of multi-dimensional NMR data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradmann, S.H.E.; Ader, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326096639; Heinrich, I.; Nand, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337731403; Dittmann, M.; Cukkemane, A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33285907X; van Dijk, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325811113; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Engelhard, M.; Baldus, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410864

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational environment for Fast Analysis of multidimensional NMR DAta Sets (FANDAS) that allows assembling multidimensional data sets from a variety of input parameters and facilitates comparing and modifying such “in silico” data sets during the various stages of the NMR data

  20. Speech recognition: impact on workflow and report availability; Spracherkennung: Auswirkung auf Workflow und Befundverfuegbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, C.; Trumm, C.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Francke, M.; Kuettner, B.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2005-08-01

    Hauptkomponenten eines SES sind das akustische und das Sprachmodell. Merkmale kontinuierlicher SES mit Realtimeerkennung umfassen vorformulierbare Befund(bloeck)e, Standardbefundvorlagen und Sprachkommandos (Navigation im Text, Steuerung von SES und RIS). Sinnvoll fuer eine optimale Nutzung des SES-Potenzials ist die Integration von SES, RIS und PACS. Wichtige Leistungsparameter eines SES sind Befundverfuegbarkeit und Zeiteffizienz des Befundungsprozesses (Erkennungsrate, Editier- und Korrekturaufwand, Wortschatzpflege) fuer den Radiologen. In der Praxis wird die Erkennungsrate ueber die Fehlerrate (Einheit ''Wort'') abgeschaetzt. Fehlerraten liegen zwischen 4 und 28%. Etwa 20% davon sind Wortschatzfehler, die u. U. zu einer falschen Befundinterpretation fuehren koennen. Sie unterstreichen die Notwendigkeit einer sorgfaeltigen Textkorrektur und Wortschatzpflege. Die Einfuehrung eines SES erbringt eine drastische Verbesserung der Befundverfuegbarkeit. Dagegen nimmt der individuelle aerztliche Zeitbedarf bei digitaler Befunderstellung um ca. 20-25% (Projektionsradiographie, CR) bzw. ca. 30% (CT, MRT) zu. Die Entlastung des Schreibbueros (Hintergrunddiktat) haengt von dessen Qualifikation ab. Das Onlinediktat fuehrt zu einer Umverteilung von Arbeitsschritten vom Schreibbuero auf den Befunder. (orig.)

  1. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip; Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Tilo

    2008-04-29

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe

  2. $\\beta$-NMR of copper isotopes in ionic liquids

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to test the feasibility of spin-polarization and $\\beta$-NMR studies on several short-lived copper isotopes, $^{58}$ Cu, $^{74}$Cu and $^{75}$Cu in crystals and liquids. The motivation is given by biological studies of Cu with $\\beta$-NMR in liquid samples, since Cu is present in a large number of enzymes involved in electron transfer and activation of oxygen. The technique is based on spin-polarization via optical pumping in the new VITO beamline. We will use the existing lasers, NMR magnet and NMR chambers and we will prepare a new optical pumping system. The studies will be devoted to tests of achieved $\\beta$-asymmetry in solid hosts, the behaviour of asymmetry when increasing vacuum, and finally NMR scans in ionic liquids. The achieved spin polarization will be also relevant for the plans to measure with high precision the magnetic moments of neutron-rich Cu isotopes.

  3. Orientational Glasses: NMR and Electric Susceptibility Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Sullivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the results of a wide range of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMRmeasurements of the local order parameters and the molecular dynamics of solid ortho-para hydrogen mixtures and solid nitrogen-argon mixtures that form novel molecular orientational glass states at low temperatures. From the NMR measurements, the distribution of the order parameters can be deduced and, in terms of simple models, used to analyze the thermodynamic measurements of the heat capacities of these systems. In addition, studies of the dielectric susceptibilities of the nitrogen-argon mixtures are reviewed in terms of replica symmetry breaking analogous to that observed for spin glass states. It is shown that this wide set of experimental results is consistent with orientation or quadrupolar glass ordering of the orientational degrees of freedom.

  4. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  6. Long Lived NMR Signal in Bone

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Boyang; Khitrin, Anatoly; Jerschow, Alexej

    2012-01-01

    Solids and rigid tissues such as bone, ligaments, and tendons, typically appear dark in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is due to the extremely short-lived proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals. This short lifetime is due to strong dipolar interactions between immobilized proton spins, which render it challenging to detect these signals with sufficient resolution and sensitivity. Here we show the possibility of exciting long-lived signals in cortical bone tissue with a signature consistent with that of bound water signals. Contrary to long-standing belief, it is further shown that dipolar coupling networks are an integral requirement for the excitation of these long-lived signals. The use of these signals could enhance the ability to visualize rigid tissues and solid samples with high sensitivity, resolution, and specificity via MRI.

  7. NMR Metabolomics Analysis of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shulei; Powers, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are linked to PD pathogenesis, its etiology and pathology remain to be elucidated. Metabolomics investigates metabolite changes in biofluids, cell lysates, tissues and tumors in order to correlate these metabolomic changes to a disease state. Thus, the application of metabolomics to investigate PD provides a systematic approach to understand the pathology of PD, to identify disease biomarkers, and to complement genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics studies. This review will examine current research into PD mechanisms with a focus on mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Neurotoxin-based PD animal models and the rationale for metabolomics studies in PD will also be discussed. The review will also explore the potential of NMR metabolomics to address important issues related to PD treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26078917

  8. Effects of air pollution and simulated acid rain on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests; Wirkungen von Luftverunreinigung und kuenstlichem sauren Regen auf die Bodenvegetation in Koniferenwaeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenkirchen, H. [Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde und Standortslehre, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1993-04-01

    Descriptive and experimental studies on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests in Bavaria indicated the following phenomena: a. In N-limited pine forests recent eutrophication effects occur. b. The structure of the moss layer in coniferous forests sensitively reacts to very acid throughfall water (pH < 3.2). c. Oxalis acetosella is a forest herb with a relatively high Ca-demand for optimum growth and is thusly sensitive to distinct acid-caused Ca-losses in the top soil, or inhibition of Ca-uptake. (orig.) [Deutsch] Deskriptive und experimentelle Studien an der Bodenvegetation bayerischer Nadelwaelder wiesen auf folgende Phaenomene hin: a. In N-limitierten Kiefernforsten treten rezente Eutrophierungswirkungen auf. b. Die Struktur der Moosschicht in Koniferenbestaenden reagiert empfindlich auf starke Aziditaet (pH < 3,2) des Kronentraufwassers. c. Oxalis acetosella ist eine Waldpflanze mit relativ hohem Ca-Bedarf fuer optimales Gedeihen; sie reagiert daher empfindlich auf staerkere depositionsbedingte Ca-Verluste aus dem Oberboden oder eine Hemmung der Ca-Aufnahme. (orig.)

  9. Increased parathyroid hormone gene expression in secondary hyperparathyroidism of experimental uremia is reversed by calcimimetics: correlation with posttranslational modification of the trans acting factor AUF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Ronen; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Lavi-Moshayoff, Vardit; Dinur, Maya; Martin, David; Naveh-Many, Tally; Silver, Justin

    2006-01-01

    Most patients with chronic kidney disease develop secondary hyperparathyroidism with disabling systemic complications. Calcimimetic agents are effective tools in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism, acting through allosteric modification of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) on the parathyroid gland (PT) to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and PT cell proliferation. This study showed that rats that were fed an adenine high-phosphorus diet had increased serum PTH and PTH mRNA levels at 7 and 21 d. For studying the effect of activation of the CaR by the calcimimetics R-568 on PTH gene expression, R-568 was given by gavage to uremic rats for the last 4 d of a 7-d adenine high-phosphorus diet. R-568 decreased both PTH mRNA and serum PTH levels. The effect of the calcimimetic on PTH gene expression was posttranscriptional and correlated with differences in protein-RNA binding and posttranslational modifications of the trans acting factor AUF1 in the PT. The AUF1 modifications as a result of uremia were reversed by treatment with R-568 to those of normal rats. Therefore, uremia and activation of the CaR mediated by calcimimetics modify AUF1 posttranslationally. These modifications in AUF1 correlate with changes in protein-PTH mRNA binding and PTH mRNA levels.

  10. Die von Dr. Th. Herzog auf seiner zweiten Reise durch Bolivien in den Jahren 1910 und 1911 gesammelten Pflanzen. Teil IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzog, Th.

    1918-01-01

    Auf Bäumen in der Quebrada de las Pavas, um 1900 m ü. M. (HERZOG no. 1835, blühend im März 1911); im Tal von Pocona, um 2800 m ü. M. (HERZOG no. 2020, blühend im April 1911). Verbr.: Brasilien, Peru, Bolivien, Nordargentinien.

  11. Bio-Lebensmittel in der öffentlichen Gemeinschaftsverpflegung - Eine Studie auf dem dänischen Markt und in den entsprechenden Aufsichtsbehörden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2003-01-01

    Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Mikkelsen BE (2003): Bio-Lebensmittel in der öffentlichen Gemeinschaftsverpflegung - Eine Studie auf dem dänischen Markt und in den entsprechenden Aufsichtsbehörden. Proceedings from "Ökologischer Landbau der Zukunft - Die 7. Wissenschaftstagung zum Ökologischen Landbau...

  12. NMR structures reveal how oxidation inactivates thrombomodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew J; Becvar, L Amaya; Prieto, Judith Helena; Melacini, Giuseppe; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2003-10-21

    Oxidation of Met 388, one of the three linker residues connecting the fourth and fifth EGF-like domains of thrombomodulin (TM), is deleterious for TM activity. An NMR structure of the smallest active fragment of TM (TMEGF45) and a crystal structure of a larger fragment (TMEGF456) bound to thrombin both show that Met 388 is packed into the fifth domain. Using multidimensional NMR, we have solved the structure of TMEGF45 in which Met 388 is oxidized (TMEGF45ox) and the structure of TMEGF45 in which Met 388 is mutated to Leu (TMEGF45ML). Comparison of the structures shows that the fifth domain has a somewhat different structure depending on the residue at position 388, and several of the thrombin-binding residues are packed into the fifth domain in the oxidized protein while they are exposed and free to interact with thrombin in the native structure and the Met-Leu mutant. This observation is consistent with kinetic measurements showing that the K(m) for TMEGF45ox binding to thrombin is 3.3-fold higher than for the native protein. Most importantly, the connection between the two domains, as indicated by interdomain NOEs, appears to be essential for activity. In the TMEGF45ox structure which has a reduced k(cat) for protein C activation by the thrombin-TMEGF45ox complex, interaction between the two domains is lost. Conversely, a tighter connection is observed between the two domains in TMEGF45ML, which has a higher k(cat) for protein C activation by the thrombin-TMEGF45ML complex.

  13. p16(INK4A positively regulates p21(WAF1 expression by suppressing AUF1-dependent mRNA decay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda H Al-Khalaf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: p16(INK4a and p21(WAF1 are two independent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors encoded by the CDKN2A and CDKN1A genes, respectively. p16(INK4a and p21(WAF1 are similarly involved in various anti-cancer processes, including the regulation of the critical G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle, senescence and apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the link between these two important tumor suppressor proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have shown here that the p16(INK4a protein positively controls the expression of p21(WAF1 in both human and mouse cells. p16(INK4a stabilizes the CDKN1A mRNA through negative regulation of the mRNA decay-promoting AUF1 protein. Immunoprecipitation of AUF1-associated RNAs followed by quantitative RT-PCR indicated that endogenous AUF1 binds to the CDKN1A mRNA in a p16(INK4A-dependent manner. Furthermore, while AUF1 down-regulation increased the expression level of the CDKN1A mRNA, the concurrent knockdown of AUF1 and CDKN2A, using specific silencing RNAs, restored the normal expression of the gene. Moreover, we used EGFP reporter fused to the CDKN2A AU-rich element (ARE to demonstrate that p16(INK4A regulation of the CDKN1A mRNA is AUF1- and ARE-dependent. Furthermore, ectopic expression of p16(INK4A in p16(INK4A-deficient breast epithelial MCF-10A cells significantly increased the level of p21(WAF1, with no effect on cell proliferation. In addition, we have shown direct correlation between p16(INK4a and p21(WAF1 levels in various cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that p16(INK4a stabilizes the CDKN1A mRNA in an AUF1-dependent manner, and further confirm the presence of a direct link between the 2 important cancer-related pathways, pRB/p16(INK4A and p14(ARF/p53/p21(WAF1.

  14. ImatraNMR: Novel software for batch integration and analysis of quantitative NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, A. V.; Heikkilä, O.; Kilpeläinen, I.; Heikkinen, S.

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative NMR spectroscopy is a useful and important tool for analysis of various mixtures. Recently, in addition of traditional quantitative 1D 1H and 13C NMR methods, a variety of pulse sequences aimed for quantitative or semiquantitative analysis have been developed. To obtain actual usable results from quantitative spectra, they must be processed and analyzed with suitable software. Currently, there are many processing packages available from spectrometer manufacturers and third party developers, and most of them are capable of analyzing and integration of quantitative spectra. However, they are mainly aimed for processing single or few spectra, and are slow and difficult to use when large numbers of spectra and signals are being analyzed, even when using pre-saved integration areas or custom scripting features. In this article, we present a novel software, ImatraNMR, designed for batch analysis of quantitative spectra. In addition to capability of analyzing large number of spectra, it provides results in text and CSV formats, allowing further data-analysis using spreadsheet programs or general analysis programs, such as Matlab. The software is written with Java, and thus it should run in any platform capable of providing Java Runtime Environment version 1.6 or newer, however, currently it has only been tested with Windows and Linux (Ubuntu 10.04). The software is free for non-commercial use, and is provided with source code upon request.

  15. Uniform access to clinical data in a distributed environment. Radiology; Einheitlicher Zugriff auf klinische Daten in einem verteilten System. Beispiel Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelhard, K. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie; Swoboda, N. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet - Organisations- und Informationstechnik; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1999-04-01

    Purpose: Providing medical reports on wards and ambulatory settings in electronic form can improve the quality of health care delivery. Radiology was chosen as an example to demonstrate how to implement uniform access to clinical data in a hospital. Method: Medical professionals at the university hospital in Munich, Grosshadern, have access to all radiological reports of their patients. Web browsers are used as a front end. A centralized administration of users and patients is in place. Results: Centralized access control and patient selection guarantee uniform access to all applicable data via intranet and controls access rights. The high acceptance of this service is reflected by the high number of 150 requests per day. Discussion: Access to radiological reports within the Grosshadern University Clinics was enabled via web browsers in a short time. The high acceptance of the system also proves its easy use. Integration of the system in a centralized user and patient identification system supports the unified access to clinical data. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Durch die elektronische Bereitstellung von klinischen Befunden auf Stationen und in Ambulanzen kann die Versorgungsqualitaet verbessert werden. Am Beispiel der Radiologie soll gezeigt werden, wie ein einheitlicher Zugriff auf klinische Daten in einem Krankenhaus realisiert werden kann. Methode: Ueber Intranet wird den Aerzten und dem Pflegepersonal im Klinikum Grosshadern der Zugriff auf alle radiologischen Voruntersuchungen ihrer Patienten ermoeglicht. Web-Browser werden dabei als Benutzerinterface benutzt. Eine zentrale Benutzer- und Patientenverwaltung wird eingesetzt. Resultate: Die zentrale Zugangskontrolle und Patientenauswahl sorgen fuer einen einheitlichen Zugriff auf alle verfuegbare Daten ueber das Intranet und regelt die Zugriffsrechte. Der Dienst wird mit durchschnittlich 150 Abfragen pro Tag im Klinikum gut angenommen. Diskussion: Durch den Einsatz der Internet-Technologie konnte die

  16. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies on agglomeration phenomena of ultrathin Au/Fe bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiko, Masao; Koo, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Min; Ha, Jae-Geun [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The agglomeration phenomena of a few nanometer thick Au/Fe bilayers, grown on an MgO(100) substrate, were studied by using atomic force microscopy and x ray diffraction (XRD). The authors found that the insertion of an Fe ultrathin layer between an MgO(100) substrate and a 4 nm thick Au layer promotes the agglomeration process of the Au layer, in which the bilayer structure changes into large Fe/Au islands of {approx}200 nm in diameter. In addition, XRD results revealed that the Au in the agglomerated islands has only a (111)-crystallographic orientation, presumably caused by reducing the large surface energy of Au on the MgO(001) substrate. These findings are quite different from cases in which structural stabilization is achieved by inserting an Fe seeding layer of a few nanometers on an MgO(001) substrate.

  17. Fe3O4/Au/Fe3O4 nanoflowers exhibiting tunable saturation magnetization and enhanced bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Wenli; Shi, Feng; Yan, Kunping; Peng, Mingli; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Yanling; Chen, Xuemei; Roy, V A L; Cui, Yali; Wang, Zuankai

    2012-02-07

    Composite nanoparticles have proved to be promising in a wide range of biotechnological applications. In this paper, we report on a facile method to synthesize novel Fe(3)O(4)/Au/Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (nanoflowers) that integrate hybrid components and surface types. We demonstrate that relative to conventional nanoparticles with core/shell configuration, such nanoflowers not only retain their surface plasmon property but also allow for 170% increase in the saturation magnetization and 23% increase in the conjugation efficiency due to the synergistic co-operation between the hierarchical structures. Moreover, we demonstrate that the magnetic properties of such composite nanoparticles can be tuned by controlling the size of additional petals (Fe(3)O(4) phase). These novel building blocks could open up novel and exciting vistas in nanomedicine for broad applications such as biosensing, cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, targeted delivery, and imaging. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. Fe3O4/Au/Fe3O4 nanoflowers exhibiting tunable saturation magnetization and enhanced bioconjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Wenli; Shi, Feng; Yan, Kunping; Peng, Mingli; Cheng, Xiao; Luo, Yanling; Chen, Xuemei; Roy, V. A. L.; Cui, Yali; Wang, Zuankai

    2012-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles have proved to be promising in a wide range of biotechnological applications. In this paper, we report on a facile method to synthesize novel Fe3O4/Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles (nanoflowers) that integrate hybrid components and surface types. We demonstrate that relative to conventional nanoparticles with core/shell configuration, such nanoflowers not only retain their surface plasmon property but also allow for 170% increase in the saturation magnetization and 23% increase in the conjugation efficiency due to the synergistic co-operation between the hierarchical structures. Moreover, we demonstrate that the magnetic properties of such composite nanoparticles can be tuned by controlling the size of additional petals (Fe3O4 phase). These novel building blocks could open up novel and exciting vistas in nanomedicine for broad applications such as biosensing, cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, targeted delivery, and imaging.

  19. Il «borghese gentiluomo» mette in scena il mito greco: «Ariadne auf Naxos»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Rovagnati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ariadne auf Naxos (Arianna a Nasso combina una tragedia mitica con la commedia di Molière Le bourgeois gentilhomme attraverso la tecnica del “teatro nel teatro”. Questo studio illustra la difficile gestazione del libretto nelle sue due versioni (del 1912 e del 1916, un testo dalla doppia prospettiva che riprende a sua volta forme miste di teatro quali il masque e la comédie-ballet. Basandosi su alcune citazioni tratte da due dei nove volumi dei Diari del conte Harry Kessler, pubblicati rispettivamente nel 2005 e 2006, Rovagnati aggiunge diversi dettagli alle fonti già note dell’opera, come per esempio il balletto Les Lucioles di Claude Terasse.

  20. Long-term performance of ETICS on external walls of large-panel buildings; Dauerbestaendigkeit von WDVS auf Plattenbau - Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuschel, M. [Materialforschungs- und Pruefungsanstalt fuer Bauwesen Leipzig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Urgently required renovation work on external walls of large panel buildings makes novel demands on thermal insulation composites. In the quest for a practice-oriented test method, a pilot project was carried out. Separate parts of a completely renovated housefront were covered with different thermal insulation composites in a way permitting to carry out investigations for a period of several years. The test methods used and the installed thermal insulation composites are described. The results are pointed out. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die dringend erforderlichen Fassadeninstandsetzungen von Plattenbauten stellen an Waermedaemmverbundsysteme neue Anforderungen. Auf der Suche nach einer praxisgerechten Pruefmethode wurde ein Demopruefstand errichtet, der es ermoeglicht im Rahmen einer Komplettsanierung einen separaten Fassadenbereich mit unterschiedlichen Waermedaemmverbundsystemen so zu bekleiden, dass Untersuchungen ueber mehrere Jahre durchgefuehrt werden koennen. Im Folgenden werden die angewendeten Pruefmethoden und die installierten WDV-Systeme erlaeutert. Die einzelnen Ergebnisse werden aufgezeigt.

  1. Electromagnetic fields from the environment, or EMC for man. On the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on man; EMVU, die EMV fuer den Menschen, ueber die Wirkungen elektrischer, magnetischer und elektromagnetischer Felder auf den Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, E. [Univ. Witten/Herdecke, Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie, Witten (Germany); Reissenweber, J. [Univ. Witten/Herdecke, Inst. fuer Normale und Pathologische Physiologie, Witten (Germany); Peier, D. [Univ. Dortmund, Inst. fuer Hochspannungstechnik (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The increasing use of electrotechnical equipment causes enhanced exposure of the environment to electromagnetic fields. The impact of such fields on biological systems and on man is difficult to assess because of its complexity. In the first part the article gives an overview of the effect of electromagnetic fields on melatonin production in man, dealing specifically with the importance of melatonin for the night-and-day rhythm, sleep, the immune system, as a hormone antagonist, and for the development and growth of tumors. In a second part the authors discuss possible effects on electronic implants, especially cardiac pacemakers. (MG) [Deutsch] Die zunehmende Nutzung elektrotechnischer Einrichtungen fuehrt dazu, dass die Umwelt in steigendem Mass elektromagnetischen Feldern ausgesetzt ist. Die Ermittlung der Auswirkungen dieser Felder auf biologische System und auf den Menschen erweist sich aufgrund ihrer Komplexitaet als schwierig. In einem ersten Teil gibt der Artikel einen Ueberblick ueber die Auswirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder auf die Melatoninproduktion beim Menschen, wobei naeher auf die Bedeutung des Melatonins beim Tag-Nacht-Rhythmus, dem Schlaf, auf das Immunsystem, als Hormonantagonist und bei Tumorentstehung und -wachstum diskutiert werden. In einem zweiten Teil diskutieren die Autoren moegliche Auswirkungen auf elektronische Implantate, v.a. auf Herzschrittmacher. (orig.)

  2. On new paths. Hitchhiker's guide through beryllium chemistry; Auf neuen Pfaden. Per Anhalter durch die Berylliumchemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naglav, Dominik; Bendt, Georg; Schulz, Stephan [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Chemie; Buchner, Magnus R.; Kraus, Florian [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Anorganische Chemie, Fluorchemie

    2016-08-26

    This short essay is intended as an introduction to all less experienced people in the field of beryllium chemistry. Current research findings on the toxicity of the element and its compounds are reviewed and various basic and necessary orientation aids for safe and correct handling in modern chemical research laboratories are presented. Phenomenological observations concerning the uniqueness of the element and its chemistry are communicated and placed in the historical context. We summarize many contributions and experiences of passionate scientists in this field. It is a matter of heart for us that our fellow students critically question and rethink the reservations about beryllium and their connections built up over generations, thus initiating a new era of intensive research into this scorned element. Who in the world should be able to manage beryllium and its connections more safely and more expertly than we do chemists? [German] Dieser Kurzaufsatz soll eine Einfuehrung fuer alle weniger Erfahrenen auf dem Gebiet der Berylliumchemie darstellen. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse ueber die Giftigkeit des Elements und seiner Verbindungen werden rezensiert und diverse grundlegende und noetige Orientierungshilfen fuer die sichere und richtige Handhabung in modernen chemischen Forschungslaboren vorgestellt. Phaenomenologische Beobachtungen bezueglich der Einzigartigkeit des Elements und seiner Chemie werden mitgeteilt und in den historischen Kontext gestellt. Wir fassen viele Beitraege und Erfahrungen von auf diesem Gebiet leidenschaftlich taetigen Wissenschaftlern zusammen. Es ist uns ein Herzensanliegen, dass unsere Kommilitonen die ueber Generationen aufgebauten Vorbehalte gegenueber Beryllium und seinen Verbindungen kritisch hinterfragen und ueberdenken und so eine neue Aera intensiver Forschung zu diesem verschmaehten Element eingeleitet wird. Wer in aller Welt soll denn das Beryllium und seine Verbindungen sicherer und fachkundiger handhaben koennen als wir

  3. Effects of modified UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems; Auswirkungen veraenderter UV-B-Strahlung auf terrestrische Oekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tevini, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Botanisches Inst. 2

    1994-10-01

    The author describes the effects of anthropogenically modified UV-B radiation on plants and aquatic ecosystems. The modified radiation may cause reduced growth of leaves and shoots, partial reduction of the photosynthesis activity, and reduced biomass production (i.e. a loss of yield). Although the UV damage may be compensated to a certain degree by a synthesis of protective pigments (cinnamonic acids and flavonoids) or by UV repair mechanisms via the enyzme photolyase, the upper limit of this adapability seems to have already been reached. One frequently observed effect of the increase in UV radiation in aquatic systems is the loss of phytoplancton biomass by 6 - 10%.Since phytoplancton is the basis of the marine food chain, this may have long-term effects on the number and distribution of species and on fish protein for the human diet. Further, the loss of biomass causes a reduction of carbon dioxide fixation, which may have consequences for the global carbon cycle. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Autor beschreibt die Auswirkungen anthropogen veraenderter UV-B-Strahlung auf Pflanzen und aquatische Oekosysteme. Durch die veraenderte Strahlung kann es zu vermindertem Blatt- und Sprosswachstum, zur partiellen Reduktion der Photosyntheseaktivitaet und zu verringerter Biomasseproduktion, d.h. zu einem Ertragsverlust kommen. Die UV-Schaedigung kann zwar durch die Synthese von Schutzpigmenten (Zimtsaeuren und Flavonoide) oder durch UV-Reparaturmechanismen ueber das Enzym Photolyase in gewissem Masse kompensiert werden, die obere Grenze dieser Adaptationsfaehigkeit scheint aber bereits erreicht zu sein. Ein beobachteter Effekt des UV-Strahlungsanstiegs in aquatischen Systemen ist der Verlust der Phytoplankton-Biomasse um 6% - 10%. Da das Phytoplankton die Grundlage der marinen Nahrungskette bildet, sind Rueckwirkungen auf die Artenzusammensetzung und die menschliche Ernaehrung mit Fischprotein moeglich. Weiterhin fuehrt der Verlust an Biomasse zu einer Reduzierung der

  4. NMR data visualization, processing, and analysis on mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobas, Carlos; Iglesias, Isaac; Seoane, Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Touch-screen computers are emerging as a popular platform for many applications, including those in chemistry and analytical sciences. In this work, we present our implementation of a new NMR 'app' designed for hand-held and portable touch-controlled devices, such as smartphones and tablets. It features a flexible architecture formed by a powerful NMR processing and analysis kernel and an intuitive user interface that makes full use of the smart devices haptic capabilities. Routine 1D and 2D NMR spectra acquired in most NMR instruments can be processed in a fully unattended way. More advanced experiments such as non-uniform sampled NMR spectra are also supported through a very efficient parallelized Modified Iterative Soft Thresholding algorithm. Specific technical development features as well as the overall feasibility of using NMR software apps will also be discussed. All aspects considered the functionalities of the app allowing it to work as a stand-alone tool or as a 'companion' to more advanced desktop applications such as Mnova NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Determination of surface relaxivity from NMR diffusion measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slijkerman, W F; Hofman, J P

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T2-decay measurements are usually interpreted in terms of pore-size distributions. The T2 relaxation time of a water-wet pore is proportional to the size of the pore via surface relaxivity. Quantitative knowledge of the surface relaxivity is important when T2 spectra are to be used for further use such as NMR derived capillary curves. In this study, we demonstrate that surface relaxivity can be directly determined from NMR measurements. Diffusion of hydrogen spins is restricted by the pore size and this effect is independent of surface relaxivity. Hence, surface relaxivity can be determined by combining restricted diffusion and T2-relaxation. The latter two effects are measured simultaneously in a NMR T2 decay measurement performed in a static magnetic field gradient. This method generalises existing ones for uniform pore systems to full pore-size distributions of realistic rocks. We have performed laboratory NMR diffusion measurements on a number of sandstone core plugs. The surface relaxivities found from these data are compared to those obtained from other methods. This method of measuring surface relaxivity can in principle be applied to NMR data obtained in boreholes which leads to a new application of NMR logging in the characterisation of oil and gas reservoirs.

  6. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory.

  7. Solid-state 73Ge NMR spectroscopy of simple organogermanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Margaret A; Sutrisno, Andre; Terskikh, Victor V; Baines, Kim M; Huang, Yining

    2012-10-22

    Germanium-73 is an extremely challenging nucleus to examine by NMR spectroscopy due to its unfavorable NMR properties. Through the use of an ultrahigh (21.1 T) magnetic field, a systematic study of a series of simple organogermanes was carried out. In those cases for which X-ray structural data were available, correlations were drawn between the NMR parameters and structural metrics. These data were combined with DFT calculations to obtain insight into the structures of several compounds with unknown crystal structures. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nanoscale NMR and NQR with Nitrogen Vacancy Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Elana; Lovchinsky, Igor; Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier; Choi, Soonwon; Bylinskii, Alexei; Dwyer, Bo; Andersen, Trond; Sushkov, Alex; Park, Hongkun; Lukin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a powerful tool which is used to detect quadrupolar interaction in nuclear spins with I > 1/2. Conventional NQR and NMR technology, however, rely on measuring magnetic fields from a macroscopic number of spins. Extending NMR and NQR techniques to the nanoscale could allow us to learn structural information about interesting materials and biomolecules. We present recent progress on using Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to perform room temperature nanoscale NMR and NQR spectroscopy on small numbers of nuclear spins in hexagonal boron nitride.

  9. NMR study of the gelation of a designed gelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Torsten; Nolis, Pau; Richter, Sven; Berger, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    The gelation of a designed gelator was investigated by different NMR methods, which showed a clear thermal hysteresis. Two very simple approaches for the NMR determination of the gelation point are suggested. One involves the observation of the NMR integral, and the other records the ratio of the diffusion coefficients between the gelator and the solvent. Differential behavior of the gelator protons are interpreted as a hint that a part of the gelator molecule might still be flexible as in the dissolved state. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  10. NMR contributions to structural dynamics studies of intrinsically disordered proteins☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are characterized by substantial conformational plasticity. Given their inherent structural flexibility X-ray crystallography is not applicable to study these proteins. In contrast, NMR spectroscopy offers unique opportunities for structural and dynamic studies of IDPs. The past two decades have witnessed significant development of NMR spectroscopy that couples advances in spin physics and chemistry with a broad range of applications. This article will summarize key advances in basic physical-chemistry and NMR methodology, outline their limitations and envision future R&D directions. PMID:24656082

  11. Room temperature chiral discrimination in paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Soncini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A recently proposed theory of chiral discrimination in NMR spectroscopy based on the detection of a molecular electric polarization $\\mathbf{P}$ rotating in a plane perpendicular to the NMR magnetic field [A. D. Buckingham, J. Chem. Phys. $\\mathbf{140}$, 011103 (2014)], is here generalized to paramagnetic systems. Our theory predicts new contributions to $\\mathbf{P}$, varying as the square of the inverse temperature. Ab initio calculations for ten Dy$^{3+}$ complexes, at 293K, show that in strongly anisotropic paramagnetic molecules $\\mathbf{P}$ can be more than 1000 times larger than in diamagnetic molecules, making paramagnetic NMR chiral discrimination amenable to room temperature detection.

  12. Characterisation of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) conformers using LC-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroune, Nicolas; Crowson, Andrew; Campbell, Bill

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies [1,2] have reported the existence of two conformers of TATP. This study demonstrates the ability of LC-NMR to separate and characterise the individual conformers. The NMR data is consistent with the proposed structures for the two conformers. Re-equilibration can be followed by NMR and the kinetics of the process studied. Over the past decade the use of the explosive TATP in terrorist devices has increased. Therefore, the ability to analyse and characterise this material has assumed greater importance. Copyright © 2010 Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  13. NMR Studies of Protein Structure and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis describes applications of 2D homonuclear NMR techniques to the study of protein structure and dynamics in solution. The sequential assignments for the 3G-residue bovine Pancreatic Polypeptide (bPP) are reported. The secondary and tertiary structure of bPP in solution has been determined from experimental NMR data. bPP has a well defined C-terminal alpha-helix and a rather ordered conformation in the N-terminal region. The two segments are joined by a turn which is poorly defined. Both the N- and the C-terminus are highly disordered. The mean solution structure of bPP is remarkably similar to the crystal structure of avian Pancreatic Polypeptide (aPP). The average conformations of most side-chains from the alpha-helix of bPP in solution are closely similar to those of aPP in the crystalline state. A large number of side-chains of bPP, however, show significant conformational averaging in solution. The 89-residue kringle domain of urokinase from both human and recombinant sources has been investigated. Sequential assignments based primarily on the recombinant sample and the determination of secondary structure are presented. Two helices have been identified; one of these corresponds to that reported for t-PA kringle 2, but does not exist in other kringles with known structures. The second helix is thus far unique to the urokinase kringle. Three antiparallel beta-sheets and three tight turns have also been identified. The tertiary fold of the molecule conforms broadly to that found for other kringles. Three regions in the urokinase kringle exhibit high local mobility; one of these, the Pro56-Pro62 segment, forms part of the proposed binding site. The other two mobile regions are the N- and C-termini which are likely to form the interfaces between the kringle and the other two domains (EGF and protease) in urokinase. The differential dynamic behaviours of the kringle and

  14. Dilute Bicellar Solutions for Structural NMR Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struppe, Jochem; Vold, Regitze R.

    1998-12-01

    Deuterium NMR spectroscopy has been employed to characterize the concentration dependence of orientational order in DMPC/DHPC bicellar solutions with molar ratiosq= [DMPC]/[DHPC] = 3.3, 2.7, and 2.3. The stability of a discotic nematic phase can, in general, be predicted from a simple Onsager picture involving the size and concentration of the mesogenic unit, but for the bicellar solutions this model is not adequate. Specifically, macroscopic alignment is observed at total lipid concentrations well below that, 1-10% (w/w) predicted by Onsager's model. Thus the discotic nematic phase is stable to ≈3-5% (w/w) forq= 3.3-2.3, and the bicellar order is highest just before phase separation occurs at the minimum total phospholipid concentration. This implies the presence of a DHPCbic⇄ DHPCsolequilibrium in establishing bicellar size, thereby extending the range of concentrations for which alignment occurs. Bicellar morphology has been verified for a wide range of concentrations, temperatures, andq-values, but as viscosity measurements demonstrate, major morphological changes take place as the temperature is reduced below 30°C.

  15. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  16. Cell signaling, post-translational protein modifications and NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theillet, Francois-Xavier [In-cell NMR Group, Department of NMR-Supported Structural Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin) (Germany); Smet-Nocca, Caroline [Universite Lille Nord de France, CNRS UMR 8576 (France); Liokatis, Stamatios; Thongwichian, Rossukon; Kosten, Jonas [In-cell NMR Group, Department of NMR-Supported Structural Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin) (Germany); Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Kriwacki, Richard W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Structural Biology (United States); Landrieu, Isabelle; Lippens, Guy [Universite Lille Nord de France, CNRS UMR 8576 (France); Selenko, Philipp, E-mail: selenko@fmp-berlin.de [In-cell NMR Group, Department of NMR-Supported Structural Biology, Leibniz Institute of Molecular Pharmacology (FMP Berlin) (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Post-translationally modified proteins make up the majority of the proteome and establish, to a large part, the impressive level of functional diversity in higher, multi-cellular organisms. Most eukaryotic post-translational protein modifications (PTMs) denote reversible, covalent additions of small chemical entities such as phosphate-, acyl-, alkyl- and glycosyl-groups onto selected subsets of modifiable amino acids. In turn, these modifications induce highly specific changes in the chemical environments of individual protein residues, which are readily detected by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. In the following, we provide a concise compendium of NMR characteristics of the main types of eukaryotic PTMs: serine, threonine, tyrosine and histidine phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, lysine and arginine methylation, and serine, threonine O-glycosylation. We further delineate the previously uncharacterized NMR properties of lysine propionylation, butyrylation, succinylation, malonylation and crotonylation, which, altogether, define an initial reference frame for comprehensive PTM studies by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Interfaces in polymer nanocomposites – An NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhme, Ute; Scheler, Ulrich, E-mail: scheler@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is applied for the investigation of polymer nanocomposites. Solid-state NMR is applied to study the modification steps to compatibilize layered double hydroxides with non-polar polymers. {sup 1}H relaxation NMR gives insight on the polymer dynamics over a wide range of correlation times. For the polymer chain dynamics the transverse relaxation time T{sub 2} is most suited. In this presentation we report on two applications of T{sub 2} measurements under external mechanical stress. In a low-field system relaxation NMR studies are performed in-situ under uniaxial stress. High-temperature experiments in a Couette cell permit the investigation of the polymer dynamics in the melt under shear flow.

  18. A covariance NMR toolbox for MATLAB and OCTAVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Timothy; Alzapiedi, Leigh; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Snyder, David

    2011-03-01

    The Covariance NMR Toolbox is a new software suite that provides a streamlined implementation of covariance-based analysis of multi-dimensional NMR data. The Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the MATLAB or, alternatively, the freely available GNU OCTAVE computer language, providing a user-friendly environment in which to apply and explore covariance techniques. Covariance methods implemented in the toolbox described here include direct and indirect covariance processing, 4D covariance, generalized indirect covariance (GIC), and Z-matrix transform. In order to provide compatibility with a wide variety of spectrometer and spectral analysis platforms, the Covariance NMR Toolbox uses the NMRPipe format for both input and output files. Additionally, datasets small enough to fit in memory are stored as arrays that can be displayed and further manipulated in a versatile manner within MATLAB or OCTAVE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural, vibrational, NMR, quantum chemical, DNA binding and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -one oxime (HL¹) and 3-(pyridin-2-ylmethylimino)-pentan-2-one oxime (HL²) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR techniques. The conformational behavior was investigated using the density functional ...

  20. NMR with Combined Antiangiogenic and Radiation Therapies - Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The original goal of the present study was to determine optimal strategies for combining radiation and antiangiogenic therapies in spontaneous murine tumors and to evaluate the potential of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR...

  1. NMR study of hydrogen in cathodically charged Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizman, A.; Barak, J.; Zamir, D. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center); Eliezer, D. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1983-11-01

    An NMR signal of protons in cathodically charged Inconel 718 has been detected. T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, line shift and line width have been measured. Conclusions about hydrogen behavior in Inconel have been drawn.

  2. Optical analogue of 2D heteronuclear double-quantum NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Heteronuclear multi-quantum spectroscopy is a powerful part of the NMR toolbox, commonly used to identify specific sequences of atoms in complex pulse sequences designed to determine the structure of complex molecules, including proteins. Optical coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is analogous to multidimensional NMR and many of the techniques of NMR have been adapted for application in the optical regime. This has been highly successful, with CMDS being used to understand energy transfer in photosynthesis and many body effects in semiconductor nanostructures amongst many other scientific breakthroughs. Experimental challenges have, however, prevented the translation of heteronuclear multi-quantum NMR to the optical regime, where capabilities to isolate signals in otherwise congested spectra, reduce acquisition times and enable more incisive probes of multi-particle correlations and complex electronic systems would have great benefit. Here we utilise a diffraction based pulseshaper to impose the tw...

  3. International NMR-based Environmental Metabolomics Intercomparison Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several fundamental requirements must be met so that NMR-based metabolomics and the related technique of metabonomics can be formally adopted into environmental monitoring and chemical risk assessment. Here we report an intercomparison exercise which has evaluated the effectivene...

  4. NMR methods for the investigation of structure and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Edme H. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

    2012-07-01

    Extensive derivations of required fundamental relations for readers with engineering background New applications based on MRI, PGSE-NMR, and low-field NMR New concepts in quantitative data evaluation and image analysis Methods of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are increasingly applied in engineering sciences. The book summarizes research in the field of chemical and process engineering performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Fundamentals of the methods are exposed for readers with an engineering background. Applications cover the fields of mechanical process engineering (filtration, solid-liquid separation, powder mixing, rheometry), chemical process engineering (trickle-bed reactor, ceramic sponges), bioprocess engineering (biofilm growth), and food process engineering (microwave heating, emulsions). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as well as low-field NMR are covered with notes on hardware. Emphasis is placed on quantitative data analysis and image processing. (orig.)

  5. Noninvasive detection of nanoparticle clustering by water proton NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taraban, Marc B.; Truong, Huy C.; Ilavsky, Jan; DePaz, Roberto A.; Lobo, Brian; Yu, Y. Bruce

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that water proton NMR can detect uncontrolled clustering of inert nanoparticles (NPs) formulated as aqueous suspensions. The clustering of NPs causes the compartmentalization of water molecules, leading to accelerated proton spin de-coherence, and hence, much faster water transverse relaxation rates. The results suggest that water proton NMR can be used to noninvasively inspect NP products by commercial end users and researchers.

  6. Flow units from integrated WFT and NMR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasap, E.; Altunbay, M.; Georgi, D.

    1997-08-01

    Reliable and continuous permeability profiles are vital as both hard and soft data required for delineating reservoir architecture. They can improve the vertical resolution of seismic data, well-to-well stratigraphic correlations, and kriging between the well locations. In conditional simulations, permeability profiles are imposed as the conditioning data. Variograms, covariance functions and other geostatistical indicators are more reliable when based on good quality permeability data. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging and Wireline Formation Tests (WFT) separately generate a wealth of information, and their synthesis extends the value of this information further by providing continuous and accurate permeability profiles without increasing the cost. NMR and WFT data present a unique combination because WFTs provide discrete, in situ permeability based on fluid-flow, whilst NMR responds to the fluids in the pore space and yields effective porosity, pore-size distribution, bound and moveable fluid saturations, and permeability. The NMR permeability is derived from the T{sub 2}-distribution data. Several equations have been proposed to transform T{sub 2} data to permeability. Regardless of the transform model used, the NMR-derived permeabilities depend on interpretation parameters that may be rock specific. The objective of this study is to integrate WFT permeabilities with NMR-derived, T{sub 2} distribution-based permeabilities and thereby arrive at core quality, continuously measured permeability profiles. We outlined the procedures to integrate NMR and WFT data and applied the procedure to a field case. Finally, this study advocates the use of hydraulic unit concepts to extend the WFT-NMR derived, core quality permeabilities to uncored intervals or uncored wells.

  7. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  8. Multidimensional NMR Inversion without Kronecker Products: Multilinear Inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Medellín, David; Ravi, Vivek R.; Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional NMR inversion using Kronecker products poses several challenges. First, kernel compression is only possible when the kernel matrices are separable, and in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in NMR sequences with non-separable kernels. Second, in three or more dimensions, the singular value decomposition is not unique; therefore kernel compression is not well-defined for higher dimensions. Without kernel compression, the Kronecker product yields matrices that ...

  9. Influencing parameters of water and methanol transport in a big direct methanol fuel cell; Einflussgroessen auf den Wasser- und Methanoltransport einer groesseren Direkt-Methanol Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonert, Morten

    2008-07-01

    . There was no effect of cathode water on the cell voltage. However, the influence of different catalysts could be clearly identified and is a major influencing factor of MEA performance. The stability of the cell voltage, on the other hand, is strongly dependent on the flow distribution structure. For example, with a single meander operation at the low air volume flows required for water autonomy is possible. Methanol permeation can be influenced and minimized via the methanol concentration on the anode as a function of current density. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die Einflussgroessen auf den Wasser- und Methanoltransport einer groesseren Direkt-Methanol Brennstoffzelle (Pel > 1 kW) untersucht. Hintergrund ist ein angestrebter wasserautarker Betrieb eines Direkt-Methanol Brennstoffzellensystems. Da bei der elektrochemischen Reaktion auf der Anode Wasser verbraucht wird und auf der Kathode dabei mehr Wasser entsteht, muss diese Differenz ueber die Luft ausgetragen werden. Alles weiter auf der Kathode anfallende Wasser muss kondensiert und der Anode zurueckgefuehrt werden. Mit zunehmender Umgebungstemperatur muss dabei der Luftvolumenstrom reduziert werden, da ansonsten mehr Wasser als erlaubt ausgetragen wuerde. Des Weiteren fuehren niedrigere Luftvolumenstroeme auf der Kathode zu einer instabilen Zellspannung, was auch einem uebermaessigen Anfall von Wasser zugeschrieben wird. Es ist daher von der Seite der Systemtechnik gewollt, die Menge des auf der Kathode anfallenden Wassers zu reduzieren. Es zeigte sich, dass die Wasserpermeation durch die Membran-Elektroden-Einheit (MEA) bei den fuer das Erreichen der Wasserautarkie notwendigen geringen Luftvolumenstroemen vorrangig von der Aufnahmekapazitaet und der Verweilzeit der Luft ueber der Kathode abhaengig ist und weniger von der Art des auf der Kathode verwendeten Materials. Die Wasserpermeation kommt bei einem Ausgleich des Konzentrationsgradienten zum Stillstand. Neben der Wasserpermeation kommt

  10. Emotionale Framing-Effekte auf Einstellungen: eine theoretische Modellierung und empirische Überprüfung der Wirkungsmechanismen [Emotional framing effects on attitudes: a theoretical model and empirical investigation of the underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühne, R.

    2015-01-01

    Der wirkungsorientierte Framing-Ansatz fokussierte traditionell kognitive Effekte der Medienberichterstattung auf die Einstellungen von Rezipientinnen und Rezipienten. Aktuelle Befunde zeigen allerdings, dass in Rezeptions- und Meinungsbildungsprozessen auch Emotionen eine bedeutende Rolle spielen.

  11. La nascita dell’autore e la resurrezione letteraria dei morti “Die Toten auf der Insel Djal. Eine Sage aus dem Holländischen nacherzählt von Antje Seghers”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paola Gheri

    2016-01-01

    ... “Die Toten auf der Insel Djal. Eine Sage nacherzahlt von Antje Seghers”, which was published anonymously in 1924, the issue of authorship proves to be one of the most important in Seghers’ poetics...

  12. Ethical calculus: the cross-cultural dilemmas and moral burdens of Fatih Akin's 'The Edge of Heaven' [Review of: F. Akin Auf der anderen Seite = The edge of heaven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fatih Akin's 2007 film "Auf der anderen Seite" ("The Edge of Heaven" is discussed, focusing on the plot, the themes, the cross-cultural and moral dilemmas within it, and its context within Akin's other movies.

  13. Method development in quantitative NMR towards metrologically traceable organic certified reference materials used as (31)P qNMR standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael; Hellriegel, Christine; Rueck, Alexander; Wuethrich, Juerg; Jenks, Peter; Obkircher, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is employed by an increasing number of analytical and industrial laboratories for the assignment of content and quantitative determination of impurities. Within the last few years, it was demonstrated that (1)H qNMR can be performed with high accuracy leading to measurement uncertainties below 1 % relative. It was even demonstrated that the combination of (1)H qNMR with metrological weighing can lead to measurement uncertainties below 0.1 % when highly pure substances are used. Although qNMR reference standards are already available as certified reference materials (CRM) providing traceability on the basis of (1)H qNMR experiments, there is an increasing demand for purity assays on phosphorylated organic compounds and metabolites requiring CRM for quantification by (31)P qNMR. Unfortunately, the number of available primary phosphorus standards is limited to a few inorganic CRM which only can be used for the analysis of water-soluble analytes but fail when organic solvents must be employed. This paper presents the concept of value assignment by (31)P qNMR measurements for the development of CRM and describes different approaches to establish traceability to primary Standard Reference Material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST SRM). Phosphonoacetic acid is analyzed as a water-soluble CRM candidate, whereas triphenyl phosphate is a good candidate for the use as qNMR reference material in organic solvents. These substances contain both nuclei, (1)H and (31)P, and the concept is to show that it is possible to indirectly quantify a potential phosphorus standard via its protons using (1)H qNMR. The same standard with its assigned purity can then be used for the quantification of an analyte via its phosphorus using (31)P qNMR. For the validation of the concept, triphenyl phosphate and phosphonoacetic acid have been used as (31)P qNMR standards to determine the purity of the analyte

  14. Proton NMR relaxation in hydrous melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Bacarella, A.L.; Benjamin, B.M.; Brown, L.L.; Girard, C.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse and continuous wave NMR measurements are reported for protons in hydrous melts of calcium nitrate at temperatures between -4 and 120/sup 0/C. Although measured in different temperature ranges, spin-lattice (T/sub 1/) and spin-spin (T/sub 2/) relaxation times appear to be nearly equal to each other and proportional to the self-diffusion coefficients of solute metal cations such as Cd/sup 2 +/. At temperatures near 50/sup 0/C, mean Arrhenius coefficients ..delta.. H/sub T/sub 1// (kcal/mol) are 7.9, 7.3, and 4.8, respectively, for melts containing 2.8, 4.0, and 8.0 moles of water per mole of calcium nitrate, compared to 4.6 kcal/mol for pure water. Temperature dependence of T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ in Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-2.8 H/sub 2/O between -4 and 120/sup 0/C are non-Arrhenius and can be represented by a Fulcher-type equation with a ''zero mobility temperature'' (T/sub 0/) of 225/sup 0/K, close to the value of T/sub 0/ for solute diffusion, electrical conductance and viscosity. Resolution of the relaxation rates into correlation times for intramolecular (rotational) and intermolecular (translational) diffusional motion is discussed in terms of the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound and more recent models for dipolar relaxation. (auth)

  15. Development of renewable energy 2014/15. Wind power keeps the energy turnaround on course; Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien 2014/15. Windkraft haelt die Energiewende auf Kurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, Frank; Bickel, Peter; Nieder, Thomas [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    An expansion of wind energy use in barely thought possible extent has contributed significantly to the fact that electricity production achieving a significant increase of renewable energy in 2014 and their share in gross electricity consumption could rise to 27.4% in Germany. So the wind ensured that the energy transition could be kept on course, as in the renewable energy in the heating and transport sectors did like in previous years, little. [German] Ein Ausbau der Windenergienutzung in kaum fuer moeglich gehaltenem Ausmass hat wesentlich dazu beigetragen, dass die Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien auch im Jahr 2014 ein deutliches Plus erzielen und ihr Anteil am Bruttostromverbrauch in Deutschland auf 27.4 % steigen konnte. So sorgte die Windkraft dafuer, dass die Energiewende weiter auf Kurs gehalten werden konnte, denn bei den Erneuerbaren im Waerme- und Verkehrssektor tat sich wie schon in den Vorjahren wenig.

  16. Rezension zu: Elisabeth Tuider, Martin Dannecker: Das Recht auf Vielfalt. Aufgaben und Herausforderungen sexueller Bildung. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Felix

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexuelle Bildung ist und war schon immer eine umkämpfte Disziplin der Pädagogik. Dabei ist die aktuelle Erregung um diese als Reaktion auf die fortschreitende Pluralisierung von Lebensentwürfen und die Liberalisierung von Normen und Werten zu verstehen, auf die eine diversitätsbewusste Sexualpädagogik in ihren Konzepten Bezug nimmt, die aber von ultrakonservativen, fundamentalistischen und rechtsradikalen Gruppierungen angegriffen werden. Diese Gemengelage nehmen die Autor_innen zum Anlass, um ausgewählte in der Kritik stehende Inhalte einer sexualfreundlichen Bildung zu besprechen und die Argumentationsmuster der Kritiker_innen zu verdeutlichen. Damit trägt der Band zur (Re-Kontextualisierung und Versachlichung einer hochemotionalen Auseinandersetzung über sexuelle Bildung bei.

  17. Durch Athen auf Frankfurt blicken ‚Austerity Urbanism‘, Uneven Development und Alltäglichkeit – Reflektionen aus zwei Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Wiegand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aufbauend auf den Erfahrungen zweier Workshops zu (urbaner Austerität in Griechenland und Deutschland diskutiert der Beitrag die (unterschiedliche Geschichte und Geographie der Austerität mit besonderem Blick auf die Regionen Frankfurt/Rhein-Main und Athen. Die Erfahrungen der multiplen Krise seit 2008, die sich in Griechenland vor dem Hintergrund einer austeritätspolitischen ‚Shock Doctrine’ und in der BRD im Kontext eines langfristigen Projekts der ‚scheibchenweisen’ Austerität entwickelten, eröffnen dabei die Möglichkeit, die Debatten um urbane Austerität einem kritischen Blick zu unterziehen. Der Beitrag sieht insbesondere im Bereich der Krisen der (urbanen sozialen Reproduktion sowie der Krisen der (städtischen Politik und Repräsentation weiteren Forschungsbedarf.

  18. Monitoring for thorium intakes by means of thoron (RN-220) in breath measurement; Inkorporationsueberwachung auf Thorium mittels RN-220-Exhalationsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmenger, A.; Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin; Brose, J.; Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Thoron (Rn-220) in Breath Measurement is a sensitive method for routine monitoring of inhaled thorium intakes. Decay products of exhaled thoron (Po-216 and Pb-212), emanating from Thorium body burdens, are collected electrostatically and their progeny (esp. Po-212) are measured subsequently by alpha-spectrometry. The method has been optimized in respect to chamber volume, collection head geometry and position, supplied high voltage, breathing rate, humidity and counting time. Actually the method is capable to detect Th-228 in the lungs at a level as high as 3% of an Annual Limit on Intake, corresponding to 6 Bq of inhaled Th-228 (class W), as required by the German radiation protection monitoring guidelines. First measurements at occupationally exposed subjects in germany showed burdens up to 7,4 Bq Thorium in lungs derived from an exhalation rate of 3,7%. The amount of Th-232 results from the ratio of Th-228/Th-232 of the handeled material. Corresponding urine excretion analysis showed similar results. With in-vivo measurements no result above detection limit was found at all. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rn-220 Exhalationsmessungen sind eine sensible Methode zur Routineueberwachung von (inhalativen) Thoriuminkorporationen. Zerfallsprodukte des aus Thoriumkoerperdepots abgeatmeten Rn-220 (Po-216 und Pb-212) werden elektrostatisch gesammelt und deren Folgeprodukte dann alpha-spektrometrisch gemessen (spez. Po-212). Die Methode wurde in bezug auf das Sammelkammervolumen, die Sammelkopfgeometrie und -position, die angelegte Hochspannung, die Atemrate, die Atemfeuchtigkeit und die Messzeit optimiert. Derzeit ist es moeglich, mit dieser Methode 3% einer Jahresaktivitaetszufuhr ueber Inhalation in Bezug auf Th-228, entsprechend 6 Bq (Klasse W), nachzuweisen. Erste Messungen an beruflich Exponierten der Thorium-verarbeitenden Industrie in Deutschland zeigten Ergebnisse von bis 7,4 Bq Th-228 Lungendepots bei einer zugrunde gelegten Abatemrate von 3.7%. Der Th-232 Anteil ergibt sich

  19. Hegemoniale Männlichkeit auf dem historischen Prüfstand Hegemonic Masculinity on the Historical Test Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Berlis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Konzept der „hegemonialen Männlichkeit“ des australischen Soziologen Robert William Connell hat seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre zunächst im englischsprachigen Raum und – mit Erscheinen seines Hauptwerkes Der gemachte Mann. Konstruktion und Krise von Männlichkeiten (1999 in deutscher Übersetzung – ab Ende der neunziger Jahre auch im deutschen Sprachraum erheblichen Einfluss auf die entstehende Männerforschung ausgeübt. Im vorliegenden Buch wird die „konkrete heuristische Verwertbarkeit“ (S. 22 von Connells Konzept für die historische Forschung und die historisch unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen von Männlichkeit untersucht. Der Sammelband ist als interdisziplinärer Beitrag zur Männlichkeitsforschung konzipiert und enthält insgesamt zwölf geschichts-, literatur- und kulturwissenschaftliche Beiträge sowie einen soziologischen Beitrag. Das Ziel, zur begrifflichen Präzisierung innerhalb der Männer- und Geschlechterforschung beizutragen und das Connellsche Konzept auf seine Brauchbarkeit für die historische Forschung auszuloten, wird in vielen Beiträgen des lesenswerten Sammelbandes verwirklicht.Australian sociologist Robert William Connell’s concept of “hegemonic masculinity” has had considerable influence since the mid-eighties on the emerging body of men’s research, first in English-speaking world and then, following the publication of his central text Masculinities in German translation in 1999, also in the German speaking world. The volume at hand probes the “concrete heuristic utility” of Connell’s concept for historical research and examines the historically different developments of masculinities (22. The collected volume is conceived as an interdisciplinary contribution to masculinity research and contains twelve articles combining perspectives from history, literature, and cultural studies as well as one sociological contribution. The goal of this interesting collected volume is to help make the

  20. Noninvasive testing of art and cultural heritage by mobile NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Presciutti, Federica; Anselmi, Chiara; Doherty, Brenda

    2010-06-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has many applications in science, medicine, and technology. Conventional instrumentation is large and expensive, however, because superconducting magnets offer maximum sensitivity. Yet NMR devices can also be small and inexpensive if permanent magnets are used, and samples need not be placed within the magnet but can be examined externally in the stray magnetic field. Mobile stray-field NMR is a method of growing interest for nondestructive testing of a diverse range of materials and processes. A well-known stray-field sensor is the commercially available NMR-MOUSE, which is small and can readily be carried to an object to be studied. In this Account, we describe mobile stray-field NMR, with particular attention to its use in analyzing objects of cultural heritage. The most common data recorded are relaxation measurements of (1)H because the proton is the most sensitive NMR nucleus, and relaxation can be measured despite the inhomogeneous magnetic field that typically accompanies a simple magnet design. Through NMR relaxation, the state of matter can be analyzed locally, and the signal amplitude gives the proton density. A variety of stray-field sensors have been designed. Small devices weighing less than a kilogram have a shallow penetration depth of just a few millimeters and a resolution of a few micrometers. Access to greater depths requires larger sensors that may weigh 30 kg or more. The use of these sensors is illustrated by selected examples, including examinations of (i) the stratigraphy of master paintings, (ii) binder aging, (iii) the deterioration of paper, (iv) wood density in master violins, (v) the moisture content and moisture profiles in walls covered with paintings and mosaics, and (vi) the evolution of stone conservation treatments. The NMR data provide unique information to the conservator on the state of the object--including past conservation measures. The use of mobile NMR remains relatively new, expanding

  1. Analyse nachhaltiger Entwicklungen der Energieversorgung in Deutschland und ihre regionalen Auswirkungen auf Bayern mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Konsequenzen des Kernenergieausstiegs : Endbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Fahl, Ulrich; Remme, Uwe; Blesl, Markus; Voß, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Diese Untersuchung hat zum Ziel, anhand eines Vergleichs verschiedener Szenarien Wege der Entwicklung der zukünftigen Energieversorgung Deutschlands im Hinblick auf ihre Verträglichkeit mit dem Leitbild der „Nachhaltigen Entwicklung“ quantitativ zu untersuchen, um damit für den politischen Diskussionsprozess über die zukünftige Energiepolitik eine belastbare, an wissenschaftlich-systematischen Kriterien orientierte Diskussionsgrundlage zu schaffen. Dabei sollen auch die regionalen Auswirkung...

  2. Development and simulation of a hydrogen production plant on a solar power tower; Entwicklung und Simulation einer Wasserstofferzeugungsanlage auf einem Solarturm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeck, Jan-Peter

    2012-08-29

    The purpose of the present project was to develop and qualify a test plant for thermochemical hydrogen production on a solar power tower and to create and validate a systems and control model as well as an operating strategy for this purpose. [German] Ziel der Arbeit war, eine Testanlage zur thermochemischen Wasserstofferzeugung auf einem Solarturmsystem zu entwickeln und zu qualifizieren, sowie ein System- und Regelungsmodell und eine Betriebsstrategie dafuer zu erstellen und zu validieren.

  3. Die Conjoint-Analyse: eine Einführung in das Verfahren mit einem Ausblick auf mögliche sozialwissenschaftliche Anwendungen

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Markus

    2002-01-01

    'Die Conjoint-Analyse ermöglicht die Dekomposition globaler Präferenzurteile. Sie hatbislang nur in der empirischen Marktforschung größere Verbreitung gefunden. Es wirdeine kurze Einführung in das Verfahren und ein Ausblick auf mögliche Anwendungen inder empirischen Sozialforschung gegeben.' (Autorenreferat) 'Conjoint-Analysis enables the researcher to decompose global preference judgments. It isprimarily used in the field of marketing research. A short introduction to Conjoint-Analysisis ...

  4. p16INK4Ainduces senescence and inhibits EMT through microRNA-141/microRNA-146b-5p-dependent repression of AUF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2017-03-01

    Senescence and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes are under the control of common tumor suppressor proteins, EMT transcription factors, and microRNAs. However, the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the functional link between senescence and EMT are still elusive. We have shown here that p16 INK4A -related induction of senescence is mediated through miR-141 and miR-146b-5p. These two microRNAs are up-regulated in aging human fibroblast and epithelial cells. Furthermore, miR-141 and miR146b-5p trigger cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induce senescence in primary human fibroblasts and breast cancer cells in the presence and absence of p16 INK4A . Like p16 INK4A -induced senescence, miR-141/miR146b-5p-related senescence is not associated with secretory phenotype, and is mediated through the RNA binding protein AUF1. We have further demonstrated that p16 INK4A and its downstream miRNA targets inhibit EMT through suppressing the EMT inducer ZEB1 in an AUF1-dependent manner. Indeed, AUF1 binds the mRNA of this gene leading to increase in its level. These results indicate that p16 INK4A controls both senescence and EMT through repressing EMT-related transcription factor via miR-141/miR146b-5p and their target AUF1. This sheds more light on the molecular basis of the tumor suppressive functions of p16 INK4A , which represses both the proliferative and the migratory/invasive capacities of cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bonsai fires for small incinerators. Flexible incinerators for low throughput; Bonsai-Feuer fuer die Kleinen. Flexible Muellverbrennungstechnik zielt auf geringen Durchsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerres, K.; Paassen, P. [RWE Umwelt Services Deutschland GmbH (Germany); Napp, M. [Roll Inova GmbH (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    RWE Umwelt and von Roll cooperated in constructing small-scale incinerators for a target group comprising about 100 regional utilities. Standardisation and a well-tried technology have kept the cost at an acceptable level. [German] Die Entwickler haben ihre Zielgruppe bereits fest im Auge. Rund 100 Gebietskoerperschaften kommen fuer Zwerg-MVA in Frage, die in Zusammenarbeit aus RWE Umwelt und von Roll entstanden. Standardisierung und Rueckgriff auf bewaehrte Technik machen diese MVA auch finanzierbar. (orig.)

  6. Die Eigenkapitalausstattung der Kapitalgesellschaft. Drei Aufsätze über die Steuerung der Kapitalstruktur und über den Schutz des Gesellschaftskapitals

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiwalsky, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht auf empirischem Wege, wie Kapitalstrukturentscheidungen getroffen werden. Dazu wird zunächst diese Zielkapitalstruktur als eine Funktion von Unternehmenscharakteristika formuliert. Es handelt sich um denjenigen Verschuldungsgrad, bei dem der Saldo zwischen den erwarteten steuerlichen Vorteilen und den erwarteten Insolvenzkosten maximal wird. Der Verlauf der optimalen Lösung in Abhängigkeit von den Unternehmenscharakteristika ist nicht linear. Die entsprechend...

  7. Einfluss verschiedener Spülprotokolle auf den Haftverbund der Sealer Hybrid Root SEAL und ActiV GP zum Wurzelkanaldentin

    OpenAIRE

    Plum, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele Bei Wurzelkanalbehandlungen werden verschiedene endodontische Spüllösungen mit unterschiedlichen Eigenschaften eingesetzt. Die Verbundfestigkeit zwischen der Wurzelfüllung und dem behandelten Wurzelkanaldentin kann durch Spüllösungen beeinflusst werden. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, den Einfluss von vier verschiedenen Spülprotokollen auf die Haftkraft von zwei Wurzelkanalfüllpasten (Sealern) am Kanalwanddentin zu untersuchen. Mittels eines Pull-out-Versuches wird ...

  8. Measuring technology in the Autarkic Hybrid of the TUM based on the CAN-BUS; Messtechnik im Autarken Hybrid der TUM auf Basis des CAN-BUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, R.; Rhenius, K.T. [VDI, Garching (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the partial project B8, equipment of the test vehicle in terms of measuring technology, the SFB 365 (Environmentally friendly drive technology for vehicles) tests have been carried out to show the suitability of serial digital data transfer for the acquisition of measuring data and the Controller Area Network (CAN) was selected as appropriate transfer medium in order to realise communication in a decentral control and to realise the control of all drive system functions based upon distributed control devices. All measuring and control data necessary for the control are transferred to the ''Control-BUS'' (BUS = Binary Unit System). Parallel to the control process the necessary high frequency measuring data are transferred on a second CAN and are recorded together with the data on the Control-BUS. The necessary sensors for the data acquisition were designed and tested within the partial project B8 as far as they were not a direct component of the control system of a partial component in the drive system. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Teilprojektes B8, messtechnische Ausruestung des Versuchsfahrzeuges, des SFB 365 (Umweltfreundliche Antriebstechnik fuer Fahrzeuge) wurden Untersuchungen zur Eignung einer seriell digitalen Datenuebertragung fuer die Messdatenerfassung durchgefuehrt und das Controller Area Network (CAN) als geeignetes Uebertragungsmedium zur Realisierung der Kommunikation in einer dezentralen Steuerung / Regelung aller Antriebsstrangfunktionen auf Basis verteilter Steuergeraete ausgewaehlt. Alle zur Regelung benoetigten Mess- und Statusdaten werden auf dem 'Regel-BUS' (BUS = Binary Unit System) uebertragen. Parallel zur Regelung werden die erforderlichen hochfrequenten Messdaten auf einem zweiten CAN Uebertragen und gemeinsam mit den Daten auf dem Regel-BUS aufgezeichnet. Die erforderliche Sensorik der Datenerfassung wurde, soweit sie nicht direkter Bestandteil der Regelung einer Teilkomponente im

  9. Studien zur Substratspezifität der Linalool Dehydratase-Isomerase mit dem Fokus auf der Dehydratisierung von tertiären Alkoholen

    OpenAIRE

    Geinitz, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Die natürliche Funktion der aus dem Proteobakterium Castellaniella defragrans stammenden Linalool Dehydratase-Isomerase liegt in der Funktionalisierung des Monoterpens Myrcen. Dabei wird im ersten Schritt Myrcen zu Linalool hydratisiert, während im zweiten Schritt die Isomerisierung von Linalool zu Geraniol stattfindet. Im weiteren Verlauf wird Geraniol vermutlich zu Geranial und Geranialsäure weiteroxidiert und kann so über die β-Oxidation abgebaut werden. In dieser Arbeit mit dem Fokus auf ...

  10. Trennung der Eltern: Wie wird sie den Kindern vermittelt und welchen Einfluss haben Art und Inhalt der Mitteilung auf das Trennungserleben der Kinder?

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Annhild; Karle, Michael; Klosinski, Gunther

    2004-01-01

    Anhand von 45 Sorgerechtsgutachten über 89 Kinder aus den Jahren 1996-1999 und 62 schriftlich beantworteten Katamnesebögen der entsprechenden Eltern wurde untersucht, wie die Eltern den Kindern von ihrer bevorstehenden Trennung berichteten und ob Art und Inhalt dieser Mitteilung Auswirkungen auf die Trennungsbewältigung der betroffenen Kinder hatten. Hierzu wurde ein Fragebogen zur Gutachtenauswertung und zur Katamnesenerhebung erstellt. Es zeigte sich, dass nur in 48,9 % der Famil...

  11. Monomere und multimere RGD-Peptide für die integrinvermittelte Zelladhäsion auf Biomaterialien und zur Tumordiagnose

    OpenAIRE

    Hersel, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Durch RGD-Peptide mit oberflächenadhäsiven Ankergruppen lassen sich Biomaterialoberflächen für die integrinvermittelte Zelladhäsion erzeugen. Eine Vielzahl von monomeren und multimeren cyclo-RGD-Peptiden mit verschiedenen Ankergruppen, u. a. für Titan und Calciumphosphat, wurden nach den Methoden der Peptidfestphasensynthese synthetisiert. Mit verzweigten, multimeren RGD-Peptiden und verbesserten Ankergruppen konnte die Adhäsion von Osteoblasten bzw. Chondrocyten auf Titan, Calciumphosphat (H...

  12. Einfluss von Futtermitteln und der Fütterungsstrategie auf die Fischproduktion und die Produktqualität von ökologischen Fischereierzeugnissen

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Reinhard; Benedikt, Frenzl; Schmidt, Gregor; Karl, Horst; Manthey-Karl, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV) finanzierten und von der Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft (BLE) betreuten Projektes wurde der Einfluss von Futtermitteln und der Fütterungsstrategie auf die Fischproduktion und die Produktqualität von ökologischen Fischereierzeugnissen untersucht. Für die Untersuchungen wurden Bachforellen (Salmo trutta fario L.) und Seesaiblinge (Salvelinus alpinus L.) unter den Produktionsbedingungen eines ...

  13. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-07-05

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  14. »Meine Tochter […] soll alles lernen, was die weissen Mädchen lernen…«. »Schwarze« Perspektiven auf Deutschland um 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josch Lampe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel untersucht zwei gegensätzliche »schwarze« Perspektiven auf Deutschland um 1900. Ein Vergleich zwischen dem aus dem ehemaligen Deutsch-Südwestafrika stammenden Friedrich Maharero und dem Togolesen Nayo Bruce zeigt, inwiefern zwei unterschiedliche Standpunkte im kolonialen Kontext nicht nur die Umkehrperspektiven kolonialer Strukturen verdeutlichen, sondern in ihrer Verschiedenheit auch die Komplexität der Thematik darlegen.

  15. Identität der Identität und Differenz von Raum und Zeit bei Schelling mit Blick auf die Relativitäts- und Quantentheorie

    OpenAIRE

    Weh, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In genannter Schrift soll versucht werden, einen aus der Kantschen und Fichteschen Erkenntnistheorie erfolgenden allgemeinen Zusammenhang herzustellen zwischen dem kategorialen Denken hinsichtlich Denken und Anschauen und dem Problem von Raum und Zeit, wie es sich mit der Entwicklung der modernen Physik durch die Relativitäts- und Quantentheorie deutlich aufdrängt. Es wird gezeigt, dass F.W.J. Schelling grundlegende Lösungsansätze hierzu bereitstellt, welche auf dem Gebiet der Logik, der Epis...

  16. Estimating the spatial distribution of acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) and associated risk factors using emergency call data in India. A symptom-based approach for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Pilot, Eva; Rao, Ramana; Gruebner, Oliver; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The System for Early-warning based on Emergency Data (SEED) is a pilot project to evaluate the use of emergency call data with the main complaint acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) for syndromic surveillance in India. While spatio-temporal methods provide signals to detect potential disease outbreaks, additional information about socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk is necessary for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies. The goal of this study is to investigate whether a spatial epidemiological analysis at the ecological level provides information on urban-rural inequalities, socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk for AUF. Our results displayed higher risks in rural areas with strong local variation. Household industries and proximity to forests were the main socio-ecological exposure factors and scheduled tribes were the main population at risk for AUF. These results provide additional information for syndromic surveillance and could be used for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Accurate, fully-automated NMR spectral profiling for metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbakhsh, Siamak; Liu, Philip; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Bjordahl, Trent C; Mandal, Rupasri; Grant, Jason R; Wilson, Michael; Eisner, Roman; Sinelnikov, Igor; Hu, Xiaoyu; Luchinat, Claudio; Greiner, Russell; Wishart, David S

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases cause significant changes to the concentrations of small molecules (a.k.a. metabolites) that appear in a person's biofluids, which means such diseases can often be readily detected from a person's "metabolic profile"-i.e., the list of concentrations of those metabolites. This information can be extracted from a biofluids Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum. However, due to its complexity, NMR spectral profiling has remained manual, resulting in slow, expensive and error-prone procedures that have hindered clinical and industrial adoption of metabolomics via NMR. This paper presents a system, BAYESIL, which can quickly, accurately, and autonomously produce a person's metabolic profile. Given a 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a complex biofluid (specifically serum or cerebrospinal fluid), BAYESIL can automatically determine the metabolic profile. This requires first performing several spectral processing steps, then matching the resulting spectrum against a reference compound library, which contains the "signatures" of each relevant metabolite. BAYESIL views spectral matching as an inference problem within a probabilistic graphical model that rapidly approximates the most probable metabolic profile. Our extensive studies on a diverse set of complex mixtures including real biological samples (serum and CSF), defined mixtures and realistic computer generated spectra; involving > 50 compounds, show that BAYESIL can autonomously find the concentration of NMR-detectable metabolites accurately (~ 90% correct identification and ~ 10% quantification error), in less than 5 minutes on a single CPU. These results demonstrate that BAYESIL is the first fully-automatic publicly-accessible system that provides quantitative NMR spectral profiling effectively-with an accuracy on these biofluids that meets or exceeds the performance of trained experts. We anticipate this tool will usher in high-throughput metabolomics and enable a wealth of new applications of NMR in

  18. Accurate, fully-automated NMR spectral profiling for metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Ravanbakhsh

    Full Text Available Many diseases cause significant changes to the concentrations of small molecules (a.k.a. metabolites that appear in a person's biofluids, which means such diseases can often be readily detected from a person's "metabolic profile"-i.e., the list of concentrations of those metabolites. This information can be extracted from a biofluids Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectrum. However, due to its complexity, NMR spectral profiling has remained manual, resulting in slow, expensive and error-prone procedures that have hindered clinical and industrial adoption of metabolomics via NMR. This paper presents a system, BAYESIL, which can quickly, accurately, and autonomously produce a person's metabolic profile. Given a 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a complex biofluid (specifically serum or cerebrospinal fluid, BAYESIL can automatically determine the metabolic profile. This requires first performing several spectral processing steps, then matching the resulting spectrum against a reference compound library, which contains the "signatures" of each relevant metabolite. BAYESIL views spectral matching as an inference problem within a probabilistic graphical model that rapidly approximates the most probable metabolic profile. Our extensive studies on a diverse set of complex mixtures including real biological samples (serum and CSF, defined mixtures and realistic computer generated spectra; involving > 50 compounds, show that BAYESIL can autonomously find the concentration of NMR-detectable metabolites accurately (~ 90% correct identification and ~ 10% quantification error, in less than 5 minutes on a single CPU. These results demonstrate that BAYESIL is the first fully-automatic publicly-accessible system that provides quantitative NMR spectral profiling effectively-with an accuracy on these biofluids that meets or exceeds the performance of trained experts. We anticipate this tool will usher in high-throughput metabolomics and enable a wealth of new applications of

  19. 1H-NMR, 1H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR in bipolar disorder metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sumit; Pedrini, Mariana; Rizzo, Lucas B; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Mas, Caroline Dal; Cassinelli, Ana Cláudia; Noto, Mariane N; Asevedo, Elson; Cordeiro, Quirino; Pontes, João G M; Brasil, Antonio J M; Lacerda, Acioly; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Poppi, Ronei; Tasic, Ljubica; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify molecular alterations in the human blood serum related to bipolar disorder, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. Metabolomic profiling, employing 1H-NMR, 1H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics of human blood serum samples from patients with bipolar disorder (n = 26) compared with healthy volunteers (n = 50) was performed. The investigated groups presented distinct metabolic profiles, in which the main differential metabolites found in the serum sample of bipolar disorder patients compared with those from controls were lipids, lipid metabolism-related molecules (choline, myo-inositol), and some amino acids (N-acetyl-L-phenyl alanine, N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine). In addition, amygdalin, α-ketoglutaric acid, and lipoamide, among other compounds, were also present or were significantly altered in the serum of bipolar disorder patients. The data presented herein suggest that some of these metabolites differentially distributed between the groups studied may be directly related to the bipolar disorder pathophysiology. The strategy employed here showed significant potential for exploring pathophysiological features and molecular pathways involved in bipolar disorder. Thus, our findings may contribute to pave the way for future studies aiming at identifying important potential biomarkers for bipolar disorder diagnosis or progression follow-up.

  20. Medienkompetenz unter milieutheoretischer Betrachtung. Der Einfluss rezeptionsästhetischer Präferenzen auf die Angebotsselektion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pietraß

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Konstitutiv für eine kompetente Mediennutzung sind die Kriterien bei der Auswahl von Medienangeboten. Dass eine eher informations- oder unterhaltungs­orientierte Selektion mit dem Bildungsniveau zusammenhängt, wurde empirisch nachgewiesen. Unter Einbezug der Milieutheorie wird eine Informations- und Unterhaltungsorientierung zusätzlich durch den Einfluss soziokultureller Nutzerdispositionen erklärbar. Dazu wird G. Schulzes Ansatz der «Erlebnisrationalität» herangezogen. Allerdings lassen die Ergebnisse Schulzes offen, auf welche Weise Medien die jeweils bestehende Erlebnisrationalität bedienen, weil er nicht die medialen Gestaltungsformen bei seiner Untersuchung berücksichtigt. Anhand einer eigenen empirischen Stichprobe werden Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Informations- und Unterhaltungsorientierung zweier Online-Zeitungen erfasst und mit sozialstrukturellen Leservoraussetzungen in Zusammenhang gebracht. Es kann geschlussfolgert werden, dass Unterhaltungs- und Informationsorientierung nicht nur mit Bildung, sondern auch mit milieuspezifischen, medienästhetischen Präferenzen zusammenhängt, welche durch die mediale Gestaltungsform bedient werden.

  1. Das Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrom mit Schwerpunkt auf dem hypermobilen Typ und dessen Begleiterkrankungen - eine Literaturübersicht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturm KU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrom (EDS beschreibt eine Gruppe seltener, hereditärer, multisystemischer Bindegewebserkrankungen, die Gelenke, Sehnen, Muskeln, Organe, Haut und Gefäße betreffen können. Durch die Vielfalt der Symptome und die unterschiedliche Krankheitsausprägung, selbst bei gleichem EDS-Typ, ist die Diagnostik deutlich erschwert. Derzeit differenziert man laut Villefranche-Nosologie 6 Haupttypen und einige sehr seltene Typen, die sich durch ihre genetischen Ursachen und Verlaufsformen unterscheiden. Der am häufigsten vorkommende Typ ist der hypermobile Typ, welcher gleichzeitig auch gehäuft in Kombination mit anderen Erkrankungen wie dem posturalen orthostatischen Tachykardiesyndrom (POTS, Mastzellaktivierungssyndrom (MCAS, Osteoporose, Polyneuropathie, Myopathie, Mitralklappeninsuffizienz, Blutungsneigung und vielen anderen Begleiterkrankungen vorkommt. Gerade aufgrund dieser Komorbiditäten ist die Behandlung des EDS ex trem schwierig und stellt die verschiedensten Fachärzte vor große Herausforderungen. Die Therapie beschränkt sich auf eine symptomatische Stufentherapie aus konservativer physikalischer Therapie, einer medikamentösen Schmerztherapie und als letzte Instanz einer operativen Intervention. Die Krankheitsausprägung kann von leichter Hypermobilität bis zu schwerer körperlicher Behinderung reichen.

  2. Shallow geothermal energy usage and its potential impacts on groundwater ecosystems; Oberflaechennahe Geothermie und ihre potenziellen Auswirkungen auf Grundwasseroekosysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brielmann, Heike; Lueders, Tillmann; Avramov, Maria; Griebler, Christian [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institut fuer Grundwasseroekologie, Neuherberg (Germany); Schreglmann, Kathrin [Universitaet Tuebingen, Zentrum fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Tuebingen (Germany); Ferraro, Francesco [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Umweltingenieurwissenschaften, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hammerl, Verena [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institut fuer Bodenoekologie, Neuherberg (Germany); Blum, Philipp [KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bayer, Peter [ETH Zuerich, Geologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    The use of shallow geothermal energy is a thriving technology. Still, its impact on the ecology of subsurface habitats has not been adequately investigated. Biological processes are substantially influenced by temperature. In field and laboratory investigations comprising a temperature range from 2 to 45 C we show, that the diversity and structure of aquifer microbial communities is significantly influenced by temperature. Microbial biomass and activities are shown to additionally depend on the availability of nutrients and substrates in the groundwater. Selected groundwater invertebrates exhibited little tolerance towards mid- and long-term exposure to increased temperatures. Our results allow first recommendations towards the design, authorization, construction and operation of shallow geothermal energy facilities in an ecologically sustainable way. (orig.) [German] Oberflaechennahe Geothermie ist eine sich rasant entwickelnde Technologie, deren Einfluss auf die Oekologie unterirdischer aquatischer Lebensraeume bisher nicht ausreichend untersucht wurde. Dabei sind biologische Prozesse massgeblich von der Temperatur beeinflusst. In Feld- und Laboruntersuchungen, die Temperaturveraenderungen von 2 bis 45 C umfassten, erwiesen sich insbesondere die Diversitaet und Zusammensetzung von Bakteriengemeinschaften im Aquifer als sehr temperatursensitiv, waehrend mikrobielle Biomasse und Aktivitaeten zusaetzlich von der Naehrstoff- und Substratverfuegbarkeit im Grundwasserleiter beeinflusst waren. Echte Grundwasserinvertebraten zeigten eine geringe Temperaturtoleranz gegenueber dauerhaften Temperaturerhoehungen. Die durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen erlauben erste Empfehlungen fuer eine oekologisch nachhaltige Planung, Genehmigung, den Bau und den Betrieb von oberflaechennahen Geothermieanlagen. (orig.)

  3. Effects of external orders on cabling of an utility; Auswirkungen externer Vorgaben auf die Kabellegung eines EVU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemand, T.; Schwermer, F. [VEW Energie AG, Dortmund (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    In view of the strengthened national and international competition on the electricity-market all cost of the electricity utilities have to be identified and reduced. The construction of new cable systems results from operational and/or planning aspects. In this case during the project scheduling public orders have to be taken into consideration, approvals are taken, agreements with the concerned people are arranged and inquiries about cables and other utility lines are made. Specially the coordination of the different authorities determine a considerable part of the daily work of the involved departments. (orig.) [German] Angesichts des verstaerkten nationalen und internationalen Wettbewerbsdrucks auf die EVU muessen alle nur denkbaren Kosten identifiziert und reduziert werden. Der Bau neuer Kabelanlagen resultiert aus betrieblichen und/oder netzplanerischen Gesichtspunkten. Hierbei muessen im Rahmen der Projektierung behoerdliche Vorgaben beruecksichtigt werden, Genehmigungen sind einzuholen, Absprachen mit Betroffenen muessen oft Vorort gefuehrt und Erkundigungen nach vorhandenen Leitungen nach Kabeln anderer Versorgungstraeger muessen vorgenommen werden. Besonders die Koordination unterschiedlicher Behoerden bestimmt zu einem erheblichen Anteil die Tagesarbeit der involvierten Abteilungen. (orig.)

  4. Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes; Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren. Fachseminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    The experts` seminar on ``Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes`` is the third event of its kind to be held by the Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF=Centre for Waste Research). The purpose of the seminar is to de-emotionalise the debate going on between environment-oriented citizens, authorities, scientists, operators, and manufacturers and to find solutions that are acceptable in terms of costs as well as environmental impact. The seminar deals with traditional methods such as grate firing as well as with new methods such as low-temperature carbonisation, thermoselect, Noell-KRC, or RCP processes. [Deutsch] Das Fachseminar `Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren` ist die 13. Veranstaltung dieser Art, die durch das Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF) durchgefuehrt wird. Das Seminar soll dazu beitragen, die Diskussion zwischen umweltbewuessten Bevoelkerungsgruppen, Behoerden, Wissenschaft, Betreibern und Herstellern zu versachlichen und dabei Loesungen zu finden, die hinsichtlich der Kosten und der Umweltbeeintraechtigung vertretbar sind. Es werden sowohl die traditionellen Verfahren wie Rostfeuerung als auch neue Verfahren wie Schwelbrenn-, Thermoselekt-, Noell-KRC- oder RCP-Verfahren behandelt. (orig.)

  5. Mit MEDPILOT auf dem Weg ins Semantic Web [On the way to semantic web – with MEDPILOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poley, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Since 2001 MEDPILOT has developed from a usual virtual library to a powerful portal for medicine and health sciences. Today the local catalogues of the ZB MED are integrated with external databases to a unified discovery interface. This article gives an overview of the structure and features of MEDPILOT.Besides a semantic-linguistic search functionality the integrated OPAC services are going down well with the users. This topic as well as the usage of semantic techniques on structured and unstructured data are the main content parts of the article.[german] Seit 2001 hat sich MEDPILOT von einer klassischen virtuellen Fachbibliothek hin zu einem leistungsfähigen Fachportal für die Fächer Medizin und Gesundheit weiter entwickelt. Heute werden die lokalen Kataloge der ZB MED mit externen Datenbanken zu einem Discovery-Service verknüpft und als einheitliche Rechercheplattform dem Benutzer angeboten. Über den Aufbau und die Funktionsweise von MEDPILOT wird ein Überblick gegeben. Neben dem Anbieten einer semantisch-linguistischen Suche findet die Integration von OPAC-Funktionalitäten in MEDPILOT eine starke Nutzung. Dieses Thema wie auch die Integration semantischer Techniken auf strukturierte und nicht strukturierte Daten bilden die wesentlichen Inhaltspunkte des Beitrags.

  6. Gegenwarts-KünstlerInnen reagieren auf Religion: Eine Horizonterweiterung für religiöse Bildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Pirker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gegenwartskunst gilt als umfassend säkularisierter Diskurs der Gesellschaft. Künstlerinnen und Künstler wenden sich auch religiösen Themen und Symbolwelten zu, ohne sich jedoch von Verkündigung und Verzweckung vereinnahmen zu lassen. Für das Feld der religiösen Bildung ist es notwendig und lohnend, die Zeichen dieser aktuellen Kunst sensibel wahrzunehmen. Dieser Beitrag analysiert einige aktuelle, hoch divergierende Werke von Christoph Büchel, Danh Vo, Kudzanai Chiurai, Berlinde de Brukhyere, Lawrence Carroll und Winter/Hörbelt, die in unterschiedlichen Ausstellungskontexten gezeigt wurden. Ihnen gemeinsam ist ein Bezug auf religiöse Themenwelten. Von ihnen ausgehend stellen sich Fragen an herrschende religiöse Praktiken und theologische Deutungen. Contemporary artists react on religion: how does this affect religious education? Contemporary art is a broadly secularized discourse within today’s society. However, artists refer to religious topics, signs and symbols, whereas they always carefully avoid to be instrumentalised for religious proclamation. The field of religious education and formation is well advised to decrypt these signs of art sensitively. This article shows analyses of several recently shown pieces of contemporary art which have in common different relations to religious topics (Christoph Büchel, Danh Vo, Kudzanai Chiurai, Berlinde de Brukhyere, Lawrence Carroll, Winter/Hörbelt. They all allow posing questions about dominant religious practices and theological constructions.

  7. Anomalous random correlations of force constants on the lattice dynamical properties of disordered Au-Fe alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangsabanik, Jiban; Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab

    2017-09-01

    Gold iron (Au-Fe) alloys are of immense interest due to their biocompatibility, anomalous Hall conductivity, and applications in various medical treatments. However, irrespective of the method of preparation, they often exhibit a high level of disorder with properties sensitive to the thermal or magnetic annealing temperatures. We calculate the lattice dynamical properties of Au1 -xFex alloys using density functional theory methods where, being multisite properties, reliable interatomic force constant (IFC) calculations in disordered alloys remain a challenge. We follow a twofold approach: (1) an accurate IFC calculation in an environment with nominally zero chemical pair correlations to mimic the homogeneously disordered alloy and (2) a configurational averaging for the desired phonon properties (e.g., dispersion, density of states, and entropy). We find an anomalous change in the IFC's and phonon dispersion (split bands) near x =0.19 , which is attributed to the local stiffening of the Au-Au bonds when Au is in the vicinity of Fe. Other results based on mechanical and thermophysical properties reflect a similar anomaly: Phonon entropy, e.g., becomes negative below x =0.19 , suggesting a tendency for chemical unmixing, reflecting the onset of a miscibility gap in the phase diagram. Our results match fairly well with reported data wherever available.

  8. NMR imaging and cryoporometry of swelling clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.; Szutkowski, Kosma; Petrov, Oleg V.; Furó, István.

    2010-05-01

    strength as well as investigating the effect of the confining geometry and material surface properties seem to be worth to pursue. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) and the Swedish Research Council VR. References: [1] Dvinskikh S. V., Szutkowski K., Furó I. MRI profiles over a very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay. J. Magn. Reson. 198, 146 (2009). [2] Petrov O. V., Furó I. NMR cryoporometry: Principles, applications and potential. Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spec. 54, 97 (2009).

  9. NMR of a Phospholipid: Modules for Advanced Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Holly C.; Stark, Ruth E.

    2001-09-01

    A laboratory project is described that builds upon the NMR experience undergraduates receive in organic chemistry with a battery of NMR experiments that investigate egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC). This material, often labeled in health food stores as lecithin, is a major constituent of mammalian cell membranes. The NMR experiments may be used to make resonance assignments, to study molecular organization in model membranes, to test the effects of instrumental parameters, and to investigate the physics of nuclear spin systems. A suite of modular NMR exercises is described, so that the instructor may tailor the laboratory sessions to biochemistry, instrumental analysis, or physical chemistry. The experiments include solution-state one-dimensional (1D) 1H, 13C, and 31P experiments; two-dimensional (2D) TOtal Correlated SpectroscopY (TOCSY); and the spectral editing technique of Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT). To demonstrate the differences between solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and instrumentation, a second set of experiments generates 1H, 13C, and 31P spectra of egg PC dispersed in aqueous solution, under both static and magic-angle spinning conditions.

  10. First Principles NMR Study of Fluorapatite under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Barbara; Ceresoli, Davide; Tecklenburg, Mary M. J.; Fornari, Marco

    2012-01-01

    NMR is the technique of election to probe the local properties of materials. Herein we present the results of density functional theory (DFT) ab initio calculations of the NMR parameters for fluorapatite (FAp), a calcium orthophosphate mineral belonging to the apatite family, by using the GIPAW method [Pickard and Mauri, 2001]. Understanding the local effects of pressure on apatites is particularly relevant because of their important role in many solid state and biomedical applications. Apatites are open structures, which can undergo complex anisotropic deformations, and the response of NMR can elucidate the microscopic changes induced by an applied pressure. The computed NMR parameters proved to be in good agreement with the available experimental data. The structural evaluation of the material behavior under hydrostatic pressure (from −5 to +100 kbar) indicated a shrinkage of the diameter of the apatitic channel, and a strong correlation between NMR shielding and pressure, proving the sensitivity of this technique to even small changes in the chemical environment around the nuclei. This theoretical approach allows the exploration of all the different nuclei composing the material, thus providing a very useful guidance in the interpretation of experimental results, particularly valuable for the more challenging nuclei such as 43Ca and 17O. PMID:22770669

  11. Application of fluorine NMR for structure identification of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampt, Kirsten A M; Aspers, Ruud L E G; Jaeger, Martin; Geutjes, Pepijn E T J; Honing, Maarten; Wijmenga, Sybren S

    2011-05-01

    Fluorinated steroids were examined using 1D and 2D homo- and heteronuclear (19)F NMR, such as (19)F-(1) H and (19)F-(13)C. The utilization of fluorine NMR accounted for spectral simplification and resulted in a straightforward pathway for the determination of structures including the configuration of these compounds; these steroids present an illustrative example for other types of fluorinated compounds, which are increasingly encountered in drug discovery. The potential of (19)F NMR is elaborated on in detail for two compounds containing diastereotopic fluorines with different coupling patterns. The analysis of the coupling patterns and the through-space interactions resulted in the determination of the structure and configuration. Heteronuclear correlation experiments, i.e. (19)F-(1)H HETCOR, (19)F-(13)C HMQC and HMBC, and (19)F-(1)H HOESY, were applied to determine first the relative stereochemistry and then the molecular configuration at C4 and C5 of a steroidal compound bearing a fused three-membered ring with two fluorine substituents. These examples proved (19)F NMR to be a useful addition to the extensively used (1)H and (13)C NMR within structure elucidation and configuration determination of small molecules. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sensitive and robust electrophoretic NMR: Instrumentation and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Fredrik; Furó, István; Yushmanov, Pavel V.; Stilbs, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Although simple as a concept, electrophoretic NMR (eNMR) has so far failed to find wider application. Problems encountered are mainly due to disturbing and partly irreproducible convection-like bulk flow effects from both electro-osmosis and thermal convection. Additionally, bubble formation at the electrodes and rf noise pickup has constrained the typical sample geometry to U-tube-like arrangements with a small filling factor and a low resulting NMR sensitivity. Furthermore, the sign of the electrophoretic mobility cancels out in U-tube geometries. We present here a new electrophoretic sample cell based on a vertically placed conventional NMR sample tube with bubble-suppressing palladium metal as electrode material. A suitable radiofrequency filter design prevents noise pickup by the NMR sample coil from the high-voltage leads which extend into the sensitive sample volume. Hence, the obtained signal-to-noise ratio of this cell is one order of magnitude higher than that of our previous U-tube cells. Permitted by the retention of the sign of the displacement-related signal phase in the new cell design, an experimental approach is described where bulk flow effects by electro-osmosis and/or thermal convection are compensated through parallel monitoring of a reference signal from a non-charged species in the sample. This approach, together with a CPMG-like pulse train scheme provides a superior first-order cancellation of non-electrophoretic bulk flow effects.

  13. Theoretical Modeling of 99 Tc NMR Chemical Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Gabriel B.; Andersen, Amity; Washton, Nancy M.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2016-09-06

    Technetium (Tc) displays a rich chemistry due to the wide range of oxidation states (from -I to +VII) and ability to form coordination compounds. Determination of Tc speciation in complex mixtures is a major challenge, and 99Tc NMR spec-troscopy is widely used to probe chemical environments of Tc in odd oxidation states. However interpretation of the 99Tc NMR data is hindered by the lack of reference compounds. DFT computations can help fill this gap, but to date few com-putational studies have focused on 99Tc NMR of compounds and complexes. This work systematically evaluates the inclu-sion small percentages of Hartree-Fock exchange correlation and relativistic effects in DFT computations to support in-terpretation of the 99Tc NMR spectra. Hybrid functionals are found to perform better than their pure GGA counterparts, and non-relativistic calculations have been found to generally show a lower mean absolute deviation from experiment. Overall non-relativistic PBE0 and B3PW91 calculations are found to most accurately predict 99Tc NMR chemical shifts.

  14. The NMR Probe of High-T$_{c}$ Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Walstedt, Russell E

    2008-01-01

    The NMR probe has yielded a vast array of data for the high-Tc materials, corresponding to different compounds, ionic sites, and nuclear species, as well as to a wide variety of experimental conditions. Over the twenty years, since the discovery of superconducting cuprates, ongoing analysis and discussion of cuprate NMR data have resulted in a wealth of important insights into the physics of these exotic systems. The aims of this monograph are threefold. First, it reviews NMR methodology as it has been applied to the cuprate studies. This is addressed to NMR practitioners and to physics laypersons alike. Next, it presents a review of cuprate NMR measurements and the wide variety of phenomena which they represent. The third phase is to recount the theoretical model calculations and other proposals which have been put forward to account for these data. Parts two and three are presented in parallel, as there are many aspects to both topics, each with its own interesting history. There is, even twenty years on, a...

  15. NMR Characterization of Flavanone Naringenin 7-O-Glycoside Diastereomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Li-juan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To discriminate R and S flavanone glycoside using NMR, the mixture of R and S naringenin 7-O-glycoside was first isolated from Gleditsia sinensis. 1H and 13C NMR data of the mixture were recorded with 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C HSQC and 1H-13C HMBC in DMSO-d6 solution. The two diastereomers were then separated with chiral chromatographic isolation, with their absolute configurations determined by circular dichroism. To avoid the disturbance of protons from glucose residues to dihydroflavonoid, 1H NMR spectra were acquired for pure R and S naringenin 7-O-glycoside and their mixture in CD3CN. The two diastereomers showed the largest proton chemical shift differences at the end group of glucose residue (H-1" with a chemical shift difference of 9.4 Hz. The OH-5 proton showed a chemical shift difference of 5.8 Hz. The chemical shift of the three protons on ring C were all influenced by configuration.

  16. The GNAT: a new tool for processing NMR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañar, Laura; Poggetto, Guilherme Dal; Colbourne, Adam; Morris, Gareth A; Nilsson, Mathias

    2018-02-02

    The GNAT (General NMR Analysis Toolbox) is a free and open-source software package for processing, visualizing and analysing NMR data. It supersedes the popular DOSY Toolbox, which has a narrower focus on diffusion NMR. Data import of most common formats from the major NMR platforms is supported, as well as a GNAT generic format. Key basic processing of NMR data (e.g. Fourier transformation, baseline correction, phasing) is catered for within the programme, as well as more advanced techniques (e.g. reference deconvolution, pure shift FID reconstruction). Analysis tools include DOSY and SCORE for diffusion data, ROSY T1 /T2 estimation for relaxation data, and PARAFAC for multilinear analysis. The GNAT is written for the MATLAB® language and comes with a user-friendly graphical user interface. The standard version is intended to run with a MATLAB installation, but completely free-standing compiled versions for Windows, Mac, and Linux are also freely available. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Selected topics in solution-phase biomolecular NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lewis E.; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Solution bio-NMR spectroscopy continues to enjoy a preeminent role as an important tool in elucidating the structure and dynamics of a range of important biomolecules and in relating these to function. Equally impressive is how NMR continues to 'reinvent' itself through the efforts of many brilliant practitioners who ask increasingly demanding and increasingly biologically relevant questions. The ability to manipulate spin Hamiltonians - almost at will - to dissect the information of interest contributes to the success of the endeavor and ensures that the NMR technology will be well poised to contribute to as yet unknown frontiers in the future. As a tribute to the versatility of solution NMR in biomolecular studies and to the continued rapid advances in the field we present a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) that includes over 40 articles on various aspects of solution-state biomolecular NMR that have been published in the Journal of Magnetic Resonance in the past 7 years. These, in total, help celebrate the achievements of this vibrant field.

  18. Effective rotational correlation times of proteins from NMR relaxation interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghan; Hilty, Christian; Wider, Gerhard; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the effective rotational correlation times, τc, for the modulation of anisotropic spin-spin interactions in macromolecules subject to Brownian motion in solution is of key interest for the practice of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. The value of τc enables an estimate of the NMR spin relaxation rates, and indicates possible aggregation of the macromolecular species. This paper reports a novel NMR pulse scheme, [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT, which is based on transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy and permits to determine τc for 15N- 1H bonds without interference from dipole-dipole coupling of the amide proton with remote protons. [ 15N, 1H]-TRACT is highly efficient since only a series of one-dimensional NMR spectra need to be recorded. Its use is suggested for a quick estimate of the rotational correlation time, to monitor sample quality and to determine optimal parameters for complex multidimensional NMR experiments. Practical applications are illustrated with the 110 kDa 7,8-dihydroneopterin aldolase from Staphylococcus aureus, the uniformly 15N-labeled Escherichia coli outer membrane protein X (OmpX) in 60 kDa mixed OmpX/DHPC micelles with approximately 90 molecules of unlabeled 1,2-dihexanoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), and the 16 kDa pheromone-binding protein from Bombyx mori, which cover a wide range of correlation times.

  19. Time domain NMR evaluation of poly(vinyl alcohol xerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Jorge da Rocha Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA-based chemically cross-linked xerogels, both neat and loaded with nanoparticulate hydrophilic silica (SiO2, were obtained and characterized mainly through time domain NMR experiments (TD-NMR. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analyses were employed as secondary methods. TD-NMR, through the interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation constant values and related information, showed both cross-linking and nanoparticle influences on PVA matrix. SiO2 does not interact chemically with the PVA chains, but has effect on its molecular mobility, as investigated via TD-NMR. Apparent energy of activation, spin-lattice time constant and size of spin domains in the sample have almost linear dependence with the degree of cross-linking of the PVA and are affected by the addition of SiO2. These three parameters were derived from a single set of TD-NMR experiments, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique for characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid xerogels, an important class of materials.

  20. Study of cultured fibroblasts in vivo using NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmar, G.S.

    1984-08-01

    The goal was to study the compartmentation of phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates in intact Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts (CEFs) using /sup 31/P NMR at 109 MHz. A technique for maintaining functional cells at high densities in an NMR magnet is described. Signals were detected from cytoplasmic inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), ATP, NAD, NADH, phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine. The effect of external glucose on cytoplasmic pools of phosphates was studied. When cells were perfused with glucose-free medium the rate of glycolysis decreased, the amplitudes of the ATP resonances decreased, and the P/sub i/ intensity increased. The quantity of NMR-detectable P/sub i/ produced was significantly greater than the quantity of NMR-detectable ATP which was lost. Experiments with /sup 32/P labeled P/sub i/ showed that as the concentration of glucose in the medium was increase, the amount of phosphate sequestered in the cells increased. We conclude that there is a pool of P/sub i/ which is not detected by high resolution NMR and that the size of this pool increases as the rate of glycolysis increase. Longtitudinal relaxation times of intracellular phosphates in normal, transformed, and primary CEFs were measured. The results demonstrate that relaxation times of phosphates are sensitive to structural and metabolic changes which occur when cells are grown in culture. 59 references. 31 figures.

  1. Time domain NMR evaluation of poly(vinyl alcohol) xerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Elton Jorge da Rocha; Cavalcante, Maxwell de Paula; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno, E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2016-05-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based chemically cross-linked xerogels, both neat and loaded with nanoparticulate hydrophilic silica (SiO{sub 2}), were obtained and characterized mainly through time domain NMR experiments (TD-NMR). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analyses were employed as secondary methods. TD-NMR, through the interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation constant values and related information, showed both cross-linking and nanoparticle influences on PVA matrix. SiO{sub 2} does not interact chemically with the PVA chains, but has effect on its molecular mobility, as investigated via TD-NMR. Apparent energy of activation, spin-lattice time constant and size of spin domains in the sample have almost linear dependence with the degree of cross-linking of the PVA and are affected by the addition of SiO{sub 2}. These three parameters were derived from a single set of TD-NMR experiments, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique for characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid xerogels, an important class of materials. (author)

  2. Spiele auf Morel Hill und Kievy Gorki. Zu den gesellschaftlichen Formatierungen des Individuums bei KwieKulik und den Kollektiven Aktionen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inke Arns

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel behandelt das Verhältnis von Kollektiv und Individuum in künstlerischen Performances in Polen und der Sowjetunion in den 1970er und 1980er Jahren. Dieses Verhältnis ist zentral für die Analyse sozialistischer Gesellschaften in dieser Zeit. In der vergleichenden Gegenüberstellung werden Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede herausgearbeitet. Die in diesem Artikel beschriebenen künstlerischen Aktionen – sowohl das 1971 von Przemysław Kwiek initiierte Spiel Gra na Wzgórzu Morela / Spiel auf dem Morel-Hügel in Elbląg (Polen als auch die Aktion Desjat’ pojavlenij / Zehn Erscheinungen der Kollektiven Aktionen im Moskauer Gebiet 1981 (UdSSR – zeichnen sich zunächst durch formale Ähnlichkeiten aus: Außerhalb von Städten, in schneebedeckten Landschaften und auf Feldern werden ästhetische Formen der historischen Avantgarde bzw. des Suprematismus aufgerufen. Darüber hinaus findet sich in beiden Aktionen jedoch auch eine intensive Auseinandersetzung mit der Bedeutung und der Auswirkung von Gesellschaft bzw. Kollektiven auf das Individuum. Beide betreiben eine Form von Gesellschaftsanalyse, mittels derer sie Alternativen zur bestehenden sozialistischen Gesellschaft jener Zeit formulieren. Während jedoch bei KwieKulik die Abschwächung des Momentes der Subjektivität und der künstlerischen Individualität etwas Positivem, nämlich der Schaffung einer offenen Form dient, die letztendlich die Idee einer nicht-autoritären Gesellschaft von freien, selbstverantwortlich handelnden Individuen fördern sollte und somit eine Alternative zur bestehenden Ordnung darstellte, stand die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Kollektiv vs. Individuum bei den Kollektiven Aktionen an einem ganz anderen Punkt. Hier war die Unterordnung des Individuums unter ein größeres Kollektiv etwas Negatives, nämlich alltäglich empfundene Realität. Die (durchaus selbstkritische Frage bei den Kollektiven Aktionen war immer, noch bevor man sich

  3. Lassen Veränderungen des Prostata-spezifischen Antigen- (PSA- Spiegels nach Prostatastanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das pathologische Ergebnis zu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkmer BG

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Die diagnostische Biopsie der Prostata führt bekanntermaßen zum Anstieg des Serum-PSA-Spiegels. Diese prospektive Untersuchung sollte die Frage klären, ob die Änderungen des Serum-PSA-Spiegels nach Stanzbiopsie Rückschlüsse auf das histologische Ergebnis zulassen und so als Entscheidungshilfe bei der Frage der Rebiopsie dienen können. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 79 konsekutive Patienten mit klinischem Verdacht auf das Vorliegen eines Prostatakarzinoms (PCA und einem Gesamt-PSA 50 ng/ml wurden in die Studie eingeschlossen. Ausschlußkriterien waren klinische Hinweise für eine Prostatitis und Prostatabiopsie innerhalb der letzten 3 Monate. Die Serum-PSA-Werte wurden mit einem ultrasensitiven Enzymimmunoassay bestimmt. Die Bestimmung des Gesamt-PSA und des freien PSA im Serum erfolgte unmittelbar vor und 60 Minuten nach der Biopsie. Die Spiegel des Gesamt-PSA und freien PSA, sowie die f/t-PSA-Ratio vor und nach Biopsie wurden in Korrelation zum histologischen Ergebnis gesetzt. Ergebnisse: 86 Biopsieserien wurden bei 79 Patienten durchgeführt. 38 Biopsieserien diagnostizierten ein PCA, 48 eine benigne Prostatahyperplasie (BPH. Die abschließende Histologie nach wiederholter Biopsie war PCA und BPH in je 43 Fällen. Insgesamt fand sich ein Anstieg des durchschnittlichen Gesamt-PSA von 18,39 ng/ml auf 107,8 ng/ml, des durchschnittlichen freien PSA von 3,43 ng/ml auf 33,7 ng/ml und der durchschnittlichen f/t PSA-Ratio von 18,1 % auf 52,0 %. Es fand sich keine Korrelation zwischen dem Anstieg dieser Parameter und der Anzahl der Biopsiezylinder (4–51. Bezüglich des histologischen Befundes ergaben sich statistisch signifikante Unterschiede für das Gesamt-PSA vor und die f/t PSA-Ratio vor und nach Stanzbiopsie. Schlußfolgerung: Die Analyse der PSA-Parameter nach Stanzbiopsie bietet keine zusätzliche Information über die konventionellen PSA-Parameter vor der Biopsie hinaus. Sie korrelieren vor allem nicht mit falsch

  4. NMRFx Processor: a cross-platform NMR data processing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Michael; Fetler, Bayard [One Moon Scientific, Inc. (United States); Marchant, Jan [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Johnson, Bruce A., E-mail: bruce.johnson@asrc.cuny.edu [One Moon Scientific, Inc. (United States)

    2016-08-15

    NMRFx Processor is a new program for the processing of NMR data. Written in the Java programming language, NMRFx Processor is a cross-platform application and runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. The application can be run in both a graphical user interface (GUI) mode and from the command line. Processing scripts are written in the Python programming language and executed so that the low-level Java commands are automatically run in parallel on computers with multiple cores or CPUs. Processing scripts can be generated automatically from the parameters of NMR experiments or interactively constructed in the GUI. A wide variety of processing operations are provided, including methods for processing of non-uniformly sampled datasets using iterative soft thresholding. The interactive GUI also enables the use of the program as an educational tool for teaching basic and advanced techniques in NMR data analysis.

  5. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D’Amico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor" over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism.

  6. Relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy for the study of protein allostery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Patrick J; Mittermaier, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Allosteric transmission of information between distant sites in biological macromolecules often involves collective transitions between active and inactive conformations. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can yield detailed information on these dynamics. In particular, relaxation dispersion techniques provide structural, dynamic, and mechanistic information on conformational transitions occurring on the millisecond to microsecond timescales. In this review, we provide an overview of the theory and analysis of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion NMR experiments and briefly describe their application to the study of allosteric dynamics in the homeodomain from the PBX transcription factor (PBX-HD). CPMG NMR data show that local folding (helix/coil) transitions in one part of PBX-HD help to communicate information between two distant binding sites. Furthermore, the combination of CPMG and other spin relaxation data show that this region can also undergo local misfolding, reminiscent of conformational ensemble models of allostery.

  7. NMRFx Processor: a cross-platform NMR data processing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Michael; Fetler, Bayard; Marchant, Jan; Johnson, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    NMRFx Processor is a new program for the processing of NMR data. Written in the Java programming language, NMRFx Processor is a cross-platform application and runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. The application can be run in both a graphical user interface (GUI) mode and from the command line. Processing scripts are written in the Python programming language and executed so that the low-level Java commands are automatically run in parallel on computers with multiple cores or CPUs. Processing scripts can be generated automatically from the parameters of NMR experiments or interactively constructed in the GUI. A wide variety of processing operations are provided, including methods for processing of non-uniformly sampled datasets using iterative soft thresholding. The interactive GUI also enables the use of the program as an educational tool for teaching basic and advanced techniques in NMR data analysis.

  8. Variable-temperature NMR and conformational analysis of Oenothein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suzana C.; Carvalho, Ariadne G.; Fortes, Gilmara A.C.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Oliveira, Anselmo E. de, E-mail: suzana.quimica.ufg@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-02-15

    Oenothein B is a dimeric hydrolyzable tannin with a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumour, anti-inflammatory and antiviral. Its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at room temperature show duplications and broadening of signals. Experiments of 1D and 2D NMR at lower temperatures were useful for the complete NMR assignments of all hydrogens and carbons. The 3D structure of the most stable conformer was determined for the first time by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiment (-20 deg C) and density functional theory (DFT)(B3LYP/6-31G)/ polarizable continuum model (PCM) quantum chemical calculations. The favoured conformation showed a highly compacted geometry and a lack of symmetry, in which the two valoneoyl groups showed distinct conformational parameters and stabilities. (author)

  9. RNA structure determination by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchanka, Alexander; Simon, Bernd; Althoff-Ospelt, Gerhard; Carlomagno, Teresa

    2015-05-11

    Knowledge of the RNA three-dimensional structure, either in isolation or as part of RNP complexes, is fundamental to understand the mechanism of numerous cellular processes. Because of its flexibility, RNA represents a challenge for crystallization, while the large size of cellular complexes brings solution-state NMR to its limits. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach on the basis of solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We develop a suite of experiments and RNA labeling schemes and demonstrate for the first time that ssNMR can yield a RNA structure at high-resolution. This methodology allows structural analysis of segmentally labelled RNA stretches in high-molecular weight cellular machines—independent of their ability to crystallize—and opens the way to mechanistic studies of currently difficult-to-access RNA-protein assemblies.

  10. Unequivocal determination of complex molecular structures using anisotropic NMR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yizhou; Saurí, Josep; Mevers, Emily; Peczuh, Mark W; Hiemstra, Henk; Clardy, Jon; Martin, Gary E; Williamson, R Thomas

    2017-04-07

    Assignment of complex molecular structures from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data can be prone to interpretational mistakes. Residual dipolar couplings and residual chemical shift anisotropy provide a spatial view of the relative orientations between bonds and chemical shielding tensors, respectively, regardless of separation. Consequently, these data constitute a reliable reporter of global structural validity. Anisotropic NMR parameters can be used to evaluate investigators' structure proposals or structures generated by computer-assisted structure elucidation. Application of the method to several complex structure assignment problems shows promising results that signal a potential paradigm shift from conventional NMR data interpretation, which may be of particular utility for compounds not amenable to x-ray crystallography. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. A decade in prostate cancer: from NMR to metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Elita M; Wu, Chin-Lee; McDougal, W Scott; Cheng, Leo L

    2011-05-17

    Over the past 30 years, continuous progress in the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to the detection, diagnosis and characterization of human prostate cancer has turned what began as scientific curiosity into a useful clinical option. In vivo MRSI technology has been integrated into the daily care of prostate cancer patients, and innovations in ex vivo methods have helped to establish NMR-based prostate cancer metabolomics. Metabolomic and multimodality imaging could be the future of the prostate cancer clinic--particularly given the rationale that more accurate interrogation of a disease as complex as human prostate cancer is most likely to be achieved through paradigms involving multiple, instead of single and isolated, parameters. The research and clinical results achieved through in vivo MRSI and ex vivo NMR investigations during the first 11 years of the 21st century illustrate areas where these technologies can be best translated into clinical practice.

  12. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  13. Monitoring protein folding through high pressure NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Julien; Royer, Catherine A; Roumestand, Christian

    2017-11-01

    High-pressure is a well-known perturbation method used to destabilize globular proteins. It is perfectly reversible, which is essential for a proper thermodynamic characterization of a protein equilibrium. In contrast to other perturbation methods such as heat or chemical denaturant that destabilize protein structures uniformly, pressure exerts local effects on regions or domains of a protein containing internal cavities. When combined with NMR spectroscopy, hydrostatic pressure offers the possibility to monitor at a residue level the structural transitions occurring upon unfolding and to determine the kinetic properties of the process. High-pressure NMR experiments can now be routinely performed, owing to the recent development of commercially available high-pressure sample cells. This review summarizes recent advances and some future directions of high-pressure NMR techniques for the characterization at atomic resolution of the energy landscape of protein folding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-10-10

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range from 0.7 to 100 nm and with number of walls from 1 to 90. We provide models on how diameter and the number of nanotube walls influence NMR linewidth and line position. Both models are supported by theoretical calculations. Increasing the diameter D, from the smallest investigated nanotube, which in our study corresponds to the inner nanotube of a double-walled tube to the largest studied diameter, corresponding to large multiwalled nanotubes, leads to a 23.5 ppm diamagnetic shift of the isotropic NMR line position δ. We show that the isotropic line follows the relation δ = 18.3/D + 102.5 ppm, where D is the diameter of the tube and NMR line position δ is relative to tetramethylsilane. The relation asymptotically tends to approach the line position expected in graphene. A characteristic broadening of the line shape is observed with the increasing number of walls. This feature can be rationalized by an isotropic shift distribution originating from different diamagnetic shielding of the encapsulated nanotubes together with a heterogeneity of the samples. Based on our results, NMR is shown to be a nondestructive spectroscopic method that can be used as a complementary method to, for example, transmission electron microscopy to obtain structural information for carbon nanotubes, especially bulk samples.

  15. MetAssimulo: simulation of realistic NMR metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncey, Harriet J; Jones, Rebecca; De Iorio, Maria; Ebbels, Timothy M D

    2010-10-06

    Probing the complex fusion of genetic and environmental interactions, metabolic profiling (or metabolomics/metabonomics), the study of small molecules involved in metabolic reactions, is a rapidly expanding 'omics' field. A major technique for capturing metabolite data is 1H-NMR spectroscopy and this yields highly complex profiles that require sophisticated statistical analysis methods. However, experimental data is difficult to control and expensive to obtain. Thus data simulation is a productive route to aid algorithm development. MetAssimulo is a MATLAB-based package that has been developed to simulate 1H-NMR spectra of complex mixtures such as metabolic profiles. Drawing data from a metabolite standard spectral database in conjunction with concentration information input by the user or constructed automatically from the Human Metabolome Database, MetAssimulo is able to create realistic metabolic profiles containing large numbers of metabolites with a range of user-defined properties. Current features include the simulation of two groups ('case' and 'control') specified by means and standard deviations of concentrations for each metabolite. The software enables addition of spectral noise with a realistic autocorrelation structure at user controllable levels. A crucial feature of the algorithm is its ability to simulate both intra- and inter-metabolite correlations, the analysis of which is fundamental to many techniques in the field. Further, MetAssimulo is able to simulate shifts in NMR peak positions that result from matrix effects such as pH differences which are often observed in metabolic NMR spectra and pose serious challenges for statistical algorithms. No other software is currently able to simulate NMR metabolic profiles with such complexity and flexibility. This paper describes the algorithm behind MetAssimulo and demonstrates how it can be used to simulate realistic NMR metabolic profiles with which to develop and test new data analysis techniques

  16. NMR of geophysical drill cores with a mobile Halbach scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talnishnikh, E.

    2007-08-21

    This thesis is devoted to a mobile NMR with an improved Halbach scanner. This is a lightweight tube-shaped magnet with sensitive volume larger and a homogeneity of the magnetic field higher than the previous prototype version. The improved Halbach scanner is used for analysis of water-saturated drill cores and plugs with diameters up to 60 mm. To provide the analysis, the standard 1D technique with the CPMG sequence as well as 2D correlation experiments were successfully applied and adapted to study properties of fluid-saturated sediments. Afterwards the Halbach scanner was calibrated to fast non-destructive measurements of porosity, relaxation time distributions, and estimation of permeability. These properties can be calculated directly from the NMR data using the developed methodology. Any independent measurements of these properties with other methods are not needed. One of the main results of this work is the development of a new NMR on-line core scanner for measurements of porosity in long cylindrical and semi cylindrical drill cores. Also dedicated software was written to operate the NMR on-line core scanner. The physical background of this work is the study of the diffusion influence on transverse relaxation. The diffusion effect in the presence of internal gradients in porous media was probed by 1D and 2D experiments. The transverse relaxation time distributions obtained from 1D and from 2D experiments are comparable but different in fine details. Two new methodologies were developed based on the results of this study. First is the methodology quantifying the influence of diffusion in the internal gradients of water-saturated sediments on transverse relaxation from 2D correlation experiments. The second one is the correction of the permeability estimation from the NMR data taking in account the influence of the diffusion. Furthermore, PFG NMR technique was used to study restricted diffusion in the same kind of samples. Preliminary results are reported

  17. NMR Logging to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity in Unconsolidated Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rosemary; Walsh, David O; Butler, James J; Grunewald, Elliot; Liu, Gaisheng; Parsekian, Andrew D; Reboulet, Edward C; Knobbe, Steve; Barrows, Mercer

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging provides a new means of estimating the hydraulic conductivity (K) of unconsolidated aquifers. The estimation of K from the measured NMR parameters can be performed using the Schlumberger-Doll Research (SDR) equation, which is based on the Kozeny-Carman equation and initially developed for obtaining permeability from NMR logging in petroleum reservoirs. The SDR equation includes empirically determined constants. Decades of research for petroleum applications have resulted in standard values for these constants that can provide accurate estimates of permeability in consolidated formations. The question we asked: Can standard values for the constants be defined for hydrogeologic applications that would yield accurate estimates of K in unconsolidated aquifers? Working at 10 locations at three field sites in Kansas and Washington, USA, we acquired NMR and K data using direct-push methods over a 10- to 20-m depth interval in the shallow subsurface. Analysis of pairs of NMR and K data revealed that we could dramatically improve K estimates by replacing the standard petroleum constants with new constants, optimal for estimating K in the unconsolidated materials at the field sites. Most significant was the finding that there was little change in the SDR constants between sites. This suggests that we can define a new set of constants that can be used to obtain high resolution, cost-effective estimates of K from NMR logging in unconsolidated aquifers. This significant result has the potential to change dramatically the approach to determining K for hydrogeologic applications. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  18. MetAssimulo:Simulation of Realistic NMR Metabolic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Iorio Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probing the complex fusion of genetic and environmental interactions, metabolic profiling (or metabolomics/metabonomics, the study of small molecules involved in metabolic reactions, is a rapidly expanding 'omics' field. A major technique for capturing metabolite data is 1H-NMR spectroscopy and this yields highly complex profiles that require sophisticated statistical analysis methods. However, experimental data is difficult to control and expensive to obtain. Thus data simulation is a productive route to aid algorithm development. Results MetAssimulo is a MATLAB-based package that has been developed to simulate 1H-NMR spectra of complex mixtures such as metabolic profiles. Drawing data from a metabolite standard spectral database in conjunction with concentration information input by the user or constructed automatically from the Human Metabolome Database, MetAssimulo is able to create realistic metabolic profiles containing large numbers of metabolites with a range of user-defined properties. Current features include the simulation of two groups ('case' and 'control' specified by means and standard deviations of concentrations for each metabolite. The software enables addition of spectral noise with a realistic autocorrelation structure at user controllable levels. A crucial feature of the algorithm is its ability to simulate both intra- and inter-metabolite correlations, the analysis of which is fundamental to many techniques in the field. Further, MetAssimulo is able to simulate shifts in NMR peak positions that result from matrix effects such as pH differences which are often observed in metabolic NMR spectra and pose serious challenges for statistical algorithms. Conclusions No other software is currently able to simulate NMR metabolic profiles with such complexity and flexibility. This paper describes the algorithm behind MetAssimulo and demonstrates how it can be used to simulate realistic NMR metabolic profiles with

  19. Quantitating metabolites in protein precipitated serum using NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel

    2014-06-03

    Quantitative NMR-based metabolite profiling is challenged by the deleterious effects of abundant proteins in the intact blood plasma/serum, which underscores the need for alternative approaches. Protein removal by ultrafiltration using low molecular weight cutoff filters thus represents an important step. However, protein precipitation, an alternative and simple approach for protein removal, lacks detailed quantitative assessment for use in NMR based metabolomics. In this study, we have comprehensively evaluated the performance of protein precipitation using methanol, acetonitrile, perchloric acid, and trichloroacetic acid and ultrafiltration approaches using 1D and 2D NMR, based on the identification and absolute quantitation of 44 human blood metabolites, including a few identified for the first time in the NMR spectra of human serum. We also investigated the use of a "smart isotope tag," (15)N-cholamine for further resolution enhancement, which resulted in the detection of a number of additional metabolites. (1)H NMR of both protein precipitated and ultrafiltered serum detected all 44 metabolites with comparable reproducibility (average CV, 3.7% for precipitation; 3.6% for filtration). However, nearly half of the quantified metabolites in ultrafiltered serum exhibited 10-74% lower concentrations; specifically, tryptophan, benzoate, and 2-oxoisocaproate showed much lower concentrations compared to protein precipitated serum. These results indicate that protein precipitation using methanol offers a reliable approach for routine NMR-based metabolomics of human blood serum/plasma and should be considered as an alternative to ultrafiltration. Importantly, protein precipitation, which is commonly used by mass spectrometry (MS), promises avenues for direct comparison and correlation of metabolite data obtained from the two analytical platforms to exploit their combined strength in the metabolomics of blood.

  20. Handbook of proton-NMR spectra and data index

    CERN Document Server

    Asahi Research Center Co, Ltd

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Proton-NMR Spectra and Data: Index to Volumes 1-10 compiles four types of indexes used in charting the proton-NMR spectral database -Chemical Name Index, Molecular Formula Index, Substructure Index, and Chemical Shift Index. The Chemical Name Index compiles all chemical names in alphabetical order, followed by a spectrum number. When the desired organic compound cannot be found in the Chemical Name Index or its nomenclature is unclear, it becomes necessary to look for a compound by means of its molecular formula, hence the Molecular Formula Index. A unique notation system for repre

  1. Precision Measurements with a Dual Species NMR Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Susan; Thrasher, Daniel; Weber, Joshua; Korver, Anna; Walker, Thad

    2017-04-01

    We present progress towards a dual species nuclear magnetic oscillator using synchronous spin exchange optical pumping. By applying the bias field as a sequence of alkali 2 πn pulses, we generate alkali polarization transverse to the bias field. The alkali polarization is then modulated at the noble gas resonance so that through spin exchange collisions the noble gas becomes polarized. This novel method of NMR suppresses the alkali field frequency shift by at least a factor of 2500 as compared to longitudinal NMR. We will present a detailed noise analysis of the apparatus as well as plans for measuring earth's rotation. Research supported by the NSF and Northrop-Grumman Corp.

  2. MVAPACK: a complete data handling package for NMR metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2014-05-16

    Data handling in the field of NMR metabolomics has historically been reliant on either in-house mathematical routines or long chains of expensive commercial software. Thus, while the relatively simple biochemical protocols of metabolomics maintain a low barrier to entry, new practitioners of metabolomics experiments are forced to either purchase expensive software packages or craft their own data handling solutions from scratch. This inevitably complicates the standardization and communication of data handling protocols in the field. We report a newly developed open-source platform for complete NMR metabolomics data handling, MVAPACK, and describe its application on an example metabolic fingerprinting data set.

  3. NMR STUDY OF MOLECULAR REFORIENTATION UNDER FIVEFOLD SYMMETRY SOLID PERMETHYLFERROCENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemmer, D.E.; Ruben, D.J.; Pines, A.

    1980-08-01

    The ring reorientation in permethylferrocene has been studied using high resolution solid state {sup 13}C NMR. The constraints which symmetry places upon the number and types of motional parameters which may be determined from the NMR spectrum are discussed. From comparison of the experimental lineshapes in the slow reorientation temperatures range with theoretical models for random rotations and symmetry related jumps, it is concluded that the reorientation occurs as jumps between symmetry related orientations with jumps of 2{pi}/5 highly favored over 4{pi}/5. The activation energy derived for the jump process is 13.5 kjoules/mole.

  4. Combination of NMR relaxometry and mechanical testing during vulcanisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahle, Stefan; Hehn, Manfred; Raich, Hans-Peter; Nussbaum, Walter; Bluemler, Peter; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2008-07-01

    A new design for an in-situ combination of NMR and rheological measurements is presented. The NMR is based on a BRUKER MINISPEC spectrometer. The magnet is self-made via a construction of 64 permanent magnets in a so called MANDHALA arrangement. The magnetic field strength reaches about 0.23 T, corresponding to a {sup 1}H resonance frequency of about 9.5 MHz. For the in-situ rheological measurements a Scarabaeus SISV50 instrument with modified sample cells is utilized. This unique combination and first measurements are presented.

  5. Use of NMR in profiling of cocaine seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, Bruno; Lauri, Ilaria; De Tito, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is the most widely used illicit drug, and its origin is always the focus of intense investigation aimed at identifying the trafficking routes. Since NMR represents a unique methodology for performing chemical identification and quantification, here it is proposed a strategy based on (1)H...... NMR spectral analysis in conjunction with multivariate analysis to identify the chemical "fingerprint" of cocaine samples, and to link cocaine samples based on this information. The most relevant spectral regions containing the fingerprint have been identified: δH 0.86-0.96, 1.50-1.56, 5.90-5.93, 6...

  6. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  7. De-noising methods for NMR logging echo signals based on wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ranhong; Wu, Youbin; Liu, Kang; Liu, Mi; Xiao, Lizhi

    2014-06-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the echo signals in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most important factors that affect the effective application of NMR logging. Wavelet transform can be used to remove the noise and improve the SNR of echo signals in NMR logging. This paper uses three de-noising methods to treat the NMR echo signals: modulus maxima, spatial correlation and wavelet threshold based on wavelet transform. The effects of the three methods in the noise reduction of NMR echo signals were compared by numerical simulation, core experiment and NMR logging data. The results show that while these three methods can all effectively improve the SNR of NMR echo signals and the NMR T2 inversion results, the most effective among them is the wavelet threshold method, which can obtain a higher SNR and provides more accurate formation porosity.

  8. 103Rh NMR spectroscopy and its application to rhodium chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernsting, Jan Meine; Gaemers, Sander; Elsevier, Cornelis J

    2004-09-01

    Rhodium is used for a number of large processes that rely on homogeneous rhodium-catalyzed reactions, for instance rhodium-catalyzed hydroformylation of alkenes, carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid and hydrodesulfurization of thiophene derivatives (in crude oil). Many laboratory applications in organometallic chemistry and catalysis involve organorhodium chemistry and a wealth of rhodium coordination compounds is known. For these and other areas, 103Rh NMR spectroscopy appears to be a very useful analytical tool. In this review, most of the literature concerning 103Rh NMR spectroscopy published from 1989 up to and including 2003 has been covered. After an introduction to several experimental methods for the detection of the insensitive 103Rh nucleus, a discussion of factors affecting the transition metal chemical shift is given. Computational aspects and calculations of chemical shifts are also briefly addressed. Next, the application of 103Rh NMR in coordination and organometallic chemistry is elaborated in more detail by highlighting recent developments in measurement and interpretation of 103Rh NMR data, in relation to rhodium-assisted reactions and homogeneous catalysis. The dependence of the 103Rh chemical shift on the ligands at rhodium in the first coordination sphere, on the complex geometry, oxidation state, temperature, solvent and concentration is treated. Several classes of compounds and special cases such as chiral rhodium compounds are reviewed. Finally, a section on scalar coupling to rhodium is provided. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  10. FT-IR, NMR SPECTROSCOPIC and QUANTUM MECHANICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predicting NMR properties and vibrational frequencies of the synthesized ferrocene based systems. KEY WORDS: .... solving self-consistent field equation iteratively and optimizations were performed without any molecular ..... symmetric stretching bands having various intensities at 2850 and 2926 cm. ) arise from CH2 ...

  11. Simultaneous acquisition of three NMR spectra in a single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    form (GFT) NMR spectroscopy, parallel data acquisition and non-uniform sampling. The following spectra are acquired ... experiments take minutes to hours to acquire, whereas. 3D experiments, which can take up to a few days, ... ing of 902 peaks reported to be present in the blood serum. The chemical shift values were ...

  12. Unraveling the meaning of chemical shifts in protein NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjanskii, Mark V; Wishart, David S

    2017-11-01

    Chemical shifts are among the most informative parameters in protein NMR. They provide wealth of information about protein secondary and tertiary structure, protein flexibility, and protein-ligand binding. In this report, we review the progress in interpreting and utilizing protein chemical shifts that has occurred over the past 25years, with a particular focus on the large body of work arising from our group and other Canadian NMR laboratories. More specifically, this review focuses on describing, assessing, and providing some historical context for various chemical shift-based methods to: (1) determine protein secondary and super-secondary structure; (2) derive protein torsion angles; (3) assess protein flexibility; (4) predict residue accessible surface area; (5) refine 3D protein structures; (6) determine 3D protein structures and (7) characterize intrinsically disordered proteins. This review also briefly covers some of the methods that we previously developed to predict chemical shifts from 3D protein structures and/or protein sequence data. It is hoped that this review will help to increase awareness of the considerable utility of NMR chemical shifts in structural biology and facilitate more widespread adoption of chemical-shift based methods by the NMR spectroscopists, structural biologists, protein biophysicists, and biochemists worldwide. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. NMR and NQR study of the thermodynamically stable quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shastri, Ananda [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-02-10

    27Al and 61,65Cu NMR measurements are reported for powder samples of stable AlCuFe and AlCuRu icosahedral quasicrystals and their crystalline approximants, and for a AlPdMn single grain quasicrystal. Furthermore, 27Al NQR spectra at 4.2 K have been observed in the AlCuFe and AlCuRu samples. From the quadrupole perturbed NMR spectra at different magnetic fields, and from the zero field NQR spectra, a wide distribution of local electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components and principal axis system orientations was found at the Al site. A model EFG calculation based on a 1/1 AlCuFe approximant was successful in explaining the observed NQR spectra. It is concluded that the average local gradient is largely determined by the p-electron wave function at the Al site, while the width of the distribution is due to the lattice contribution to the EFG. Comparison of 63Cu NMR with 27Al NMR shows that the EFG distribution at the two sites is similar, but that the electronic contribution to the EFG is considerably smaller at the Cu site, in agreement with a more s-type wave function of the conduction electrons.

  14. Ancient Roman wall paintings mapped nondestructively by portable NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Agnes; Blümich, Bernhard; Souvorova, Daria; Del Federico, Eleonora

    2011-09-01

    The stratigraphies of decorated walls in ancient Herculaneum, Italy, were analyzed by single-sided (1)H NMR. A large version of the NMR-MOUSE® with a maximum penetration depth of 25 mm was used to map proton density profiles at different positions of the Mosaic of Neptune and Amphitrite showing considerable differences between different tesserae and the mortar bed at different times of the year. In the House of the Black Room, different mortar layers were observed on painted walls as well as different proton content in different areas due to different moisture levels and different conservation treatments. The proton density profiles of the differently treated areas indicated that one method leads to higher moisture content than the other. Untreated wall paintings from different times were profiled in a recently excavated room at the Villa of the Papyri showing two different types of mortar layer structures which identify two different techniques of preparing the walls for painting. Reflectance Fourier mid-infrared spectroscopy and in situ X-ray fluorescence measurements complemented the NMR measurements and provided additional insight into the identification of organic coatings as well as the nature of the pigments used, respectively. The information acquired nondestructively by NMR is valued for elaborating conservation strategies and for identifying different schools of craftsmen who prepared the mortar supports of the wall paintings.

  15. Numerical simulation of NQR/NMR: Applications in quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possa, Denimar; Gaudio, Anderson C; Freitas, Jair C C

    2011-04-01

    A numerical simulation program able to simulate nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments is presented, written using the Mathematica package, aiming especially applications in quantum computing. The program makes use of the interaction picture to compute the effect of the relevant nuclear spin interactions, without any assumption about the relative size of each interaction. This makes the program flexible and versatile, being useful in a wide range of experimental situations, going from NQR (at zero or under small applied magnetic field) to high-field NMR experiments. Some conditions specifically required for quantum computing applications are implemented in the program, such as the possibility of use of elliptically polarized radiofrequency and the inclusion of first- and second-order terms in the average Hamiltonian expansion. A number of examples dealing with simple NQR and quadrupole-perturbed NMR experiments are presented, along with the proposal of experiments to create quantum pseudopure states and logic gates using NQR. The program and the various application examples are freely available through the link http://www.profanderson.net/files/nmr_nqr.php. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamics in photosynthetic transient complexes studied by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanu, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis focuses on fundamental aspects of protein-protein interactions. A multidisciplinary methodology for the detection and visualization of transient, lowly-populated encounter protein complexes is described. The new methodology combined paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy with computational

  17. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  18. Improved baseline in 29Si NMR spectra of water glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraml, Jan; Sandor, Peter; Korec, Stefan; Krump, Martin; Foller, Bronislav

    2013-07-01

    It is shown by experiments that replacing one-pulse sequence by RIDE (ring down elimination) pulse sequence may dramatically improve the baseline of (29)Si NMR spectra and eliminate the signal from the probe. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. NMR-based screening of membrane protein ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanamala, Naveena; Dutta, Arpana; Beck, Barbara; Van Fleet, Bart; Hay, Kelly; Yazbak, Ahmad; Ishima, Rieko; Doemling, Alexander; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins pose problems for the application of NMR-based ligand-screening methods because of the need to maintain the proteins in a membrane mimetic environment such as detergent micelles: they add to the molecular weight of the protein, increase the viscosity of the solution, interact with

  20. Identification of Spinel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by 57Fe NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangGap Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and studied monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of smaller than 10 nm to identify between the two spinel phases, magnetite and maghemite. It is shown that 57Fe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for distinguishing between the two phases.

  1. Supporting Information Synthesis and NMR Elucidation of Novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    1. Supporting Information. Synthesis and NMR Elucidation of Novel Octa-Amino Acid Resorcin[4]arenes derivatives. Iman Elidrisi,. [a]. Pralav V. Bhatt,. [b]. Thavendran Govender,. [b]. Hendrik G. Kruger,. [b] and. Glenn E. M. Maguire,. [a]. * a. School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu--Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag.

  2. Ab initio study, investigation of NMR shielding tensors, NBO and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bond lengths, bond angles, dipole moment, electron affinity, ionization potential, electronegativy, absolute hardness, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the studied compounds were calculated in gas phase and water. NMR analysis of ...

  3. Novel Dodecaarylporphyrins: Synthesis and Variable Temperature NMR Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancilla, Mark; Lebrilla, Carlito; Ma, Jian-Guo; Medforth, Craig J.; Muzzi, Cinzia M.; Shelnutt, John A.; Smith, Kevin M.; Voss, Lisa

    1999-05-05

    An investigation of the synthesis of novel dodecaarylporphyrins using the Suzuki coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with octabromotetraarylporphyrins is reported. Studies of the dynamic properties of these new porphyrins using variable temperature (VT) 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics provide interesting insights into their dynamic properties, including the first determination of {beta} aryl rotation in a porphyrin system.

  4. Detecting and Quantifying Organic Contaminants in Sediments with NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, E. L.; Knight, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have the potential to detect and monitor free-phase organic contaminants in sediments, both in the laboratory and in the field. NMR directly detects signal from hydrogen-bearing fluids; the signal amplitude is proportional to the total amount of hydrogen present, while the signal decay rate provides information about fluid properties and interactions with the surrounding sediments. Contrasting relaxation times (T2) or diffusion coefficients (D) allow the separation of water signal from contaminant signal. In this work, we conduct a laboratory study to assess the use of NMR measurements to detect and quantify diesel, gasoline, crude oil, and tri-chloroethylene in sediments. We compare the T2 distributions for sediments containing only water, only contaminant, and both water and contaminant, confirming that the identification and quantification of contaminants using T2 data alone is limited by overlapping water and contaminant T2 distributions in some sediments. We leverage the contrast between the diffusion coefficient of water and that of diesel and crude oil to separate contaminant signal from water signal in D-T2 maps. D-T2 distributions are measured both using a pulsed gradient method and a static gradient method similar to methods used with logging tools, allowing us to compare the ability of each method to quantify diesel and crude oil when water is also present. There is the potential to apply these methods to characterize and monitor contaminated sites using commercially available NMR logging tools.

  5. NMR structural studies of protein-small molecule interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Dipen M.

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in the thesis describes the development and implementation of solution based NMR methods that provide 3D structural information on the protein-small molecule complexes. These methods can be critical for structure based drug design and can be readily applied in the early stages

  6. NMR measurements on obliquely evaporated Co-Cr films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, J.C.; van Kranenburg, H.; Takei, K.; Maeda, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of the hyperfine fields or the resonance frequencies in metals and alloys obtained by NMR measurements have been known for a long time. Recently, new experimental data have been published about thin films for studying their chemical inhomogeneities. An example is the study on

  7. [Sigma]-adducts of pyrimidines and pteridines : an NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with the results obtained by an NMR investigation on anionic σ-adducts that are formed between a number of pyrimidines and potassium amide in liquid ammonia and the covalent addition complexes that are formed between a number of pteridines and liquid ammonia or

  8. Ligand-target interactions: what can we learn from NMR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    The conformation of the ligand in complex with a macromolecular target can be studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in solution for both tightly and weakly forming complexes. In the weak binding regime (k(off) > 10(4) Hz), the structure of the bound ligand is accessible also for very large complexes (>100 kDa), which are not amenable to NMR studies in the tight binding regime. Here I review the state-of-the-art NMR methodology used for screening ligands and for the structural investigation of bound ligand conformations, in both tight and weak binding regimes. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are critically described. The NMR methodology used to investigate transiently forming complexes has expanded considerably in the past few years, opening new possibilities for a detailed description of ligand-target interactions. Novel methods for the determination of the bound ligand conformation, in particular transferred cross-correlated relaxation, are thoroughly reviewed, and their advantages with respect to established methodology are discussed, using the epothilone-tubulin complex as a primary example.

  9. NMR and the water-holding issue of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, H C; Andersen, H J

    2007-11-01

    Consumers' awareness of food quality has never been more pronounced. Meat forms a substantial part of the food consumption, and accordingly techniques to control the quality of meat are needed. In addition, a better understanding of how basic biochemical and biophysical factors influence the final meat quality is also required for optimization of the quality. Water-holding capacity (WHC) is a major quality attribute of fresh meat. However, the exact mechanisms determining the WHC of meat are not fully understood. Especially, characteristics about proposed water populations in the meat and how they are interrelated with drip loss need to be studied further. Moreover, the distribution and mobility of water in muscle during its conversion to meat and how they are affected by intrinsic and extrinsic factors are poorly elucidated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has during recent years gained increasing use within different areas of muscle physiology and meat science. NMR (1)H relaxation methodologies enable detection of the mobility of protons in heterogeneous materials and thereby provide possibilities for a characterization of the properties of water. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview of the use of NMR relaxation measurements to characterize the proposed water populations in meat and investigate how the distribution and mobility of the water changes postmortem. In addition, applications of NMR spectroscopy in metabolic studies will be considered.

  10. Study of cultured fibroblasts in vivo using NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmar, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the compartmentation of phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates in intact Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts (CEFs) using /sup 31/P NMR at 109 MHz. Because glycolysis is regulated differently in normal and virally transformed CEFs, NMR experiments were performed on both types of cells. A technique for maintaining functional cells at high densities in an NMR magnet is described. Signals were detected from cytoplasmic inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), ATP, NAD, NADH, phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine. The effect of external glucose on cytoplasmic pools of phosphates was studied. However, experiments with /sup 32/P labelled P/sub i/ showed that as the concentration of glucose in the medium was increased, the amount of phosphate sequestered in the cells increased. They conclude that there is a pool of P/sub i/ which is not detected by high resolution of NMR and that the size of this pool increases as the rate of glycolysis increases. These effects were found only in cultured cells; the data for transformed and normal cells were similar. Longitudinal relaxation times of intracellular phosphates in normal, transformed, and primary CEFs were measured.

  11. Recent excitements in protein NMR: Large proteins and biologically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The advent of Transverse Relaxation Optimized SpectroscopY (TROSY) and perdeuteration allowed biomolecularNMR spectroscopists to overcome the size limitation barrier (~20 kDa) in de novo structure determination of proteins.The utility of these techniques was immediately demonstrated on large proteins and protein ...

  12. A primer to nutritional metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savorani, Francesco; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using high throughput NMR metabolomics for nutritional studies with emphasis on the workflow and data analytical methods for generation of new knowledge. The paper describes one-by-one the major research activities in the interdisciplinary...

  13. Pulsed zero field NMR of solids and liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, A.M.

    1987-02-01

    This work describes the development and applications to solids and liquid crystals of zero field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with pulsed dc magnetic fields. Zero field NMR experiments are one approach for obtaining high resolution spectra of amorphous and polycrystalline materials which normally (in high field) display broad featureless spectra. The behavior of the spin system can be coherently manipulated and probed in zero field with dc magnetic field pulses which are employed in a similar manner to radiofrequency pulses in high field NMR experiments. Nematic phases of liquid crystalline systems are studied in order to observe the effects of the removal of an applied magnetic field on sample alignment and molecular order parameters. In nematic phases with positive and negative magnetic susceptibility anisotropies, a comparison between the forms of the spin interactions in high and low fields is made. High resolution zero field NMR spectra of unaligned smectic samples are also obtained and reflect the symmetry of the liquid crystalline environment. These experiments are a sensitive measure of the motionally induced asymmetry in biaxial phases. Homonuclear and heteronuclear solute spin systems are compared in the nematic and smectic phases. Nonaxially symmetric dipolar couplings are reported for several systems. The effects of residual fields in the presence of a non-zero asymmetry parameter are discussed theoretically and presented experimentally. Computer programs for simulations of these and other experimental results are also reported. 179 refs., 75 figs.

  14. Contribution of proton NMR relaxation to the investigation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present in this work a review concerning wide frequency range 1 proton NMR relaxation studies performed in compounds exhibiting columnar mesophases, namely the Colho mesophase in the case of a liquid crystal of discotic molecules and the h mesophase in the case of a liquid crystal of biforked molecules.

  15. NMR Probe for Electrons in Semiconductor Mesoscopic Structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-11-14

    Nov 14, 2009 ... Strongly correlated electron systems: Overview. Problem: How to detect the electronic state in nanoscale structures. Two examples where the usual methods don't work. Solution: We showed NMR techniques can be very useful in such circumstances. Outline ...

  16. Ordering in nematic liquid crystals from NMR cross-polarization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... The measurement of dipolar couplings between nuclei is a convenient way of obtatining directly liquid crystalline ordering through NMR since the coupling is dependent on the average orientation of the dipolar vector in the magnetic field which also aligns the liquid crystal. However, measurement of the ...

  17. Ordering in nematic liquid crystals from NMR cross-polarization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The measurement of dipolar couplings between nuclei is a convenient way of obtatining directly liquid crystalline ordering through NMR since the coupling is dependent on the average orientation of the dipolar vector in the magnetic field which also aligns the liquid crystal. However, measurement of the dipolar ...

  18. Structure of Coordination Complexes: The Synergy between NMR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illustrative examples of how NMR spectroscopy and computational chemistry data can be used in synergy to gain information on structure, coordination mode, bonding, symmetry and isomeric distribution of transition metal complexes, is presented. Isomer distribution and the most stable structures in a series of ...

  19. Graphical interpretation of Boolean operators for protein NMR assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, Dries; Dijkstra, Klaas; Hanoulle, Xavier; Lippens, Guy

    We have developed a graphics based algorithm for semi-automated protein NMR assignments. Using the basic sequential triple resonance assignment strategy, the method is inspired by the Boolean operators as it applies "AND"-, "OR"- and "NOT"-like operations on planes pulled out of the classical

  20. Evaluation of Thin Bed Using Resistivity Borehole and NMR Imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better characterize thin beds and maximize reservoir potential, the resistivity borehole imaging and NMR techniques were adopted in this research study. In addition, the Thomas Stieber equations using laminated sand-shale sequence were employed in calculating parameters such as sand porosity, hydrocarbon ...

  1. synthesis and nmr elucidation of novel pentacycloundecane derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    SYNTHESIS AND NMR ELUCIDATION OF NOVEL. PENTACYCLOUNDECANE DERIVED PEPTIDES. Rajshekhar Karpoormath, a. Oluseye K. Onajole, a. Thavendran Govender, b. Glenn E. M. Maguire, a and Hendrik G. Kruger a* a. School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa b. School of ...

  2. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  3. Synthesis, IR and NMR spectral correlations in some symmetrical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of diimines have been synthesized by coupling of diamine with substituted benzaldehydes. The purities of these diimines were checked by their analytical and spectroscopic data. The spectral frequencies νCN (cm-1), NMR chemical shifts (δ, ppm) of C-H and C=N of these diimines have been correlated with ...

  4. The effects of ozonation of soil on natural soil organic matter; Ueber die Auswirkungen einer Ozonbehandlung von Boden auf die natuerliche organische Bodenmatrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautt, C.C.

    1997-12-01

    The effect of soil ozonation of natural soil organic matter and on the composition of the water extractable part was investigated by means of non-specific chemical and biological methods of measurement and by analysing the different species using GC/MS, HPLC and IC. More than 130 different organic substances could be identified in the aqueous extract, which comprised 10-70% of the dissolved organic carbon. Major products were carbonyls, short chain dicarboxylic acids, benzene polycarboxylic acids and, as final products, oxalic and formic acid. During ozonation about 1% of the original total organic carbon was taken out as volatile carbonyls via the exhaust gas. Low ozone doses mobilized soil organic matter to a large extent and decreased pH down to a value as low as 3. Longer ozonation resulted in a significant decrease of dissolved organic carbon, due to mineralization of up to 90% of the original organic carbon, and an increase in pH. The mineralization of organic nitrogen lead mainly to the formation of ammonia, but was significantly slower than the mineralization of organic carbon, resulting in an accumulation of nitrogenious organic substances in the aqueous extract. Soil acidification and oxidative destruction of the complexing high molecular weight organic substances increased the mobilisation of heavy metals into the aqueous phase. Some heavy metal species were completely mobilised into the aqueous extract. Ozonation up to a consumption of 40 g per kg of soil did not show a significant reduction in colony forming units. Total number of colony forming units in the ozonated soil decreased by a maximum of two orders of magnitude. Ozonated soil as well as the aqueous extract showed a better biodegradability. However, toxic intermediates might be produced at low ozone doses, as was indicated by the bioluminescence inhibition test of photobacterium phosphoreum. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Auswirkungen einer Ozonbehandlung von Boden auf die natuerliche organische

  5. Adiabatic Low-Pass J Filters for Artifact Suppression in Heteronuclear NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Benie, Andrew J; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    2009-01-01

    NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts.......NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts....

  6. Radiation exposure and radiation risk of chest X-rays performed on an intensive care unit; Strahlenexposition und Strahlenrisiko von Roentgen-Thorax-Aufnahmen auf der Intensivstation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keske, U.; Hierholzer, J.; Ehrenstein, T.; Zippler, A.; Hidajat, N.; Paust, E.; Cordes, M.; Matschke, S.; Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Pappert, D. [Abt. fuer Anaesthesie und Operative Intensivmedizin, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation exposure of chest X-rays (CXR) performed on an intensive care unit (ICU) and quantify the resulting radiation risk. Data of 44 patients from an ICU were analyzed. An average of 52 CXRs were performed per patient. With the help of conversion factor charts based on a mathematical human phantom, organ doses were calculated for every patient. Effective dose (E) was calculated with the weighting factors of the ICRP 60. The resulting, age-corrected loss of life expectancy (LLE) was calculated. The average effective dose was 0.053 mSv for a single CXR and 2.73 mSv for all CXRs per patient. The average LLE was 0.026 days per CXR and 1.45 days for all CXRs per patient. It is concluded that radiation exposure and radiation risk of daily CXRs on an ICU are low and neglectable in most clinical situations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Strahlenexposition und das Strahlenrisiko von auf einer Intensivstation durchgefuehrten Roentgen-Thorax-Aufnahmen abzuschaetzen. Daten von 44 Intensivstations-Patienten wurden analysiert. Durchschnittlich wurden 52 Aufnahmen pro Patient angefertigt. Mit Hilfe von Konversionsfaktor-Tabellen, welche auf einem mathematischen menschlichen Phantom basieren, wurden fuer jeden Patienten die Organdosen ermittelt und daraus mit den Wichtungsfaktoren der ICRP 60 die effektive Dosis (E) berechnet. Das daraus resultierende durchschnittliche, bezueglich des Patientenalters korrigierte Lebenszeitrisiko (LZV{sub 0}) wurde kalkuliert. Die effektive Dosis betrug durchschnittlich 0,053 mSv pro Aufnahme und 2,73 mSv fuer alle Aufnahmen eines Patienten. Der Lebenszeitverlust betrug durschnittlich 0,026 Tage pro Aufnahme und 1,45 Tage fuer alle Aufnahmen eines Patienten. Die Strahlenexposition und auch das Strahlenrisiko von taeglich durchgefuehrten Roentgen-Thorax-Aufnahmen auf Intensivstationen ist somit als gering einzuschaetzen und duerfte in den meisten klinischen Situationen zu vernachlaessigen

  7. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  8. Unilateral NMR applied to the conservation of works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Federico, Eleonora; Centeno, Silvia A; Kehlet, Cindie; Currier, Penelope; Stockman, Denise; Jerschow, Alexej

    2010-01-01

    In conventional NMR, samples from works of art in sizes above those considered acceptable in the field of art conservation would have to be removed to place them into the bore of large superconducting magnets. The portable permanent-magnet-based systems, by contrast, can be used in situ to study works of art, in a noninvasive manner. One of these portable NMR systems, NMR-MOUSE(R), measures the information contained in one pixel in an NMR image from a region of about 1 cm(2), which can be as thin as 2-3 microm. With such a high depth resolution, profiles through the structures of art objects can be measured to characterize the materials, the artists' techniques, and the deterioration processes. A novel application of the technique to study a deterioration process and to follow up a conservation treatment is presented in which micrometer-thick oil stains on paper are differentiated and characterized. In this example, the spin-spin relaxation T (2) of the stain is correlated to the iodine number and to the degree of cross-linking of the oil, parameters that are crucial in choosing an appropriate conservation treatment to remove them. It is also shown that the variation of T (2) over the course of treatments with organic solvents can be used to monitor the progress of the conservation interventions. It is expected that unilateral NMR in combination with multivariate data analysis will fill a gap within the set of high-spatial-resolution techniques currently available for the noninvasive analysis of materials in works of art, where procedures to study the inorganic components are currently far more developed than those suitable for the study of the organic components.

  9. Study of correlations in molecular motion by multiple quantum NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is a very useful tool for characterizing molecular configurations through the measurement of transition frequencies and dipolar couplings. The measurement of spectral lineshapes, spin-lattice relaxation times, and transverse relaxation times also provide us with valuable information about correlations in molecular motion. The new technique of multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance has numerous advantages over the conventional single quantum NMR techniques in obtaining information about static and dynamic interactions of coupled spin systems. In the first two chapters, the theoretical background of spin Hamiltonians and the density matrix formalism of multiple quantum NMR is discussed. The creation and detection of multiple quantum coherence by multiple pulse sequence are discussed. Prototype multiple quantum spectra of oriented benzene are presented. Redfield relaxation theory and the application of multiple quantum NMR to the study of correlations in fluctuations are presented. A specific example of an oriented methyl group relaxed by paramagnetic impurities is studied in detail. The study of possible correlated motion between two coupled methyl groups by multiple quantum NMR is presented. For a six spin system it is shown that the four-quantum spectrum is sensitive to two-body correlations, and serves a ready test of correlated motion. The study of the spin-lattice dynamics of orienting or tunneling methyl groups (CH/sub 3/ and CD/sub 3/) at low temperatures is presented. The anisotropic spin-lattice relaxation of deuterated hexamethylbenzene, caused by the sixfold reorientation of the molecules, is investigated, and the NMR spectrometers and other experimental details are discussed.

  10. NMR in natural products: understanding conformation, configuration and receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Teresa

    2012-05-01

    Covering: up to 2011. Natural products are of tremendous importance in both traditional and modern medicine. For medicinal chemistry natural products represent a challenge, as their chemical synthesis and modification are complex processes, which require many, often stereo-selective, synthetic steps. A prerequisite for the design of analogs of natural products, with more accessible synthetic routes, is the availability of their bioactive conformation. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography are the two techniques of choice to investigate the structure of natural products. In this review, I describe the most recent advances in NMR to study the conformation of natural products either free in solution or bound to their cellular receptors. In chapter 2, I focus on the use of residual dipolar couplings (RDC). On the basis of a few examples, I discuss the benefit of complementing classical NMR parameters, such as NOEs and scalar couplings, with dipolar couplings to simultaneously determine both the conformation and the relative configuration of natural products in solution. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the study of the structure of natural products in complex with their cellular receptors and is further divided in two sections. In the first section, I describe two solution-state NMR methodologies to investigate the binding mode of low-affinity ligands to macromolecular receptors. The first approach, INPHARMA (Interligand Noes for PHArmacophore Mapping), is based on the observation of interligand NOEs between two small molecules binding competitively to a common receptor. INPHARMA reveals the relative binding mode of the two ligands, thus allowing ligand superimposition. The second approach is based on paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) of ligand resonances in the presence of a receptor containing a paramagnetic center. In the second section, I focus on solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a tool to access the bioactive conformation of

  11. NMR metabolomics for assessment of exercise effects with mouse biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Moyec, Laurence; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Breuneval, Carole; Petot, Helene; Billat, Veronique L. [Universite Evry Val d' Essonne, UBIAE INSERM U902, Evry Cedex (France); Triba, Mohamed N. [Universite Paris 13, CSPBAT UMR 7244, Bobigny (France)

    2012-08-15

    Exercise modulates the metabolome in urine or blood as demonstrated previously for humans and animal models. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, the present study compares the metabolic consequences of an exhaustive exercise at peak velocity (Vp) and at critical velocity (Vc) on mice. Since small-volume samples (blood and urine) were collected, dilution was necessary to acquire NMR spectra. Consequently, specific processing methods were applied before statistical analysis. According to the type of exercise (control group, Vp group and Vc group), 26 male mice were divided into three groups. Mice were sacrificed 2 h after the end of exercise, and urine and blood samples were drawn from each mouse. Proton NMR spectra were acquired with urine and deproteinized blood. The NMR data were aligned with the icoshift method and normalised using the probabilistic quotient method. Finally, data were analysed with the orthogonal projection of latent-structure analysis. The spectra obtained with deproteinized blood can neither discriminate the control mice from exercised mice nor discriminate according to the duration of the exercise. With urine samples, a significant statistical model can be estimated when comparing the control mice to both groups, Vc and Vp. The best model is obtained according to the exercise duration with all mice. Taking into account the spectral regions having the highest correlations, the discriminant metabolites are allantoin, inosine and branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, metabolomic profiles assessed with NMR are highly dependent on the exercise. These results show that urine samples are more informative than blood samples and that the duration of the exercise is a more important parameter to influence the metabolomic status than the exercise velocity. (orig.)

  12. Structure elucidation and complete NMR spectral assignments of new furostanol glycosides from Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2009-09-01

    Two new furostanol glycosides, torvosides O (1) and P (2), were isolated from leaves of Solanum torvum. Their structures were completely and unambiguously assigned by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TOCSY, HSQC, ROESY and HMBC), ESI-MS spectrometry and chemical methods. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fine-scale measurements of diffusivity in a microbial mat with NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, A.; Dusschoten, van D.; Damgaard, L.R.; Beer, de D.; Kuhl, M.; As, van H.

    2001-01-01

    Noninvasive 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging was used to investigate the diffusive properties of microbial mats in two dimensions. Pulsed field gradient NMR was used to acquire images of the H2O diffusion coefficient, Ds and multiecho imaging NMR was used to obtain images of the water

  14. LC-NMR coupling technology: recent advancements and applications in natural products analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Krucker, M.; Beek, van T.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Gerothanassis, I.P.; Albert, K.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) coupled with separation technologies and their application in natural product analysis is given and discussed. The different modes of LC-NMR operation are described, as well as how technical improvements assist in establishing LC-NMR

  15. Der Einfluss von CD55 auf die Komplementaktivierung durch einen IgG3 Antikörper gegen den epidermalen Wachstumsfaktorrezeptor

    OpenAIRE

    Rösner, Thies

    2015-01-01

    Durch die Bindung von C1q an zielzellgebundene Antikörper wird die klassische komplementabhängige Lyse oder CDC (engl. complement dependent cytotoxicity, CDC) initiiert. Im Vergleich mit den übrigen IgG-Isotypen besitzt IgG3 eine größere Flexibilität und eine stärkere Fähigkeit, C1q zu binden Interessanterweise induzieren IgG3 Antikörper verglichen nicht konsequenterweise eine bessere CDC. Auf Grund dieser widersprüchlichen Daten war das Ziel dieser Arbeit, die molekularen Eigenschaften einer...

  16. Einfluss von Zink- und Lipidalimentation auf die Delta3,Delta2-Enoyl-CoA-Isomerase und ausgewählte Merkmale des Lipidstoffwechsels wachsender Ratten

    OpenAIRE

    Justus, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Die meisten Veränderungen, von denen der Lipidstoffwechsel im Zinkmangel betroffen ist, werden auch vom Fettsäuremuster der Nahrungsfette beeinflusst. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss einer marginalen Zinkversorgung auf die Delta3,Delta2-Enoyl-CoA-Isomerase (ECI) als essentielles Enzym der beta-Oxidation ungesättigter Fettsäuren in Abhängigkeit vom Sättigungsgrad alimentärer Fettsäuren (FS) am Modelltier Ratte zu untersuchen. Gleichzeitig sollten zinkmangelbedingte Veränderungen im hep...

  17. Das Weltbild in US-amerikanischen High School „World Geography“-Lehrwerken. Eine geographiedidaktische Untersuchung mit Fokussierung auf den Kulturraum Europa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamann, Berta

    2004-01-01

    Wie in Deutschland gilt auch in den USA das Schulbuch als „heimlicher Lehrplan“. Seine Analyse ermöglicht daher eine Aussage über die Inhalte des Unterrichts selbst. Die vorliegende Untersuchung stützt sich auf die fünf Lehrwerke, die im Jahr 2000 den amerikanischen Schulbuchmarkt für High School-Lehrwerke im Kurs „World Geography“ beherrschten. Die Inhalte des Geographielehrbuchs und darüber hinaus das Weltbild mit allen darin enthaltenen Wertungen und Werten bestimmt trotz der Kulturhoheit ...

  18. Grünland? Über den Stand der Wissenschaft zu den Abschmelzprozessen auf Grönland und den möglichen Folgen.

    OpenAIRE

    Oerter, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Von der Gesamtfläche Grönlands von 2,166 Mill. Quadratkilometern sind nur 0,410 Mill. Quadratkilometer eisfrei, das heißt 81,1 % sind mit Inlandeis bedeckt. Das Inlandeis wird aus Schneeniederschlägen gebildet, die sich unter zunehmendem Druck allmählich zu Gletschereis verwandeln. Das Inlandeis wurde also aus Süßwasser gebildet und muss deutlich unterschieden werden von dem aus gefrorenem Meerwasser entstandenem Meereis, das das Nordpolarmeer bedeckt. Das auf Grönland liegende Inlandeis hat ...

  19. Numerical simulations on the effect of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry and range of sight; Numerische Simulationen zur Wirkung des Aerosols auf die troposphaerische Chemie und die Sichtweite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, N.

    2002-05-01

    In this study the mesoscale KAMM/DRAS model system was extended by an MADE aerosol module with a view to studying tropospheric aerosols in terms of composition and size distribution in the greatest possible detail. In particular, the MADE aerosol module was supplemented by a routine for soot. This routine involves the parameterisation of the ageing process of soot through coagulation of soot particles with soluble particles and condensation of sulphuric acid on the soot particles. This transforms the soot from an external into an internal mixture and changes its hygroscopic properties. Thus extended the model system was used to study two aspects of the effects of aerosols on the physical and chemical environment of the troposphere. The first of these two tasks was to quantify the influence of heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on tropospheric chemistry under summer smog conditions. The second was to study the optical properties of aerosols. The paper shows a way of deriving extinction coefficients from the calculated aerosol distributions. This is then used as a starting point for developing a method for determining range of sight. [German] Das mesoskalige Modellsystem KAMM/DRAIS wird im Rahmen dieser Arbeit um das Aerosolmodul MADE erweitert, um das troposphaerische Aerosol sowohl bezueglich seiner Zusammensetzung als auch bezueglich seiner Groessenverteilung moeglichst detailliert zu behandeln. Insbesondere wird das Aerosolmodul MADE um die Behandlung der Substanz Russ ergaenzt. Hierbei wird der Alterungsprozess von Russ durch Koagulation der Russteilchen mit loeslichen Partikeln und durch Kondensation von Schwefelsaeure auf den Russpartikeln, wodurch der Russ von einer externen in eine interne Mischung uebergeht und seine hygroskopischen Eigenschaften aendert, parametrisiert. Mit dem so erweiterten Modellsystem wird fuer zwei Themenschwerpunkte die Wirkung des Aerosols auf die physikalischen und chemischen Bedingungen in der

  20. Aspekte der Sozialisation zum Arzt : eine empirische Studie über Auswirkungen der praktischen Makroanatomie auf Medizinstudierende und deren Einstellung zu Sterben und Tod

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Seit einigen Jahren wird verstärkt untersucht, wie das Verhältnis zwischen Arzt/Ärztin und PatientIn verbessert werden kann und welchen Einfluss die Studienbedingungen auf die spätere Arbeitsweise von Ärzten/Ärztinnen haben. In dieser Dissertation wird der Stellenwert der makroskopischen Anatomie für die Sozialisation zum Arzt / zur Ärztin behandelt, also der Lehrveranstaltung, in der die Studierenden eine Leiche präparieren. Insbesondere in den angloamerikanischen Ländern sind hierzu bereits...