Volume of Fluid (VOF) type advection methods in two-phase flow: a comparative study
Aniszewski, Wojciech; Marek, Maciej
2014-01-01
In this paper, four distinct approaches to Volume of Fluid (VOF) computational method are compared. Two of the methods are the 'simplified' VOF formulations, in that they do not require geometrical interface reconstruction. The assessment is made possible by implementing all four approaches into the same code as a switchable options. This allows to rule out possible influence of other parts of numerical scheme, be it the discretisation of Navier-Stokes equations or chosen approximation of curvature, so that we are left with conclusive arguments because only one factor differs the compared methods. The comparison is done in the framework of CLSVOF (Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid), so that all four methods are coupled with Level Set interface, which is used to compute pressure jump via the GFM (Ghost-Fluid Method). Results presented include static advections, full N-S solutions in laminar and turbulent flows. The paper is aimed at research groups who are implementing VOF methods in their computations or inte...
A stencil-like volume of fluid (VOF) method for tracking free interface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xiao-wei; FAN Jun-fei
2008-01-01
A stencil-like volume of fluid (VOF) method is proposed for tracking free interface. A stencil on a grid cell is worked out according to the normal direction of the interface, in which only three interface positions are possible in 2D cases, and the interface can be reconstructed by only requiring the known local volume fraction information. On the other hand, the fluid-occupying-length is defined on each side of the stencil, through which a unified fluid-occupying volume model and a unified algorithm can be obtained to solve the interface advection equation. The method is suitable for the arbitrary geometry of the grid cell, and is extendible to 3D cases. Typical numerical examples show that the current method can give "sharp" results for tracking free interface.
Cellwise conservative unsplit advection for the volume of fluid method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
We present a cellwise conservative unsplit (CCU) advection scheme for the volume of fluid method (VOF) in 2D. Contrary to other schemes based on explicit calculations of the flux balances, the CCU advection adopts a cellwise approach where the pre-images of the control volumes are traced backward......We present a cellwise conservative unsplit (CCU) advection scheme for the volume of fluid method (VOF) in 2D. Contrary to other schemes based on explicit calculations of the flux balances, the CCU advection adopts a cellwise approach where the pre-images of the control volumes are traced...
The volume of fluid method in spherical coordinates
Janse, A.M.C.; Dijk, P.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2000-01-01
The volume of fluid (VOF) method is a numerical technique to track the developing free surfaces of liquids in motion. This method can, for example, be applied to compute the liquid flow patterns in a rotating cone reactor. For this application a spherical coordinate system is most suited. The novel
A second order volume of fluid (VOF) scheme for numerical simulation of 2-D breaking waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Zhi; DONG Guo-hai
2007-01-01
Among all environmental forces acting on ocean structures and marine vessels, those resulting from wave impacts are likely to yield the highest loads. Being highly nonlinear, transient and complex, a theoretical analysis of their impact would be impossible without numerical simulations. In this paper,a pressure-split two-stage numerical algorithm is proposed based on Volume Of Fluid (VOF) methodology.The algorithm is characterized by introduction of two pressures at each half and full cycle time step, and thus it is a second-order accurate algorithm in time. A simplified second-order Godunov-type solver is used for the continuity equations. The method is applied to simulation of breaking waves in a 2-D water tank, and a qualitative comparison with experimental photo observations is made. Quite consistent results are observed between simulations and experiments. Commercially available software and Boundary Integral Method (BIM) have also been used to simulate the same problem. The results from present code and BIM are in good agreement with respect to breaking location and timing, while the results obtained from the commercial software which is only first-order accurate in time has clearly showed a temporal and spatial lag, verifying the need to use a higher order numerical scheme.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈宇翔; 郜冶; 刘乾坤
2011-01-01
In order to study the slamming problem of a horizontal circular cylinder, a numerical water tank was set up. While water was entering a neutrally buoyant circular cylinder, the volume of fluid ( VOF) method coupled with the dynamic mesh method was used to simulate the liquid-gas multiphase flow and the cylinder motion. Free surface deformation such as jet formation, movement, and the air cushion effect was captured; vertical motion of the cylinder was predicted and the turbulent effect of the water-entry into the cylinder was discussed. Favorable agreement was obtained between computational results and the datas of the experiments. The cylinder motion was also predicted accurately by the computation and the turbulent effect was not significant during the water-entry into the cylinder.%为了研究水平圆柱砰击入水问题,建立了数值水池,应用VOF结合动网格技术的方法对零浮力水平圆柱入水过程的气液两相流动和刚体运动耦合的问题进行了数值模拟.捕捉了圆柱入水过程中射流的形成、运动和空气垫效应等自由表面的变化现象,模拟了圆柱竖直运动过程；讨论了湍流粘性对圆柱入水的影响.结果表明:圆柱入水的数值模拟结果和实验数据符合很好；圆柱运动轨迹同样和实验吻合；湍流粘性对圆柱入水过程影响很小.
Effect of dynamic contact angle in a volume of fluid (VOF) model for a microfluidic capillary flow.
Ashish Saha, Auro; Mitra, Sushanta K
2009-11-15
We perform three-dimensional numerical and experimental study of the dynamic contact angle using volume of fluid (VOF) method applied to microfluidic channels with integrated pillars. Initially, we evaluated different dynamic contact angle models (hydrodynamic, molecular kinetic and empirical) for capillary filling of a two-dimensional microchannel using analytical formulation. Further, the models which require a minimum prescription of adjustable parameters are only used for the study of capillary filling of microchannels with integrated pillars using different working fluids such as DI water, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. Different microchannel geometry with varying diameter/height/spacing were studied for circular pillars. Effect of square pillars and changing the overall number of pillars on the capillary phenomena were also simulated. Our study demonstrated that the dynamic contact angle models modifies the transient response of the meniscus displacement and also the observed trends are model specific for the various microchannel geometries and working fluids. However, the different models have minimal effect on the meniscus profile. Different inlet boundary conditions were applied to observe the effect of grid resolution selected for numerical study on the capillary filling time. A grid dependent dynamic contact angle model which incorporates effective slip in the model was also used to observe the grid convergence of the numerical results. The grid independence was shown to improve marginally by applying the grid dependent dynamic contact angle model. Further we did numerical experiments of capillary filling considering variable surface wettability on the top and bottom walls of the microchannel with alternate hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns. The meniscus front pinning was noticed for a high wetting contrast between the patterns. Non uniform streamline patterns indicated mixing of the fluid when using patterned walls. Such a microfluidic device with
Numerical modeling of spray combustion with an advanced VOF method
Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Liaw, Paul
1995-01-01
This paper summarizes the technical development and validation of a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical method using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and a Lagrangian tracking model which can be employed to analyze general multiphase flow problems with free surface mechanism. The gas-liquid interface mass, momentum and energy conservation relationships are modeled by continuum surface mechanisms. A new solution method is developed such that the present VOF model can be applied for all-speed flow regimes. The objectives of the present study are to develop and verify the fractional volume-of-fluid cell partitioning approach into a predictor-corrector algorithm and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach by simulating benchmark problems including laminar impinging jets, shear coaxial jet atomization and shear coaxial spray combustion flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VOLD, ERIK L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SCANNAPIECO, TONY J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-10-16
A sub-grid mix model based on a volume-of-fluids (VOF) representation is described for computational simulations of the transient mixing between reactive fluids, in which the atomically mixed components enter into the reactivity. The multi-fluid model allows each fluid species to have independent values for density, energy, pressure and temperature, as well as independent velocities and volume fractions. Fluid volume fractions are further divided into mix components to represent their 'mixedness' for more accurate prediction of reactivity. Time dependent conversion from unmixed volume fractions (denoted cf) to atomically mixed (af) fluids by diffusive processes is represented in resolved scale simulations with the volume fractions (cf, af mix). In unresolved scale simulations, the transition to atomically mixed materials begins with a conversion from unmixed material to a sub-grid volume fraction (pf). This fraction represents the unresolved small scales in the fluids, heterogeneously mixed by turbulent or multi-phase mixing processes, and this fraction then proceeds in a second step to the atomically mixed fraction by diffusion (cf, pf, af mix). Species velocities are evaluated with a species drift flux, {rho}{sub i}u{sub di} = {rho}{sub i}(u{sub i}-u), used to describe the fluid mixing sources in several closure options. A simple example of mixing fluids during 'interfacial deceleration mixing with a small amount of diffusion illustrates the generation of atomically mixed fluids in two cases, for resolved scale simulations and for unresolved scale simulations. Application to reactive mixing, including Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), is planned for future work.
Accounting for Surface Concentrations Using a VOF Front Tracking Method in Multiphase Flow
Martin, David Warren
2015-01-01
In this dissertation, we present a numerical method for trackingsurfactants on an interface in multiphase flow, along withapplications of the method to two physical problems. We alsopresent an extension of our method to track charged droplets. Ourmethod combines a traditional volume of fluid (VOF) method withmarker tracking. After describing this method in detail, wepresent a series of tests we used to validate our method. Theapplications we consider are the coalescence of surfactant-ladendro...
Evaluation of two-phase flow solvers using Level Set and Volume of Fluid methods
Bilger, C.; Aboukhedr, M.; Vogiatzaki, K.; Cant, R. S.
2017-09-01
Two principal methods have been used to simulate the evolution of two-phase immiscible flows of liquid and gas separated by an interface. These are the Level-Set (LS) method and the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method. Both methods attempt to represent the very sharp interface between the phases and to deal with the large jumps in physical properties associated with it. Both methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. For example, the VoF method is known to be prone to excessive numerical diffusion, while the basic LS method has some difficulty in conserving mass. Major progress has been made in remedying these deficiencies, and both methods have now reached a high level of physical accuracy. Nevertheless, there remains an issue, in that each of these methods has been developed by different research groups, using different codes and most importantly the implementations have been fine tuned to tackle different applications. Thus, it remains unclear what are the remaining advantages and drawbacks of each method relative to the other, and what might be the optimal way to unify them. In this paper, we address this gap by performing a direct comparison of two current state-of-the-art variations of these methods (LS: RCLSFoam and VoF: interPore) and implemented in the same code (OpenFoam). We subject both methods to a pair of benchmark test cases while using the same numerical meshes to examine a) the accuracy of curvature representation, b) the effect of tuning parameters, c) the ability to minimise spurious velocities and d) the ability to tackle fluids with very different densities. For each method, one of the test cases is chosen to be fairly benign while the other test case is expected to present a greater challenge. The results indicate that both methods can be made to work well on both test cases, while displaying different sensitivity to the relevant parameters.
Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.
2016-06-01
In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.
Evaluating curvature for the volume of fluid method via interface reconstruction
Evrard, Fabien; Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend
2016-11-01
The volume of fluid method (VOF) is widely adopted for the simulation of interfacial flows. A critical step in VOF modelling is to evaluate the local mean curvature of the fluid interface for the computation of surface tension. Most existing curvature evaluation techniques exhibit errors due to the discrete nature of the field they are dealing with, and potentially to the smoothing of this field that the method might require. This leads to the production of inaccurate or unphysical results. We present a curvature evaluation method which aims at greatly reducing these errors. The interface is reconstructed from the volume fraction field and the curvature is evaluated by fitting local quadric patches onto the resulting triangulation. The patch that best fits the triangulated interface can be found by solving a local minimisation problem. Combined with a partition of unity strategy with compactly supported radial basis functions, the method provides a semi-global implicit expression for the interface from which curvature can be exactly derived. The local mean curvature is then integrated back on the Eulerian mesh. We show a detailed analysis of the associated errors and comparisons with existing methods. The method can be extended to unstructured meshes. Financial support from Petrobras is gratefully acknowledged.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xue-yan; REN Bing; WANG Guo Yu; WANG Yong-xue
2011-01-01
In the present study,a new algorithm based on the Volume Of Fluid (vOF) method is developed to simulate the hydrodynamic characteristics on an arc crown wall.Structured grids are generated by the coordinate transform method in an arbitrary complex region.The Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional incompressible viscous flows are discretized in the Body Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system.The transformed SIMPLE algorithm is proposed to modify the pressure-velocity field and a transformed VOF method is used to trace the free surface.Hydrodynamic characteristics on an arc crown wall are obtained by the improved numerical model based on the BFC system (BFC model).The velocity field,the pressure field and the time profiles of the water surface near the arc crown wall obtained by using the BFC model and the Cartesian model are compared.The BFC model is verified by experimental results.
A NEW NUMERICAL WAVE FLUME COMBINING THE 0-1 TYPE BEM AND THE VOF METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Li-dong; SUN Da-peng; WU Hao
2012-01-01
A new coupling numerical wave model,based on both the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method,is established by taking advantages of the both methods to solve the wave-structure interaction problems.In this model,the wave transformation in front of structures is calculated by the 0-1 type BEM,and the intense wave motions near the structures are calculated by the VOF method.In this paper,the characteristics of the BEM and the VOF method are discussed first,and then the coupling treatments are describcd in detail.In the end,the accuracy and the validity of the coupling model are examined by comparing the numerical results with experiment results and other numerical results available for the interactions between regular waves with a monolayer horizontal plate.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, Taro, E-mail: watanabe_t@qe.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-7895 (Japan); Takata, Takashi, E-mail: takata.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-chou, Oarai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 331-1393 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: yamaguchi@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Thin liquid film flow under CCFL was modeled and coupled with the VOF method. • The difference of the liquid flow rate in experiments of CCFL was evaluated. • The proposed VOF method can quantitatively predict CCFL with low computational cost. - Abstract: Countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) in a heat transfer tube at a steam generator (SG) of pressurized water reactor (PWR) is one of the important issues on the core cooling under a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to improve the prediction accuracy of the CCFL characteristics in numerical simulations using the volume of fluid (VOF) method with less computational cost, a thin liquid film flow in a countercurrent flow is modeled independently and is coupled with the VOF method. The CCFL characteristics is evaluated analytically in condition of a maximizing down-flow rate as a function of a void fraction or a liquid film thickness considering a critical thickness. Then, we have carried out numerical simulations of a countercurrent flow in a vertical tube so as to investigate the CCFL characteristics and compare them with the previous experimental results. As a result, it has been concluded that the effect of liquid film entrainment by upward gas flux will cause the difference in the experiments.
Application of the VOF method based on unstructured quadrilateral mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Chun-ning; SHI Ying
2008-01-01
To simulate two-dimensional free-surface flows with complex boundaries directly and accurately, a novel VOF (Volume-of-fluid) method based on unstructured quadrilateral mesh is presented. Without introducing any complicated boundary treatment or artificial diffusion, this method treated curved boundaries directly by utilizing the inherent merit of unstructured mesh in fitting curves. The PLIC (Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation) method was adopted to obtain a second-order accurate linearized reconstruction approximation and the MLER (Modified Lagrangian-Eulerian Re-map) method was introduced to advect fluid volumes on unstructured mesh. Moreover, an analytical relation for the interface's line constant vs. the volume clipped by the interface was developed so as to improve the method's efficiency. To validate this method, a comprehensive series of large straining advection tests were performed. Numerical results provide convincing evidences for the method's high volume conservative accuracy and second-order shape error convergence rate. Also, a dramatic improvement on computational accuracy over its unstructured triangular mesh counterpart is checked.
Experimental Validation of Volume of Fluid Method for a Sluice Gate Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Oner
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Laboratory experiments are conducted for 2D turbulent free surface flow which interacts with a vertical sluice gate. The velocity field, on the centerline of the channel flow upstream of the gate is measured using the particle image velocimetry technique. The numerical simulation of the same flow is carried out by solving the governing equations, Reynolds-averaged continuity and Navier-Stokes equations, using finite element method. In the numerical solution of the governing equations, the standard k-ε turbulence closure model is used to define the turbulent viscosity. The measured horizontal velocity distribution at the inflow boundary of the solution domain is taken as the boundary condition. The volume of fluid (VOF method is used to determine the flow profile in the channel. Taking into account of the flow characteristics, the computational domain is divided into five subdomains, each having different mesh densities. Three different meshes with five subdomains are employed for the numerical model. A grid convergence analysis indicates that the discretization error in the predicted velocities on the fine mesh remains within 2%. The computational results are compared with the experimental data, and, the most suitable mesh in predicting the velocity field and the flow profile among the three meshes is selected.
An Irregular Wave Maker of Active Absorption with VOF Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A numerical irregular wave flume with active absorption of re-reflected waves is simulated by use of volume of fluid (VOF) method. An active absorbing wave-maker based on linear wave-theory is set on the left boundary of the wave flume. The progressive waves and the absorbing waves are generated simultaneously at the active wave generating-absorbing boundary. The absorbing waves are generated to eliminate the waves coming back to the generating boundary due to reflection from the outflow boundary and the structures. SIRW method proposed by Frigaard and Brorsen (1995) is used to separate the incident waves and reflected waves. The digital filters are designed based on the surface elevation signals of the two wave gauges. The corrected velocity of the wave-maker paddle is the output from the digital filter in real time. The numerical results of regular and irregular waves by the active absorbing-generating boundary are compared with the numerical results by the ordinary generating boundary to verify the performance of the active absorbing generator boundary. The differences between the initial incident waves and the estimated incident waves are analyzed.
Condensation in a Square Minichannel: Application of the VOF Method
Bortolin, V; Del Col, Davide
2014-01-01
A number of steady-state numerical simulations of condensation of R134a at mass fluxes of 400 kg m−2 s−1 and 800 kg m−2 s−1 inside a 1-mm square cross section minichannel are proposed here and compared against simulations in a circular cross section channel with the same hydraulic diameter. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to track the vapor–liquid interface, and the effects of interfacial shear stress, surface tension, and gravity are taken into account. A uniform wall temperature is fixed as a boundary condition. At both mass velocities the liquid film and the vapor core are treated as turbulent; a low-Re form of the SST k-ω model has been used for the modeling of turbulence through both the liquid and vapor phases. Numerical simulations are validated against experimental data. The influence of the surface tension on the shape of the vapor–liquid interface may provide some heat transfer enhancement in a square cross section minichannel, but this depends on the mass flux and it may be no...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. F. Lopes Silva
2005-03-01
Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of mold filling must include a method to capture the interface formed between the inlet fluid and the fluid that was initially in the mold. A commonly used front-capturing method in a Eulerian mesh is the volume-of-fluid (VOF method. The VOF advection equation solution may show numerical diffusion and/or dispersion and high-order numerical schemes, such as the TVD schemes with dimensional splitting, have to be employed to discretize the convective terms. The present contribution explores the use of RCM for solution of the VOF color-function equation during mold filling with recirculating flows. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a finite-volume method using the SIMPLER algorithm. Filling simulations using the TVD and RCM methods are compared. RCM was able to generate diffusion-free results, sharply defining the interface, even when topological changes (generation of droplets occur.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao-bin ZHANG; Wei ZHANG; Xue-jun ZHANG
2012-01-01
The volume of fluid (VOF) formulation is applied to model the combustion process of a single droplet in a hightemperature convective air free stream environment.The calculations solve the flow field for both phases,and consider the droplet deformation based on an axisymmetrical model.The chemical reaction is modeled with one-step finite-rate mechanism and the thcrmo-physica1 properties for the gas mixture are species and temperature dependence.A mass transfer model applicable to the VOF calculations due to vaporization of the liquid phases is developed in consideration with the fluctuation of the liquid surface.The model is validated by examining the burning rate constants at different convective air temperatures,which accord well with experimental data of previous studies.Other phenomena from the simulations,such as the transient history of droplet deformation and flame structure,are also qualitatively accordant with the descriptions of other numerical results.However,a different droplet deformation mechanism for the low Reynolds number is explained compared with that for the high Reynolds number.The calculations verified the feasibility of the VOF computational fluid dynamics (CFD) formulation as well as the mass transfer model due to vaporization.
Mirjalili, Shahab; Ivey, Christopher Blake; Mani, Ali
2016-11-01
The diffuse interface(DI) and volume of fluid(VOF) methods are mass conserving front capturing schemes which can handle large interfacial topology changes in realistic two phase flows. The DI method is a conservative phase field method that tracks an interface with finite thickness spread over a few cells and does not require reinitialization. In addition to having the desirable properties of level set methods for naturally capturing curvature and surface tension forces, the model conserves mass continuously and discretely. The VOF method, which tracks the fractional tagged volume in a cell, is discretely conservative by requiring costly geometric reconstructions of the interface and the fluxes. Both methods however, suffer from inaccuracies in calculation of curvature and surface tension forces. We present a quantitative comparison of these methods in terms of their accuracy, convergence rate, memory, and computational cost using canonical 2D two-phase test cases: damped surface wave, oscillating drop, equilibrium static drop, and dense moving drop. We further compared the models in their ability to handle thin films by looking at the impact of a water drop onto a deep water pool. Considering these results, we suggest qualitative guidelines for using the DI and VOF methods. Supported by ONR.
A new curvature technique calculation for surface tension contribution in PLIC-VOF method
Martinez, J.-M.; Chesneau, X.; Zeghmati, B.
2006-01-01
The volume of fluid (VOF) methods have been used for numerous numerical simulations. Among these techniques used to define the moving interface, the piecewise linear interface reconstruction (PLIC-VOF) is one of the most accurate. A study of the superficial tension impact on two-phase flow with free surface is presented. A new method based on direct staggered grid is developped to include surface tension in PLIC-VOF. The new numerical curvature calculation method doesn't need smoothed colour function and leads to less “spurious current”. This technique is applied to the calculus of surface tension force in the case of the rise of air bubble in viscous liquid and the fall of liquid drop in the same liquid on free surface. Droplets, thin layer and capillarity waves are observed after the free surface rupture for different Bond number. The influence of surface tension calculus is then obvioused and when the drop hit the free surface, wavelets propagate toward the virtual boundaries imposed.
Generalized Navier Boundary Condition for a Volume Of Fluid approach using a Finite-Volume method
Boelens, A M P
2016-01-01
In this work, an analytical Volume Of Fluid (VOF) implementation of the Generalized Navier Boundary Condition is presented based on the Brackbill surface tension model. The model is validated by simulations of droplets on a smooth surface in a planar geometry. Looking at the static behavior of the droplets, it is found that there is a good match between the droplet shape resolved in the simulations and the theoretically predicted shape for various values of the Young's angle. Evaluating the spreading of a droplet on a completely wetting surface, the Voinov-Tanner-Cox law ($\\theta \\propto \\text{Ca}^{1/3}$) can be observed. At later times scaling follows $r \\propto t^{1/2}$, suggesting spreading is limited by inertia. These observations are made without any fitting parameters except the slip length.
Immersed Boundary and VOF Coupling Method for Bubble-Particle Interaction Problems
Iwata, Ryuichi; Kajishima, Takeo; Takeuchi, Shintaro
2008-11-01
A new approach for the direct numerical simulation of three-phase flows is described. The method permits the simulation of the flow induced by a large population of bubbles and particles in a gas-liquid-solid system. Implementation of moving rigid surfaces is based on an immersed boundary method (IBM) of the body-force type, also developed by the present authors. In this method, the inter-phase momentum exchange is calculated by the distributed interaction force field shared by both the Eulerian (fluid) and Lagrangian (particles) frameworks. The gas-liquid interfaces are captured by the volume of fluid (VOF) method including surface tension. To assess its validity, the present method is applied to the piercing of the free surface of a liquid by a rising cylinder. Further applicability of the method is demonstrated in a 3-D situation, in which a rising bubble interacts with many settling particles.
Three-Dimensional Water-Quality Simulation for River Based on VOF Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
敖雪菲; 王晓玲; 宋明瑞; 邓韶辉; 李松敏
2016-01-01
In the present study, considering the transport and transformation processes of variables, a three-dimensional water quality model for the river system was established, which coupled the volume of fluid(VOF) method with thek-ε turbulence mathematical model. Then, the water hydrodynamic characteristics and transport processes for BOD5, NH3-N and TP were analyzed. The results showed that the water surface of convex bank was a little lower than that of concave bank due to the centrifugal force near the bend, and most concentrations were infe-rior to the typeⅤ standard indexes of surface water environmental quality. The model validation indicated that the errors between the simulated and monitored values were comparatively small, satisfying the application demands and providing scientific basis and decision support for the restoration and protection of water quality.
Multiphase flow modeling of landslide induced impulse wave by VOF method
Paik, J.; Shin, C.
2015-12-01
Numerical simulations of impulse waves induced by landslides are carried out using a multiphase modeling approach. The three-dimensional filtered Navier-Stokes equations are used for reproduces the propagation and interaction of Newtonian water wave and non-Newtonian debris flow along the bottom. A multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed for tracking of fluid interfaces. The governing equations are solved by a second-order-accurate in space and time, finite volume methods and the no-slip conditions are applied for all solid wall. The turbulent shear stress is calculated the Smagorinsky model and the non-Newtonian behavior of debris flow is computed by the Hershel-Bulkley fluid model. The multiphase flow model is applied to reproduce the laboratory measurements of Fritz (Pure Appl. Geophys., 166, 153, 2009) who experimentally investigated the propagation of impulse wave induced by the 1958 Lituya Bay Landslide. The numerical results shows that the proper treatment of the non-Newtonian behavior of debris flow is essential to reproduce its head speed and shape which control the deformation and propagation of the resulting impulse wave.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Bulatova, Regina; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2014-01-01
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the different interface capturing methods as well as to find the best approach for flow modeling of the ceramic slurry in the tape casting process. The conventional volume of fluid (VOF) method with three different interpolation methods for interface ca...... it is used to investigate the flow of a La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM) ceramic slurry modeled with the Ostwald de Waele power law. Results of the modeling are compared with corresponding experimental data and good agreement is found. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two-phase flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G Biswas
2013-12-01
The capabilities of the volume-of-fluid method for the calculation of surface tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volume-of-fluid method if the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The simulations of bubble growth is performed in water at near critical pressure for different degrees of superheat using combined levelset and volume-of fluid (CLSVOF) method. The effect of superheat on the frequency of bubble formation was analyzed. A deviation from the periodic bubble release is observed in the case of superheat of 20 K in water. The vapor-jet-like columnar structure is observed. Effect of heat flux on the slender vapor column has also been explained.
Viscous liquid sloshing damping in cylindrical container using a volume of fluid method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Liquid sloshing is a kind of very complicated free surface flow and exists widely in many fields.In order to calculate liquid sloshing damping precisely a volume of fluid method based on finite volume scheme is used to simulate free surface flows in partly filled cylindrical containers.A numerical method is pre-sented to simulate the movement of the free surface flow,in which a piecewise linear interface con-struction scheme and an unsplit Lagrangian advection scheme instead of Eulerian advection scheme are used.The damping performance of liquid sloshing in cylindrical containers under fundamental sloshing mode is investigated.There are four factors determining the surface-wave damping:free surface,boundary-layer,interior fluid and contact line.In order to study different contributions from these four factors to whole damping,several examples are simulated.No-slip and slip wall boundary conditions on both side wall and bottom wall of the cylindrical containers are studied to compare with the published results obtained by solving Stokes equations.In the present method the first three main factors can be considered.The simulation results show that the boundary-layer damping contribution increases while the interior fluid damping contribution decreases with increase of Reynolds number.
Viscous liquid sloshing damping in cylindrical container using a volume of fluid method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Wei; LIU ShuHong; LIN Hong
2009-01-01
Liquid sloshing is a kind of very complicated free surface flow and exists widely in many fields. In order to calculate liquid sloshing damping precisely a volume of fluid method based on finite volume scheme is used to simulate free surface flows in partly filled cylindrical containers. A numerical method is pre-sented to simulate the movement of the free surface flow, in which a piecewise linear interface con-struction scheme and an unsplit Lagrangian advection scheme instead of Eulerian advection scheme are used. The damping performance of liquid sloshing in cylindrical containers under fundamental sloshing mode is investigated. There are four factors determining the surface-wave damping: free surface, boundary-layer, interior fluid and contact line. In order to study different contributions from these four factors to whole damping, several examples ere simulated. No-slip and slip wall boundary conditions on both side wall and bottom wall of the cylindrical containers are studied to compare with the published results obtained by solving Stokes equations. In the present method the first three main factors can be considered. The simulation results show that the boundary-layer damping contribution increases while the interior fluid damping contribution decreases with increase of Reynolds number.
Comparing volume of fluid and level set methods for evaporating liquid-gas flows
Palmore, John; Desjardins, Olivier
2016-11-01
This presentation demonstrates three numerical strategies for simulating liquid-gas flows undergoing evaporation. The practical aim of this work is to choose a framework capable of simulating the combustion of liquid fuels in an internal combustion engine. Each framework is analyzed with respect to its accuracy and computational cost. All simulations are performed using a conservative, finite volume code for simulating reacting, multiphase flows under the low-Mach assumption. The strategies used in this study correspond to different methods for tracking the liquid-gas interface and handling the transport of the discontinuous momentum and vapor mass fractions fields. The first two strategies are based on conservative, geometric volume of fluid schemes using directionally split and un-split advection, respectively. The third strategy is the accurate conservative level set method. For all strategies, special attention is given to ensuring the consistency between the fluxes of mass, momentum, and vapor fractions. The study performs three-dimensional simulations of an isolated droplet of a single component fuel evaporating into air. Evaporation rates and vapor mass fractions are compared to analytical results.
A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries
Mahady, Kyle; Kondic, Lou
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel approach to model the fluid/solid interaction forces of a general van der Waals type in a direct solver of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the volume of fluid interface tracking method. The key ingredient of the model is the explicit inclusion of the fluid/solid interaction forces into the governing equations. We show that the interaction forces lead to a partial wetting condition and in particular to a natural definition of an equilibrium contact angle. We present two numerical approaches for the discretization of the interaction forces that enter the model. These two approaches are found to be complementary in terms of convergence properties and complexity. To validate the computational framework, we consider the application of these models to simulate two-dimensional drops at equilibrium, as well as drop spreading. We find that the proposed methods can accurately describe the physics of the considered problems. In general, the model allows for the accurate treatment o...
VOF modelling of gas–liquid flow in PEM water electrolysis cell micro-channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lafmejani, Saeed Sadeghi; Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen
2017-01-01
In this study, the gaseliquid flow through an interdigitated anode flow field of a PEM water electrolysis cell (PEMEC) is analysed using a three-dimensional, transient, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. To account for two-phase flow, the volume of fluid (VOF) method in ANSYS Fluent 17...
Liu, Yu; Yu, Xiping
2016-09-01
A coupled phase-field and volume-of-fluid method is developed to study the sensitive behavior of water waves during breaking. The THINC model is employed to solve the volume-of-fluid function over the entire domain covered by a relatively coarse grid while the phase-field model based on Allen-Cahn equation is applied over the fine grid. A special algorithm that takes into account the sharpness of the diffuse-interface is introduced to correlate the order parameter obtained on the fine grid and the volume-of-fluid function obtained on the coarse grid. The coupled model is then applied to the study of water waves generated by moving pressures on the free surface. The deformation process of the wave crest during the initial stage of breaking is discussed in details. It is shown that there is a significant variation of the free nappe developed at the front side of the wave crest as the wave steepness differs. It is of a plunging type at large wave steepness while of a spilling type at small wave steepness. The numerical results also indicate that breaking occurs later and the duration of breaking is shorter for waves of smaller steepness and vice versa. Neglecting the capillary effect leads to wave breaking with a sharper nappe and a more dynamic plunging process. The surface tension also has an effect to prevent the formation of a free nappe at the front side of the wave crest in some cases.
Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi
2016-04-01
We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.
Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid
Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente
2016-03-15
A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.
Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi
2016-02-01
We introduce a piecewise-linear, volume-of-fluid method for reconstructing and advecting three-dimensional interfaces and contact lines formed by three materials. The new method employs a set of geometric constructs that can be used in conjunction with any volume-tracking scheme. In this work, we used the mass-conserving scheme of Youngs to handle two-material cells, perform interface reconstruction in three-material cells, and resolve the contact line. The only information required by the method is the available volume fraction field. Although the proposed method is order dependent and requires a priori information on material ordering, it is suitable for typical contact line applications, where the material representing the contact surface is always known. Following the reconstruction of the contact surface, to compute the interface orientation in a three-material cell, the proposed method minimizes an error function that is based on volume fraction distribution around that cell. As an option, the minimization procedure also allows the user to impose a contact angle. Performance of the proposed method is assessed via both static and advection test cases. The tests show that the new method preserves the accuracy and mass-conserving property of the Youngs method in volume-tracking three materials.
An Application of Cartesian-Grid and Volume-of-Fluid Methods to Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics
2007-10-01
Dr. Patrick CRC Press, Inc., 1993. Purtell is the program manager. The David Taylor Leonard, B., "Bounded higher-order upwind multidimensional Model...Bell, J., Marcus, D., & Rider, W., "A Colella, P., Graves, D., Modiano , D., Puckett, E., & Sussman, second-order projection method for tracking
A comparative study of interface reconstruction methods for multi-material ALE simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kucharik, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garimalla, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, Samuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
In this paper we compare the performance of different methods for reconstructing interfaces in multi-material compressible flow simulations. The methods compared are a material-order-dependent Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, a material-order-independent VOF method based on power diagram partitioning of cells and the Moment-of-Fluid method (MOF). We demonstrate that the MOF method provides the most accurate tracking of interfaces, followed by the VOF method with the right material ordering. The material-order-independent VOF method performs some-what worse than the above two while the solutions with VOF using the wrong material order are considerably worse.
Maric, Tomislav; Bothe, Dieter
2013-01-01
A new parallelized unsplit geometrical Volume of Fluid (VoF) algorithm with support for arbitrary unstructured meshes and dynamic local Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), as well as for two and three dimensional computation is developed. The geometrical VoF algorithm supports arbitrary unstructured meshes in order to enable computations involving flow domains of arbitrary geometrical complexity. The implementation of the method is done within the framework of the OpenFOAM library for Computational Continuum Mechanics (CCM) using the C++ programming language with modern policy based design for high program code modularity. The development of the geometrical VoF algorithm significantly extends the method base of the OpenFOAM library by geometrical volumetric flux computation for two-phase flow simulations. For the volume fraction advection, a novel unsplit geometrical algorithm is developed, which inherently sustains volume conservation utilizing unique Lagrangian discrete trajectories located in the mesh points. ...
Simulation of Droplet Dynamics and Mixing in Microfluidic Devices Using a VOF-Based Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anurag CHANDORKAR
2009-10-01
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that the Volume of Fluid (TruVOF® method in FLOW-3D® general purpose CFD software is an effective tool for studying droplet dynamics and mixing in microfluidic devices. The first example studied is a T-junction where flow patterns for both droplet generation and passive mixing are analyzed. The second example studied is a co-flowing device where the formation and breakup of bubbles is simulated. The effect of viscosity on bubble formation is also analyzed. For a T-junction the bubble size is corroborated with experimental data. Both the bubble size and frequency are studied and corroborated with experimental data for a co-flowing device. The third example studied is the electrowetting phenomenon observed in a small water droplet resting on a dielectric material. The steady-state contact angle is plotted against the voltage applied. The results are compared with both the Young-Lippmann curve and experimental results.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate and efficient computational modeling of free-surface flows has numerous applications of current and future relevance to NASA. At present, NASA engineers use...
Kinetics-based phase change approach for VOF method applied to boiling flow
Cifani, Paolo; Geurts, Bernard; Kuerten, Hans
2014-11-01
Direct numerical simulations of boiling flows are performed to better understand the interaction of boiling phenomena with turbulence. The multiphase flow is simulated by solving a single set of equations for the whole flow field according to the one-fluid formulation, using a VOF interface capturing method. Interface terms, related to surface tension, interphase mass transfer and latent heat, are added at the phase boundary. The mass transfer rate across the interface is derived from kinetic theory and subsequently coupled with the continuum representation of the flow field. The numerical model was implemented in OpenFOAM and validated against 3 cases: evaporation of a spherical uniformly heated droplet, growth of a spherical bubble in a superheated liquid and two dimensional film boiling. The computational model will be used to investigate the change in turbulence intensity in a fully developed channel flow due to interaction with boiling heat and mass transfer. In particular, we will focus on the influence of the vapor bubble volume fraction on enhancing heat and mass transfer. Furthermore, we will investigate kinetic energy spectra in order to identify the dynamics associated with the wakes of vapor bubbles. Department of Applied Mathematics, 7500 AE Enschede, NL.
Nekouei, Mehdi; Vanapalli, Siva A.
2017-03-01
We used volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of droplet formation of Newtonian fluids in microfluidic T-junction devices. To evaluate the performance of the VOF method we examined the regimes of drop formation and determined droplet size as a function of system parameters. Comparison of the simulation results with four sets of experimental data from the literature showed good agreement, validating the VOF method. Motivated by the lack of adequate studies investigating the influence of viscosity ratio (λ) on the generated droplet size, we mapped the dependence of drop volume on capillary number (0.001 1. In addition, we find that at a given capillary number, the size of droplets does not vary appreciably when λ 1. We develop an analytical model for predicting the droplet size that includes a viscosity-dependent breakup time for the dispersed phase. This improved model successfully predicts the effects of the viscosity ratio observed in simulations. Results from this study are useful for the design of lab-on-chip technologies and manufacture of microfluidic emulsions, where there is a need to know how system parameters influence the droplet size.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastasios Georgoulas
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The present numerical investigation identifies quantitative effects of fundamental controlling parameters on the detachment characteristics of isolated bubbles in cases of pool boiling in the nucleate boiling regime. For this purpose, an improved Volume of Fluid (VOF approach, developed previously in the general framework of OpenFOAM Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Toolbox, is further coupled with heat transfer and phase change. The predictions of the model are quantitatively verified against an existing analytical solution and experimental data in the literature. Following the model validation, four different series of parametric numerical experiments are performed, exploring the effect of the initial thermal boundary layer (ITBL thickness for the case of saturated pool boiling of R113 as well as the effects of the surface wettability, wall superheat and gravity level for the cases of R113, R22 and R134a refrigerants. It is confirmed that the ITBL is a very important parameter in the bubble growth and detachment process. Furthermore, for all of the examined working fluids the bubble detachment characteristics seem to be significantly affected by the triple-line contact angle (i.e., the wettability of the heated plate for equilibrium contact angles higher than 45°. As expected, the simulations revealed that the heated wall superheat is very influential on the bubble growth and detachment process. Finally, besides the novelty of the numerical approach, a last finding is the fact that the effect of the gravity level variation in the bubble detachment time and the volume diminishes with the increase of the ambient pressure.
Richter, Ole; Turnow, Johann; Kornev, Nikolai; Hassel, Egon
2017-06-01
Within the scope of industrial casting applications a numerical model for the simultaneous mould filling and solidification process has been formulated, implemented in a finite volume code and successfully validated using analytical and experimental data. In order to account for the developing of free surface flow and the liquid/solid phase change, respectively, the volume-of-fluid and enthalpy-porosity method have been coupled under a volume averaging framework on a fixed Eulerian grid. The coupled method captures the basic physical effects of a combined mould filling and solidification process and provides a trustful method for comprehensive casting simulations.
Microfluidic flow switching design using volume of fluid model.
Chein, Reiyu; Tsai, S H
2004-03-01
In this study, a volume of fluid (VOF) model was employed for microfluidic switch design. The VOF model validity in predicting the interface between fluid streams with different viscosities co-flowing in a microchannel was first verified by experimental observation. It was then extended to microfluidic flow switch design. Two specific flow switches, one with a guided fluid to one of five desired outlet ports, and another with a guided fluid flows into one, two, or three outlet ports equally distributed along the outlet channel of a Y-shaped channel. The flow switching was achieved by controlling the flow rate ratios between tested and buffer fluids. The numerical results showed that the VOF model could successfully predict the flow switching phenomena in these flow switches. The numerical results also showed that the flow rate ratio required for flow switching depends on the viscosity ratio between the tested and buffer fluids. The numerical simulation was verified by experimental study and the agreement was good.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.SAGHI; M.J.KETABDARI; S.BOOSHI
2012-01-01
A two-dimensional (2D) numerical model is developed for the wave simulation and propagation in a wave flume.The fluid flow is assumed to be viscous and incompressible,and the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations are used as the governing equations.The standard κ-ε model is used to model the turbulent flow.The NavierStokes equations are discretized using the staggered grid finite difference method and solved by the simplified marker and cell (SMAC) method. Waves are generated and propagated using a piston type wave maker. An open boundary condition is used at the end of the numerical flume.Some standard tests,such as the lid-driven cavity,the constant unidirectional velocity field,the shearing flow,and the dam-break on the dry bed,are performed to valid the model.To demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the present method,the results of generated waves are compared with available wave theories.Finally,the clustering technique (CT) is used for the mesh generation,and the best condition is suggested.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
A hybrid VOF and PIC multi-material interface treatment method for Eulerian method is presented in this study in order to solve the problem that the Eulerian method is not robust enough to treat the dynamic fracture of material. This treatment method is used in the important computational region such as the material interface,large deformation region and fracture region where more particles are added for calculation,while the continuous transport method is used in the other regions. Through this method,a series of penetration problems such as blunt projectile penetration into the steel target and steel projectile penetration into concert target are numerically simulated. The comparison of the numerical result and experimental result shows that the hybrid algorithm can effectively track the deformation in the process of penetration and also insure precision and efficiency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adjali Saadia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate simulation of turbulent free surface flows around surface ships has a central role in the optimal design of such naval vessels. The flow problem to be simulated is rich in complexity and poses many modeling challenges because of the existence of breaking waves around the ship hull, and because of the interaction of the two-phase flow with the turbulent boundary layer. In this paper, our goal is to estimate the lift and drag coefficients for NACA 0012 of hydrofoil advancing in calm water under steady conditions with free surface and emerged NACA 0015. The commercial CFD software FLUENT version 14 is used for the computations in the present study. The calculated grid is established using the code computer GAMBIT 2.3.26.The shear stress k-ωSST model is used for turbulence modeling and the volume of fluid technique is employed to simulate the free-surface motion. In this computation, the second order upwind scheme is used for discretizing the convection terms in the momentum transport equations, the Modified HRIC scheme for VOF discretisation. The results obtained compare well with the experimental data.
Adjali, Saadia; Belkadi, Mustapha; Aounallah, Mohammed; Imine, Omar
2015-05-01
Accurate simulation of turbulent free surface flows around surface ships has a central role in the optimal design of such naval vessels. The flow problem to be simulated is rich in complexity and poses many modeling challenges because of the existence of breaking waves around the ship hull, and because of the interaction of the two-phase flow with the turbulent boundary layer. In this paper, our goal is to estimate the lift and drag coefficients for NACA 0012 of hydrofoil advancing in calm water under steady conditions with free surface and emerged NACA 0015. The commercial CFD software FLUENT version 14 is used for the computations in the present study. The calculated grid is established using the code computer GAMBIT 2.3.26.The shear stress k-ωSST model is used for turbulence modeling and the volume of fluid technique is employed to simulate the free-surface motion. In this computation, the second order upwind scheme is used for discretizing the convection terms in the momentum transport equations, the Modified HRIC scheme for VOF discretisation. The results obtained compare well with the experimental data.
Zhao, Dongmiao; Tang, Jun; Wu, Xiuguang; Lin, Changning; Liu, Lijun; Chen, Jian
2016-05-01
A 2D vertical (2DV) numerical model, without σ-coordinate transformation in the vertical direction, is developed for the simulation of fl ow and sediment transport in open channels. In the model, time-averaged Reynolds equations are closed by the k-ɛ nonlinear turbulence model. The modifi ed Youngs-VOF method is introduced to capture free surface dynamics, and the free surface slope is simulated using the ELVIRA method. Based on the power-law scheme, the k-ɛ model and the suspended-load transport model are solved numerically with an implicit scheme applied in the vertical plane and an explicit scheme applied in the horizontal plane. Bedload transport is modeled using the Euler-WENO scheme, and the grid-closing skill is adopted to deal with the moving channel bed boundary. Verifi cation of the model using laboratory data shows that the model is able to adequately simulate fl ow and sediment transport in open channels, and is a good starting point for the study of sediment transport dynamics in strong nonlinear fl ow scenarios.
Deen, Niels G.; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2007-01-01
In this paper a hybrid model is presented for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid-solid flows using a combined Volume Of Fluid (VOF) and Discrete Particle (DP) approach applied for respectively dispersed gas bubbles and solid particles present in the continuous liquid phase. The hard sphere DP mo
Deen, Niels G.; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2006-01-01
In this paper a hybrid model is presented for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid-solid flows using a combined Volume Of Fluid (VOF) and Discrete Particle (DP) approach applied for respectively dispersed gas bubbles and solid particles present in the continuous liquid phase. The hard sphere DP mo
Simulation of Gravity Currents Using VOF Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹建锋; 黄钰期; 应新亚; 任安禄
2002-01-01
By the Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase flow model two-dimensional gravity currents with three phases including air are numerically simulated in this article. The necessity of consideration of turbulence effect for high Reynolds numbers is demonstrated quantitatively by LES (the Large Eddy Simulation) turbulence model. The gravity currents are simulated for h ≠ H as well as h = H, where h is the depth of the gravity current before the release and H is the depth of the intruded fluid. Uprising of swell occurs when a current flows horizontally into another lighter one for h ≠ H. The problems under what condition the uprising of swell occurs and how long it takes are considered in this article. All the simulated results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results available.
Geometric VOF-PLIC simulations of Hollow Cone Sprays
Nelson, Thomas; Benson, Michael; Vanpoppel, Brett; Bravo, Luis; USMA Team Spray Collaboration; ARL Vehicle Combustion Lab Collaboration; Stanford University Collaboration
2014-11-01
This work examines a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to provide temporally resolved simulations of a novel pressure swirl atomizer presently studied at Stanford University. In a pressure swirl atomizer, the liquid spreads out to form an air-cored vortex within the nozzle and an emerging thin annular film. Due to instabilities the film breaks up to form a hollow cone spray. The numerical simulations focus on the near field nozzle flow physics and primary atomization of the spray. An incompressible flow formulation is adopted with a geometric unsplit Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to track the interface between two immiscible fluids in interfacial flow simulations. Here, the interface is modeled via an advection equation implicitly tracked using a discrete indicator function, f, with values representing the volume fraction of the tagged fluid within a cell. An Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) scheme is also employed to efficiently capture the shear layers near the liquid-gas interface. The study is carried out for two atomizers with 2 mm and 3 mm diameters at intermediate Re = 2.6-3.9 × 103, We = 0.11-0.17 × 105. An in depth comparison is then provided between the CFD results and measurements obtained via shadowgraphy and CT scans.
VOF Calculations of Countercurrent Gas-Liquid Flow in a PWR Hot Leg
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Murase
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We improved the computational grid and schemes in the VOF (volume of fluid method with the standard − turbulent model in our previous study to evaluate CCFL (countercurrent flow limitation characteristics in a full-scale PWR hot leg (750 mm diameter, and the calculated CCFL characteristics agreed well with the UPTF data at 1.5 MPa. In this paper, therefore, to evaluate applicability of the VOF method to different fluid properties and a different scale, we did numerical simulations for full-scale air-water conditions and the 1/15-scale air-water tests (50 mm diameter, respectively. The results calculated for full-scale conditions agreed well with CCFL data and showed that CCFL characteristics in the Wallis diagram were mitigated under 1.5 MPa steam-water conditions comparing with air-water flows. However, the results calculated for the 1/15-scale air-water tests greatly underestimated the falling water flow rates in calculations with the standard − turbulent model, but agreed well with the CCFL data in calculations with a laminar flow model. This indicated that suitable calculation models and conditions should be selected to get good agreement with data for each scale.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋炎坤; 褚开星
2015-01-01
为了研究发动机水下排气气泡运动特性 ,从工程应用问题出发 ,分析气泡水下运动及演化特性 .考虑重力、浮力、黏性阻力及表面张力作用 ,运用VOF(流体体积法)方法对气液两相界面进行追踪 ,对单气泡运动特性进行模拟计算 ,提出一种计算气泡形心坐标、运动轨迹、速度大小的方法 ;基于对菲克定律中扩散通量的求解模拟了单气泡在水中的溶解特性 .结果表明 :气泡在水下上升过程中底部持续向内凹陷 ,形状由球形变为扁椭球形或帽形 ;单气泡在水中的运动轨迹初始为直线 ,随后开始左右摆动上升 ,摆动幅度逐渐变大 ,为类S曲线 ;x方向速度从零开始增大 ,并在Vx =0这条直线上下波动 ,幅度逐渐增大 ;y方向速度经历了由零到快速增长、近似恒定、急剧减小的过程 .%To research the movement characteristic of exhaust bubbles underwater on engines ,start-ing from the engineering application problems ,the characteristics of motion and evolution of bubbles was researched .Simultaneously ,considering the effect of gravity ,buoyancy ,viscous resistance and surface tension ,using the volume of fluid (VOF) method to trace the gas-liquid phase interface ,the movement characteristic of single bubble was simulated .A method was proposed to calculate its cen-troid coordinate ,movement trajectory and velocity magnitude .The dissolution characteristic of single bubble was researched based on solving the diffusion flux of Fick Law .The results have show that the bottom of the bubble keeps dimpling inwards ,its shape changes from sphericity to spheroidicity or hat-shape w hen it is in the process of rising .Its movement trajectory is an S-shaped curve ,originally it rise perpendicularly ,then from side to side ,the range grow bigger gradually .The x velocity grows from zero ,fluctuates in the vicinity of zero ,and the range grows bigger ;the y velocity goes through three stages :grow from
Chen, Gujun; He, Shengping; Li, Yugang
2017-08-01
A coupled three-dimensional volume of fluid method-discrete phase model (VOF-DPM) is developed to investigate the air-argon-steel-slag flow in an industrial Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) reactor while considering the expansion of argon bubbles. The simulated results of mixing time and recirculation flow rate of molten steel, and the flow pattern and local velocity of water agree well with the measured results reported in the literature. Comparison of the results with and without consideration of the expansion of bubbles indicates that the expansion of bubbles has an enormous impact on the multiphase flow in the industrial RH reactor. The proposed mathematical model presents a more realistic free surface in the RH vacuum vessel.
VOF Modeling and Analysis of the Segmented Flow in Y-Shaped Microchannels for Microreactor Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xian Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Microscaled devices receive great attention in microreactor systems for producing high renewable energy due to higher surface-to-volume, higher transport rates (heat or/and mass transfer rates, and other advantages over conventional-size reactors. In this paper, the two-phase liquid-liquid flow in a microchannel with various Y-shaped junctions has been studied numerically. Two kinds of immiscible liquids were injected into a microchannel from the Y-shaped junctions to generate the segment flow mode. The segment length was studied. The volume of fluid (VOF method was used to track the liquid-liquid interface and the piecewise-liner interface construction (PLIC technique was adopted to get a sharp interface. The interfacial tension was simulated with continuum surface force (CSF model and the wall adhesion boundary condition was taken into consideration. The simulated flow pattern presents consistence with our experimental one. The numerical results show that a segmented flow mode appears in the main channel. Under the same inlet velocities of two liquids, the segment lengths of the two liquids are the same and depend on the inclined angles of two lateral channels. The effect of inlet velocity is studied in a typical T-shaped microchannel. It is found that the ratio between the lengths of two liquids is almost equal to the ratio between their inlet velocities.
Second Order Volume of Fluid Interface Reconstruction Method in Three Dimensions%三维空间二阶精度流体体积界面重构方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁仙红
2013-01-01
给出三维空间网格模板含81个单元的最小二乘流体体积界面重构方法,并和Youngs方法及网格模板含125个单元的最小二乘流体体积界面重构方法进行比较.静态和动态的测试例子均表明:该方法能精确重构任意方向的平面界面,对C2光滑曲面它能达到二阶收敛精度.和网格模板含125个单元的最小二乘流体体积界面重构方法相比,在达到同样网格精度的条件下,减少了计算量,节省了计算时间,提高了计算效率.%A second order least squares volume of fluid interface reconstruction algorithm with 81 cells in mesh stencil is introduced.The algorithm is compared with Youngs algorithm and a second order least squares volume of fluid interface reconstruction algorithm with 125 cells in mesh stencil.L∞ criteria function in three dimensions is used to measure stationary interface reconstruction errors.Stationary and advecting tests show that the algorithm can track any oriented plane exactly and it is second order accurate.Compared with second order least squares volume of fluid interface reconstruction algorithm with 125 cells in mesh stencil,calculation amount of the algoritm is much smaller.Thus CPU time is saved and computing efficiency is improved.
Revisit to the THINC scheme: A simple algebraic VOF algorithm
Xiao, Feng; , Satoshi, Ii; Chen, Chungang
2011-08-01
This short note presents an improved multi-dimensional algebraic VOF method to capture moving interfaces. The interface jump in the THINC (tangent of hyperbola for INterface capturing) scheme is adaptively scaled to a proper thickness according to the interface orientation. The numerical accuracy in computing multi-dimensional moving interfaces is significantly improved. Without any geometrical reconstruction, the proposed method is extremely simple and easy to use, and its numerical accuracy is superior to other existing methods of its kind and comparable to the conventional PLIC (piecewise linear interface calculation) type VOF schemes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartosiewicz, Yann [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mechanical Engineering Department, TERM Division, Place du Levant 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)], E-mail: yann.bartosiewicz@uclouvain.be; Lavieville, Jerome [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mechanical Engineering Department, TERM Division, Place du Levant 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Seynhaeve, Jean-Marie [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Mechanical Engineering Department, TERM Division, Place du Levant 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)], E-mail: jm.seynhaeve@uclouvain.be
2008-04-15
This paper presents some results concerning a first benchmark for the new European research code for thermal hydraulics computations: NEPTUNE{sub C}FD. This benchmark relies on the Thorpe experiment to model the occurrence of instabilities in a stratified two-phase flow. The first part of this work is to create a numerical trial case with the VOF approach. The results, in terms of time of onset of the instability, critical wave-number or wave phase speed, are rather good compared to linear inviscid theory and experimental data. Additional numerical tests showed the effect of the surface tension and density ratio on the growing dynamics of the instability and the structure of the waves. In the second part, a code to code (VOF/multi-field) comparison is performed for a case with zero surface tension. The results showed some discrepancies in terms of wave amplitudes, growing rates and a time shifting in the global dynamics. Afterward, two surface tension formulations are proposed in the multi-field approach. Both formulations provided similar results. The time for onset of the instability, the most amplified wave-number and its amplitude were in rather good agreement with the linear analysis and VOF results. However, the time-shifted dynamics was still observed.
A PLIC-VOF-Based Simulation of Water-Organic Slug Flow Characteristics in a T-Shaped Microchannel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xian Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A water-organic slug flow in a T-shaped microchannel was numerically studied due to its importance in the microreactor system. Various factors affecting the flow mode were studied, for example, channel width, fluid viscosity, interfacial tension, and inlet velocity. The volume of fluid (VOF method was used to track the liquid-liquid interface, and the piecewise-liner interface construction (PLIC technique was adopted to get a sharp interface. The interfacial tension was simulated with continuum surface force (CSF, model and the wall adhesion boundary condition was taken into consideration. The results show that strong vortexes appear in both phases at the meeting sites of main and lateral channels where an organic slug is producing. Inlet velocity influences the slug length and flow mode greatly. The ratio between the slug lengths of two phases in the main channel is almost equal to the ratio between their inlet velocities. If the slug is produced, the interfacial tension and organic viscosity have less effect on the slug length for 200 μm microchannel. The slug producing rate is much higher in a narrow channel than that in a wide channel.
Rise characteristics of gas bubbles in a 2D rectangular column: VOF simulations vs experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krishna, R.; Baten, J.M. van
1999-10-01
About five centuries ago, Leonardo da Vinci described the sinuous motion of gas bubbles rising in water. The authors have attempted to simulate the rise trajectories of bubbles of 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, and 20 mm in diameter rising in a 2D rectangular column filled with water. The simulations were carried out using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique developed by Hirt and Nichols (J. Computational Physics, 39, 201--225 (1981)). To solve the Navier-Stokes equations of motion the authors used a commercial solver, CFX 4.1c of AEA Technology, UK. They developed their own bubble-tracking algorithm to capture sinuous bubble motions. The 4 and 5 mm bubbles show large lateral motions observed by Da Vinci. The 7, 8 and 9 mm bubble behave like jellyfish. The 12 mm bubble flaps its wings like a bird. The extent of lateral motion of the bubbles decreases with increasing bubble size. Bubbles larger than 20 mm in size assume a spherical cap form and simulations of the rise characteristics match experiments exactly. VOF simulations are powerful tools for a priori determination of the morphology and rise characteristics of bubbles rising in a liquid. Bubble-bubble interactions are also properly modeled by the VOF technique.
Numerical simulation of flow field using VOF method based on body-fitted grid%基于贴体网格的VOF方法数模流场研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任冰; 李雪艳; 王国玉; 王永学
2011-01-01
提出了一种基于VOF方法的模拟具有复杂边界形状结构物附近流场的新算法，BFC—SIMPLE—VOF算法。采用坐标变换方法实现了任意复杂区域的结构化网格划分，在贴体网格下对二维不可压缩粘性流体的控制方程进行了离散。提出了基于交错网格的修正SIMPLE算法来迭代求解压力一速度场，修正了贴体坐标下的界面跟踪方法（VOF方法）。对带有弧形防浪墙的防波堤结构附近的流场和压力场进行了数值计算，并与在笛卡尔坐标网格下采用部分单元体近似描述结构物边界的原算法的计算结果进行了比较分析。%In the present study, a new algorithm-BFC-SIMPLE-VOF method based on VOF method was developed to model the flow field around the complex structures. Structured grids are achieved by the orthogonal coordinate transform method in the arbitrary complex region. The two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow was analyzed by solving Navier-Stokes equations on body-fitted curvilinear grids. The transformed SIMPLE scheme was adopted to modified the pressure-velocity field and the transformed VOF method was used to trace the free surface. The flow field and pressure field around the breakwater with curving wave wall were simulated using the new algorithm that was advanced in the paper, and was compared with the value that was achieved by the traditional rectangular grid which are approximated by steps.
A VOF-based numerical model for breaking waves in surf zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This paper introduces a numerical model for studying the evolution of a periodic wave train,shoaling, and breaking in surf zone. The model can solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for a mean flow, and the k-ε equations for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence dissipation rate ε. To track a free surface, the volume of fluid (VOF) function, satisfying the advection equation was introduced. In the numerical treatment, third-order upwind difference scheme was applied to the convection terms of the RANS equations in order to reduce the effect of numerical viscosity. The shoaling and breaking processes of a periodic wave train on gently sloping beaches were modeled. The computed wave heights of a sloping beach and the distribution of breaking wave pressure on a vertical wall were compared with laboratory data.
Zhang, Yan-Jun; Li, Ping
2016-04-01
A coupled volume-of-fluid and level set (CLSVOF) method is applied for the simulation of droplet impacting on a solid surface. This two-phase flow approach combines the advantages of VOF and level set (LS) methods. Three cases are listed and simulated by CLSVOF method, and the wettability is evaluated by tracking the three-phase contact line (TPCL). Results showed that the change of liquid spreading ratio with time has a good fit with the experimental results of the above three cases and high accuracy is achieved by CLSVOF method compared with VOF method, which indicated that this model is suitable for researching the wetting problem. The spreading speed on good wettability surfaces is faster than that of on poor wettability surfaces significantly, and the recoiling phenomenon appears after the droplet spreading to its maximum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Bi
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A 3D mathematical model was proposed to simulate the mold filling process in high-pressure die casting (HPDC to improve accuracy considering the surface tension. Piecewise liner interface calculation (PLIC and volume of fluid (VOF methods were used to construct the pattern of the liquid interface. A coupled level-set and VOF method (CLSVOF was proposed to capture the interface pattern and obtain its normal vector. A continuum surface force (CSF model was used to consider the surface tension. Two water analogy experiments were carried out using the proposed model. Simulation and experimental results were analyzed and compared; and the effects of surface tension were also discussed. The simulation results agreed well with the experiments and the simulation accuracy was an improvement on interface geometries, liquid flows, and gas entrapments.
Numerical Simulation of Wave Field near Submerged Bars by PLIC-VOF Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Cheng; LIU Xiao-qing; JIANG Chang-bo
2005-01-01
Investigating the wave field near structures in coastal and offshore engineering is of increasing significance. In the present study, simulation is done of the wave profile and flow field for waves propagating over submerged bars, using PLIC-VOF (Piecewise Linear Interface Construction) to trace the free surface of wave and finite difference method to solve vertical 2D Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. A comparison of the numerical results for two kinds of submerged bars with the experimental ones shows that the PLIC-VOF model used in this study is effective and can compute the wave field precisely.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李雪艳; 任冰; 王国玉; 王永学
2011-01-01
A new CFD model based on BFC was developed in this paper.Structured grids were achieved by the orthogonal coordinate transform method in the arbitrary complex region.The two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow was analyzed by solving Navier-Stokes equations on boundary-fitted grids.The VOF method was modified to trace the free surface.The pressure field and the time profiles of water surface near the arc crown wall were computed by the CFD model based on body-fitted coordinate (BFC).The results of the BFC model were compared with those of the Cartesian model which described the structure boundary approximately by partial cell technique.The BFC model was verified by the experimental results of the pressures on the arc crown wall.%文章建立了一种基于适体坐标系(BFC)的计算流体力学模型.采用坐标变换方法实现了任意复杂区域的结构化网格划分,在贴体网格下对二维不可压缩粘性流体的控制方程进行了离散,修正了贴体坐标下的界面跟踪方法(VOF方法).对弧形防浪墙结构附近的压力场,波面历时曲线进行了数值计算.将采用适体坐标的计算结果与在笛卡尔坐标网格下采用部分单元体近似描述结构物边界的原算法的计算结果进行了比较分析.通过物理模型试验,测量作用于防浪墙上的波浪压力,对所建立的数值模型进行了验证.
RANS-VOF Solver for Solitary Wave Run-up on A Circular Cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹洪建; 万德成
2015-01-01
Simulation of solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder is carried out in a viscous numerical wave tank developed based on the open source codes OpenFOAM. An incompressible two-phase flow solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is used to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST k-wturbulence model. The PISO algorithm is utilized for the pressure-velocity coupling. The air-water interface is captured via Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The present numerical model is validated by simulating the solitary wave run-up and reflected against a vertical wall, and solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder. Comparisons between numerical results and available experimental data show satisfactory agreement. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to study the solitary wave run-up on the cylinder with different incident wave height H and different cylinder radius a. The relationships of the wave run-up height with the incident wave height H, cylinder radius a are analyzed. The evolutions of the scattering free surface and vortex shedding are also presented to give a better understanding of the process of nonlinear wave-cylinder interaction.
Modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems: Extensions to the volume-of-fluid solver
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Heyns, Johan A
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This study presents the extension of the volume-of-fluid solver, interFoam, for improved accuracy and efficiency when modelling dynamic liquid-gas systems. Examples of these include the transportation of liquids, such as in the case of fuel carried...
A computational method for sharp interface advection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roenby, Johan; Bredmose, Henrik; Jasak, Hrvoje
2016-01-01
We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume...... of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists of two parts. First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step....... Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face–interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total...
过冷流动沸腾相变过程汽泡特性的VOF方法模拟%VOF Simulation of Bubble Characteristics of Subcooled Flow Boiling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏敬华; 潘良明; 袁德文; 闫晓; 黄彦平
2012-01-01
Subcooled flow boiling in vertical rectangular channel under different pressure and heat flux was numerically investigated based on CFD. The phase change process was accomplished through the User Defined Function (UDF) to describe the mass and energy transportation, and the interface of liquid and vapor was captured by the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. The results reveal that the interaction of evaporation and condensation in the cross section perpendicular to the flow direction forms the secondary flow, and enhances the natural convection near the wall. The bubble grows up in the sliding process, and merges with the adjacent ones to form bigger one, which has greater deformation. The bubble sliding enhances the heat transfer in the down stream and restrains the nucleation. With the higher pressure and lower heat flux, the bubble size, growth rate and the average void fraction at the outlet will be reduced. The simulation results of bubble growth and the wall temperature near the Onset of Boiling (ONB) agree well with the correlations in the literature.%基于计算流体动力学( CFD)软件对不同压力和热流密度下矩形流道内过冷流动沸腾进行模拟.相变模型通过用户自定义函数(UDF)描述质量和能量传递实现,汽-液界面捕捉通过流体体积法(VOF)获得.研究结果表明,蒸发和冷凝的交互作用会在垂直于流动方向的截面内形成二次流以增强壁面附近的微对流.汽泡在滑移过程中逐渐长大,并与邻近汽泡聚合形成更大的汽泡,且变形逐渐加大.汽泡滑移会增强下游区域的换热,从而抑制下游核化点的产生.随着压力升高和热流密度降低,汽泡尺寸、生长速度以及出口处平均空泡份额都会减小.汽泡生长曲线和沸腾起始点( ONB)附近加热壁面温度模拟结果与文献中关联式吻合良好.
A computational method for sharp interface advection
Roenby, Johan; Bredmose, Henrik; Jasak, Hrvoje
2016-11-01
We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists of two parts. First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step. Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face-interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total volume of fluid transported across the face. The method was tested on simple two-dimensional and three-dimensional interface advection problems on both structured and unstructured meshes. The results are very satisfactory in terms of volume conservation, boundedness, surface sharpness and efficiency. The isoAdvector method was implemented as an OpenFOAM extension and is published as open source.
A Computational Method for Sharp Interface Advection
Roenby, Johan; Jasak, Hrvoje
2016-01-01
We devise a numerical method for passive advection of a surface, such as the interface between two incompressible fluids, across a computational mesh. The method is called isoAdvector, and is developed for general meshes consisting of arbitrary polyhedral cells. The algorithm is based on the volume of fluid (VOF) idea of calculating the volume of one of the fluids transported across the mesh faces during a time step. The novelty of the isoAdvector concept consists in two parts: First, we exploit an isosurface concept for modelling the interface inside cells in a geometric surface reconstruction step. Second, from the reconstructed surface, we model the motion of the face-interface intersection line for a general polygonal face to obtain the time evolution within a time step of the submerged face area. Integrating this submerged area over the time step leads to an accurate estimate for the total volume of fluid transported across the face. The method was tested on simple 2D and 3D interface advection problems ...
Application of the high-resolution Godunov method to the multi-fluid flow calculations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bai Jing-Song; Li Ping; Zhang Zhan-Ji; Hua Jing-Song; Tan Hua
2004-01-01
In this paper, we have numerically solved the multi-fluid problems using an operator-split two-step high-resolution Godunov PPM (parabolic piecewise method) for the flow in complex geometries. By using the front capturing method,the PPM integrator captures the interface in the solution process. The basic multi-fluid integrator is coupled to a Cartesian grid algorithm where a VOF (volume of fluid) representation of the fluid interface is also used. As an application of this method, we test the 2D interfacial advection example and simulate an experimental hypervelocity launcher model from Sandia National Laboratories. The computational design of the hypervelocity launcher is also given in the paper.
Performance of Numerical Boundary Condition based on Active Wave Absorption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Troch, Peter; De Rouck, Julien; Frigaard, Peter
2001-01-01
The performance of a new active wave generating-absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented.......The performance of a new active wave generating-absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming Pingjian; Zhang Wenping
2009-01-01
This article introduces a numerical scheme on the basis of semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations (SIMPLE) algorithm to simulate incompressible unsteady flows with fluid-structure interaction. The Navier-Stokes equation is discretized spatially with collocated finite volume method and Eulerian implicit method in time domain. The hybrid method that combines immersed boundary method (IBM) and volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to deal with rigid body motion in fluid domain. The details of movement of immersed boundary (IB) and calculation of VOF are also described. This method can be easily applied to any existing finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver without complex operation, with which fluid flow interaction of arbitrarily complex geometry can be realized on a fixed mesh. The method is verified by low Reynolds number flows passing both stationary and oscillating cylinders. The drag and lift coefficients acquired by the study well accord with other published results, which indicate the reasonability of the proposed method.
Gerasimova, Yu. V.; Oreshonkov, A. S.; Laptash, N. M.; Vtyurin, A. N.; Krylov, A. S.; Shestakov, N. P.; Ershov, A. A.; Kocharova, A. G.
2017-04-01
Two ammonium oxofluorovanadates, (NH4)3VO2F4 and (NH4)3VOF5, have been investigated by temperature-dependent infrared and Raman spectroscopy methods to determine the nature of phase transitions (PT) in these compounds. Dynamics of quasioctahedral groups was simulated within the framework of semi-empirical approach, which justified the cis-conformation of VO2F43 - (C2v) and the C4v geometry of VOF53 -. The observed infrared and Raman spectra of both compounds at room temperature (RT) revealed the presence at least of two crystallographically independent octahedral groups. The first order PT at elevated temperatures is connected with a complete dynamic disordering of these groups with only single octahedral state. At lower temperatures, the octahedra are ordered and several octahedral states appear. This PT is the most pronounced in the case of (NH4)3VOF5, when at least seven independent VOF53 - octahedra are present in the structure below 50 K, in accordance with the Raman spectra. Ammonium groups do not take part in PTs at higher and room temperatures but their reorientational motion freezes at lower temperatures.
New Tetrachromic VOF Stain (Type III-G.S for Normal and Pathological Fish Tissues
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C Sarasquete
2005-06-01
Full Text Available A new VOF Type III-G.S stain was applied to histological sections of different organs and tissues of healthy and pathological larvae, juvenile and adult fish species (Solea senegalensis; Sparus aurata; Diplodus sargo; Pagrus auriga; Argyrosomus regius and Halobatrachus didactylus. In comparison to the original Gutiérrez´VOF stain, more acid dyes of contrasting colours and polychromatic/metachromatic properties were incorporated as essential constituents of the tetrachromic VOF stain. This facilitates the selective staining of different basic tissues and improves the morphological analysis of histochemical approaches of the cell components. The VOF-Type III G.S stain is composed of a mixture of several dyes of varying size and molecular weight (Orange G< acid Fuchsin< Light green
VOLVOF: An update of the CFD code, SOLA-VOF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, J.E.
1999-12-14
The SOLA-VOF code developed by the T-3 (Theoretical Physics, Fluids) group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been extensively modified at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The modified and improved version has been dubbed ''VOLVOF,'' to acknowledge the state of Tennessee, the Volunteer state and home of ORNL. Modifications include generalization of boundary conditions, additional flexibility in setting up problems, addition of a problem interruption and restart capability, segregation of graphics functions to allow utilization of modern commercial graphics programs, and addition of time and date stamps to output files. Also, the pressure iteration has been restructured to exploit the much greater system memory available on modern workstations and personal computers. A solution monitoring capability has been added to utilize the multi-tasking capability of modern computer operating systems. These changes are documented in the following report. NAMELIST input variables are defined, and input files and the resulting output are given for two test problems. Modification and documentation of a working technical computer program is almost never complete. This is certainly true for the present effort. However, the impending retirement of the writer dictates that the current configuration and capability be reported.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Heyns, Johan A
2012-06-01
Full Text Available combines a blended higher resolution scheme with the addition of an artificial compressive term to the volume-of-fluid equation. This reduces the numerical smearing of the interface associated with explicit higher resolution schemes while limiting...
A volume-of-fluid formulation for the study of co-flowing fluids governed by the Hele-Shaw equations
Afkhami, Shahriar
2013-01-01
We present a computational framework to address the flow of two immiscible viscous liquids which co-flow into a shallow rectangular container at one side, and flow out into a holding container at the opposite side. Assumptions based on the shallow depth of the domain are used to reduce the governing equations to one of Hele-Shaw type. The distinctive feature of the numerical method is the accurate modeling of the capillary effects. A continuum approach coupled with a volume-of-fluid formulation for computing the interface motion and for modeling the interfacial tension in Hele-Shaw flows is formulated and implemented. The interface is reconstructed with a height-function algorithm. The combination of these algorithms is a novel development for the investigation of Hele-Shaw flows. The order of accuracy and convergence properties of the method are discussed with benchmark simulations. A microfluidic flow of a ribbon of fluid which co-flows with a second liquid is simulated. We show that for small capillary num...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hidenori Otani
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the volume of fluid ingested on urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration. Seven healthy males performed 105 min of intermittent cycle exercise at 70% maximum oxygen uptake (32°C, 60% relative humidity while receiving no fluid ingestion (NF, voluntary fluid ingestion (VF, partial fluid ingestion equivalent to one-half of body mass loss (PF, and full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss (FF. Fluid (5°C, 3.4% carbohydrate, 10.5 mmol·L-1 sodium was ingested just before commencing exercise and at 15, 33, 51, 69, and 87 min of exercise, and the total amount of fluid ingested in PF and FF was divided into six equal volumes. During exercise, body mass loss was 2.2 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.2, and 0.1 ± 0.2% in NF, VF, PF, and FF, respectively, whereas total sweat loss was about 2% of body mass in each trial. Subjects in VF ingested 719 ± 240 ml of fluid during exercise; the volume of fluid ingested was 1.1 ± 0.4% of body mass. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and free water clearance was significantly lower in FF than in NF during exercise. Urine flow rate during exercise decreased significantly in NF. There were significant decreases in creatinine and osmolar clearance and was a significant increase in free water clearance during exercise in NF and VF. Creatinine clearance decreased significantly and free water clearance increased significantly during exercise in PF. There was no statistical change in urinary indices of renal function during exercise in FF. The findings suggest that full fluid ingestion equivalent to body mass loss has attenuated the decline in urine concentrating ability during prolonged heavy exercise in a hot environment at low levels of dehydration.
New tetrachromic VOF stain (Type III-G.S) for normal and pathological fish tissues.
Sarasquete, C; Gutiérrez, M
2005-01-01
A new VOF Type III-G.S stain was applied to histological sections of different organs and tissues of healthy and pathological larvae, juvenile and adult fish species (Solea senegalensis; Sparus aurata; Diplodus sargo; Pagrus auriga; Argyrosomus regius and Halobatrachus didactylus). In comparison to the original Gutiérrez VOF stain, more acid dyes of contrasting colours and polychromatic/metachromatic properties were incorporated as essential constituents of the tetrachromic VOF stain. This facilitates the selective staining of different basic tissues and improves the morphological analysis of histochemical approaches of the cell components. The VOF Type III -6.5 stain is composed of a mixture of several dyes of varying size and molecular weight (Orange G
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senthilkumar, S., E-mail: sundararaj.senthilkumar2@mail.dcu.ie [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin (Ireland); Delaure, Y.M.C., E-mail: yan.delaure@dcu.ie [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin (Ireland); Murray, D.B.; Donnelly, B. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)
2011-10-15
Highlights: > The static contact angle {theta}{sub c} has a significant effect on the bubble dynamics. > The mean bubble slide velocity is most significantly affected by {theta}{sub c} at low plate inclination. > Increasing {theta}{sub c} stretches the bubble in the direction normal to the plate promoting detachment. > Imposing the contact angle suppresses the liquid film between the bubble and solid surfaces. - Abstract: The static contact angle is the only empiricism introduced in a Volume of Fluid-Continuum Surface Force (VOF-CSF) model of bubbly flow. Although it has previously been shown to have a relatively limited effect on the accuracy of velocity and shape predictions in the case of large gas bubbles sliding under inclined walls (e.g. ), it may have a more determining influence on the numerical prediction of the dynamics of smaller ellipsoidal bubbles which were shown by to bounce repeatedly when sliding under inclined walls at certain wall inclinations. The present paper reports on the influence of surface tension and the static contact angle on the dynamics of an ellipsoidal air bubble of equivalent diameter D{sub e} = 3.4 mm. The bubble Eoetvoes and Morton numbers are Eo = 1.56 and Mo = 2 x 10{sup -11} respectively. The computational results are achieved with a Piecewise Linear Construction (PLIC) of the interface and are reviewed with reference to experimental measurements of bubble velocity and interface shape oscillations recorded using a high speed digital camera. Tests are performed at plate inclination angles {theta} element of {l_brace}10{sup o}, 20{sup o}, 30{sup o}, 45{sup o}{r_brace} to the horizontal and computational models consider three static contact angles {theta}{sub c} element of {l_brace}10{sup o}, 20{sup o}, 30{sup o}{r_brace}. The static contact angle has been found to have a significant effect on the bubble dynamics but to varying degree depending on the plate inclination. It is shown to promote lift off and bouncing when the plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
关晖; 苏晓冰; 田俊杰
2011-01-01
The internal waves exist in the density stratified sea water, and have important effects to the stability and hovering ability of the motion of submarines. Using the finite volume algorithm with adaptive semi-structure grids, the multi-grid method and the volume of fluid method to solve Navier-Stokes equations , a numerical internal solitary wave flume, based on the idea of pushing two plates in opposite directions in the tank, with the ability of wave generation was developed, and the validity for such a method was numerically confirmed. The results were compared well with the analytical solution of KdV equation. The evolution of internal solitary waves was carried out, which laid a solid foundation for the future study of the interactions between internal solitary waves and submarines.%海洋内波是发生在密度分层海水中的波动，对潜艇航行的稳定性和悬停性都有重要影响。本文采用有限体积自适应半结构多重网格法求解Navier-Stokes方程，并用VOF(Volume of Fluid)方法追踪两层流体界面，应用双推板造波法进行内孤立波数值造波，对两层流体中的内孤立波数值造波方法进行研究和探讨。数值模拟结果证实了该数值水槽数值造波的有效性和可靠性，并将潜艇放入数值水槽中，研究内孤立波流场演化的过程，为后续研究潜艇的水动力学特性打下了基础。
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiara Biscarini
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical simulation of fast-moving fronts originating from dam or levee breaches is a challenging task for small scale engineering projects. In this work, the use of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes (NS equations and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is proposed for testing the validity of, respectively, macroscopic and mesoscopic mathematical models. Macroscopic simulations are performed employing an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD code that solves the NS combined with the volume of fluid (VOF multiphase method to represent free-surface flows. The mesoscopic model is a front-tracking experimental variant of the LBM. In the proposed LBM the air-gas interface is represented as a surface with zero thickness that handles the passage of the density field from the light to the dense phase and vice versa. A single set of LBM equations represents the liquid phase, while the free surface is characterized by an additional variable, the liquid volume fraction. Case studies show advantages and disadvantages of the proposed LBM and NS with specific regard to the computational efficiency and accuracy in dealing with the simulation of flows through complex geometries. In particular, the validation of the model application is developed by simulating the flow propagating through a synthetic urban setting and comparing results with analytical and experimental laboratory measurements.
Numerical simulation of the two-phase flows in a hydraulic coupling by solving VOF model
Luo, Y.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Fan, H. G.; Zhuge, W. L.
2013-12-01
The flow in a partially filled hydraulic coupling is essentially a gas-liquid two-phase flow, in which the distribution of two phases has significant influence on its characteristics. The interfaces between the air and the liquid, and the circulating flows inside the hydraulic coupling can be simulated by solving the VOF two-phase model. In this paper, PISO algorithm and RNG k-ɛ turbulence model were employed to simulate the phase distribution and the flow field in a hydraulic coupling with 80% liquid fill. The results indicate that the flow forms a circulating movement on the torus section with decreasing speed ratio. In the pump impeller, the air phase mostly accumulates on the suction side of the blades, while liquid on the pressure side; in turbine runner, air locates in the middle of the flow passage. Flow separations appear near the blades and the enclosing boundaries of the hydraulic coupling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Felipe Aguilera
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.
A fast pressure-correction method for incompressible two-fluid flows
Dodd, Michael S.; Ferrante, Antonino
2014-09-01
We have developed a new pressure-correction method for simulating incompressible two-fluid flows with large density and viscosity ratios. The method's main advantage is that the variable coefficient Poisson equation that arises in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two-fluid flows is reduced to a constant coefficient equation, which can be solved with an FFT-based, fast Poisson solver. This reduction is achieved by splitting the variable density pressure gradient term in the governing equations. The validity of this splitting is demonstrated from our numerical tests, and it is explained from a physical viewpoint. In this paper, the new pressure-correction method is coupled with a mass-conserving volume-of-fluid method to capture the motion of the interface between the two fluids but, in general, it could be coupled with other interface advection methods such as level-set, phase-field, or front-tracking. First, we verified the new pressure-correction method using the capillary wave test-case up to density and viscosity ratios of 10,000. Then, we validated the method by simulating the motion of a falling water droplet in air and comparing the droplet terminal velocity with an experimental value. Next, the method is shown to be second-order accurate in space and time independent of the VoF method, and it conserves mass, momentum, and kinetic energy in the inviscid limit. Also, we show that for solving the two-fluid Navier-Stokes equations, the method is 10-40 times faster than the standard pressure-correction method, which uses multigrid to solve the variable coefficient Poisson equation. Finally, we show that the method is capable of performing fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence with thousands of droplets using a computational mesh of 10243 points.
Two-Phase Flow Simulations In a Natural Rock Fracture using the VOF Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant
2010-01-01
Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the numerical model. These parameters include production/destruction of interfacial area as a function of saturation and capillary pressure. Our preliminary results for primary drainage in porous media show that the specific interfacial area increased linearly with increasing gas saturation until breakthrough of the displacing gas into the exit manifold occurred.
烧伤创面深度对患者休克期补液量的影响%Influence of depth of burn wound on volume of fluid infusion during shock stage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈郑礼; 袁克俭
2011-01-01
目的 探讨烧伤创面深度与患者休克期补液量的相关性.方法 收集烧伤面积≥25%总体表面积(TBSA)且休克期采用瑞金公式进行液体复苏患者的病史资料.记录人选患者的体表烧伤总面积、Ⅲ度烧伤面积以及烧伤后第1个和第2个24 h的补液量;计算Ⅲ度烧伤创面面积与体表烧伤总面积的比值(Ⅲ度创面比),换算烧伤后第1个和第2个24 h的实际补液系数(VIWB);分析Ⅲ度创面比与VIWB的相关性,建立回归方程并换算烧伤后第1个和第2个24 h的修正VIWB.结果 166例患者资料入选.与单纯Ⅱ度烧伤患者(n=53)比较,单纯Ⅲ度烧伤患者(n=7)烧伤后第1个和第2个24 h的VIWB分别增加了37%和41%(均P＜0.05).Ⅲ度创面比与烧伤后第1个和第2个24 h的VIWB均呈显著正相关(R2=0.138,P＜0.001;R2=0.108,P＜0.001);建立的回归方程为y=0.537x+1.595和y=0.314x+0.775.与相同面积的Ⅱ度烧伤创面比较,Ⅲ度烧伤创面烧伤后第1个和第2个24 h的修正VIWB分别增加了35%和41%;Ⅲ度创面比每提高20%,第1个和第2个24 h的VIWB修正公式需分别增加0.1和0.06.结论 烧伤患者休克期补液量与Ⅲ度创面比有关;修正公式适用于不同深度烧伤创面VIWB的换算.%Objective To explore the relationship between depth of burn wound and volume of fluid infusion during shock stage. Methods The clinical data of patients with total burn surface area no less than 25％ of total body surface area and undergoing fluid infusion by Ruijin resuscitation formula during shock stage were collected. The total burn surface area, fullthickness burn surface area and volumes of fluid infusion in the first and second 24 h after burn were recorded, the ratio of full-thickness burn surface area to burn surface area (full-thickness burn surface area ratio) was calculated, and volumes infused per body weight and burn surface area (VIWB) in the first and second 24 h after burn were obtained. The relationship between full
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up: Regular Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Modeling of low-capillary number segmented flows in microchannels using OpenFOAM
Hoang, D.A.; Van Steijn V.; Portela, L.M.; Kreutzer, M.T.; Kleijn, C.R.
2012-01-01
Modeling of low-Capillary number segmented flows in microchannels is important for the design of microfluidic devices. We present numerical validations of microfluidic flow simulations using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method as implemented in OpenFOAM. Two benchmark cases were investigated to ensure
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up: Regular Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2016-01-01
Propellant slosh is a potential source of disturbance critical to the stability of space vehicles. The slosh dynamics are typically represented by a mechanical model of a spring-mass-damper. This mechanical model is then included in the equation of motion of the entire vehicle for Guidance, Navigation and Control analysis. A Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program developed at MSFC was applied to extract slosh damping in the baffled tank from the first principle. First the experimental data using water with sub-scale smooth wall tank were used as the baseline validation. It is demonstrated that CFD can indeed accurately predict low damping values from the smooth wall at different fill levels. The damping due to a ring baffles at different depths from the free surface was then simulated, and fairly good agreement with experimental measurement was observed. Comparison with an empirical correlation of Miles equation is also made.
舰船气泡尾流数值模拟%A Numerical Method to Simulate Ship Bubbly Wake
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
万鹏程; 傅慧萍
2013-01-01
以韩国船舶与海洋工程研究所(KRISO)的集装箱船KCS(KRISO Container Ship)模型为研究对象,以通用计算流体力学(CFD)软件FLUENT为平台,进行了基于流体体积(VOF)两相流模型的KCS带自由面黏性流场数值模拟；将自由面固化,对自由面以下水体进行了基于混合物多相流(Mixture)模型的KCS气泡尾流场数值模拟,探讨了Realizable k-ε(R k-ε)两方程模型和雷诺应力模型对气泡尾流计算的影响.计算所得结果定性正确,验证了与自由面法向速度梯度相关的气泡卷吸模型及相应求解方法的适用性.%A numerical method was put up forward to simulate ship bubbly wake. The free surface around a model-scaled KRISOC Korean research institute of ship and ocean engineering) container ship (KCS) was first numerically simulated through the volume of fluid two-phase model imbedded in general computational fluid dynamics(CFD) code FLUENT. Then in order to simulate the bubbly wake around KCS hull, the under-water flow field was computed based on the mixture multiphase model with a rigid-lid-free-surface method. The Realizable κ-ε two-equation turbulence model and Reynolds stress model were used to analyze the effects of turbulence model on the bubbly ship wake. The air entrainment model that is relative to the normal velocity gradient of the free surface, and the solving method are justified by the qualitatively reasonable computed results.
The Optimization of a Microfluidic CTC Filtering Chip by Simulation
Huan Li; Jianfeng Chen; Wenqiang Du; Youjun Xia; Depei Wang; Gang Zhao; Jiaru Chu
2017-01-01
The detection and separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are crucial in early cancer diagnosis and cancer prognosis. Filtration through a thin film is one of the size and deformability based separation methods, which can isolate rare CTCs from the peripheral blood of cancer patients regardless of their heterogeneity. In this paper, volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase flow models are employed to clarify the cells’ filtering processes. The cells may deform significantly when they enter a cha...
Vertical Wave Impacts on Offshore Wind Turbine Inspection Platforms
Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl
2011-01-01
Breaking wave impacts on a monopile at 20 m depth are computed with a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method. The impacting waves are generated by the second-order focused wave group technique, to obtain waves that break at the position of the monopile. The subsequent impact from the vertical run-up flow on a horizontal inspection platform is computed for five different platform levels. The computational results show details of monopile impact such as slamming pressures from the overturning wave front ...
Ling, Haitao; Li, Fei; Zhang, Lifeng; Conejo, Alberto N.
2016-06-01
A mathematical model has been developed to explain the effect of the number of nozzles on recirculation flow rate in the RH process. Experimental data from water modeling were employed to validate the mathematical model. The experimental data included the velocity fields measured with a particle image velocimetry technique and mixing time. The multiphase model volume of fluid was employed to allow a more realistic representation of the free surface in the vacuum chamber while injected argon bubbles were treated as discrete phase particles and modeled using the discrete phase model. Interfacial forces between bubbles and liquid phase were considered, including the lift force. The simulations carried out with the mathematical model involved changes in the gas flow rate from 12 to 36 L/min and a number of nozzles from 4 to 8. The results indicated a logarithmic increment in the recirculation rate as the gas flow rate increased and also corresponded with an exponential decrease in mixing time. The plume area and liquid velocities resulting from individual nozzles were computed. A maximum optimum recirculation rate was defined based on a mechanism proposed to explain the effect of gas flow rate and the number of nozzles on the recirculation rate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘桢兵
2011-01-01
建立了液舱晃荡的有限元模型,运用CFD计算软件Fluent 6.3模拟了单激励和耦合激励下不同舱室结构以及不同幅度的液舱晃荡,并计算监测点压力,得到了晃荡在激励下的变化规律.对仿真结果进行讨论分析.%As a common phenomenon in liquid motions, sloshing usually happens partially in a filled liquid tank of moving ship. When coupling with ship motions it can cause violent motions and even capsizing under extreme conditions. At the same time, the sloshing of liquid tank is a complex liquid motions phenomenon which represent strong nonlinear and randomness. Based on the CFD software Fluent 6.3, under the force of single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom which would reflect in various range of the sloshing, the paper numerically simulated the different tank structures, calculated the pressure of monitor points and obtained the variation law of sloshing under stimulation. The effects of the different forms of liquid tank sloshing and variation trend are discussed.
Numerical simulation for thermal flow filling process of casting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Ye; ZHAO Yu-hong; HOU Hua
2006-01-01
The solution algorithm (SOLA) method was used to solve the velocity and pressure field of the thermal flow filling process, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method for the free surface problem. Since the "donor-acceptor" rule often results in the free interface vague, the explicit difference method was adopted, and a method describing the free surface state at 0＜F＜1 was proposed to deal with this problem. In order to raise the computation efficiency, such algorithms were investigated and invalidated as: 1) internal and external area separation simplification algorithm; 2) the reducing necessary search area method. With the improved algorithms, the filling processes of the valve cover castings with gravity cast and an up cylinder block casting with low-pressure cast were simulated, the simulation results are believable and the computation efficiency is greatly improved. The SOLA-VOF model and its difference method for thermal fluid flow filling process were introduced.
Porous Media and Immersed Boundary Hybrid-Modelling for Simulating Flow in Stone Cover-Layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjarne; Liu, Xiaofeng; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2017-01-01
In this paper we present a new numerical modelling approach for coastal and marine applications where a porous media conceptual model was combined with a free surface volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and an immersed boundary method (IBM). The immersed boundary model covers the method of describing a s....... In this paper, the model is applied to investigate two practical cases in terms of a cover layer of stones on a flat bed under oscillatory flow at different packing densities, and a rock toe structure at a breakwater....
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL SQUARE MOVING NEAR FREE SURFACE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The body moving near the free surface is a focus in fluid dynamicresearch. Many numerical methods were developed for the simulation of the induced flow field. In this paper, a two-dimensional square moving near the free surface was simulated by the volume of fluid method (VOF). The flow field and drag exerted on the square were studied. The drag would increase due to the presence of the free surface.The iteration factor of the pressure interpolation of surface cells was modified, and through this modification the iteration became more stable. The capability of dealing with the large deformation of the free surface was raised.
A study of plunging breaker mechanics by PIV measurements and a Navier-Stokes solver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I. M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2000-01-01
The mechanics of a surf-zone plunging breaker are studied from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements and a numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations, using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An additional numerical model using a Boundary-Integral Method (BIM) is also used in order...... to generate input conditions for the main numerical model. The PIV measurements were performed at the University of Edinburgh and then compared against the results found by the numerical model developed at DHI Water and Environment. Good agreement is found, throughout the breaking process, between...... the velocity fields of the plunging breaker measured using PIV and those predicted by the numerical model....
Li, Cheng-Jui; Tsai, Tsung-Wen; Tseng, Chien-Chou
The purpose of this research is to analyse the complex phase change and the heat transfer behavior of the Ti-6Al-4 V powder particle during the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. In this study, the rapid melting and solidification process is presented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach under the framework of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. The interaction between the laser velocity and power to the solidification shape and defects of the metal components will be studied numerically as a guideline to improve quality and reduce costs.
A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development
Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2011-01-01
The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach is the surface tracking method in the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFoam\\textregistered{}, which is released by OpenCFD\\textregistered{}. This basic version has been extended with the ability for modelling surfa...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭加宏; 戴世强
2007-01-01
The normal impingement process of two water droplets upon a thin film on the solid surface was numerically investigated.The numerical treatment Was based on the finite volume solution of the Navier-Stokes(N-S)equations combined with the volume of fluid method(VOF).Physically reasonable results for the process of two droplets impacting on the thin film were obtained.The effects of the droplet velocity,the film thickness and the spacing between the two droplets on the splash and spread process of the impact were examined.
Applications of CFD in hydraulics and river engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, V.T.; Nestmann, F. [Univ. of Karlsruhe, Civil Engineering, Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: ge27@rz.uni-karlsruhe.de; Franz.Nestmann@iwk.uni-karlsruhe.de
2002-07-01
In this paper various applications and developments of CFD technology in hydraulics and river engineering are presented. Numerical studies of three dimensional turbulent flow fields in open channels and rivers are carried out by CFD packages such as finite element FIDAP of Fluent and finite volume COMET of ICCM (Institute of Computational Continuum Mechanics GmbH). Meshing procedures are implemented by GAMBIT (Fluent) or CFD-GEOM (CFDRC). Especially, to calculate the position of the free surface both methods, free surface tracking and Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF), are applied. (author)
On the Influence of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seng, Sopheak; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2012-01-01
Numerical predictions and model test results of the wave induced bending moments in a 9,400 TEU post-Panamax container vessel are presented for two regular wave scenarios. Different numerical procedures have been applied: a linear and non-linear time-domain strip theory and a direct calculation (...... (CFD) solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. In all procedures the flexibility of the hull girder is modelled as a non-uniform Timoshenko beam. It is observed that the non-linear models agree well with the model tests...
A Study of Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Savonius Type Wave Energy Converter System
Tutar, Mustafa; Erdem, Ceyhan
In the present study, two-dimensional, two-phase and turbulent flow around a horizontal axis 3-bladed Savonius rotor is considered. Numerical wave tank (NWT) simulations based on FVM/FDM technique in association with volume of fluid (VOF) element method are performed for specified values of wave heights for no-rotor flow case. Once validated against the theoretical data, the numerical simulations are extended to investigate the overall performance of the turbine over a very large range of wave height conditions for the rotor-flow case.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jian-min; CHEN Jian-gang; XU Wei-lin; WANG Yu-rong; LI Gui-ji
2011-01-01
Air entrainment is known to be one of efficient and inexpensive methods to prevent cavitation damages in hydropower projects.The shape of sudden expansion-fall is used as a common device for mitigating cavitation erosions.The complex flow patterns with cavitation are numerically simulated by using the realizable k-ε turbulence model and the air-water mixture model.The calculated results are compared well with the experimental results as well as those obtained with the k -ε turbulence model with the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) Model.The calculated results agree well with the experimental data for the aeration cavity and wall pressure.Moreover, the air concentration near sidewall is simulated by a mixture model.It is found that the mixture turbulence model is superior to the VOF turbulence model.
NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF HIGHER SELF-PRESSURIZATION RATES IN A TYPICAL STORAGE VESSEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HARI KRISHNA RAJ
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Self-pressurization, as a result of vaporization can occur in many scientific and technical applications like cryogenic storage tanks, pressurized water reactors etc. Predictions of both the pressurization and vaporization rates are vital in defining design requirements conforming to the tank’s maximum working pressure andexpected liquid losses. Predicting precisely the highly transient interface phenomenon due to mass transfer coupled with phase change due to evaporation is the major challenge encountered in modeling selfpressurization. The recent improvements of the multiphase flow modeling in the ANSYS FLUENT code make it now possible to simulate these mechanisms in detail without the need of user defined functions. The volume-of-fluid (VOF method in conjunction with evaporation–condensation mass transfer model has been used here. In this paper we are extending the proven capability of VOF model for predicting higher selfpressurization rates due to phase change in storage vessels.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Guo-yan; PENG Yan; ZHAO Ling-zhi; LI Ran; SHA Ci-wen
2007-01-01
A new method of recovering maritime oil-spill based on electromagnetic force, the so-called MHD oil-spill recovery method was proposed in the IEECAS. The operating process of MHD channel was described in this article. Numerical study was carried out using a two-dimensional water-air two-phase model and the VOF method. The agreement between the numerical and the experimental results was reached.
Validation of High-Resolution CFD Method for Slosh Damping Extraction of Baffled Tanks
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2016-01-01
Determination of slosh damping is a very challenging task as there is no analytical solution. The damping physics involve the vorticity dissipation which requires the full solution of the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. As a result, previous investigations and knowledge were mainly carried out by extensive experimental studies. A Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) based CFD program developed at NASA MSFC was applied to extract slosh damping in a baffled tank from the first principle. First, experimental data using water with subscale smooth wall tank were used as the baseline validation. CFD simulation was demonstrated to be capable of accurately predicting natural frequency and very low damping value from the smooth wall tank at different fill levels. The damping due to a ring baffle at different liquid fill levels from barrel section and into the upper dome was then investigated to understand the slosh damping physics due to the presence of a ring baffle. Based on this study, the Root-Mean-Square error of our CFD simulation in estimating slosh damping was less than 4.8%, and the maximum error was less than 8.5%. Scalability of subscale baffled tank test using water was investigated using the validated CFD tool, and it was found that unlike the smooth wall case, slosh damping with baffle is almost independent of the working fluid and it is reasonable to apply water test data to the full scale LOX tank when the damping from baffle is dominant. On the other hand, for the smooth wall, the damping value must be scaled according to the Reynolds number. Comparison of experimental data, CFD, with the classical and modified Miles equations for upper dome was made, and the limitations of these semi-empirical equations were identified.
A Full Hydro- and Morphodynamic Description of Breaker Bar Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl
The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach is the su......The present thesis considers a coupled modelling approach for hydro- and morphodynamics in the surf zone, which is based on a solution to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) closure for the surf tracking. The basis for the numerical approach...... is the surface tracking method in the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFoam\\textregistered{}, which is released by OpenCFD\\textregistered{}. This basic version has been extended with the ability for modelling surface water waves and sediment transport in the surf zone. The validation of these functionalities...... as part of this work. The numerical model is applied onto several physical settings. Firstly, the morphological response is turned off, and the hydrodynamics and the sediment transport patterns in the surf zone are described. The description considers these processes as a function of several non...
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.
2015-12-01
Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.
A CIP-Based Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Flow Related to Freak Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵西增
2013-01-01
An enhanced numerical model for simulating two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow with distorted free surface is reported. The numerical simulation is carried out through the CIP (Constrained Interpolation Profile)-based method, which is described in the paper. A more accurate interface capturing scheme, the VOF/WLIC scheme (VOF:Volume-of-Fluid;WLIC:weighed line interface calculation), is adopted as the interface capturing method. To assess the developed algorithm and its versatility, a selection of test problems are examined, i.e. the square wave propagation, the Zalesak’s rigid body rotation, dam breaking problem with and without obstacles, wave sloshing in an excited wave tank and interaction between extreme waves and a floating body. Excellent agreements are obtained when numerical results are compared with available analytical, experimental, and other numerical results. These examples demonstrate that the use of the VOF/WLIC scheme in the free surface capturing makes better results and also the proposed CIP-based model is capable of predicting the freak wave-related phenomena.
Numerical Simulation of Bubble Formation and Transport in Cross-Flowing Streams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanneck Wielhorski
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations on confined bubble trains formed by cross-flowing streams are carried out with the numerical code THETIS which is based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF method and has been developed for two phase flow studies and especially for a gas-liquid system. The surface tension force, which needs particular attention in order to determine the shape of the interface accurately, is computed using the Continuum Surface Force model (CSF. Through the coupling of a VOF-PLIC technique (Piecewise-Linear Interface Calculation and a smoothing function of adjustable thickness, the Smooth Volume of Fluid technique (SVOF is intended to capture accurately strong interface distortion, rupture or reconnection with large density and viscosity contrasts between phases. This approach is extended by using the regular VOF-PLIC technique, while applying a smoothing procedure affecting both physical characteristics averaging and surface tension modeling. The front-capturing strategy is extended to gas injection. We begin by introducing the main physical phenomena occurring during bubble formation in microfluidic systems. Then, an experimental study performed in a cylindrical T-junction for different wetting behaviors is presented. For the wetting configuration, Cartesian 2D numerical simulations concerning the gas-liquid bubble production performed in a T-junction with rectangular, planar cross sections are shown and compared with experimental measurements. Finally, the results obtained of bubble break-up mechanism, shape, transport and pressure drop along the channel will be presented, discussed and compared to some experimental and numerical outcomes given in the literature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭钱磊; 桂良进; 范子杰
2015-01-01
In recent years numerical simulation has become one of the most important means to study the complex oil flow within gearbox. Since the gap between tooth surfaces near the gear mesh zone is quite tiny, it’s difficult to get high quality mesh grid near such zone. Further numerical divergence frequently occurs along iterative process with dynamic mesh. To overcome this predicament, some researchers have tried different gear modeling methods to simplify the gear model, such as none-teeth method, cutting-teeth method or gear-separation method. Nevertheless these methods have certain limitation. This paper attended to provide a new practical gear modeling methods called teeth-face-moving method. The method was operated by moving each tooth surface slightly. As the tooth thickness was marginally reduced, the gap between tooth surfaces near the mesh zone was increased to 0.5-1 mm, so that mesh generation in the gap became feasible, which was different from the previous methods, i.e. all of teeth profiles and the center distance of 2 gears were kept as same as the original when using the teeth-face-moving method. To certify the reasonability of this new method, a numerical model for splash lubrication in gearbox was built with different gear modeling methods. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to track the air and oil two-phase flow. And RNG k-ε model was introduced to describe turbulence flow considering high fluid strain rate and high bending degree of flow line. Standard wall function was applied to deal with the flow near wall region and low Reynolds number flow. Dynamic mesh method with the spring-based smoothing and local remeshing was used to adapt the motion of gears. Due to more concentrating upon mesh zone, the gear-separation method and the teeth-face-moving method required more grid elements and computational resource than other methods. The numerical results of oil distribution and gears’ churning loss were comparatively analyzed. Also the
Numerical study on multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myong, Hyon Kook [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-07-15
The present paper presents a numerical study on multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion. The continuum surface force (CSF) model with the wall adhesion boundary condition model is used for calculating the surface tension force; this model is implemented in an in house solution code (PowerCFD). The present method (code) employs an unstructured cell centered method based on a conservative pressure based finite volume method with a volume capturing method (CICSAM) in a volume of fluid (VOF) scheme for phase interface capturing. The effects of wall adhesion are then numerically simulated by using the present method for a shallow pool of water located at the bottom of a cylindrical tank with no external forces such as gravity. Two different cases are computed, one it which the water wets the wall and one in which the water does not wet the wall. It is found that the present method efficiently simulates the surface tension dominant multiphase flows induced by wall adhesion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Shi-ping; LI Chang-yun; GUO Jing-jie; SU Yan-qing; LEI Xiu-qiao; FU Heng-zhi
2006-01-01
A mathematical model of the centrifugal filling process was established. The calculated results show that the centrifugal field has an important influence on the filling process. Moreover, the process of liquid flow and the location of free surface in sprue were simulated based on the Solution Algorithm-Volume of Fraction (SOLA-VOF) technique. In order to verify the mathematical model and computational results, hydraulic simulation experiment was carried out. The results of experiments and numerical simulation indicate the accuracy of mathematical model. Two kinds of filling methods were investigated and the results show that the bottom filling is better than the top filling that can achieve stable filling and reduce defects.
The numerical simulation of liquid sloshing on board spacecraft
Veldman, A.E.P.; Gerrits, J.; Luppes, R.; Helder, J.A.; Vreeburg, J.P.B.
2007-01-01
The subject of study is the influence of sloshing liquid on the dynamics of spacecraft. A combined theoretical and experimental approach has been followed. On the one hand, CFD simulations have been carried out to predict the combined liquid/solid body motion. Basically a volume-of-fluid (VOF) appro
WAVE INTERACTION WITH PERFORATED CAISSON BREAKWATERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Xue-feng
2003-01-01
The reflection coefficient of perforated caissons and the total horizontal forces acting on them were experimentally and numerically analyzed and discussed when wave propagates normally. To consider the viscosity effect of fluid and nonlinear action of waves on structures, the VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method combined with the k-ε turbulence model was used to simulate the interaction between waves and structures. Governing equations were solved with the finite difference method. Through 2D experimental study in the wave flume, the empirical relationship between the reflection coefficient of perforated caissons and the main affecting factors were obtained from the experimental data using the least square method. Also the correlation between the ratio of the total horizontal force acting on perforated caisson and the force acting on solid caisson and the main affecting factors were regressed from the experimental data.
Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of 3D bionic fish school
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Numerical simulations of self-propelled swimming of a three dimensional bionic fish and fish school in a viscous fluid are carried out. This is done with the assistance of a parallel software package produced for 3D moving boundary problems. This computational fluid dynamics package combines the adaptive multi-grid finite volume method, the immersed boundary method and VOF (volume of fluid) method. By using the package results of the self-propelled swimming of a 3D bionic fish and fish school in a vis- cous fluid are obtained. With comparison to the existing experimental measurements of living fishes, the predicted structure of vortical wakes is in good agreement with the measurements.
A New Concept to Transport a Droplet on Horizontal Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myong, Hyon Kook [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-15
A fluid transport technique is a key issue for the development of microfluidic systems. In this paper, a new concept for transporting a droplet without external power sources is proposed and verified numerically. The proposed device is a heterogeneous surface which has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic horizontal surfaces. The numerical simulation to demonstrate the new concept is conducted by an in-house solution code (PowerCFD) which employs an unstructured cell-centered method based on a conservative pressure-based finite-volume method with interface capturing method (CICSAM) in a volume of fluid (VOF) scheme for phase interface capturing. It is found that the proposed concept for droplet transport shows superior performance for droplet transport in microfluidic systems.
Droplet Transport Mechanism on Horizontal Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myong, Hyon Kook [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-15
A fluid transport technique is a key issue for the development of microfluidic systems. In this study, the movement of a droplet on horizontal hydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces, which is a new concept to transport droplets without external power sources that was recently proposed by the author, was simulated using an in-house solution code(PowerCFD). This code employs an unstructured cell-centered method based on a conservative pressure-based finite-volume method with interface capturing method(CICSAM) in a volume of fluid(VOF) scheme for phase interface capturing. The droplet transport mechanism is examined through numerical results that include velocity vectors, pressure contours, and total kinetic energy inside and around the droplet.
Well purge and sample apparatus and method
Schalla, Ronald; Smith, Ronald M.; Hall, Stephen H.; Smart, John E.; Gustafson, Gregg S.
1995-01-01
The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Lei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Inkjet printing is a method for directly patterning and fabricating patterns without the need for masks. However, the physical phenomenon in inkjet printing process is very complicated with the coupling of piezoelectricity, elasticity, and free surface fluid dynamics. The authors use the volume of fluid (VOF method as implemented in the commercial code FLUENT to model the details of the drop formation process. The influence of viscosity and surface tension of the liquid on the droplet formation process is investigated. Consequently, we find that the speed of liquid plays an important role for the jet stability. The viscosity of liquid greatly influences the final speed of droplet. However, the surface tension of liquid does not much affect the speed of droplet. It changes the shape of the liquid thread and final droplet.
3D numerical simulation analysis of passive drag near free surface in swimming
Zhan, Jie-min; Li, Tian-zeng; Chen, Xue-bin; Li, Yok-sheung; Wai, Wing-hong Onyx
2015-04-01
The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k- ɛ turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer's arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.
Efficient Computation of N-S Equation with Free Surface Flow Around an ACV on ShirazUCFD Grid
Sheikhalishahi, Seyyed Mehdi; Alizadehrad, Davood; Dastghaibyfard, Gholamhossein; Alishahi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nikseresht, Amir Hossein
This paper presents the application of a parallel high accuracy simulation code for Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution with free surface flow around an ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) on ShirazUCFD Grid environment. The parallel finite volume code is developed for incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on general curvilinear coordinates system for modeling free surface flows. A single set of dimensionless equations is derived to handle both liquid and air phases in viscous incompressible free surface flow in general curvilinear coordinates. The volume of fluid (VOF) method with lagrangian propagation in computational domain for modeling the free surface flow is implemented. The parallelization approach uses a domain decomposition method for the subdivision of the numerical grid, the SPMD program model and MPICH-G2 as the message passing environment is used to obtain a portable application.
Nonlinear analysis of chaotic flow in a 3D closed-loop pulsating heat pipe
Pouryoussefi, S M
2016-01-01
Numerical simulation has been conducted for the chaotic flow in a 3D closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP). Heat flux and constant temperature boundary conditions were applied for evaporator and condenser sections, respectively. Water and ethanol were used as working fluids. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method has been employed for two-phase flow simulation. Spectral analysis of temperature time series was carried out using Power Spectrum Density (PSD) method. Existence of dominant peak in PSD diagram indicated periodic or quasi-periodic behavior in temperature oscillations at particular frequencies. Correlation dimension values for ethanol as working fluid was found to be higher than that for water under the same operating conditions. Similar range of Lyapunov exponent values for the PHP with water and ethanol as working fluids indicated strong dependency of Lyapunov exponent to the structure and dimensions of the PHP. An O-ring structure pattern was obtained for reconstructed 3D attractor at periodic or quasi-peri...
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF VENTILATED CAVITATING FLOW AROUND A 2D FOIL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing
2005-01-01
By using a pressure-based method and the finite volume method in the framework of the time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, the authors studied the unsteady process of ventilated cavities generated forcing air through an orifice in a 2D hydrofoil without natural cavitation physically. The computation was carried out with the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) technique to track the gas-liquid two-phase interface. The results of simulation indicate that the ventilation rate is an important parameter in determining the morphology of cavity. There exists a critical value to convert sheet cavity into supercavity. A high ventilation rate can induce a two-phase interface fluctuation and enable the ventilated cavitating flow to present a characteristic of periodicity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gang Nam Lee
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, the behaviour of green water impacting on a fixed rectangular structure is studied, and the flow kinematics is investigated with a series of experiments and computational fluid dynamic simulations. The experiments are conducted in a two-dimensional wave flume with the structure under regular wave conditions that are scaled down by the ratio of 1:125 from the BW Pioneer FPSO (Floating production storage and offloading operated in the Gulf of Mexico. The mean values of the horizontal and vertical velocity profiles are provided for the water and bubbly flow induced by the interaction between the rectangular structure and regular waves. CFD simulations are also performed by STAR-CCM+ using the volume-of-fluid (VOF method based on the finite-volume method (FVM and all of CFD results are compared with the experimental data.
3D Numerical Simulation Analysis of Passive Drag near Free Surface in Swimming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
詹杰民; 李天赠; 陈学彬; 李毓湘; 韦永康
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k-εturbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer’s arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.
CFD Simulation of the Vertical Motion Characteristics of the Moonpool Fluid for the Truss Spar
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bin Wang; Liqin Liu; Yougang Tang
2014-01-01
The research purpose of this paper is to estimate the impacts of the parameters of the guide plate on the vertical motion characteristics of the moonpool fluid. With the volume of fluid (VOF) method, three-dimensional models of the moonpool fluid motions of the truss spar platform are established. Simulation results are then presented for the moonpool forced oscillation by employing the dynamic mesh method and user-defined functions in FLUENT. The motions of the moonpool fluid and the loads on the guide plates are obtained for both cases of square-ring and crisscross. The results show that the shape and area of the guide plate at the bottom of the moonpool have a significant impact on the physical parameters of the moonpool, including the load on the moonpool guide plate, motion form of the moonpool fluid and the mass flow rate.
Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2012-01-01
Over the last couple of decades both the qualitative and quantitative understanding of breaking waves in the surf zone have greatly increased. This is due to the advances in experimental and numerical techniques. However, few comparisons between these two different investigative techniques...... for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments....... In the hybrid numerical scheme, the main model solves the Navier–Stokes equations using a Finite Volume method and the free-surface is simulated using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An important feature of this work is that, unlike in most other comparisons between numerical and experimental results, the exact...
Performance of Numerical Boundary Condition based on Active Wave Absorption System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trouch, P.; Rouck, J. de; Frigaard, Peter
2001-01-01
that was first developed in the context of physical wave flume experiments, using a wave paddle. The method applies to regular and irregular waves. Velocities are measured at one location inside the computational domain. The reflected wave train is separated from the incident wave field in front of a structure......The implementation and performance of a new active wave generating‐absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented. This numerical boundary condition AWAVOF is based on an active wave absorption system...... by means of digital filtering and subsequent superposition of the measured velocity signals. The incident wave signal is corrected, so that the reflected wave is effectively absorbed at the boundary. The effectiveness of the active wave generating‐absorbing boundary condition is proved using numerical...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FU Xiao-li; LI Da-mei; JIN Guo-yu
2007-01-01
The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser Sinensis) is one of the unique and important fishery resources in China. Since the construction of the Gezhouba Dam, the traditional migration route of the sturgeon has been blocked; consequently, the length of natural spawning sites is reduced from 800 km in the past to less than 5 km at present. As an endangered species, the Chinese sturgeon has become one of the most conserved aquatic species. In this article, the flow field of its spawning states in the downstream of Gezhouba Dam was simulated and analyzed using N-S equations and turbulence model. Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method with the Finite Volume Method (FVM) was used to simulate the water-air two-phase flow to examine the computed area. On the basis of the ecological-hydraulic characteristics of Chinese sturgeon, the features of the flow field were investigated to provide theoretical support for the proper management of the Three Gorges Reservoir.
Numerical Study on Film Boiling with Interlace Tracking%使用界面追踪对膜态沸腾的数值研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁明豪; 杨燕华; 李天舒; 胡志华
2008-01-01
A numerical method for simulation of interracial flows with phase change is presented. A volume-of-fluid (VOF) method based on piecewise linear interface construction (PLIC) is used to track interface. Special treatment is taken to deal with discontinuous velocity field due to phase change at liquid-vapor interface. The treatment is easy and effective. SIMPLE method is used for flow field and a CSF model for surface tension. The method is used to simulate three-dimensional film boiling on a horizontal plate with Cartesian coordinates and axisymmetric two-dimensional natural convection film boiling on a hemispherically ended rod with body fitted coordinates. They are in good agreement with analytical correlations.%提出一种计算带相变的自由界面的数值算法.基于分段线性界面重构(PLIC)的VOF(volume-of-fluid)方法用于追踪自由界面,并对汽液交界面上的相变导致的不连续速度场给出处理方法.此方法容易实施且被证明是有效的.流场的求解使用SIMPLE方法,表面张力使用连续表面力模型(CSF)进行计算.在三维直角坐标系下,模拟了水平壁面上的膜态沸腾,在二维适体坐标系下,模拟了竖直圆头柱体表面的自然对流膜态沸腾.计算结果与理论关系式符合较好.
A simple method of injecting tumescent fluid for liposuction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arindam Sarkar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Injection of tumescent fluid is essential to obtain a painless and relatively bloodless liposuction. There are many methods of injecting the tumescent fluid like power pumps, syringes and pressure cuffs. Our method consists of applying air pressure within the plastic transfusion fluid bottle by pricking with a wide bore needle and connecting it to a sphygmomanometer balloon pump. By inflation of the balloon pump and thus increasing pressure inside the plastic bottle, the rate and volume of infusion can be controlled. By applying the cuff outside the bottle the visibility inside is impaired and the bottle gets collapsed preventing a continued pressure and thereby impairing both the quantity as well as the rate of infusion. Power pumps are expensive. This method is inexpensive, infused volume of fluid being visible and the rate of infusion controllable.
Comments on `Spurious interface fragmentation in multiphase SPH' by Szewc et al
Szewc, Kamil
2016-01-01
This article is a commentary on the paper `Spurious interface fragmentation in multiphase SPH', IJNME (2015) 103, pp. 625-649 [1]. In that paper, the authors presented detailed analysis of the problem of spurious interface fragmentation phenomena in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method. After other researchers, in order to remove arising instabilities, the authors introduced the interface correction procedure. In this paper we show that the interface instabilities are physical and the introduction of the interface correction procedure may leads to non-physical solutions. We also explain the puzzling relation between the parameters " and h. The analysis is performed on the basis of the stability analysis and numerical calculations using SPH and Volume Of Fluid (VOF) approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Zhang-Guo; LIU Qiu-Sheng; LIU Rong; HU Wei; DENG Xin-Yu
2009-01-01
A computational simulation is conducted to investigate the influence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability on liquid propellant reorientation flow dynamics for the tank of CZ-3A launch vehicle series fuel tanks in a low-gravity environment. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) method is used to simulate the free surface flow of gas-liquid. The process of the liquid propellant reorientation started from initially fiat and curved interfaces are numerically studied. These two different initial conditions of the gas-liquid interface result in two modes of liquid flow. It is found that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can be reduced evidently at the initial gas-liquid interface with a high curve during the process of liquid reorientation in a low-gravity environment.
A Numerical Simulation of a Plunging Breaking Wave
Adams, Paul; Stephens, Mike; Brucker, Kyle A; O'Shea, Thomas; Dommermuth, Douglas
2009-01-01
This article describes the fluid dynamics video, "A Numerical Simulation of a Plunging Breaking Wave", which was submitted to the gallery of fluid motion at the 2009 APS/DFD conference. The simulation was of a deep-water plunging breaking wave. It was a two-phase calculation which used a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to simulate the interface between the two immiscible fluids. Surface tension and viscous effects were not considered. The initial wave was generated by applying a spatio-temporal pressure forcing on the free surface. The video shows the 50% isocontour of the volume fraction from several different perspectives. Significant air entrainment is observed as well as the presence of stream-wise vortex structures.
Modeling of solidification of MMC composites during gravity casting process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Zagórski
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with computer simulation of gravity casting of the metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramics (MMC into sand mold. The subject of our interest is aluminum matrix composite (AlMMC reinforced with ceramic particles i.e. silicon carbide SiC and glass carbon Cg. The created model describes the process taking into account solidification and its influence on the distribution of reinforcement particles. The computer calculation has been carried out in 2D system with the use of Navier-Stokes equations using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The Volume of Fluid approach (VOF and enthalpy method have been used to model the air-fluid free surface (and also volume fraction of particular continuous phases and the solidification of the cast, respectively.
RE-AERATION LAW OF WATER FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Xiang-ju; LUO Lin; CHEN Yong-can; ZHAO Wen-qian
2006-01-01
In order to explore the re-aeration law of water flow over spillway, the transfer process of oxygen in water flow over spillway was studied. The interfacial mass transfer coefficients were obtained by experiments. The flow fields and the turbulence characteristics are simulated by numerical methods. The fractional volume of fluid model (VOF) of the air-water two phase flows was introduced to track the interface. Consequently, the quantitative expression of the interfacial mass transfer coefficients related with velocity and kinetic energy at the free surface was derived and the re-aeration model for the water flow over spillway was established. The examination with the experimental data of different conditions shows the validity of the re-aeration model for the water flow over spillways. This study will be important to evaluate the dissolved oxygen concentration and self-purification ability of rivers.
A Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow Behavior in High Pressure Die Casting
Saeedipour, Mahdi; Schneiderbauer, Simon; Pirker, Stefan; Bozorgi, Salar
High pressure die casting (HPDC) is one of the most important and yet little known manufacturing methods especially during liquid metal injection and filling phase. During its application different problems can arise: on the one hand, wavy disintegration of the jet might result in cold shut defect in the final product, on the other hand a high degree of atomization may strongly increase the porosity defect. A numerical simulation using volume of fluid approach (VOF), is carried out to model the global spreading of liquid metal jet. The formation of droplets, which are usually smaller than the grid spacing in computational domain, is determined by a surface energy-based criterion. An Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is introduced to track and model the droplets after formation. Since liquid metal is hardly to access, we performed experiments based on water analogy to capture the flow regime changes and drop formation. The comparison between numerical results and experiments shows a very good agreement.
Numerical simulations of gas-liquid-solid flows in a hydrocyclone separator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mousavian, S.M.; Najafi, A.F. [Power and Water University of Technology, School of Energy Engineering, P.O. Box: 16765-1719, Tehran (Iran)
2009-05-15
The flow behavior in hydrocyclones is quite complex. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used to simulate the flow fields inside a hydrocyclone in order to investigate its separation efficiency. In the computational fluid dynamics study of hydrocyclones, the air-core dimension is a key to predicting the mass split between the underflow and overflow. In turn, the mass split influences the prediction of the size classification curve. Three models, the k-{epsilon} model, the Reynolds stress model (RSM) without considering the air-core, and the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model for simulating the air-core, were compared in terms of their predictions of velocity, axial and tangential velocity distributions, and separation proportion. The RSM with air-core simulation model, since it reproduces some detailed features of the turbulence and multiphase, clearly predicted the experimental data more closely than did the other two models. (orig.)
THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF WAVE SLAMMING ON AN OPEN STRUCTURE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING Zhao-qiang; WANG Guo-yu; REN Bing
2012-01-01
The three-dimensional numerical simulation of wave slamming on an open structure in the splash zone is carried out based upon the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method.A wave basin is established by solving the continuity equation and the Navier-Stoke equations.The linear wave-maker is placed on the left side of the basin,and the numerical sponge layer and the SRC are placed on the right side of the basin to damp the incident waves.The three-dimensional wave slamming boundary condition is adopted to model waves in contact with and separated from the underside of the structure.The numerical results of wave slamming on a foursquare structure for various parametric cases are verified by the experimental results.Meanwhile,the characteristics of the wave impact forces on the undersides of the rectangular structures with various length-breadth ratios are discussed.
Study on Numerical Simulation of Mold Filling and HeatTransfer in Die Casting Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A 3-D mathematical model considering turbulence phenomena has been established basedon a computational fluid dynamics technique, so called 3-D SOLA-VOF (Solution Algorithm-Volume of Fluid), to simulate the fluid flow of mold filling process of die casting. In addition, the mathematical model for simulating the heat transfer in die casting process has also been established.The computation program has been developed by the authors with the finite difference method (FDM) recently. As verification, the mold filling process of a S-shaped die casting has been simulated and the simulation results coincide with that of the benchmark test. Finally, as a practical application, the gating design of a motorcycle component was modified by the mold filling simulation and the dies design of another motorcycle component was optimized by theheat transfer simulation. All the optimized designs were verified by the production practice.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myong, Hyong Kook; Kwon, Young Hoo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-03-15
Fluid transport is a key issue in the development of microfluidic systems. Recently, Myong (2014) has proposed a new concept for droplet transport without external power sources and numerically validated the results for a hypothetical 2D, initially having a hemicylindrical droplet. In this paper, the movement of an actual water droplet, initially having a 3D hemispherical shape, on horizontal hydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces is simulated using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package, Fluent, with VOF (volume of fluid) method. The results are compared with the 2D analysis of Myong (2014), and the transport mechanism for the actual water droplet is examined based on the numerical results of the time evolution of the droplet shape, as well as the total kinetic, gravitational, surface free and pressure energies inside the droplet.
Particles migration behavior during laser keyhole welding of ZL101/TiB2 composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haichao CUI; Fenggui LU; Xinhua TANG; Shun YAO
2012-01-01
Particle redistribution occurred with the flow of pool fluid in laser welding aluminum composites.In order to investigate particle migration behavior,a numerical model was established on laser welding of ZL101-TiB2 composite.TiB2 migration coupling with fluid was realized.The volume-of-fluid (VOF) method was employed to track free fluid surfaces.The travel heat source was realized utilizing the workpiece motion in place of heat source motion,which made the heat load stable.Melting and evaporation enthalpy,recoil force,surface tension and buoyancy were considered in this model.Through the calculation it showed that the simulated weld cross section shaoe and particle distribution were in good agreement with experimental results.
Numerical simulation of gas-liquid two-phase jet flow in air-bubble generator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈文义; 王静波; 姜楠; 赵斌; 王振东
2008-01-01
Air-bubble generator is the key part of the self-inspiration type swirl flotation machines,whose flow field structure has a great effect on flotation.The multiphase volume of fluid(VOF),standard k-ε turbulent model and the SIMPLE method were chosen to simulate the present model;the first order upwind difference scheme was utilized to perform a discrete solution for momentum equation.The distributing law of the velocity,pressure,turbulent kinetic energy of every section along the flow direction of air-bubble generator was analyzed.The results indicate that the bubbles are heavily broken up in the middle cross section of throat sect and the entrance of diffuser sect along the flow direction,and the turbulent kinetic energy of diffuser sect is larger than the entrance of throat sect and mixing chamber.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张楠; 张胜利
2014-01-01
Hull/propeller interaction is of great importance for powering performance prediction. The features of hull/propeller interaction of a submarine model with a high-skew five blade propeller in submergence and near surface conditions are numerically simulated. The effect of propeller rotation is simulated by the sliding mesh technique. Free surface is captured by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Computed results including resistance, thrust, torque and self-propulsion factor are compared with experimental data. It shows fairly good agreement. The resistance and wave pattern of the model at different depths of submergence are computed. And the thrust, torque and self-propulsion factor of the model in submergence and near surface condition are compared to analyze the effect of free surface on self-propulsion performance. The results indicate that free surface has more influence on resistance than that on self-propulsion factors.
Effect of Baffles on the Sloshing in Road Tankers Carrying LPG: A Comparative Numerical Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. L. Bautista-Jacobo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a comparative numerical study of the effect of using baffles, and its design, on the behavior of sloshing in a partially filled road tanker carrying LPG. Navier-Stokes equations and standard k-ε turbulence model are used to simulate fluid movement; the Volume of Fluid (VOF method is used to track the liquid-gas interface. Velocity distributions, sloshing stabilization times, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy, which are of high importance in choosing the best design of baffles, are shown. The results show sloshing stabilization times of 22 and 21 s for road tankers with cross-shaped (Type I and X-shaped (Type II baffles, respectively, finding lower values of turbulent kinetic energy for Type II design, being, therefore, the best design of baffles for damping of sloshing and vehicle control among studied ones.
Numerical Wave Flume Study on Wave Motion Around Submerged Plates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
齐鹏; 侯一筠
2003-01-01
Nonlinear interaction between surface waves and a submerged horizontal plate is investigated in the absorbed numerical wave flume developed based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The governing equations of the numerical model are the continuity equation and the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the k-ε turbulence equations. Incident waves are generated by an absorbing wave-maker that eliminates the waves reflected from structures. Results are obtained for a range of parameters, with consideration of the condition under which the reflection coefficient becomes maximal and the transmission coefficient minimal. Wave breaking over the plate, vortex shedding downwave, and pulsating flow below the plate are observed. Time-averaged hydrodynamic force reveals a negative drift force. All these characteristics provide a reference for construction of submerged plate breakwaters.
Numerical simulation of jet breakup due to amplitude-modulated (A-M) disturbance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Jun; QI Le-hua; LI Li; YANG Fang; JIANG Xiao-shan
2008-01-01
In order to characterize the mechanics of jet breakup,the finite volume formulations were employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and continuity equation of jet.The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to track the free surface of jet.The spray process of the molten Pb63Sn37 alloy was simulated based on the mathematical model by means of FLUENT code.The configuration of jets generated in different disturbance ratios and modulation ratios was obtained.The theoretical results show that the droplets merge together by the number of disturbance ratio N,which agrees with the corresponding picture captured in the experiment.In addition,the droplet streams broken at non-optimal frequency are also uniform according to simulation results,which proves that the A-M disturbance can increase the width of the uniform droplet generating frequency.
Experimental Measurements and CFD Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arijit A. Ganguli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Bubble dynamics of a single condensing vapor bubble in a subcooled pool boiling system with a centrally heated cylindrical tank has been studied in the Rayleigh number range 7.9×1012
Numerical simulation of liquid-layer breakup on a moving wall due to an impinging jet
Yu, Taejong; Moon, Hojoon; You, Donghyun; Kim, Dokyun; Ovsyannikov, Andrey
2014-11-01
Jet wiping, which is a hydrodynamic method for controlling the liquid film thickness in coating processes, is constrained by a rather violent film instability called splashing. The instability is characterized by the ejection of droplets from the runback flow and results in an explosion of the film. The splashing phenomenon degrades the final coating quality. In the present research, a volume-of-fluid (VOF)-based method, which is developed at Cascade Technologies, is employed to simulate the air-liquid multiphase flow dynamics. The present numerical method is based on an unstructured-grid unsplit geometric VOF scheme and guarantees strict conservation of mass of two-phase flow, The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements such as the liquid-film thickness before and after the jet wiping, wall pressure and shear stress distributions. The trajectories of liquid droplets due to the fluid motion entrained by the gas-jet operation, are also qualitatively compared with experimental visualization. Physical phenomena observed during the liquid-layer breakup due to an impinging jet is characterized in order to develop ideas for controlling the liquid-layer instability and resulting splash generation and propagation. Supported by the Grant NRF-2012R1A1A2003699, the Brain Korea 21+ program, POSCO, and 2014 CTR Summer Program.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adel Asnaashari
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Transitions are structures that can change geometry and flow velocity through varying the cross-sections of their channels. Under subcritical flow and steady flow conditions, it is necessary to reduce the flow velocity gradually due to increasing water pressure and adverse pressure gradients. Due to the separation of flow and subsequent eddy formation, a significant energy loss is incurred along the transition. This study presents the results of experimental investigations of the subcritical flow along the expansive transition of rectangular to trapezoidal channels. A numerical simulation was developed using a finite volume of fluid (VOF method with a Reynolds stress turbulence model. Water surface profiles and velocity distributions of flow through the transition were measured experimentally and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical model results showed that the Reynolds model and VOF method are capable of simulating the hydraulic flow in open channel transitions. Also, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss were calculated. The results show that with an increasing upstream Froude number, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss decrease and increase, respectively. The results also show the ability of numerical simulation to simulate the flow separation zones and secondary current along the transition for different inlet discharges.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Guo-jing; DAI Guang-qing; YANG Qing; MA Xu-dong
2011-01-01
In order to study the cavitation damage in a side-wall when a sudden lateral enlargement and a vertical drop are imposed at the radial gate,a new arrangement-scheme is proposed,where the sudden lateral enlargement and the vertical drop can be imposed at the outlet of the gate chamber.The hydraulic characteristics along the side-wall are simulated by the detached eddy simulation and the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method.The numerical results agree well with those of experiment.The experimental and numerical results show that the flow condition is smooth with only a weak water-wing appearing behind the lateral cavity,and the length of the lateral cavity becomes longer and is mainly affected by the size of the lateral enlargement and the zone of negative pressure after the water impacts the side-wall would disappear.The hydraulic characteristics of the new arrangement-scheme are beneficial to the prevention of the cavitation damage in the side-wall and the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) with the VOF method can well predict the hydraulic characteristics after the new arrangement-scheme of the sudden lateral enlargement and the vertical drop.
Dynamics simulation of bottom high-sediment sea water movement under waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xueyi YOU; Wei LIU; Houpeng XIAO
2009-01-01
The movement of bottom high-sediment sea water under water waves, especially that of the high-sediment water layer close to the sea bottom, is important to the resuspension and settlement of sediment. Supposing that the high-sediment sea water is a Newtonian fluid,based on Navier-Stokes (N-S) theory, the movement of the interfaces of air-water and water-sediment water was tracked by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. The velocity field of sediment water was simulated by considering the effect of water waves. The results show that the movement of sediment water is very different from that of sea water,which provides a solid basis for understanding the resuspension and settlement of sediment and the formation of bottom stripe, and the VOF method can trace the movement of the two interfaces simultaneously; the movement of the air-water interface has a strong effect on that of the water-sediment water interface, while the effect of the water-sediment water interface movement on the air-water interface is not obvious.
2-D Composite Model for Numerical Simulations of Nonlinear Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
－ A composite model, which is the combination of Boussinesq equations and Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, has been developed for 2-D time-domain computations of nonlinear waves in a large region. The whole computational region Ω is divided into two subregions. In the near-field around a structure, Ω2, the flow is governed by 2-D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure model of k-ε equations and numerically solved by the improved VOF method; whereas in the subregion Ω1 (Ω1 = Ω - Ω2) the flow is governed by one-D Boussinesq equations and numerically solved with the predictor-corrector algorithm. The velocity and the wave surface elevation are matched on the common boundary of the two subregions. Numerical tests have been conducted for the case of wave propagation and interaction with a wave barrier. It is shown that the composite model can help perform efficient computation of nonlinear waves in a large region with the complicated flow fields near structures taken into account.
The Numerical Simulation of Ship Waves using Cartesian Grid Methods
Sussman, Mark
2014-01-01
Two different cartesian-grid methods are used to simulate the flow around the DDG 5415. The first technique uses a "coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid" (CLS) technique to model the free-surface interface. The no-flux boundary condition on the hull is imposed using a finite-volume technique. The second technique uses a level-set technique (LS) to model the free-surface interface. A body-force technique is used to impose the hull boundary condition. The predictions of both numerical techniques are compared to whisker-probe measurements of the DDG 5415. The level-set technique is also used to investigate the breakup of a two-dimensional spray sheet.
CFD analysis of bubble microlayer and growth in subcooled flow boiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Owoeye, Eyitayo James, E-mail: msgenius10@ufl.edu; Schubring, DuWanye, E-mail: dlschubring@ufl.edu
2016-08-01
Highlights: • A new LES-microlayer model is introduced. • Analogous to the unresolved SGS in LES, analysis of bubble microlayer was performed. • The thickness of bubble microlayer was computed at both steady and transient states. • The macroscale two-phase behavior was captured with VOF coupled with AMR. • Numerical validations were performed for both the micro- and macro-region analyses. - Abstract: A numerical study of single bubble growth in turbulent subcooled flow boiling was carried out. The macro- and micro-regions of the bubble were analyzed by introducing a LES-microlayer model. Analogous to the unresolved sub-grid scale (SGS) in LES, a microlayer analysis was performed to capture the unresolved thermal scales for the micro-region heat transfer by deriving equations for the microlayer thickness at steady and transient states. The phase change at the macro-region was based on Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method coupled with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used to model the turbulence characteristics. The numerical model was validated with multiple experimental data from the open literature. This study includes parametric variations that cover the operating conditions of boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR). The numerical model was used to study the microlayer thickness, growth rate, dynamics, and distortion of the bubble.
Doh, Y.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.; Djambazov, G.; Pericleous, K.; Ghazal, G.; Gardin, P.
2013-06-01
The present article treats different phenomena taking place in a steelmaking converter through the development of two separate models. The first model describes the cavity produced at the free surface of the metal bath by the high-speed impinging oxygen jet. The model is based on a zonal approach, where gas compressibility effects are taken into account only in the high velocity jet region, while elsewhere the gas is treated as incompressible. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to follow the deformation of the bath free surface. Calculations are presented for two- and three-phase systems and compared against experimental data obtained in a cold model experiment presented in the literature. The influence on the size and shape of the cavity of various parameters and models (including the jet inlet boundary conditions, the VOF advection scheme, and the turbulence model) is studied. Next, the model is used to simulate the interaction of a supersonic oxygen jet with the surface of a liquid steel bath in a pilot-scale converter. The second model concentrates on fluid flow, heat transfer, and the post-combustion reaction in the gas phase above the metal bath. The model uses the simple chemical reaction scheme approach to describe the transport of the chemical species and takes into account the consumption of oxygen by the bath and thermal radiative transfer. The model predictions are in reasonable agreement with measurements collected in a laboratory experiment and in a pilot-scale furnace.
Numerical investigation of boiling heat transfer on the shell-side of spiral wound heat exchanger
Wu, Zhi-Yong; Wang, He; Cai, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Yi-Qiang
2016-09-01
The aim of this paper is to numerically study boiling heat transfer on the shell-side of spiral wound heat exchanger (SWHE). The physical model for the shell-side of SWHE is established and the volume of fluid (VOF) method is used in the calculation. For propane and ethane, there are thirty cases to be simulated . Through the comparison with experimental data, the cause which leads to the simulation distortion is found, and the satisfied results of calculation are finally achieved. The simulation results show that the VOF model can be adopted well to those calculations whose inlet quality are lower than 0.1 kg/kg, and the calculation deviations are generally within ±20 %. In falling film flow, the heat transfer performance for the shell-side of SWHE is primarily influenced by Reynolds number. The visualization of simulation results displays that the boiling bubbles have three flow directions, besides flowing down with liquid phase, one portion of bubbles flows reversely up, and another portion is blocked at axial gaps of coils where the heat transfer is reduced. The studies of boiling on the shell-side of SWHE not only reveal the characteristics of heat transfer, but also point out the improvement direction of SWHE.
Effects of thermodynamics parameters on mass transfer of volatile pollutants at air-water interface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-ping Chen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A transient three-dimensional coupling model based on the compressible volume of fluid (VOF method was developed to simulate the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface. VOF is a numerical technique for locating and tracking the free surface of water flow. The relationships between Henry’s constant, thermodynamics parameters, and the enlarged topological index were proposed for nonstandard conditions. A series of experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the transport of benzene and carbinol. The simulation results agreed with the experimental results. Temperature had no effect on mass transfer of pollutants with low transfer free energy and high Henry’s constant. The temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants with high transfer free energy and low Henry’s constant was affected by temperature. The total enthalpy and total transfer free energy increased significantly with temperature, with significant fluctuations at low temperatures. The total enthalpy and total transfer free energy increased steadily without fluctuation at high temperatures.
von Boetticher, Albrecht; Turowski, Jens M.; McArdell, Brian W.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Kirchner, James W.
2016-08-01
Here, we present a three-dimensional fluid dynamic solver that simulates debris flows as a mixture of two fluids (a Coulomb viscoplastic model of the gravel mixed with a Herschel-Bulkley representation of the fine material suspension) in combination with an additional unmixed phase representing the air and the free surface. We link all rheological parameters to the material composition, i.e., to water content, clay content, and mineral composition, content of sand and gravel, and the gravel's friction angle; the user must specify only two free model parameters. The volume-of-fluid (VoF) approach is used to combine the mixed phase and the air phase into a single cell-averaged Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible flow, based on code adapted from standard solvers of the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. This effectively single-phase mixture VoF method saves computational costs compared to the more sophisticated drag-force-based multiphase models. Thus, complex three-dimensional flow structures can be simulated while accounting for the pressure- and shear-rate-dependent rheology.
Thermocapillary simulation of single bubble dynamics in zero gravity
Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, Ali; Hollingsworth, Peter
2013-07-01
The lack of significant buoyancy effects in zero gravity conditions poses an issue with fluid transfer in a stagnant liquid. In this paper bubble movement in a stagnant liquid is analysed and presented numerically using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The governing continuum conservation equations for two phase flow are solved using the commercial software package Ansys-Fluent v.13 and the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is used to track the liquid/gas interface in 2D and 3D domains. The simulation results are in reasonable agreement with the earlier experimental observations, the VOF algorithm is found to be a valuable tool for studying the phenomena of gas-liquid interaction. The flow is driven via Marangoni influence induced by the temperature difference which in turn drives the bubble from the cold to the hot region. A range of thermal Reynolds (ReT) and Marangoni numbers (MaT) are selected for the numerical simulations, specifically ReT=13-658 and MaT=214-10,721 respectively. The results indicate that the inherent velocity of bubbles decreases with an increase of the Marangoni number, a result that is line with the results of previous space experiments (Kang et al., 2008) [1]. An expression for predicting the scaled velocity of bubble has been derived based on the data obtained in the present numerical study. Some three-dimensional simulations are also performed to compare and examine the results with two-dimensional simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahreini, Mohammad, E-mail: m.bahreini1990@gmail.com; Ramiar, Abas, E-mail: aramiar@nit.ac.ir; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar, E-mail: ranjbar@nit.ac.ir
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Condensing bubble is numerically investigated using VOF model in OpenFOAM package. • Bubble mass reduces as it goes through condensation and achieves higher velocities. • At a certain time the slope of changing bubble diameter with time, varies suddenly. • Larger bubbles experience more lateral migration to higher velocity regions. • Bubbles migrate back to a lower velocity region for higher liquid subcooling rates. - Abstract: In this paper, numerical simulation of the bubble condensation in the subcooled boiling flow is performed. The interface between two-phase is tracked via the volume of fluid (VOF) method with continuous surface force (CSF) model, implemented in the open source OpenFOAM CFD package. In order to simulate the condensing bubble with the OpenFOAM code, the original energy equation and mass transfer model for phase change have been modified and a new solver is developed. The Newtonian flow is solved using the finite volume scheme based on the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO) algorithm. Comparison of the simulation results with previous experimental data revealed that the model predicted well the behavior of the actual condensing bubble. The bubble lifetime is almost proportional to bubble initial size and is prolonged by increasing the system pressure. In addition, the initial bubble size, subcooling of liquid and velocity gradient play an important role in the bubble deformation behavior. Velocity gradient makes the bubble move to the higher velocity region and the subcooling rate makes it to move back to the lower velocity region.
Puckett, Elbridge Gerry; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Marcus, Daniel L.; Rider, William J.
1997-01-01
We present a numerical method for computing solutions of the incompressible Euler or Navier-Stokes equations when a principal feature of the flow is the presence of an interface between two fluids with different fluid properties. The method is based on a second-order projection method for variable density flows using an "approximate projection" formulation. The boundary between the fluids is tracked with a second-order, volume-of-fluid interface tracking algorithm. We present results for viscious Rayleigh-Taylor problems at early time with equal and unequal viscosities to demonstrate the convergence of the algorithm. We also present computational results for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in air-helium and for bubbles and drops in an air-water system without surface tension to demonstrate the behavior of the algorithm on problems with large density and viscosity contrasts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. M. Kimball
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
An adaptive version of immersed boundary method for simulating flows with complex stationary and moving boundaries is presented.The method employs a ghost-cell methodology which allows for a sharp representation of the immersed boundary.To simplify the implementation of the methodology,a volume-of-fluid method is introduced to identify the immersed boundary.In addition,the domain is spatially discretized using a tree-based discretization which is relatively simple to implement a fully flexible adaptive refinement strategy.Finally,the methodology is validated by comparing it with numerical and experimental results on three cases:(1) the flow passing a circular cylinder at Re=40 and Re=100,(2) a periodic oscillation of a circular cylinder in fluid at rest and(3) the self-propelled fish-like swimming at Re=6400.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The application of two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD for simulating crater-like Taylor cone formation dynamics in a viscous liquid is a challenging task. An interface coupled level set/volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF method and the governing equations based on Navier-Stokes equations were employed to simulate the crater-like Taylor cone formation process. The computational results of the dynamics of crater-like Taylor cone slowly formed on a free liquid surface produced by a submerged nozzle in a viscous liquid were presented in this paper. Some experiments with different air pressures were carried out to evaluate the simulation results. The results from both CFD and experimental observations were compared and analyzed. The numerical results were consistent with the experimental results. Our study showed that the CLSVOF method gave convincing results, and the computational method is robust to extreme variations in interfacial topology.
Elgeti, Stefanie
2015-01-01
Fluid flow applications can involve a number of coupled problems. One is the simulation of free-surface flows, which require the solution of a free-boundary problem. Within this problem, the governing equations of fluid flow are coupled with a domain deformation approach. This work reviews five of those approaches: interface tracking using a boundary-conforming mesh and, in the interface capturing context, the level-set method, the volume-of-fluid method, particle methods, as well as the phase-field method. The history of each method is presented in combination with the most recent developments in the field. Particularly, the topics of extended finite elements (XFEM) and NURBS-based methods, such as Isogeometric Analysis (IGA), are addressed. For illustration purposes, two applications have been chosen: two-phase flow involving drops or bubbles and sloshing tanks. The challenges of these applications, such as the geometrically correct representation of the free surface or the incorporation of surface tension ...
Adaptive analog-SSOR iterative method for solving grid equations with nonselfadjoint operators
Alekseenko, Elena; Sukhinov, Alexander; Chistyakov, Alexander; Shishenya, Alexander; Roux, Bernard
2013-04-01
Motion models of wave processes in the coastal zone are highly demanded in the projection and construction of coastal surface structures and breakwaters, and also as a component of other models. The most common of the grid approaches is currently vof-method. A significant drawback of this method is in the necessity to solve the convection equation to find fullness of cells. The numerical solution of this equation leads to a strong grid viscosity and "smearing" of the interface. In this paper, we propose a method, which is based on the idea of using a fill, as in vof method, but its conversion is not required to solve the equation of convection. Thus in this work, a mathematical model for the wave hydrodynamics problem, describing wash ashore and taking into account such physical parameters as turbulent exchange, complexity of domain and coastal line geometry, and bottom friction is developed. For the given mathematical model a discrete model is constructed, taking into account dynamical changing of the calculation domain. Discretization of the model is performed on the structured rectangular grid with a new developed finite-volume technique that takes into account fullness of the grid cells that allows describing geometry more accurate. Proposed technique allows improving the real accuracy of a solution in case of complex domain geometry, by improving approximation of the boundary. A software implementation and numerical experiments of the posed problem of the wave hydrodynamics is performed. The results of numerical experiments show the feasibility of using discrete mathematical models of processes that take into account fullness of grid cells, for the simulation of systems with complex geometry of the border. Numerical experiments show that the use of this technique sufficiently smooth solutions are obtained even on coarse grids.
RANS-VOF modelling of the Wavestar point absorber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ransley, E. J.; Greaves, D. M.; Raby, A.
2017-01-01
Highlights •A fully nonlinear, coupled model of the Wavestar WEC has been created using open-source CFD software, OpenFOAM®. •The response of the Wavestar WEC is simulated in regular waves with different steepness. •Predictions of body motion, surface elevation, fluid velocity, pressure and load...... are compared with physical measurements. •Model stability is shown under extreme motions, green water and break-up of the free surface....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xixin Wang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.
Wave Current Interactions and Wave-blocking Predictions Using NHWAVE Model
2013-03-01
release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Wave blocking in river inlets is examined using the...14. SUBJECT TERMS wave blocking, wave-current interactions, SWASH, NHWAVE 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 61 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Renold’s Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations VOF Volume of Fluid MAC Marker and Cell SPH Smoothed Partical Hydrodynamics SWASH Simulating Waves
Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection
Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe
2014-01-01
This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey Gnatov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.
Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser metal deposition by powder injection
Fan, Zhiqiang
Laser metal deposition is an additive manufacturing technique which allows quick fabrication of fully-dense metallic components directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. A self-consistent three-dimensional model was developed for the laser metal deposition process by powder injection, which simulates heat transfer, phase changes, and fluid flow in the melt pool. The governing equations for solid, liquid and gas phases in the calculation domain have been formulated using the continuum model. The free surface in the melt pool has been tracked by the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, while the VOF transport equation was solved using the Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation (PLIC) method. Surface tension was modeled by taking the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model combined with a force-balance flow algorithm. Laser-powder interaction was modeled to account for the effects of laser power attenuation and powder temperature rise during the laser metal deposition process. The governing equations were discretized in the physical space using the finite volume method. The advection terms were approximated using the MUSCL flux limiter scheme. The fluid flow and energy equations were solved in a coupled manner. The incompressible flow equations were solved using a two-step projection method, which requires a solution of a Poisson equation for the pressure field. The discretized pressure Poisson equation was solved using the ICCG (Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient) solution technique. The energy equation was solved by an enthalpy-based method. Temperature-dependent thermal-physical material properties were considered in the numerical implementation. The numerical model was validated by comparing simulations with experimental measurements.
A high-precision calculation method for interface normal and curvature on an unstructured grid
Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohno, Shuji; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
2014-09-01
In the volume-of-fluid algorithm, the calculations of the interface normal and curvature are crucially important for accurately simulating interfacial flows. However, few methods have been proposed for the high-precision interface calculation on an unstructured grid. In this paper, the authors develop a height function method that works appropriately on an unstructured grid. In the process, the definition of the height function is discussed, and the high-precision calculation method of the interface normal is developed to meet the necessary condition for a second-order method. This new method has highly reduced computational cost compared with a conventional high-precision method because the interface normal calculation is completed by solving relatively simple algebraic equations. The curvature calculation method is also discussed and the approximated quadric curve of an interface is employed to calculate the curvature. Following a basic verification, the developed height function method is shown to successfully provide superior calculation accuracy and highly reduced computational cost compared with conventional calculation methods in terms of the interface normal and curvature. In addition, the height function method succeeds in calculating accurately the slotted-disk revolution problem and the oscillating drop on unstructured grids. Therefore, the developed height function method is confirmed to be an efficient technique for the high-precision numerical simulation of interfacial flows on an unstructured grid.
Numerical analysis of two and three dimensional buoyancy driven water-exit of a circular cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moshari Shahab
2014-06-01
Full Text Available With the development of the technology of underwater moving bodies, the need for developing the knowledge of surface effect interaction of free surface and underwater moving bodies is increased. Hence, the two-phase flow is a subject which is interesting for many researchers all around the world. In this paper, the non-linear free surface deformations which occur during the water-exit of a circular cylinder due to its buoyancy are solved using finite volume discretization based code, and using Volume of Fluid (VOF scheme for solving two phase flow. Dynamic mesh model is used to simulate dynamic motion of the cylinder. In addition, the effect of cylinder mass in presence of an external force is studied. Moreover, the oblique exit and entry of a circular cylinder with two exit angles is simulated. At last, water-exit of a circular cylinder in six degrees of freedom is simulated in 3D using parallel processing. The simulation errors of present work (using VOF method for maximum velocity and height of a circular cylinder are less than the corresponding errors of level set method reported by previous researchers. Oblique exit shows interesting results; formation of waves caused by exit of the cylinder, wave motion in horizontal direction and the air trapped between the waves are observable. In 3D simulation the visualization of water motion on the top surface of the cylinder and the free surface breaking on the front and back faces of the 3D cylinder at the exit phase are observed which cannot be seen in 2D simulation. Comparing the results, 3D simulation shows better agreement with experimental data, specially in the maximum height position of the cylinder.
罐车制动时液体晃动的仿真分析%Simulation of liquid slosh in braking process of tank truck
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘奎; 康宁
2009-01-01
The liquid sloshing in braking process of tank truck was simulated by volume of fluid (VOF) model. The forces and their locations of a single room and weight distribution of a truck were calculated. The reliability of the calculation method was validated by comparing with experimental results. The results show that the maximum of F_x( force in direction x) , F_y( force in direction y) and C (The ratio of weight acting on the front axle and rear axle) increase as the deceleration increases without a baffle. When the liquid filling ratio increases, the maximum of F_z increases firstly and decreases afterwards, the maximum of F_y increase, and C increases in the starting and ending period of braking process and decreases during the period around 1 s. When there is a baffle, as the area of the baffle becomes bigger, the maximum of F_x, F_y and C decreases.%采用Volume of Fluid(VOF)模型对罐车制动时液体的晃动进行了数值模拟,对单室受力、受力位置及整车轴荷分配进行了计算,并通过与实验结果的对比验证了计算方法的可靠性.计算结果表明,无防波板时,随减速度增加,单室x,y方向受力峰值增大,整车轴荷比增大;随充液比增加,单室x方向受力峰值先增大后减小,y方向受力峰值增大,制动初始与结束时充液比越大轴荷比越大,1s左右充液比越大轴荷比越小;单室带防波板时,随防波板面积增加,x,y方向受力峰值减小,当防波板面积大于横截面的40%时,增加防波板面积能显著改善罐体受力,且防波板面积越大轴荷比峰值越小.
Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng
2016-11-01
We examine wave-breaking predictions ranging from shallow- to deep-water conditions using a non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE as described in Derakhti et al. (2016a), comparing results both with corresponding experiments and with the results of a volume-of-fluid (VOF)/Navier-Stokes solver (Ma et al., 2011; Derakhti and Kirby, 2014a,b). Our study includes regular and irregular depth-limited breaking waves on planar and barred beaches as well as steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets in intermediate and deep water. In Part 1 of this paper, it is shown that the model resolves organized wave motions in terms of free-surface evolution, spectral evolution, organized wave velocity evolution and wave statistics, using a few vertical σ-levels. In addition, the relative contribution of modeled physical dissipation and numerical dissipation to the integral breaking-induced wave energy loss is discussed. In steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets, the turbulence model has not been triggered, and all the dissipation is imposed indirectly by the numerical scheme. Although the total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation is underestimated in the unsteady wave packets, the model is capable of predicting the dispersive and nonlinear properties of different wave packet components before and after the break point, as well as the overall wave height decay and the evolution of organized wave velocity field and power spectrum density over the breaking region. In Part 2 (Derakhti et al., 2016b), model reproduction of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is examined in detail. The same equations and numerical methods are used for the various depth regimes, and no ad-hoc treatment, such as imposing hydrostatic conditions, is involved in triggering breaking. Vertical grid resolution in all simulated cases is at least an order of magnitude coarser than that of typical VOF-based simulations.
Numerical analysis of non-stationary free surface flow in a Pelton bucket
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hana, Morten
1999-07-01
Computation and analysis of flow in Pelton buckets have been carried out. First a graphical method is investigated and partially improved. In order to decide whether to improve the method further or disregard it in favour of commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, a study on numerical methods for free surface flow was carried out. This part of this work concentrates on the theoretical background for different numerical methods, and describes some practical considerations. Although small programs were created based on the literature survey, but only one reported herein, it was soon found that commonly available numerical codes were favourable in use. A code, RIPPLE, was acquired to study the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in detail. The commercial codes used were Flow-3D and CFX-4. These programs were used in three different cases. First, a simplified 2-dimensional case was verified experimentally. Next, a 3-dimensional fixed jet calculation was carried out. Finally, numerical calculations with relative motion between the jet and buckets were carried out with CFX-4. The conclusion is that commercial CFD codes can replace the graphical method. But careful implementation is needed in order to resolve the special features of Pelton turbines, which are the free surface, the complex geometry and the relative motion between the jet and the bucket.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Heyns, Johan A
2013-05-01
Full Text Available of the gas has a noteworthy effect on predicted pressure loads in liquid–gas flow in certain instances. With the aim of providing a more accurate numerical representation of dynamic two-fluid flow, the solver is subsequently extended to account for variations...
弧形胸墙结构水动力特性的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic pressure on the arc crown wall
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李雪艳; 范庆来
2013-01-01
In order to solve the problems that viscous flows with free surfaces and complicated boundary shapes can-not be simulated accurately by using the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the Cartesian system, the BFC-VOF method was proposed to solve the interaction between waves and the arc crown wall. In the body-fitted coordinate (BFC) system, the governing equations contain the continuity equation and Reynolds equations. The two equations model was used to close the equations. The transformed SIMPLE algorithm in the BFC system based on the stag-gered grid was proposed to correct the pressure-velocity field by using the iteration method. The transformed VOF method was used to trace the free surface in the BFC system. The results around the arc crown wall computed by the BFC model were shown, for example, water surface, local velocity fields, wave force, etc. The results prove that the problems of viscous flows with free surfaces and complicated boundary shapes can be solved accurately by the BFC model. The wave force on the arc crown wall computed by the BFC model gets smaller with the increase of the arc radius of the arc crown wall.%针对笛卡尔坐标系下的VOF（volume of fluid）方法无法精确模拟复杂边界的自由表面流动问题，以连续方程和雷诺平均方程为基本控制方程，采用k-ε湍流模型来封闭方程组，修正了基于交错网格的贴体坐标系下的SIMPLE算法来迭代求解压力-速度场，修正了贴体坐标系下的界面跟踪方法，建立了基于BFC-VOF方法求解波浪对弧形胸墙结构作用的数值计算模型。对弧形胸墙结构附近的波面、流场及其所受波浪力等进行了数值模拟。研究结果表明：贴体网格模型能够精确模拟复杂边界的自由表面流动问题，模型计算的弧形胸墙迎浪面所受到的波浪力随着圆弧半径的增大而减小。
Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Transport Through Fibrous Porous Media
Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar
or a representative pore radius (R50) from pore-size distribution data. The relationship between effective and representative pore radii was studied by performing direct simulations of capillary penetration of a wetting liquid using a finite-volume-based volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. The simulated unidirectional liquid penetration through fibrous media followed Lucas-Washburn kinetics (L ˜ t1/2), except during the initial stages, which are dominated by inertial forces. Even though fluid properties and contact angle were kept constant in the simulations, the effective pore radii were found to be quite different from the representative radii. It can be concluded that the differences between effective and representative pore radii did not arise from contact angle variations. The unsaturated flow through fibrous media at the macro-scale is typically described using Richard's equation which requires constitutive relations: capillary pressure and permeability as a function of liquid saturation. In the present study, the quasi-static capillary pressure-saturation (P c-S) relationship for the primary drainage in a 3D isotropic fibrous medium was determined by performing micro-scale simulations using a VOF method. The Pc-S relationship obtained from the VOF method was compared with the results from the full-morphology (FM) method. Good agreement was observed between the results from the VOF and FM methods, thus suggesting that the FM method, a computationally less intensive method as compared to VOF method, may be sufficient for estimating the Pc-S relationship for primary drainage.
Numerical evaluation of gas core length in free surface vortices
Cristofano, L.; Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.
2014-11-01
The formation and evolution of free surface vortices represent an important topic in many hydraulic intakes, since strong whirlpools introduce swirl flow at the intake, and could cause entrainment of floating matters and gas. In particular, gas entrainment phenomena are an important safety issue for Sodium cooled Fast Reactors, because the introduction of gas bubbles within the core causes dangerous reactivity fluctuation. In this paper, a numerical evaluation of the gas core length in free surface vortices is presented, according to two different approaches. In the first one, a prediction method, developed by the Japanese researcher Sakai and his team, has been applied. This method is based on the Burgers vortex model, and it is able to estimate the gas core length of a free surface vortex starting from two parameters calculated with single-phase CFD simulations. The two parameters are the circulation and the downward velocity gradient. The other approach consists in performing a two-phase CFD simulation of a free surface vortex, in order to numerically reproduce the gas- liquid interface deformation. Mapped convergent mesh is used to reduce numerical error and a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method was selected to track the gas-liquid interface. Two different turbulence models have been tested and analyzed. Experimental measurements of free surface vortices gas core length have been executed, using optical methods, and numerical results have been compared with experimental measurements. The computational domain and the boundary conditions of the CFD simulations were set consistently with the experimental test conditions.
Numerical Simulation of a Planing Vessel at High Speed
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yumin Su; Qingtong Chen; Hailong Shen; Wei Lu
2012-01-01
Planing vessels are applied widely in civil and military situations.Due to their high speed,the motion of planning vessels is complex.In order to predict the motion of planning vessels,it is important to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of planning vessels at high speeds.The computational fluid dynamic method (CFD) has been proposed to calculate hydrodynamic performance of planning vessels.However,in most traditional CFD approaches,model tests or empirical formulas are needed to obtain the running attitude of the planing vessels before calculation.This paper presents a new CFD method to calculate hydrodynamic forces of planing vessels.The numerical method was based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)equations.The volume of fluid (VOF) method and the six-degrees-of-freedom equation were applied.An effective process was introduced to solve the numerical divergence problem in numerical simulation.Compared with experimental results,numerical simulation results indicate that both the running attitude and hydrodynamic performance can be predicted well at high speeds.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Han; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Yang Yong-Ming; Hu Yue; Zhang Hui-Sheng
2008-01-01
A numerical method for simulating the motion and deformation of an axisymmetric bubble or drop rising or falling in another infinite and initially stationary fluid is developed based on the volume of fluid(VOF)method in the frame of two incompressible and immiscible viscous fluids under the action of gravity,taking into consideration of surface tension effects.A comparison of the numerical results by this method with those by other works indicates the validity of the method.In the frame of inviscid and incompressible fluids without taking into consideration of surface tension effects,the mechanisms of the generation of the liquid jet and the transition from spherical shape to toroidal shape during the bubble or drop deformation,the increase of the ring diameter of the toroidal bubble or drop and the decrease of its cross-section area during its motion,and the effects of the density ratio of the two fluids on the deformation of the bubble or drop are analysed both theoretically and numerically.
Numerical Study on Interaction Between Two Bubbles Rising Side by Side in CMC Solution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Wenyuan; YIN Xiaohong
2013-01-01
A numerical simulation was performed to investigate the interaction of two bubbles rising side by side in shear-thinning fluid using volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with continuous surface force (CSF) method.By considering rheological characteristics of fluid,this approach was able to accurately capture the deformation of bubble interface,and validated by comparing with the experimental results.The rising of bubble pairs with different configurations,including horizontal alignment and oblique alignment,was simulated by the method.The influences of the bubble initial distance and the bubble alignment were studied by analyzing the bubble deformation,rising paths and flow fields surrounding bubbles.The results indicate that within certain initial bubble spacing of S* =3.3(S* =SI/D,SI initial distance between bubbles,and D bubble diameter),the dynamic interaction between two bubbles aligned horizontally shows repulsive effect that decreases with the increase of initial bubble spacing,but weakens to certain degree by the shear-thinning properties of fluid.However,the interaction between two bubbles aligned obliquely presents a repulsive effect for the small angle involved but an attractive impact for the large one,which is yet strengthened by the rheological characteristics of fluid.
Computational analysis of asymmetric water entry of wedge and ship section at constant velocity
Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Ullah, Al Habib; Afroz, Laboni; Shabnam, Sharmin; Sarkar, M. A. Rashid
2016-07-01
Water impact problems receive much attention due to their short duration and large unsteady component of hydrodynamic loads. The effect of water entry has several important applications in various aspects of the naval field. Significant attention has been given to various water entry phenomena such as ship slamming, planning hulls, high-speed hydrodynamics of seaplanes, surface-piercing propellers and the interaction of high-speed liquid drops with structural elements. Asymmetric water entry may be caused by various natural phenomena such as weather conditions or strong winds. Since the determination of hydrodynamic impact load plays a vital role in designing safe and effcient vessels, an accurate and reliable prediction method is necessary to investigate asymmetric water entry problems. In this paper, water entry of a two-dimensional wedge and ship section at constant velocity in asymmetric condition will be analysed numerically and the effects of asymmetric impact on the velocity and pressure distribution will be discussed. The finite volume method is employed to solve the dynamic motion of the wedge in two-phase flow. During the water entry, the air and water interface is described implicitly by the volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. The numerical code and method was first validated for symmetric condition by one of the present author is applied for asymmetric wedge and ship section. The free surface, velocity and pressure distribution for asymmetric water entry are investigated and visualized with contour plots at different time steps.
Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Wave Force on a Quasi-ellipse Caisson
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yongxue Wang; Xiaozhong Ren; Guoyu Wang
2011-01-01
A three dimensional numerical model of nonlinear wave action on a quasi-ellipse caisson in a time domain was developed in this paper.Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the finite difference method,and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was employed to trace the free surface.The partial cell method was used to deal with the irregular boundary typical of this type of problem during first-time wave interaction with the structure,and a satisfactory result was obtained.The numerical model was verified and used to investigate the effects of the relative wave height H/d,relative caisson width kD,and relative length-width ratio B/D on the wave forces of the quasi-ellipse caisson.It was shown that the relative wave height H/d has a significant effect on the wave forces of the caisson.Compared with the non-dimensional inline wave force,the relative length-width ratio B/D was shown to have significant influence on the non-dimensional transverse wave force.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khazaee, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Torbat-e-jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-jam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadiun, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-07-01
In this paper a complete three-dimensional and two phase CFD model for flow distribution in an open channel investigated. The finite volume method (FVM) with a dynamic Sub grid-scale was carried out for seven cases of different aspect ratios, different inclination angles or slopes and convergence-divergence condition. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to allow the free-surface to deform freely with the underlying turbulence. The discharge through open channel flow is often evaluated by velocity-area integration method from the measurement of velocity at discrete locations in the measuring section. The variation of velocity along horizontal and vertical directions is thus very important to decide the location of the sensors. The aspect ratio of the channel, slope of the channel and divergence- convergence of the channel have investigated and the results show that the depth of water at the end of the channel is higher at AR=0.8 against the AR=0.4 and AR=1.2. Also it is clear that by increasing the inclination angle or slope of the channel in case1, case4 and case5 the depth of the water increases. Also it is clear that the outlet mass flow rate is at a minimum value at a range of inclination angle of the channel.
Quinlan, Nathan J.; Lobovský, Libor; Nestor, Ruairi M.
2014-06-01
The Finite Volume Particle Method (FVPM) is a meshless method based on a definition of interparticle area which is closely analogous to cell face area in the classical finite volume method. In previous work, the interparticle area has been computed by numerical integration, which is a source of error and is extremely expensive. We show that if the particle weight or kernel function is defined as a discontinuous top-hat function, the particle interaction vectors may be evaluated exactly and efficiently. The new formulation reduces overall computational time by a factor between 6.4 and 8.2. In numerical experiments on a viscous flow with an analytical solution, the method converges under all conditions. Significantly, in contrast with standard FVPM and SPH, error depends on particle size but not on particle overlap (as long as the computational domain is completely covered by particles). The new method is shown to be superior to standard FVPM for shock tube flow and inviscid steady transonic flow. In benchmarking on a viscous multiphase flow application, FVPM with exact interparticle area is shown to be competitive with a mesh-based volume-of-fluid solver in terms of computational time required to resolve the structure of an interface.
3D MHD Jet in a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Hulin; Han Dong
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a two-phase 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow model that combines the volume of fluid (VOF) method with the technique derived from induced-magnetic-field equations for liquid metal free surface MHD-jet-flow. Analogy between the induced-magnetic-filed equation and the conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) equation is made, so that the equation can be conveniently accounted for by CFD. A penalty factor numerical method is introduced in order to force the local divergence-free condition of the magnetic fields and an extension of the void insulating calculation domain is applied to ensure that the induced-magnetic field at its boundaries is null. These simulation results for lithium liquid metal jets under magnetic field configurations of Magnetic Torus (Mtor) and National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) outboard divertor have shown that three dimensional jet can not be annihilated by magnetic braking and its cross-section will deform in such a way that the momentum flux of the jet is conserved. 3D MHD effects from a magnetic field gradient cause return currents to interact with applied magnetic fields and produce unfavorable Lorentz forces.Under 3D applied non-uniform magnetic fields of the divertor, unfavorable Lorentz forces lead to a substantial change in flow pattern and a reduction in flow velocity, with the jet cross-section moving to one side of the jet space. These critical phenomena can not be revealed by 2D models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Islam Tariqul
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Bubble formation dynamics has great value in mineral recovery and the oil industry. In this paper, a single bubble formation process through an orifice in a rectangle domain is modelled to study the bubble formation characteristics using the volume of fluid (VOF with the continuum surface force (CSF method. The effect of gas inlet velocities, Ug ~ 0.1 - 0.3 m/s on bubble formation stages (i.e., expansion, elongation and pinch off, bubble contact angle, dynamics and static pressure, bubble departure diameter etc. was investigated through an orifice diameter of 1 mm. The method was also used to study the effect of Reynolds number, Reμ ~ 1.32 - 120 on bubble formation when all other parameters were kept constant. It is found that a high inlet gas velocity accelerated the reducing of the bubble contact angle from an obtuse angle to an acute angle and the faster development of hemispherical shape of the bubble. It is also found that an increasing of Reynolds number caused speeding up of the bubble pinch-off and formed a smaller bubble neck height due to stronger vortex ring around the bubble neck.
Ernst, Andreas; Mutschler, Klaus; Tanguy, Laurent; Paust, Nils; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter
2012-01-01
In this paper a multi-disciplinary simulation of a capacitive droplet sensor based on an open plate capacitor as transducing element is presented. The numerical simulations are based on the finite volume method (FVM), including calculations of an electric field which changes according to the presence of a liquid droplet. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is applied for the simulation of the ejection process of a liquid droplet out of a dispenser nozzle. The simulations were realised using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CFD ACE+. The investigated capacitive sensing principle enables to determine the volume of a micro droplet passing the sensor capacitor due to the induced change in capacity. It could be found that single droplets in the considered volume range of 5 nL < V(drop) < 100 nL lead to a linear change of the capacity up to ΔQ < 30 fC. The sensitivity of the focused capacitor geometry was evaluated to be S(i) = 0.3 fC/nL. The simulation results are validated by experiments which exhibit good agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deimel Christian
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The most common method for simulating cavitating flows is using the governing flow equations in a form with a variable density and treats both phases as incompressible in combination with a transport equation for the vapour volume fraction. This approach is commonly referred to as volume of fluid method (VoF. To determine the transition of the liquid phase to vapour and vice versa, a relation for the mass transfer is needed. Several models exist, based on slightly differing physical assumptions, for example derivation from the dynamics of single bubbles or large bubble clusters. In our simulation, we use the model of Sauer and Schnerr which is based on the Rayleigh equation. One common problem of all mass transfer models is the use of model constants which often need to be tuned with regard to the examined problem. Furthermore, these models often overpredict the turbulent dynamic viscosity in the two-phase region which counteracts the development of transient shedding behaviour and is compensated by the modification proposed by Reboud. In the presented study, we vary the parameters of the Sauer-Schnerr model with Reboud modification that we implemented into an OpenFOAM solver to match numerical to experimental data.
Deimel, Christian; Günther, Markus; Skoda, Romuald
2014-03-01
The most common method for simulating cavitating flows is using the governing flow equations in a form with a variable density and treats both phases as incompressible in combination with a transport equation for the vapour volume fraction. This approach is commonly referred to as volume of fluid method (VoF). To determine the transition of the liquid phase to vapour and vice versa, a relation for the mass transfer is needed. Several models exist, based on slightly differing physical assumptions, for example derivation from the dynamics of single bubbles or large bubble clusters. In our simulation, we use the model of Sauer and Schnerr which is based on the Rayleigh equation. One common problem of all mass transfer models is the use of model constants which often need to be tuned with regard to the examined problem. Furthermore, these models often overpredict the turbulent dynamic viscosity in the two-phase region which counteracts the development of transient shedding behaviour and is compensated by the modification proposed by Reboud. In the presented study, we vary the parameters of the Sauer-Schnerr model with Reboud modification that we implemented into an OpenFOAM solver to match numerical to experimental data.
High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays
Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun
2014-11-01
A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.
Influence of geometry on separation efficiency in a hydrocyclone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mousavian, S.M.; Najafi, A.F. [Power and Water University of Technology, School of Energy Engineering, Tehran (Iran)
2009-11-15
A numerical study of the gas-liquid-solid multiphase flow in hydrocyclones is presented. Three models of turbulence, the RNG k-{epsilon} model, the Reynolds stress model and Large eddy simulation with the volume of fluid model (VOF) multiphase model for simulating air core are compared in order to predict axial and tangential velocity distributions. This presentation is mainly aimed at identifying an optimal method, used to study effective parameters, based on which, eventually, effect of inlet flow rate variations and body dimension variations such as underflow diameter, overflow diameter and cone angle on the separation performance and pressure drop are investigated. The results are then used in the simulation of particle flow described by the stochastic Lagrangian model. The results suggest that the predicted size classifications are approximately similar to those of RSM and LES methods. Predictions using the RSM model are found in agreement with experimental results with a marginal error within the range of 4 to 8%. Proceeding model validation, parametric studies have been carried out concerning the influence of velocity inlet, particle size and body dimension such as underflow and overflow diameter and cone angle. The predictions demonstrate that the flow fields in the hydrocyclones with different sizes and lengths are different, which yields different performances. (orig.)
Hybrid Multiphase CFD Solver for Coupled Dispersed/Segregated Flows in Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kent E. Wardle
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The flows in stage-wise liquid-liquid extraction devices include both phase segregated and dispersed flow regimes. As a additional layer of complexity, for extraction equipment such as the annular centrifugal contactor, free-surface flows also play a critical role in both the mixing and separation regions of the device and cannot be neglected. Traditionally, computional fluid dynamics (CFD of multiphase systems is regime dependent—different methods are used for segregated and dispersed flows. A hybrid multiphase method based on the combination of an Eulerian multifluid solution framework (per-phase momentum equations and sharp interface capturing using Volume of Fluid (VOF on selected phase pairs has been developed using the open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM. Demonstration of the solver capability is presented through various examples relevant to liquid-liquid extraction device flows including three-phase, liquid-liquid-air simulations in which a sharp interface is maintained between each liquid and air, but dispersed phase modeling is used for the liquid-liquid interactions.
In-Situ Test and Numerical Analysis of Bore Pressure on Sheet-Pile Groin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Chang-jie; CAI Yuan-qiang; XUAN Wei-li; CHEN Hai-jun; SONG Yang
2006-01-01
An in-situ test of bore pressure on a sheet-pile groin is carried out to investigate the characteristics of the bore pressure of tide in the Qian-tang River. The histories of bore pressure and the rule of the distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are obtained through the test, which shows that the bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin are varies with time and space. The peak value of bore pressure on sheet-pile groin at different heights occurs almost at the same time. The vertical distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin is linear above the still water level. The maximum bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin occurs at the still water level. Then a numerical method is also used to further study the characteristics of bore pressure. The standard κ-ε turbulence model and VOF (volume of fluid) method for surface tracking are used to simulate the bore against the sheet-pile groin. The numerical results show flow fields, the position of free surface and time history and spatial distribution of bore pressure on the sheet-pile groin. The numerical and test results show good agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Koltay
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper a multi-disciplinary simulation of a capacitive droplet sensor based on an open plate capacitor as transducing element is presented. The numerical simulations are based on the finite volume method (FVM, including calculations of an electric field which changes according to the presence of a liquid droplet. The volume of fluid (VOF method is applied for the simulation of the ejection process of a liquid droplet out of a dispenser nozzle. The simulations were realised using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD software CFD ACE+. The investigated capacitive sensing principle enables to determine the volume of a micro droplet passing the sensor capacitor due to the induced change in capacity. It could be found that single droplets in the considered volume range of 5 nL < V_{drop} < 100 nL lead to a linear change of the capacity up to ΔQ < 30 fC. The sensitivity of the focused capacitor geometry was evaluated to be S_{i} = 0.3 fC/nL. The simulation results are validated by experiments which exhibit good agreement.
PUFoam : A novel open-source CFD solver for the simulation of polyurethane foams
Karimi, M.; Droghetti, H.; Marchisio, D. L.
2017-08-01
In this work a transient three-dimensional mathematical model is formulated and validated for the simulation of polyurethane (PU) foams. The model is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and is coupled with a population balance equation (PBE) to describe the evolution of the gas bubbles/cells within the PU foam. The front face of the expanding foam is monitored on the basis of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method using a compressible solver available in OpenFOAM version 3.0.1. The solver is additionally supplemented to include the PBE, solved with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), the polymerization kinetics, an adequate rheological model and a simple model for the foam thermal conductivity. The new solver is labelled as PUFoam and is, for the first time in this work, validated for 12 different mixing-cup experiments. Comparison of the time evolution of the predicted and experimentally measured density and temperature of the PU foam shows the potentials and limitations of the approach.
Yapalparvi, Ramesh; Protas, Bartosz
2010-11-01
In this investigation we introduce the concept of an "effective free surface" arising as a solution of time--averaged equations in the presence of free boundaries. This work is motivated by applications of optimization theory to problems involving free surfaces, such as droplets impinging on the weld pool surface in welding processes. In such problems the time--dependent governing equations lead to technical difficulties, many of which are alleviated when methods of optimization are applied to a steady problem with effective free surfaces. The corresponding equations are obtained by performing the Reynolds decomposition and averaging of the time--dependent free--boundary equations based on the volume--of--fluid (VoF) formalism. We identify the terms representing the average effect of fluctuating free boundaries which, in analogy with the Reynolds stresses in classical turbulence models, need to be modelled and propose some simple algebraic closures for these terms. We argue that effective free boundaries can be computed using methods of shape optimization and present some results.
CFD modelling approach for dam break flow studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Biscarini
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents numerical simulations of free surface flows induced by a dam break comparing the shallow water approach to fully three-dimensional simulations. The latter are based on the solution of the complete set of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations coupled to the Volume of Fluid (VOF method.
The methods assessment and comparison are carried out on a dam break over a flat bed without friction and a dam break over a triangular bottom sill. Experimental and numerical literature data are compared to present results.
The results demonstrate that the shallow water approach loses some three-dimensional phenomena, which may have a great impact when evaluating the downstream wave propagation. In particular, water wave celerity and water depth profiles could be underestimated due to the incorrect shallow water idealization that neglects the three-dimensional aspects due to the gravity force, especially during the first time steps of the motion.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF HIGHLY NONLINEAR STEADY AND UNSTEADY FREE SURFACE FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Chi; HUANG Fuxin; WANG Lijue; WAN De-cheng
2011-01-01
A numerical simulation model based on an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package-Open Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been developed to study highly nonlinear steady and unsteady free surface flows.A two-fluid formulation is used in this model and the free surface is captured using the classical Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method.The incompressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method on unstructured polyhedral cells.Both steady and unsteady free surface flows are simulated,which include:(1) a submerged NACA0012 2-D hydrofoil moving at a constant speed,(2) the Wigley hull moving at a constant speed,(3) numerical wave tank,(4) green water overtopping a fixed 2-D deck,(5) green water impact on a fixed 3-D body without or with a vertical wall on the deck.The numerical results obtained have been compared with the experimental measurements and other CFD results,and the agreements are satisfactory.The present numerical model can thus be used to simulate highly nonlinear steady and unsteady free surface flows.
Model Development for Solving 3D Landslide Generated Tsunami.
Hu, Shun-Kai; Wu, Tso-Ren
2017-04-01
Landslide generated tsunami often caused severe damage in the near-source coastal area. However, the dynamics of the wave generation between landslide and tsunami has not been well studied. In this paper, we explored the generation process numerically. Surface-piercing rock slide was one of the focuses. The kinematic of the rocks was described by the newly developed egg-shape Moving-Solid-Algorithm (MSA). The egg-shape, including ellipsoid-shape and sphere, was divided into four curvatures. Discrete-Element-Method (DEM) will be adopted to calculate the solid motion. The result was coupled with a fluid dynamic model, Splash3D, by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The violent breaking waves was described by Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method with Piecewise-Linear-Interface-Calculation (PLIC) surface reconstruction algorithm. In this study, we present a series of numerical experiment to validation the accuracy of MSA. Cases of floating block and landslide box were performed. Good comparison results can be seen. As for the egg-shape MSA, the case of water entry sphere was chosen for validation. Very good results in terms of the displacement and the shape of air cavity can be seen. The characteristics of landslide tsunamis were presented. At the end, the boulder pushed by high-energy waves will simulated and discussed.
Investigation of mucus transport in an idealized lung airway model using multiphase CFD analysis
Rajendran, Rahul; Banerjee, Arindam
2015-11-01
Mucus, a Bingham fluid is transported in the pulmonary airways by consistent beating of the cilia and exhibits a wide range of physical properties in response to the core air flow and various pathological conditions. A better understanding of the interfacial instability is required as it plays a crucial role in gas transport, mixing, mucus clearance and drug delivery. In the current study, mucus is modelled as a Newtonian fluid and the two phase gas-liquid flow in the airways is investigated using an inhomogeneous Eulerian-Eulerian approach. The complex interface between the phases is tracked using the conventional VOF (Volume of Fluid) method. Results from our CFD simulations which are performed in idealized single and double bifurcation geometries will be presented and the influence of airflow rate, mucus layer thickness, mucus viscosity, airway geometry (branching & diameter) and surface tension on mucus flow behavior will be discussed. Mean mucus layer thickness, pressure drop due to momentum transfer & increased airway resistance, mucus transport speed and the flow morphology will be compared to existing experimental and theoretical data.
Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a floating structure in focused waves
Cao, Fei-feng; Zhao, Xi-zeng
2015-12-01
Floating structures are commonly seen in coastal and offshore engineering. They are often subjected to extreme waves and, therefore, their nonlinear dynamic behaviors are of great concern. In this paper, an in-house CFD code is developed to investigate the accurate prediction of nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a two-dimensional (2-D) box-shaped floating structure in focused waves. Computations are performed by an enhanced Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP)-based Cartesian grid model, in which a more accurate VOF (Volume of Fluid) method, the THINC/SW scheme (THINC: tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing; SW: Slope Weighting), is used for interface capturing. A focusing wave theory is used for the focused wave generation. The wave component of constant steepness is chosen. Comparisons between predictions and physical measurements show good agreement including body motions and free surface profiles. Although the overall agreement is good, some discrepancies are observed for impact pressure on the superstructure due to water on deck. The effect of grid resolution on the results is checked. With a fine grid, no obvious improvement is seen in the global body motions and impact pressures due to water on deck. It is concluded that highly nonlinear phenomena, such as distorted free surface, large-amplitude body motions, and violent impact flow, have been predicted successfully.
RANSE Simulation of High-speed Planning Craft in Regular Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuo Wang; Yumin Su; Xi Zhang; Jinglei Yang
2012-01-01
This paper presents a study on the numerical simulation of planing crafts sailing in regular waves.This allows an accurate estimate of the seas keeping performance of the high speed craft.The simulation set in six-degree of freedom motions is based on the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations volume of fluid (RANSE VOF) solver.The trimming mesh technique and integral dynamic mesh method are used to guarantee the good accuracy of the hydrodynamic force and high efficiency of the numerical simulation.Incident head waves,oblique waves and beam waves are generated in the simulation with three different velocities (Fn =1.0,1.5,2.0).The motions and sea keeping performance of the planing craft with waves coming from different directions are indicated in the flow solver.The ship designer placed an emphasis on the effects of waves on sailing amplitude and pressure distribution of planing craft in the configuration of building high speed crafts.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Hai-long; Wook Ryol Hwang
2008-01-01
Decreasing the amount of residual voids during the resin infiltration into fibrous porous media is an important aspect in manufacturing high performance composite materials.In order to better understand void transports and flow behaviors in filling process,which affects immediately the final void content,a finite-element scheme for transient simulations of the void migration in a transverse flow through the uniaxial micro-structured fibrous media is developed in this work.A volume-of-fluid (VOF) method has been incorporated in the Eulerian frame to capture the free surface of the resin flow.The implementation of periodic boundary condition to the vertical direction avoids unwanted wall effect.The void migration in a dual-scale fiber tow model was investigated.The voids are observed to be transported through the inter-tow region as well as entrapped into fiber tow.It is that the motion of void lagged behind macro flow front which implies that the adequate resin bleeding after mold filling is crucial to remove the entrapped air.
Non-Newtonian ink transfer in gravure-offset printing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghadiri, Fatemeh; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyung Jin, E-mail: hjsung@kaist.ac.k [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shirani, Ebrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 841568311, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-02-15
The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions than Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between a flat plate and a groove when the plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the groove is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out with the Carreau model to explore the behavior of this non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was implemented to capture the interface during the ink transfer process. The effects of varying the contact angle of the ink on the flat plate and groove walls and geometrical parameters such as the groove angle and the groove depth on the breakup time of the liquid filament that forms between the plate and the groove and the ink transfer ratio were determined. Our results indicate that increasing the groove contact angle and decreasing the flat plate contact angle enhance the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time. However, increasing the groove depth and the groove angle decreases the transfer ratio and the breakup time. By optimizing these parameters, it is possible to achieve an ink transfer from the groove to the flat plate of approximately 92%. Moreover, the initial width and the vertical velocity of the neck of the ink filament have significant influences on the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time.
Numerical simulation of microlayer formation in nucleate boiling
Guion, Alexandre; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Afkhami, Shahriar; Zaleski, Stephane
2016-11-01
Numerical simulations of boiling resolve the macroscopic liquid-vapor interface of the bubble, but resort to subgrid models to account for microscale effects, such as the evaporation of the liquid microlayer underneath the bubble. Realistic time-dependent microlayer evaporation models necessitate initialization of the microlayer profile. In the recent simulations published in the literature, missing input data on initial microlayer geometry is replaced by estimated values from separate experimental measurements at similar pressure. Yet, the geometry of the initial microlayer not only depends on pressure for a given set of fluids, but also on bubble growth rate and that dependence is not known a priori. In this work, the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, implemented in the open-source code Gerris (gfs.sf.net), is used to simulate, with unprecedented accuracy, the dynamics of microlayer formation underneath a growing bubble. A large numerical database is generated, yielding the microlayer thickness during the inertia controlled phase of bubble growth as a function of radial distance from the bubble root, time, contact angle, and capillary number associated with bubble growth. No significant dependence on density or viscosity ratios were found.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A STEPPED SPILLWAY OVERFLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Qun; DAI Guang-qing; ZHU Fen-qing; YANG Qing
2004-01-01
In this paper, the k-ε two-equation turbulence model was used to simulate the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the stepped spillway at the Yubeishan reservoir. In order to solve the curved free water surface and to handle the complex boundary conditions, the fractional Volume Of Fluid (VOF) model that is applicable to the solution of the stratified two-phase flow was intorduced to the k-ε turbulence model and the unstructured grid was used for the discretization of the irregular simulation domain. By these methods, the turbulent flow field of the stepped spillway was simulated successfully. The location of the free surface along the spillway, the magnitude and distribution of the velocity, the pressure distribution on the step surface, the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate were obtained by simulation. The changes and distributions of these characteristics along the width of the spillway were also obtained. The energy dissipation ratio of the stepped spillway was calculated according to the upstream and downstream water depth and velocities.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A STEPPED SPILLWAY OVERFLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
In this paper, the k-ε turbulence model is usedto simulate the three-dimensional turbulence flow over thestepped spillway at the Yubeishan reservoir. In order to solvethe curved free water surface and to handle the complexboundary conditions, the fractional Volume Of Fluid (VOF)model that is applicable to the solution of the stratified two-phase flow is introduced along with k-ε turbulence model and the unstructured grid is used for the discretization of the irreg-ular simulation domain. By these methods, the turbulenceflow field of the stepped spillway is simulated successfully.The location of the free surface along the spillway, the magni-tude and distribution of the velocity, the pressure on the stepsurface, the turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipa-tion rate are obtained by simulation. The changes and distri-butions of these characteristics along the width of the spillwayare also obtained. The energy dissipation ratio of the steppedspillway is calculated according to the upstream and down-stream water depth and velocities.
EFFECT OF SEN DESIGN ON SURFACE FLUCTUATION AND SOLIDIFYING SHELL IN SLAB MOLD AND ITS OPTIMIZATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
D.F.Wu; S.S.Cheng
2008-01-01
Turbulent flow and heat transfer coupled with solidification in slab continuous casting mold was studied by numerical simulation method. Volume of fluid (VOF) model is used to solve steel-air two-phase flow problem and enthalpy-porosity scheme is introduced to solve the fluid flow problem involving solidification. Contributions of various nozzle port angles and port widths and heights on the free surface fluctuation and the thickness of solidifying shell in slab mold were particularly investigated, based on which the structure of submerged entry nozzle was optimized. Flow inside the common nozzle port cannot fill the entire ouaet area, having a recireulation in the upper portion of the port, which is enlarged for the nozzle port with both larger height and width. Results show that the flow in mold cavity is mainly controlled by the nozzle port angle. The increase of the angle of upper face of the port to shape a roughly streamlined inner-wall improves the effective area fraction of the nozzle, resulting in less jet impingement, weaker free surface turbulence and thicker solidifying steel shell.
Resonance wave pumping: wave mass transport pumping
Carmigniani, Remi; Violeau, Damien; Gharib, Morteza
2016-11-01
It has been previously reported that pinching at intrinsic resonance frequencies a valveless pump (or Liebau pump) results in a strong pulsating flow. A free-surface version of the Liebau pump is presented. The experiment consists of a closed tank with a submerged plate separating the water into a free-surface and a recirculation section connected through two openings at each end of the tank. A paddle is placed at an off-centre position at the free-surface and controlled in a heaving motion with different frequencies and amplitudes. Near certain frequencies identified as resonance frequencies through a linear potential theory analysis, the system behaves like a pump. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is performed in the near free surface region and compared with simulations using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. The mean eulerian mass flux field (ρ) is extracted. It is observed that the flow is located in the vicinity of the surface layer suggesting Stokes Drift (or Wave Mass Transport) is the source of the pumping. A model is developped to extend the linear potential theory to the second order to take into account these observations. The authors would like to acknowledge the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation for their generous support.
Numerical Analysis including Pressure Drop in Oscillating Water Column Device
das Neves Gomes, Mateus; Domingues dos Santos, Elizaldo; Isoldi, Liércio André; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira
2015-06-01
The wave energy conversion into electricity has been increasingly studied in the last years. There are several proposed converters. Among them, the oscillatingwater column (OWC) device has been widespread evaluated in literature. In this context, the main goal of this work was to perform a comparison between two kinds of physical constraints in the chimney of the OWC device, aiming to represent numerically the pressure drop imposed by the turbine on the air flow inside the OWC. To do so, the conservation equations of mass,momentumand one equation for the transport of volumetric fraction were solved with the finite volume method (FVM). To tackle thewater-air interaction, the multiphase model volume of fluid (VOF)was used. Initially, an asymmetric constraint inserted in chimney duct was reproduced and investigated. Subsequently, a second strategywas proposed,where a symmetric physical constraint with an elliptical shapewas analyzed. Itwas thus possible to establish a strategy to reproduce the pressure drop in OWC devices caused by the presence of the turbine, as well as to generate its characteristic curve.
Numerical and Experimental Study of the Dynamics of Imploding Hydraulic Jumps
Gunter, Amy-Lee; Smadi, Othman; Kiyanda, Charles; Kadem, Lyes; Ng, Hoi Dick
2009-11-01
The dynamics of imploding hydraulic jumps is investigated in this study. Experimental and numerical studies are performed to identify the critical conditions at which circular shallow water waves can be produced and amplify as they propagate toward the center without wave breaking. These conditions enable water waves to behave analogously to gaseous shock waves through the hydraulic analogy. The stability of the imploding jumps is also analyzed by introducing obstacles in the path of the implosion. Experimentally, a gate-type water table is constructed and the creation of a circular converging hydraulic jump is achieved by retracting the gate which separate two volumes of water by mean of three pneumatic pistons. A CCD camera is used to visualize the dynamics of the implosion. The acquired images are processed on Matlab using an image processing toolbox based algorithm which detects the shape and trajectory of the imploding wave. To compare the characteristics of the imploding jump and the mechanism of wave breaking, numerical simulations using Volume of Fluid (VOF) and Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) methods are performed. The experimental and numerical results are compared with the Chester-Chisnell-Whitham (CCW) approximate solution of the shallow water wave equations.
An irregular wave generating approach based on naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver
Shen, Zhi-rong; Wan, De-cheng
2016-04-01
In this paper, a wave generating approach for long-crest irregular waves in a numerical tank by our in-house solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is presented. The naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver is developed using an open source tool kit, OpenFOAM. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are chosen as governing equations and the volume of fluid (VOF) is employed to capture the two phases interface. Incoming wave group is generated by imposing the boundary conditions of the tank inlet. A spectrum based correction procedure is developed to make the measured spectrum approaching to the target spectrum. This procedure can automatically adjust the wave generation signal based on the measured wave elevation by wave height probe in numerical wave tank. After 3 to 4 iterations, the measured spectrum agrees well with the target one. In order to validate this method, several wave spectra are chosen and validated in the numerical wave tank, with comparison between the final measured and target spectra. In order to investigate a practical situation, a modified Wigley hull is placed in the wave tank with incoming irregular waves. The wave-induced heave and pitch motions are treated by Fourier analysis to obtain motion responses, showing good agreements with the measurements.
Dascalescu, A. E.; Lazaroiu, G.; Scupi, A. A.; Oanta, E.
2016-08-01
The rotating half-bridge of a settling tank is employed to sweep the sludge from the wastewater and to vacuum and sent it to the central collector. It has a complex geometry but the main beam may be considered a slender bar loaded by the following category of forces: concentrated forces produced by the weight of the scrapping system of blades, suction pipes, local sludge collecting chamber, plus the sludge in the horizontal sludge transporting pipes; forces produced by the access bridge; buoyant forces produced by the floating barrels according to Archimedes’ principle; distributed forces produced by the weight of the main bridge; hydrodynamic forces. In order to evaluate the hydrodynamic loads we have conceived a numerical model based on the finite volume method, using the ANSYS-Fluent software. To model the flow we used the equations of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) for liquids together with Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for multiphase flows. For turbulent model k-epsilon we used the equation for turbulent kinetic energy k and dissipation epsilon. These results will be used to increase the accuracy of the loads’ sub-model in the theoretical models, e. the finite element model and the analytical model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxena, Abhishek, E-mail: asaxena@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nuclear Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Zboray, Robert [Laboratory for Thermal-hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Prasser, Horst-Michael [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nuclear Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Thermal-hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2016-04-01
High conversion light water reactors (HCLWR) having triangular, tight-lattice fuels bundles could enable improved fuel utilization compared to present day LWRs. However, the efficient cooling of a tight lattice bundle has to be still proven. Major concern is the avoidance of high-quality boiling crisis (film dry-out) by the use of efficient functional spacers. For this reason, we have carried out experiments on adiabatic, air-water annular two-phase flows in a tight-lattice, triangular fuel bundle model using generic spacers. A high-spatial-resolution, non-intrusive measurement technology, cold neutron tomography, has been utilized to resolve the distribution of the liquid film thickness on the virtual fuel pin surfaces. Unsteady CFD simulations have also been performed to replicate and compare with the experiments using the commercial code STAR-CCM+. Large eddies have been resolved on the grid level to capture the dominant unsteady flow features expected to drive the liquid film thickness distribution downstream of a spacer while the subgrid scales have been modeled using the Wall Adapting Local Eddy (WALE) subgrid model. A Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, which directly tracks the interface and does away with closure relationship models for interfacial exchange terms, has also been employed. The present paper shows first comparison of the measurement with the simulation results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Yong-jin; LIU Hua; WU Wei; ZHANG Jiu-shan
2007-01-01
A new mathematical model for the overtopping against seawalls armored with artificial units in regular waves was established. The 2-D numerical wave flume, based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the standard k-ε turbulence model, was developed to simulate the turbulent flows with the free surface, in which the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method was used to handle the large deformation of the free surface and the relaxation approach of combined wave generation and absorbing was implemented. In order to consider the effects of energy dissipation due to the armors on a slope seawall, a porous media model was proposed and implemented in the numerical wave flume. A series of physical model experiments were carried out in the same condition of the numerical simulation to determine the drag coefficient in the porous media model in terms of the overtopping discharge. Compared the computational value of overtopping over the seawall with the experimental data, the values of the effective drag coefficient was calibrated for the layers of blocks at different locations along the seawalls.
Hydrodynamics and PIV study in the impingement zone formed by a droplet train
Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza; Zhang, Taolue; Muthusamy, Jayaveera; Alvarado, Jorge; Texas A; M University at Qatar Collaboration; Texas A; M University College Station Collaboration
2016-11-01
Droplet impingement is encountered in numerous technical applications, such as ink jet printing, spray cooling, and fuel injection in internal combustion engines. Even though many studies in droplet impingement were conducted in past, not many have measured the near-wall velocities in the droplet impingement zone. With the goal of gaining a better understanding of the hydrodynamics in the impingement zone, well-controlled experiments are performed in combination with micro-PIV measurements and numerical simulations. Hydrodynamics of HFE-7100 droplets generated using a piezoelectric droplet generator, impinging on a pre-wetted surface is investigated. Micro-PIV studies in the high-velocity impingement zone are performed using one-micron meter fluorescent particles dispersed in HFE-7100 along with the double exposed images. Three-dimensional and 2D-axisymmetric numerical modeling for a transient droplet crown development is performed. The interface between the gas and the liquid is modeled using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. Numerical simulation results obtained are observed to be in good agreement with that of the experimental observations. Supported by National Priority Research Program (NPRP) of Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF), Grant No.: NPRP 6-1304-2-525.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingjun Zhong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available When the molten fuel with high temperature falls into the cavity water, it will be dispersed into droplets which are covered with vapor films due to the rapid heat transfer with phase transition. This situation cannot be simply described by liquid-liquid or gas-liquid systems. And there are no sufficient experimental studies on the behavior of droplet covered with vapor film because of the rapid reaction and the difficulty in capture of the film configuration. In this paper, a multiphase code with the volume of fluid (VOF method is used to simulate the earlier behavior of droplet when vapor film exits. The earlier behavior is defined as behavior of the droplet before its disintegration. Thermal effect and pure hydrodynamic effect are, respectively, considered. The simulation results indicate that the film thickness and material density have significant effect on the earlier behavior of droplet. The situation assumed in Ciccarelli and Frost’s model (1994 is observed in current simulation of earlier thermal droplet behavior. The effect of triggering pressure pulse on earlier hydrodynamic behavior is also discussed and it indicates that vapor film has little effect on the hydrodynamic droplet deformation when the intensity of the pressure pulse is very high.
Investigation of the Entrainment Phenomenon Using a Scaling Approach
Kishore, Aravind; Ghia, Urmila
2014-11-01
Air entrainment is a commonly observed phenomenon; we see it when filling a glass with water from a faucet, in the frothing of the ocean surface, in white water rapids, etc. The focus of our work is the numerical simulation of the entrainment phenomenon associated with laminar plunging jets. With increasing jet velocity, the interfacial cusp formed between the jet and the liquid pool becomes sharper. At a critical jet velocity, entrainment inception occurs, i.e., the interfacial cusp breaks, the interface ruptures, and air is pulled into the liquid pool. We conduct two-fluid simulations using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) methodology. The large range of length scales in the flow presents a major computational challenge. We postulate an approach based on scaling of the underlying physics and this helps alleviate the constraints that the physics poses on the numerical method. The approach is validated using a simple flow configuration - a cylinder rotating at an interface between two fluids. Our simulations capture the sharpening of the interfacial cusp, and the sudden rupture of the interface. The predicted critical entrainment velocities are within 1% of experimental data, thereby providing confidence in the approach. This work was supported by the UC Simulation Center at the University of Cincinnati.
Effect of pitch angle on initial stage of a transport airplane ditching
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guo Baodong; Liu Peiqing; Qu Qiulin; Wang Jiawen
2013-01-01
Airworthiness regulations require that the transport airplane should be proved to ensure the survivability of the ditching for the passengers.The planned ditching of a transport airplane on the calm water is numerically simulated.The effect of pitch angle on the impact characteristics is especially investigated by a subscaled model.The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations of unsteady compressible flow are solved and the realizable κ-ε equations are employed to model the turbulence.The transformation of the air-water interface is tracked by volume of fluid (VOF) model.The motion of the rigid body is modeled by dynamic mesh method.The initial ditching stage of the transport airplane is analyzed in detail.The numerical results show that as the pitching angle increases,the maximal normal force decreases and the pitching motion becomes much gentler.The aft fuselage would be sucked down by the water and lead to pitching up,whereas the low horizontal tail prevents this trend.Consequently,the transport aircraft with low horizontal tail should ditch on the water at an angle between 10° and 12° as a recommendation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bittagopal Mondal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The serpentine flow channel can be considered as one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC since it ensures an effective and efficient removal of water produced in a cell with acceptable parasitic load. Water management is one of the key issues to improve the cell performance since at low operating temperatures in PEMFC, water vapor condensation starts easily and accumulates the liquid water droplet within the flow channels, thus affecting the chemical reactions and reducing the fuel cell performance. In this article, a comprehensive three dimensional numerical simulation is carried out to understand the water droplet mobility in a serpentine gas flow channel for a wide range of surface properties, inlet air velocities, droplet positions (center or off-center, bottom or top and droplet sizes by deploying a finite volume based methodology. The liquid-gas interface is tracked following the volume-of-fluid (VOF method. The droplet transport is found to be greatly influenced by the surface wettability properties, inlet velocities, number of droplets emerged and initial droplet positions. Super hydrophobic surface property is not always preferable for designing the gas flow channels. It depends upon the inlet velocity conditions, droplet positions, number of droplets and surface properties.
Dynamics of Non-Newtonian Liquid Droplet Collision
Chen, Xiaodong; Yang, Vigor
2012-11-01
Collision of Newtonian liquid droplets has been extensively investigated both experimentally and numerically for decades. Limited information, however, is available about non-Newtonian droplet collision dynamics. In the present work, high-fidelity numerical simulations were performed to study the situation associated with shear-thinning non-Newtonian liquids. The formulation is based on a complete set of conservation equations for the liquid and the surrounding gas phases. An improved volume-of-fluid (VOF) method, combined with an innovative topology-oriented adaptive mesh refinement (TOAMR) technique, was developed and implemented to track the interfacial dynamics. The complex evolution of the droplet surface over a broad range of length scales was treated accurately and efficiently. In particular, the thin gas film between two approaching droplets and subsequent breakup of liquid threads were well-resolved. Various types of droplet collision were obtained, including coalescence, bouncing, and reflexive and stretching separations. A regime diagram was developed and compared with that for Newtonian liquids. Fundamental mechanisms and key parameters that dictate droplet behaviors were identified. In addition, collision-induced atomization was addressed. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Office under the Multi-University Research Initiative under contract No. W911NF-08-1-0124. The support and encouragement provided by Dr. Ralph Anthenien are gratefully acknowledged.
Turbulence Modelling of A Lock-Release Oil Slick
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The motion of a lock-release oil slick as an immiscible two-fluid gravity current is numerically studied by a finite difference algorithm based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method for the basic formulation and a rigid cover approximation for the open free surface. Detailed numerical simulation with careful model validation reveals the existence of turbulence and the adaptability of the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε model for the Reynolds-stress closure in the case of the oil slick. The time evolution and spatial distribution of the mean velocity, turbulence kinetic energy and turbulent viscosity are characterized. The mechanism for the transition from an initial gravity-inertial phase to a second gravity-viscous phase is shown to be the relaminarization effect of the initially highly turbulent slick. Compared well with known theoretical analyses and experimental observations, the turbulence modeling results in self-similar spreading laws in terms of the fact that the oil slick passes through the initial gravity-inertial phase with the front speed decreasing as t-1/3 (where t is the time measured from lock release) and the second gravity-viscous phase with the front speed decreasing as t-5/8.
The Optimization of a Microfluidic CTC Filtering Chip by Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huan Li
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The detection and separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs are crucial in early cancer diagnosis and cancer prognosis. Filtration through a thin film is one of the size and deformability based separation methods, which can isolate rare CTCs from the peripheral blood of cancer patients regardless of their heterogeneity. In this paper, volume of fluid (VOF multiphase flow models are employed to clarify the cells’ filtering processes. The cells may deform significantly when they enter a channel constriction, which will induce cell membrane stress and damage if the area strain is larger than the critical value. Therefore, the cellular damage criterion characterized by membrane area strain is presented in our model, i.e., the lysis limit of the lipid bilayer is taken as the critical area strain. Under this criterion, we discover that the microfilters with slit-shaped pores do less damage to cells than those with circular pores. The influence of contact angle between the microfilters and blood cells on cellular injury is also discussed. Moreover, the optimal film thickness and flux in our simulations are obtained as 0.5 μm and 0.375 mm/s, respectively. These findings will provide constructive guidance for the improvement of next generation microfilters with higher throughput and less cellular damage.
Direct Simulations of Wind-Driven Breaking Ocean Waves with Data Assimilation
Dommermuth, Douglas G; Tran, Vu H; Valenciano, Miguel A
2014-01-01
A formulation is developed to assimilate ocean-wave data into the Numerical Flow Analysis (NFA) code. NFA is a Cartesian-based implicit Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) code with Volume of Fluid (VOF) interface capturing. The sequential assimilation of data into NFA permits detailed analysis of ocean-wave physics with higher bandwidths than is possible using either other formulations, such as High-Order Spectral (HOS) methods, or field measurements. A framework is provided for assimilating the wavy and vortical portions of the flow. Nudging is used to assimilate wave data at low wavenumbers, and the wave data at high wavenumbers form naturally through nonlinear interactions, wave breaking, and wind forcing. Similarly, the vertical profiles of the mean vortical flow in the wind and the wind drift are nudged, and the turbulent fluctuations are allowed to form naturally. As a demonstration, the results of a HOS of a JONSWAP wave spectrum are assimilated to study short-crested seas in equilibrium with the wind. Log pr...
TOTAL RESISTANCE PREDICTION OF SELF PROPELLED COAL BARGE (SPCB USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agung Purwana
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In the present paper the computational fluid dynamic (CFD technique is applied to predict the total resistance (Rt of Self Propelled Coal Barge (SPCB. The simulation process was executed using ANSYS®software based on fluid flow (CFX solver. The selected CFD method is volume of fluid (VOF. The solid modeling of SPCB is developed using Maxsurf®. Boundary conditions are set on each domain area covering bottom,free surface, inlet, outlet, shipand wall. The variation of computaitional grid (meshing grid which is used in computation are SST (Shear Stress Transport67,000, SST 73,000, SST 103,000, SST 117,000, SST 127,000, SST 147,000, SST 157,000, and SST 200,500. Total resistance (Rt resulted from CFX computation is validated with total resistance (Rt resulted from Holtrop. The larger of grid meshing size, the better of validation result. The CFD technique demonstrated good agreement with Holtrop formulae in predicting the total resistance (Rt of SPCB.
Characteristics of mold filling and entrainment of oxide film in low pressure casting of A356 alloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Jia, Yan-Dong; Ning, Zhi-Liang; Sun, Jian-Fei, E-mail: jfsun_hit@263.net
2015-02-25
The effect of pressurizing speed of low pressure casting on mold filling and mechanical properties of A356 alloy was studied. The mold filling behavior was calculated by two phase flow model using VOF (Volume of Fluid) method. In order to evaluate the accuracy of simulated results, the real mold filling process observed by X-ray radiography was compared. The results show that during mold filling the gate velocity first increased dramatically, then kept unchanged under relatively low pressurizing speed, or increased slowly under relatively high pressurizing speed. High gate velocity causes melt falling back under gravity with high speed. The falling velocity and the resultant relative rotating vortex are the main causes of oxide film entrainment in low pressure casting. The mechanical properties of the as-cast A356 alloy were measured by four-point bend test. Weibull probability plots were used to assess the fracture mechanisms under different pressurizing speeds. The results obtained in this paper illuminate on designing suitable pressurizing speed for mold filling in low pressure casting.
Simulating three dimensional wave run-up over breakwaters covered by antifer units
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Najafi-Jilani
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical analysis of wave run-up over rubble-mound breakwaters covered by antifer units using a technique integrating Computer-Aided Design (CAD and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Direct application of Navier-Stokes equations within armour blocks, is used to provide a more reliable approach to simulate wave run-up over breakwaters. A well-tested Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS Volume of Fluid (VOF code (Flow-3D was adopted for CFD computations. The computed results were compared with experimental data to check the validity of the model. Numerical results showed that the direct three dimensional (3D simulation method can deliver accurate results for wave run-up over rubble mound breakwaters. The results showed that the placement pattern of antifer units had a great impact on values of wave run-up so that by changing the placement pattern from regular to double pyramid can reduce the wave run-up by approximately 30%. Analysis was done to investigate the influences of surface roughness, energy dissipation in the pores of the armour layer and reduced wave run-up due to inflow into the armour and stone layer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhentao Wang
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A model based on the volume of fluid (VOF method and leaky dielectric theory is established to predict the deformation and internal flow of the droplet suspended in another vicious fluid under the influence of the electric field. Through coupling with hydrodynamics and electrostatics, the rate of deformation and internal flow of the single droplet are simulated and obtained under the different operating parameters. The calculated results show that the direction of deformation and internal flow depends on the physical properties of fluids. The numerical results are compared with Taylor's theory and experimental results by Torza et al. When the rate of deformation is small, the numerical results are consistent with theory and experimental results, and when the rate is large the numerical results are consistent with experimental results but are different from Taylor's theory. In addition, fluid viscosity hardly affects the deformation rate and mainly dominates the deformation velocity. For high viscosity droplet spends more time to attain the steady state. The conductivity ratio and permittivity ratio of two different liquids affect the direction of deformation. When fluid electric properties change, the charge distribution at the interface is various, which leads to the droplet different deformation shapes.
Impact Detection for Characterization of Complex Multiphase Flows
Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Urzay, Javier; Mani, Ali; Moin, Parviz
2016-11-01
Multiphase flows often involve a wide range of impact events, such as liquid droplets impinging on a liquid pool or gas bubbles coalescing in a liquid medium. These events contribute to a myriad of large-scale phenomena, including breaking waves on ocean surfaces. As impacts between surfaces necessarily occur at isolated points, numerical simulations of impact events will require the resolution of molecular scales near the impact points for accurate modeling. This can be prohibitively expensive unless subgrid impact and breakup models are formulated to capture the effects of the interactions. The first step in a large-eddy simulation (LES) based computational methodology for complex multiphase flows like air-sea interactions requires effective detection of these impact events. The starting point of this work is a collision detection algorithm for structured grids on a coupled level set / volume of fluid (CLSVOF) solver adapted from an earlier algorithm for cloth animations that triangulates the interface with the marching cubes method. We explore the extension of collision detection to a geometric VOF solver and to unstructured grids. Supported by ONR/A*STAR. Agency of Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; Office of Naval Research, USA.
Thermocapillary bubble flow and coalescence in a rotating cylinder: A 3D study
Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, A.; Al-mazidi, M.
2015-12-01
The process of thermocapillary bubbles rising in a rotating 3D cylinder in zero gravity was analysed and presented numerically with the aid of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by means of the volume of fluid (VOF) method. Calculations were carried out to investigate in detail the effect of the rotational speed of the hosted liquid on the trajectory of both single and group bubbles driven by the Marangoni force in zero-gravity conditions. For rotational speeds from 0.25 to 2 rad/s, bubble displacement with angular motion was found to be directed between the hotter surface and the rotational axis. This is contrary to the conventional bubble flow from areas of high pressure to low pressure, radial direction, or from cold to hot regions, axial direction. The results demonstrate that for the ratio of rotational speeds to the thermocapillary bubble velocity larger than unity, the surface tension gradient is the dominant force and the bubble motion towards the hotter. On the other hand, for ratio less than 1, the bubble motion is dominated and is significantly affected by centrifugal force. As rotation speed increases, the amount of deflection increases and the Marangoni effect vanishes. The current study is novel in the sense that single- and multi-bubble motion incorporating thermocapillary forces in a rotating liquid in a zero-gravity environment has never been numerically investigated.
Simulation of fuel dispersion in the MYRRHA-FASTEF primary coolant with CFD and SIMMER-IV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buckingham, Sophia, E-mail: sophia.buckingham@vki.ac.be [von Karman Institute, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Planquart, Philippe [von Karman Institute, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Eboli, Marica [University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 2, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Moreau, Vincent [CRS4, Science and Technology Park Polaris – Piscina Manna, 09010 Pula (Italy); Van Tichelen, Katrien [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)
2015-12-15
Highlights: • A comparison between CFD and system codes applied to long-term dispersion of fuel particles inside the MYRRHA reactor is proposed. • Important accumulations at the free-surface level are to be expected. • The risk of core blockage should not be neglected. • Numerical approach and modeling assumptions have a strong influence on the simulation results and accuracy. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to assess the behavior of fuel redistribution in heavy liquid metal nuclear systems under fuel pin failure conditions. Two different modeling approaches are considered using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes and a system code, applied to the MYRRHA facility primary coolant loop version 1.4. Two different CFD models are constructed: the first is a single-phase steady model prepared in ANSYS Fluent, while the second is a two-phase model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method in STARCCM+ to capture the upper free-surface dynamics. Both use a Lagrangian tracking approach with oneway coupling to follow the particles throughout the reactor. The system code SIMMER-IV is used for the third model, without neutronic coupling. Although limited regarding the fluid dynamic aspects compared to the CFD codes, comparisons of particle distributions highlight strong similarities despite quantitative discrepancies in the size of fuel accumulations. These disparities should be taken into account while performing the safety analysis of nuclear systems and developing strategies for accident mitigation.
Experimental and computational analysis of pressure response in a multiphase flow loop
Morshed, Munzarin; Amin, Al; Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Imtiaz, Syed
2016-07-01
The characteristics of multiphase fluid flow in pipes are useful to understand fluid mechanics encountered in the oil and gas industries. In the present day oil and gas exploration is successively inducing subsea operation in the deep sea and arctic condition. During the transport of petroleum products, understanding the fluid dynamics inside the pipe network is important for flow assurance. In this case the information regarding static and dynamic pressure response, pressure loss, optimum flow rate, pipe diameter etc. are the important parameter for flow assurance. The principal aim of this research is to represents computational analysis and experimental analysis of multi-phase (L/G) in a pipe network. This computational study considers a two-phase fluid flow through a horizontal flow loop with at different Reynolds number in order to determine the pressure distribution, frictional pressure loss profiles by volume of fluid (VOF) method. However, numerical simulations are validated with the experimental data. The experiment is conducted in 76.20 mm ID transparent circular pipe using water and air in the flow loop. Static pressure transducers are used to measure local pressure response in multiphase pipeline.
Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA
2010-01-01
The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.
Analysis of chaotic flow in a 2D multi-turn closed-loop pulsating heat pipe
Pouryoussefi, S M
2016-01-01
Numerical study has been conducted for the chaotic flow in a multi-turn closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP). Heat flux and constant temperature boundary conditions have been applied for heating and cooling sections respectively. Water was used as working fluid. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method has been employed for two-phase flow simulation. Volume fraction results showed formation of perfect vapor and liquid plugs in the fluid flow of PHP. Non-linear time series analysis, power spectrum density, correlation dimension and autocorrelation function were used to investigate the chaos. Absence of dominating peaks in the power spectrum density was a signature of chaos in the pulsating heat pipe. It was found that by increasing the filling ratio and evaporator heating power the correlation dimension increases. Decreasing of the autocorrelation function with respect to time showed the prediction ability is finite as a result of chaotic state. An optimal filling ratio of 60% and minimum thermal resistance of 1.62 K/W w...
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Bubbly Flow in a Vertical Square Duct
Vanka, Pratap; Kumar, Purushotam; Jin, Kai
2016-11-01
We numerically investigate the dynamics of a large number of gas bubbles in a turbulent liquid flow in a confined vertical square duct, a problem of interest to many industrial equipment. The fluid flow is simulated by Direct Numerical Simulations and the motions of the bubbles are resolved by an accurate Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The flow is considered periodic in the streamwise direction with an imposed pressure gradient. The surface tension force is incorporated through a Sharp Surface Force (SSF) method that is observed to generate only very small spurious velocities at the interface. The algorithm has been programmed on a multiple-GPU computer in a data parallel mode. The turbulence driven secondary flows are first ensured to agree with previous DNS/LES by other researchers. A very fine grid with 192 x 192 x 768 control volumes is used to resolve the liquid flow as well as 864 bubbles using 12 grid points across each bubble in all directions. The computations are carried out to 1.5 million time steps. It is seen that the bubbles preferentially migrate to walls, starting from a uniform layout. We present instantaneous and time mean velocities, turbulence statistics and compare them with unladen flow as well as with a bubbly flow in a planar channel.
Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical nano-immunesensing using origami paper based method.
Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin
2016-04-01
Patterned paper has characteristics that lead to miniaturized assays that run by capillary action with small volumes of fluids. These methods suggest a path for the development of simple, inexpensive, and portable diagnostic assays that can be useful in remote settings, where simple immunoassays are becoming increasingly important for detecting disease and monitoring health. Incorporation of nanomaterials plays a major role in sensing probe immobilization and detection sensitivity of paper-based devices. Nanomaterial properties, such as increased surface area, have aided with signal amplification and lower detection limits. This review focuses on application of nanomaterials as signal amplification elements on origami paper-based electro-analytical devices for immune biomarkers detection with a brief introduction about various fabrication techniques and designs, biological and detection methods. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the selected latest research articles from 2013 to May 2015 on application of nanomaterials in various types of origami paper based electrochemical and photoelectrochemical immunosensors. The review breaks into two parts. The first part devotes to the development and applications of nanomaterials in electrochemical immunesensing. The second part provides an overview of recent origami paper based photoelectrochemical immunosensors.
基于SPH方法的自由表面流动模拟%Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Flow Based on SPH
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张攀; 袁向丽
2007-01-01
分析了光滑粒子流体动力学 (SPH--Smoothed particle hydrodynamics) 方法的理论基础及边界条件的处理,并给出了该方法自由表面运动的算例,与商业CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics)软件的VOF(Volume of Fluid)模型的计算结果进行了比较.结果表明,SPH 方法模拟复杂自由表面流动具有较好的效果.
Simulation of non-Newtonian oil-water core annular flow through return bends
Jiang, Fan; Wang, Ke; Skote, Martin; Wong, Teck Neng; Duan, Fei
2017-07-01
The volume of fluid (VOF) model is used together with the continuum surface force (CSF) model to numerically simulate the non-Newtonian oil-water core annular flow across return bends. A comprehensive study is conducted to generate the profiles of pressure, velocity, volume fraction and wall shear stress for different oil properties, flow directions, and bend geometries. It is revealed that the oil core may adhere to the bend wall under certain operating conditions. Through the analysis of the total pressure gradient and fouling angle, suitable bend geometric parameters are identified for avoiding the risk of fouling.
CFD simulation of gas-jet wiping process
Myrillas, K.; Gosset, A.; Rambaud, P.; Buchlin, J. M.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a study of the gas-jet wiping process, which is used in coating techniques to control the final coating thickness applied on a substrate. Numerical simulations are performed using the FLUENT commercial software, with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model coupled with Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The comparison with results from an analytical model, (with and without surface tension), and from dedicated experiments shows good agreement. The realizable k-epsilon turbulence model is used to reduce the computation time, but with no satisfactory agreement compared with LES and experiments.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ruoyu Hong; Zhiqiang Ren; Shizhong Zhang; Jianmin Ding; Hongzhong Li
2007-01-01
Two-layer flow of magnetic fluid and non-magnetic silicone oil was simulated numerically. The continuity equation, momentum equations,kinematic equation, and magnetic potential equation were solved in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate. PLIC (piecewise linear integration calculation) VOF (volume of fluid) scheme was employed to track the free interface. Surface tension was treated via a continuous surface force(CSF) model that ensures robustness and accuracy. The influences of applied magnetic field, inlet velocity profile, initial surface disturbance of interface and surface tension were analyzed. The computed interface shapes at different conditions were compared with experimental observation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naoki Takada
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Applicability of two kinds of computational-fluid-dynamics method adopting Cahn-Hilliard (CH and Allen-Cahn (AC-type diffuse-interface advection equations based on a phase-field model (PFM is examined to simulation of motions of microscopic incompressible two-phase fluid on solid surface. A capillarity-driven gas-liquid motion in rectangular channel is simulated by use of a PFM method for solving Navier-Stokes (NS equations and a CH equation, whereas an immiscible liquid-liquid flow in a microchannel with T-junction and square cross section is simulated by use of another PFM method proposed in this study, which adopts a lattice-Boltzmann method based on fictitious particles kinematics as numerical scheme for solving NS equations and an AC equation that is modified to improve volume-of-fluid conservation. The major findings are as follows: (1 effect of capillary force on the dynamic two-phase fluid system with a high density ratio is well predicted for cross-sectional aspect ratio of the channel = 1 and 2; (2 mono-dispersed slug flow pattern transition is reproduced in good agreement with experimental observations in terms of variation in length and interval of droplets as increasing their volumetric flow rates at a constant flow rate ratio = 1. These results prove that the PFM methods can be used for analyzing two-phase fluid motions in various microfluidic devices and micro fabrication processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Rafiee-Tehrani
1990-06-01
Full Text Available Digoxin 0.25 mg tablets were manufactured by pregranulation of lactose-fcorn starch with 10% corn starch paste and deposition of solvent on pregranules to make digoxin granules. In the preparation of tablet A, granules of lactose-corn Starch was uniformly moistened with a 5% chloroform-ethanol solution (2:lv/vof digoxin by a simple blending. Tablet B was produced by spray granulation system on which the solvent was sprayed on the granules of lactose-corn starch by utilization of a laboratory size fluidized bed drier (Uniglatt . The content uniformity and dissolution of both tablets were determined by the spectrofluorometric and radio¬immunoassay (RIA method modified for the assay of tablet solutious. One available commercially brand of digoxin tablet (C was included in dissolution study for comparison. For the spectrofluorometric method the technique is based on the fluor-ometric measurenent of the dehydration product of the cardiotonic steroid resulting from its reaction with hydrogen peroxide in concentrated hydrochloric acid. For the RIA method, the filtrate was diluted to theoretical concentration of 2.5 ng/ml."nAliquots of this dilution were then assayed for digoxin content using a commercial digoxin125 I RIA kit. Results from both assay methods were extrapolated to the total tablet content and compared with the labeled amount of 20 individual tablets. All tablet assay results were within the USP standards for the content uniformity and"ndissolution of individual. The individual tablet deviations from labeled amount by RIA method were smaller when compared with the spectrofluorometric method.There was no significant difference between the release of digoxin from three products, and thus it is suggested that the Procedure B could be easily applied for manufacturing"nof digoxin tablets in industrial scales.It was also concluded that,the RIA method could be used for the digoxin tablet determination.
Munsterman, Amelia S; Hanson, Russell Reid
2011-02-01
To develop an indirect method for measurement of intraabdominal pressures in the standing horse using measurement of gastric pressures as a less invasive technique, and to compare this method with direct intraabdominal pressures obtained from the peritoneal cavity. Prospective, experimental study. University-based equine research facility. Ten healthy adult horses, 7 geldings and 3 mares. Gastric pressures were measured using a nasogastric tube with a U-tube manometry technique, while intraperitoneal pressures were measured with a peritoneal cannula. Measurements of intraabdominal pressure were obtained by both methods, simultaneously, and were evaluated using 5 increasing volumes of fluid infused into the stomach (0, 400, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 mL). Bias and agreement between the 2 methods were determined using Bland-Altman analysis and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients. Mean gastric pressure was 14.44 ± 4.69 cm H(2)O and ranged from 0 to 25.8 cm H(2)O. Intraperitoneal pressure measurements were generally subatmospheric, and ranged from -6.6 to 3.1 cm H(2) O (mean ± SD, -1.59 ± 2.09 cm H(2)O). Measurements of intraperitoneal pressures were repeatable; however, intra- and interindividual variance was significantly larger for measurements of gastric pressures. The mean and relative bias for comparison between the 2 techniques was 15.9 ± 5.3 cm H(2)O and 244.3 ± 199.2%, respectively. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient between gastric and intraperitoneal pressures was -0.003 but this was not statistically significant (P=0.75). There was no statistical concordance between measurements of intraabdominal pressure using gastric and intraperitoneal pressure measurement, indicating that gastric pressures cannot be substituted for intraperitoneal pressure measurement. Direct measurement of intraperitoneal pressures may be a more consistent method for comparison of intraabdominal pressures between horses, due to less variability within and between
A Penalty Method to Model Particle Interactions in DNA-laden Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trebotich, D; Miller, G H; Bybee, M D
2006-10-06
We present a hybrid fluid-particle algorithm to simulate flow and transport of DNA-laden fluids in microdevices. Relevant length scales in microfluidic systems range from characteristic channel sizes of millimeters to micron scale geometric variation (e.g., post arrays) to 10 nanometers for the length of a single rod in a bead-rod polymer representation of a biological material such as DNA. The method is based on a previous fluid-particle algorithm in which long molecules are represented as a chain of connected rods, but in which the physically unrealistic behavior of rod crossing occurred. We have extended this algorithm to include screened Coulombic forces between particles by implementing a Debye-Hueckel potential acting between rods. In the method an unsteady incompressible Newtonian fluid is discretized with a second-order finite difference method in the interior of the Cartesian grid domain; an embedded boundary volume-of-fluid formulation is used near boundaries. The bead-rod polymer model is fully coupled to the solvent through body forces representing hydrodynamic drag and stochastic thermal fluctuations. While intrapolymer interactions are modeled by a soft potential, polymer-structure interactions are treated as perfectly elastic collisions. We demonstrate this method on flow and transport of a polymer through a post array microchannel in 2D where the polymer incorporates more realistic physical parameters of DNA, and compare to previous simulations where rods are allowed to cross. We also show that the method is capable of simulating 3D flow in a packed bed micro-column.
A Major Human White Matter Pathway Between Dorsal and Ventral Visual Cortex.
Takemura, Hiromasa; Rokem, Ariel; Winawer, Jonathan; Yeatman, Jason D; Wandell, Brian A; Pestilli, Franco
2016-05-01
Human visual cortex comprises many visual field maps organized into clusters. A standard organization separates visual maps into 2 distinct clusters within ventral and dorsal cortex. We combined fMRI, diffusion MRI, and fiber tractography to identify a major white matter pathway, the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), connecting maps within the dorsal and ventral visual cortex. We use a model-based method to assess the statistical evidence supporting several aspects of the VOF wiring pattern. There is strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that dorsal and ventral visual maps communicate through the VOF. The cortical projection zones of the VOF suggest that human ventral (hV4/VO-1) and dorsal (V3A/B) maps exchange substantial information. The VOF appears to be crucial for transmitting signals between regions that encode object properties including form, identity, and color and regions that map spatial information.
Numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore oscillating water column
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davyt, D.P.; Teixeira, P.R.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: pauloteixeira@furg.br; Ramalhais, R. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Didier, E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: edidier@lnec.pt
2010-07-01
The potential of wave energy along coastal areas is a particularly attractive option in regions of high latitude, such as the coasts of northern Europe, North America, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina where high densities of annual average wave energy are found (typically between 40 and 100 kW/m of wave front). Power estimated in the south of Brazil is 30kW/m, creating a possible alternative of source energy in the region. There are many types and designs of equipment to capture energy from waves under analysis, such as the oscillating water column type (OWC) which has been one of the first to be developed and installed at sea. Despite being one of the most analyzed wave energy converter devices, there are few case studies using numerical simulation. In this context, the numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore OWC is the main objective of this paper. The numerical models FLUINCO and FLUENT are used for achieving this goal. The FLUINCO model is based on RANS equations which are discretized using the two-step semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin method. An arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation is used to enable the solution of problems involving free surface movements. The FLUENT code (version 6.3.26) is based on the finite volume method to solve RANS equations. Volume of Fluid method (VOF) is used for modeling free surface flows. Time integration is achieved by a second order implicit scheme, momentum equations are discretized using MUSCL scheme and HRIC (High Resolution Interface Capturing) scheme is used for convective term of VOF transport equation. The case study consists of a 10.m deep channel with a 10 m wide chamber at its end. One meter high waves with different periods are simulated. Comparisons between FLUINCO and FLUENT results are presented. Free surface elevation inside the chamber; velocity distribution and streamlines; amplification factor (relation between wave height inside the chamber and incident wave height); phase angle (angular
A Coupled VOF-Eulerian Multiphase CFD Model to Simulate Breaking Wave Impacts on Offshore Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tomaselli, Pietro; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2016-01-01
Breaking wave-induced loads on offshore structures can be extremely severe. The air entrainment mechanism during the breaking process plays a not well-known role in the exerted forces. This paper present a CFD solver, developed in the Open-FOAM environment, capable of simulating the wave breaking...
Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic instability experiments and flow mixing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI JingSong; WANG Tao; LI Ping; ZOU LiYong; LIU CangLi
2009-01-01
Based on the numerical methods of volume of fluid (VOF) and piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and parallel circumstance of Message Passing Interface (MPI), a parallel multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and performed to study the hydrodynamic instability and flow mixing. Firstly, the MVPPM code is verified and validated by simulating three instability cases: The first one is a Riemann problem of viscous flow on the shock tube;the second one is the hydrodynamic instability and mixing of gaseous flows under re-shocks; the third one is a half height experiment of interfacial instability, which is conducted on the AWE's shock tube. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data, good agreement is achieved. Then the MVPPM code is applied to simulate the two cases of the interfacial instabilities of jelly models accelerated by explosion products of a gaseous explosive mixture (GEM), which are adopted in our experiments. The first is implosive dynamic interfacial instability of cylindrical symmetry and mixing. The evolving process of inner and outer interfaces, and the late distribution of mixing mass caused by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the center of different radius are given. The second is jelly layer experiment which is initialized with one periodic perturbation with different amplitude and wave length. It reveals the complex processes of evolution of interface, and presents the displacement of front face of jelly layer, bubble head and top of spike relative to initial equilibrium position vs. time. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with that experimental images, and show that the amplitude of initial perturbations affects the evolvement of fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth rate extremely, especially at late times.
Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic instability experiments and flow mixing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Based on the numerical methods of volume of fluid (VOF) and piecewise parabolic method (PPM) and parallel circumstance of Message Passing Interface (MPI),a parallel multi-viscosity-fluid hydrodynamic code MVPPM (Multi-Viscosity-Fluid Piecewise Parabolic Method) is developed and performed to study the hydrodynamic instability and flow mixing. Firstly,the MVPPM code is verified and validated by simulating three instability cases:The first one is a Riemann problem of viscous flow on the shock tube; the second one is the hydrodynamic instability and mixing of gaseous flows under re-shocks; the third one is a half height experiment of interfacial instability,which is conducted on the AWE’s shock tube. By comparing the numerical results with experimental data,good agreement is achieved. Then the MVPPM code is applied to simulate the two cases of the interfacial instabilities of jelly models acceler-ated by explosion products of a gaseous explosive mixture (GEM),which are adopted in our experi-ments. The first is implosive dynamic interfacial instability of cylindrical symmetry and mixing. The evolving process of inner and outer interfaces,and the late distribution of mixing mass caused by Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the center of different radius are given. The second is jelly layer ex-periment which is initialized with one periodic perturbation with different amplitude and wave length. It reveals the complex processes of evolution of interface,and presents the displacement of front face of jelly layer,bubble head and top of spike relative to initial equilibrium position vs. time. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with that experimental images,and show that the amplitude of initial perturbations affects the evolvement of fluid mixing zone (FMZ) growth rate extremely,especially at late times.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
关晖; 苏晓冰; 田俊杰
2011-01-01
Since internal solitary waves carry large amount of energy and widely exist in oceans all over the world,they have significant influence on the safty of submarines.Using the finite volume algorithm with adaptive semi-structure grids, multi-grid method and the volume of fluid (VOF) method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, a numerical internal solitary wave flume, based on the idea of pushing two plates in opposite directions in the tank, with the metability of wave generation is developed, and the validity for such a method is numerically confirmed, and the results are compared well with the analytical solution of KdV equation. This study laid a solid foundation for the future study of the interactions between internal solitary waves and submarines.%海洋内孤立波因其分布广泛和携带巨大能量,对于潜艇安全航行影响很大.本文采用有限体积自适应半结构多重网格法求解Navier-Stokes方程,并用VOF方法追踪两层流体界面,应用双推板造波法进行内孤立波数值造波,建立了两层流体中的内孤立波数值水槽.数值模拟结果证实了该数值水槽数值造波的有效性和可靠性,为后续研究打下了基础.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2014-01-01
Accurate multi-phase flow solvers at low Reynolds number are of particular interest for the simulation of interface instabilities in the co-processing of multilayered material. We present a two-phase flow solver for incompressible viscous fluids which uses the streamfunction as the primary variab...
Numerical simulation of bubble behaviors in subcooled flow boiling under swing motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan Liangming, E-mail: cneng@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen Deqi; Zhang Hui [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xu Jianjun; Huang Yanping [CNNC Key Laboratory on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Technology, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 6140041 (China)
2011-08-15
Highlights: > Secondary flow exists inside bubbles due to the evaporation and condensation. > The relative motion of these two bubbles generates two symmetrical vortexes and a stagnant region. > The supplementary microlayer between the two coalescing bubbles is observed in the simulation. > The additional inertia forces generated by swing are negligible. > The fluctuation of mass flow rate caused by swing motion effects the F{sub sl}, F{sub qs}, F{sub h} and the phase distribution significantly. - Abstract: A numerical investigation of bubble behaviors in subcooled flow boiling of water under the effect of additional inertial forces has been performed considering energy and mass transfer during phase change based on the VOF (volume-of-fluid) method. The pressure ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 MPa, and heat flux from 200 to 500 kW/m{sup 2}. The mass flow rate and inlet subcooling are specified at 320 kg/m{sup 2} s and 10 K, respectively. The liquid-vapor interface is captured using the piecewise linearity interpolation calculation (PLIC) geometry restructuring method. The simulations are carried out on upward water flow in a vertical, rectangular duct with single side heating surface. The pressure, velocity vector and temperature distribution around two isolated bubbles are studied firstly. The behaviors of bubble coalescence, sliding, detachment from the heated wall, and the bubble shape variation during lifetime are further examined. The bubble behaviors in the different pressure and heat flux are investigated. The simulated results of bubble growth rate and wall temperature are agreed well with the correlations in the literatures. The additional inertial forces caused by swing are negligible, but the fluctuation of mass flow rate caused by swing motion influences the forces acting on bubble significantly. Compared with the motionless condition, the pressure drop is increased and the fluctuation becomes acute as heat flux increases under the swing condition.
A microfluidics-based on-chip impinger for airborne particle collection.
Mirzaee, I; Song, M; Charmchi, M; Sun, H
2016-06-21
Capturing airborne particles from air into a liquid is a critical process for the development of many sensors and analytical systems. A miniaturized airborne particle sampling device (microimpinger) has been developed in this research. The microimpinger relies on a controlled bubble generation process produced by driving air through microchannel arrays. The particles confined in the microscale bubbles are captured in the sampling liquid while the bubbles form, are released and travel in a millimetre-scale sealed liquid reservoir. The microchannel arrays in the impinger are fabricated using a soft-lithography method with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. To prevent air leakage at the connections, a PDMS-only sealing technique is successfully developed. The hydrophobicity of the microchannel surface is found to be critical for generating continuous and stable bubbles in the bubbling process. A Teflon layer is coated on the walls of a microchannel array by vapor deposition which effectively increases the hydrophobicity of the PDMS. The collection efficiency of the microimpinger is measured by counting different sizes of fluorescent polystyrene latex particles on polycarbonate membrane filters. Collection efficiencies above 90% are achieved. Furthermore, the particle capturing mechanisms during the injection, formation and rise of a single microbubble are investigated by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with the use of the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to capture the bubble deformations and the particles are tracked using a Lagrangian equation of motion. The model is also employed to study the effect of bubble size on the collection efficiency of the microimpinger.
Numerical modelling of the impact of a liquid drop on the surface of a two-phase fluid system
Sochan, Agata; Lamorski, Krzysztof; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Ryżak, Magdalena
2014-05-01
The aim of the study was validation of a numerical model of the impact of a liquid drop on the surface of a two-phase system of immiscible fluids. The drop impact phenomenon was recorded using a high-speed camera (Vision Research MIRO M310) and the data were recorded at 2000 frames per second. The numerical calculations were performed with the Finite Volume Method (FVM) solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for three phases: air and two selected immiscible fluids. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique was employed for modelling of the boundaries between the phases. Numerical modelling was done with the Finite Volume Method using an available OpenFOAM software. The experiment was based on three variables: • the height from which the drop of the selected fluids fell (the speed of the drop), • the thickness of the layers of the two selected immiscible fluids (a thin layer of the fluid with a lower density was spread over the higher-density fluid), • the size of the fluid droplet. The velocity and radius of the falling drop was calculated based on the recorded images. The used parameters allowed adequate projection of the impact of fluid droplets on a system of two immiscible liquids. Development of the numerical model of splash may further have practical applications in environmental protection (spraying of hazardous fluids, spread of fuels and other hazardous substances as a result of disasters, spraying (water cooling) of hot surfaces), and in agriculture (prevention of soil erosion). The study was partially funded from the National Science Centre (Poland) based on the decision no. DEC-2012/07/N/ST10/03280.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdi Nabil
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The volume-of-fluid (VOF approach is a mature technique for simulating two-phase flows. However, VOF simulation of phase-change heat transfer is still in its infancy. Multiple closure formulations have been proposed in the literature, each suited to different applications. While these have enabled significant research advances, few implementations are publicly available, actively maintained, or inter-operable. Here, a VOF solver is presented (interThermalPhaseChangeFoam, which incorporates an extensible framework for phase-change heat transfer modeling, enabling simulation of diverse phenomena in a single environment. The solver employs object oriented OpenFOAM library features, including Run-Time-Type-Identification to enable rapid implementation and run-time selection of phase change and surface tension force models. The solver is packaged with multiple phase change and surface tension closure models, adapted and refined from earlier studies. This code has previously been applied to study wavy film condensation, Taylor flow evaporation, nucleate boiling, and dropwise condensation. Tutorial cases are provided for simulation of horizontal film condensation, smooth and wavy falling film condensation, nucleate boiling, and bubble condensation. Validation and grid sensitivity studies, interfacial transport models, effects of spurious currents from surface tension models, effects of artificial heat transfer due to numerical factors, and parallel scaling performance are described in detail in the Supplemental Material (see Appendix A. By incorporating the framework and demonstration cases into a single environment, users can rapidly apply the solver to study phase-change processes of interest.
Zhao, Zhibin; Feng, Yuqing; Schwarz, M. Philip; Witt, Peter J.; Wang, Zhaowen; Cooksey, Mark
2017-04-01
Air-water models have been widely applied as substitutes for CO2-cryolite systems in the study of the complex bubble dynamics and bubble-driven flow that occurs in the molten electrolyte phase in the aluminum electrolytic process, but the detailed difference between the two systems has not been studied. This paper makes a numerical comparison between the bubble dynamics for the two systems. Simulations of both single bubble and continuous bubbling were conducted using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling approach with a volume of fluid (VOF) method to capture the phase interfaces. In the single bubble simulations, it was found that bubbles sliding under an anode in a CO2-cryolite system have a smaller bubble thickness and a higher sliding velocity than those in the air-water system for bubbles of the same volume. Dimensionless analysis and numerical simulation show that contact angle is the dominant factor producing these differences; the effects of kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and density are very small. In the continuous bubbling simulations, the continuous stream of air bubbles detaches from the anode sidewall after a period of climbing, just as it does in the single bubble simulation, but bubbles have less tendency to migrate away from the wall. Quasi-stable state flow characteristics, i.e., time-averaged bath flow pattern, turbulence kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and gas volume fraction, show a remarkable agreement between the two systems in terms of distribution and magnitude. From the current numerical comparisons, it is believed that the air-water model is a close substitutive model for studying bubble-driven bath flow in aluminum smelting processes. However, because of the difference in bubble morphologies between the two systems, and also the reactive generation and growth of bubbles in the real system, there will likely be some differences in bubble coverage of the anode in the anode-cathode gap.
Bao, J.; Zhou, T.; Huang, M.; Hou, Z.; Perkins, W. A.; Harding, S.; Hammond, G. E.; Ren, H.; Thorne, P. D.; Suffield, S. R.; Zachara, J. M.
2016-12-01
Hyporheic exchange between river water and groundwater is an important mechanism for biogeochemical processes, such as carbon and nitrogen cycling, and biodegradation of organic contaminants, in the subsurface interaction zone. The relationship between river flow conditions and hyporheic exchanges therefore is of great interests to hydrologists, biogeochemists, and ecologists. However, quantifying relative influences of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic drivers on hyporheic exchanges is very challenging in large rivers due to accessibility and spatial coverage of measurements, and computational tools available for numerical experiments. In this study, we aim to demonstrate that a high resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that couples surface and subsurface flow and transport can be used to simulate hyporheic exchanges and the residence time of river water in the hypothetic zone. Base on the assumption that the hyporheic exchange does not affect the surface water flow condition due to its small magnitude compared to the velocity of river water, we developed a one way coupled surface and subsurface water flow model in a commercial CFD software STAR-CCM+, that connects the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solver with a realizable two-layer turbulence model, a two-layer all y+ wall treatment, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method for tracking the free water-air interface as well as porous media flow in the subsurface domain. The model is applied to a 7-km long section of the Columbia River and validated against measurements from the acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the surface water and hyporheic fluxes derived from a set of temperature profilers installed across the riverbed. The validated model is then employed to systematically investigate how hyporheic exchanges influenced by 1) riverbed properties such as the permeability and thickness of the alluvial layer; 2) surface water hydrodynamics due to channel geomorphological settings
Simulation on Tire Hydroplaning Based on CFD%轮胎滑水特性的CFD分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王国林; 邓元; 金梁; 梁晨
2013-01-01
以205/50R16子午线轮胎为研究对象,建立带有纵向花纹沟的轮胎有限元模型(FEM)和计算流体动力学(CFD)模型.基于流固耦合的FEM模拟轮胎滑水产生的过程,采用重整规化群和流体体积组分方法的CFD模型得到轮胎接地区域内的水膜流场分布.两种模型计算结果对比表明,CFD模型能够用来分析胎面微花纹沟内流体流动特性.随着水膜厚度的增大,轮胎受到的流体压力也变大,容易出现滑水现象.%The finite element model(FEM) and the computational fluid dynamics(CFD) model of 205/50R16 radial tire with longitudinal tread groove pattern were developed.The process of hydroplaning was simulated by fluid-solid coupled FEM,and the fluid flow field in tire contact region was obtained by using CFD model with RNG(renormalization group) and VOF(volume of fluid) methods.The comparison results of two models showed that the CFD model could be used to effectively analyze the fluid flow characteristics in micro grooves,and as the thickness of water film increased,the fluid pressure increased,which would most likely cause dynamic hydroplaning.
Numerical Simulation on Head-On Binary Collision of Gel Propellant Droplets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zejun Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Binary collision of droplets is a fundamental form of droplet interaction in the spraying flow field. In order to reveal the central collision mechanism of two gel droplets with equal diameters, an axi-symmetric form of the Navier-Stokes equations are firstly solved and the method of VOF (volume of fluid is utilized to track the evolution of the gas-liquid free interface. Then, the numerical computation model is validated with Qian’s experimental results on Newtonian liquids. Phenomena of rebound, coalescence and reflexive separation of droplets after collision are investigated, and structures of the complicated flow fields during the collision process are also analyzed in detail. Results show that the maximum shear rate will appear at the point where the flow is redirected and accelerated. Rebound of droplets is determined by the Weber number and viscosity of the fluid together. It can be concluded that the gel droplets are easier to rebound in comparison with the base fluid droplets. The results also show that the alternant appearance along with the deformation of droplets in the radial and axial direction is the main characteristic of the droplet coalescence process, and the deformation amplitude attenuates gradually. Moreover, the reflexive separation process of droplets can be divided into three distinctive stages including the radial expansion, the recovery of the spherical shape, and the axial extension and reflexive separation. The variation trend of the kinetic energy is opposite to that of the surface energy. The maximum deformation of droplets appears in the radial expansion stage; in the case of a low Weber number, the minimum central thickness of a droplet appears later than its maximum deformation, however, this result is on the contrary in the case of a high Weber number.
PROPERTIES OF NATURAL CAVITATION FLOWS AROUND A 2-D WEDGE IN SHALLOW WATER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; CHEN Ying
2011-01-01
When a body navigates with cavity in shallow water,both flexible free surface and rigid bottom wall will produce great influences on the cavity shape and hydrodynamic performances,and further affect the motion attitude and stability of the body.In the present work,characteristics of the natural cavitating flow around a 2-D symmetrical wedge in shallow water were investigated and the influences of two type boundaries on the flow pattern were analyzed.The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphaseflow method which is suitable for free surface problems was utilized,coupled with a natural cavitation model to deal with the mass-transfer process between liquid and vapor phases.Within the range of the cavitation number for computation (0.07-1.81),the cavity configurations would be divided into three types,viz.,stable type,transition type and wake-vortex type.In this article,the shapes of the free surface and the cavity surface,and the hydrodynamic performance of the wedge were discussed under the conditions of relatively small cavitation number ( ＜ 0.256 ).The present numerical cavity lengths generally accord with experimental data.When the cavitation number was decreased,the cavity was found to become longer and thicker,and the scope of the deformation of the free surface also gradually extends.The free surface and the upper cavity surface correspond fairly to their shapes.However,the lower side of the cavity surface was rather leveled due to the influence of wall boundary.The lift and drag coefficients of this 2-D wedge basically keep linear relations with the natural cavitation number smaller than 0.157,whereas direct proportion for drag and inverse proportion for lift.
ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goodarz Ahmadi
2004-10-01
In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.
Thermocapillary migration of an isolated droplet and interaction of two droplets in zero gravity
Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, Ali; Kalendar, Abdulrahim
2016-09-01
Fluid transfer within a stagnant liquid presents a significant challenge in zero-gravity conditions due to the lack of buoyancy effects. This challenge can be overcome by the utilisation of the Marangoni effect, or more specifically thermocapillary migration. The thermocapillary migration of droplets is driven by temperature gradients within the multiphase system which bring about a surface tension gradient driving the flow from the cold to the hot region. The migration speed of the droplet is significantly impacted by the heat transfer both inside the droplet and in its surroundings. This paper presents the analysis of drop movement in a stagnant liquid using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The commercial software package Ansys-Fluent v.13 [1] is used to solve the governing continuum conservation equations for two-phase flow using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to track the liquid/liquid interface in 2D domain. This approach has been shown to be a valuable tool for studying the phenomena of liquid-liquid interaction. A strong agreement has been found with experimental observations conducted in microgravity. The inherent velocity of drops has been found to decrease with increasing Marangoni number. This finding is in line with the previous space experiments of Xie et al. (2005) [2] and in contrast to the numerical results of Ma (1999) [3] using the same liquid for the droplet and the host liquid. Data obtained in the present numerical study has been used to derive an expression predicting the scaled droplet velocity as a function of Marangoni number. A numerical study of the interaction of two spherical droplets undergoing thermocapillary migration in microgravity is also presented. The temperature thrust from the leading droplet towards the trailing droplet was found to disturb its migration velocity, but the trailing droplet was found to have no influence on the migration of the leading droplet.
Zhao, Zhibin; Feng, Yuqing; Schwarz, M. Philip; Witt, Peter J.; Wang, Zhaowen; Cooksey, Mark
2016-12-01
Air-water models have been widely applied as substitutes for CO2-cryolite systems in the study of the complex bubble dynamics and bubble-driven flow that occurs in the molten electrolyte phase in the aluminum electrolytic process, but the detailed difference between the two systems has not been studied. This paper makes a numerical comparison between the bubble dynamics for the two systems. Simulations of both single bubble and continuous bubbling were conducted using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling approach with a volume of fluid (VOF) method to capture the phase interfaces. In the single bubble simulations, it was found that bubbles sliding under an anode in a CO2-cryolite system have a smaller bubble thickness and a higher sliding velocity than those in the air-water system for bubbles of the same volume. Dimensionless analysis and numerical simulation show that contact angle is the dominant factor producing these differences; the effects of kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and density are very small. In the continuous bubbling simulations, the continuous stream of air bubbles detaches from the anode sidewall after a period of climbing, just as it does in the single bubble simulation, but bubbles have less tendency to migrate away from the wall. Quasi-stable state flow characteristics, i.e., time-averaged bath flow pattern, turbulence kinetic energy, turbulence dissipation rate, and gas volume fraction, show a remarkable agreement between the two systems in terms of distribution and magnitude. From the current numerical comparisons, it is believed that the air-water model is a close substitutive model for studying bubble-driven bath flow in aluminum smelting processes. However, because of the difference in bubble morphologies between the two systems, and also the reactive generation and growth of bubbles in the real system, there will likely be some differences in bubble coverage of the anode in the anode-cathode gap.
低水头条件下常用底流消力池的对比研究%Comparison of stilling basins in low water-head condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐文超; 程观富; 陈胖胖; 王军
2011-01-01
Most energy dissipators of low water-head have problems such as small Froude number and low dissipation rate, so some auxiliary energy dissipators are generally applied to stilling basins to get better results of energy dissipation. The four widely-used types of stilling basins are USBR-Ⅳ type,ISI type, SAF type and T type. In this paper, the k-ε equation turbulence model and the volume of fluid(VOF) method are used to track the free surface. The effects of energy dissipation, flow pattern distribution, and construction costs of the above-mentioned types of stilling basins are compared by numerical simulation so as to provide scientific and practical support for engineering design.%低水头消能工常常存在水流佛氏数小、消能效率低等问题,为此常在底流消力池中添加辅助消能工以求达到良好的消能效果.国内外常用的低佛氏底流消力池有USBR-Ⅳ型、ISI型、SAF型和T型等4种型式.文章采用k-ε方程紊流模型并结合VOF追踪自由水面法,通过数值模拟对上述池型各自的消能效果、流态分布、工程造价等方面进行对比研究,以期为工程设计提供科学有效的理论支撑和参考.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
强洪夫; 陈福振; 高巍然
2011-01-01
Modified equations for surface tension are derived by modifying normal and curvature with corrected smoothed particle method (CSPM). It is based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method with surface tension proposed by Morris. Both Morris and our method are tested via a semicircular problem. Factors that affect accuracy are investigated including surface definition, normal and curvature calculation. Smoothed length in curvature calculation is also confirmed reasonable. Furthermore, formation of a liquid drop with initial square shape under surface tension is simulated. Compared with Morris method and grid-based volume of fluid method,it is proved that the accuracy of our method is higher and particle distribution is more homogeneous. Finally, coalescence process of two oil drops in water under surface tension is simulated.%在Morris提出的表面张力SPH方法基础上,通过引入CSPM方法对边界法向的计算和曲率的计算进行修正,得到表面张力修正方程组;通过半圆形算例测试方法和Morris方法在边界定位、法向计算和曲率计算等影响表面张力关键因素的求解精度,研究曲率计算中应采用的光滑长度值.模拟初始方形液滴在表面张力作用下的自然变化过程,并与Morris方法及VOF有限体积法进行对比,表明方法精度较高,稳定性较好.最后,模拟水溶液中两个油滴的互溶过程.
Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.; Dimakopoulos, A.; Farthing, M.
2016-12-01
The last decade has seen an expansion in the development and application of 3D free surface flow models in the context of environmental simulation. These models are based primarily on the combination of effective algorithms, namely level set and volume-of-fluid methods, with high-performance, parallel computing. These models are still computationally expensive and suitable primarily when high-fidelity modeling near structures is required. While most research on algorithms and implementations has been conducted in the context of finite volume methods, recent work has extended a class of level set schemes to finite element methods on unstructured methods. This work considers models of three-phase flow in domains containing air, water, and granular phases. These multi-phase continuum mechanical formulations show great promise for applications such as analysis of coastal and riverine structures. This work will consider formulations proposed in the literature over the last decade as well as new formulations derived using the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory, an approach to deriving and closing macroscale continuum models for multi-phase and multi-component processes. The target applications require the ability to simulate wave breaking and structure over-topping, particularly fully three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic flows that drive these phenomena. A conservative level set scheme suitable for higher-order finite element methods is used to describe the air/water phase interaction. The interaction of these air/water flows with granular materials, such as sand and rubble, must also be modeled. The range of granular media dynamics targeted including flow and wave transmision through the solid media as well as erosion and deposition of granular media and moving bed dynamics. For the granular phase we consider volume- and time-averaged continuum mechanical formulations that are discretized with the finite element method and coupled to the underlying air
DING, Peng; FUNG, George Shiu-Kai; LIN, Ming De; HOLMAN, Shaina D.; GERMAN, Rebecca Z.
2015-01-01
Purpose To determine the effect of bilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion on swallowing threshold volume and the occurrence of aspiration, using a novel measurement technique for videofluorscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Methods and Materials We used a novel radiographic phantom to assess volume of the milk containing barium from fluoroscopy. The custom made phantom was firstly calibrated by comparing image intensity of the phantom with known cylinder depths. Secondly, known volume pouches of milk in a pig cadaver were compared to volumes calculated with the phantom. Using these standards, we calculated the volume of milk in the valleculae, esophagus and larynx, for 205 feeding sequences from four infant pigs feeding before and after had bilateral SLN lesions. Swallow safety was assessed using the IMPAS scale. Results The log-linear correlation between image intensity values from the phantom filled with barium milk and the known phantom cylinder depths was strong (R2>0.95), as was the calculated volumes of the barium milk pouches. The threshold volume of bolus in the valleculae during feeding was significantly larger after bilateral SLN lesion than in control swallows (p<0.001). The IMPAS score increased in the lesioned swallows relative to the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion Bilateral SLN lesion dramatically increased the aspiration incidence and the threshold volume of bolus in valleculae. The use of this phantom permits quantification of the aspirated volume of fluid. The custom made phantom and calibration allow for more accurate 3D volume estimation from 2D x-ray in VFSS. PMID:25270532
Study on computational methods of tire hydroplaning using CFD%轮胎滑水的CFD计算方法研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王国林; 金梁
2012-01-01
针对轮胎滑水现象，采用VOF模型（VolumeofFluidModel）进行了CFD数值模拟计算。建立了分析对象的物理模型（轮胎模型、水模型和边界条件及初始条件）和RNG κ-ε湍流模型；采用多块网格技术对计算域进行了离散，重点模拟分析三种不同入口速度下的动水压力变化和轮胎附近流场变化。最后和国外学者所做的试验和相关文献结果进行了对比，表明本文介绍的方法是可行的，该方法为轮胎产品开发提供了有效经济的技术支持。%The VOF （Volume of Fluid） models were applied in this paper to simulate the hydro-planing oftires using CFD. A physical model （tire,water,boundary conditions and initial conditions） and RNG κ-εturbulent model were established~ the computational domain was meshed by multi-block grid technique, the hydrodynamic force and flow field around tire were simulated specially in three velocities. Finally, after comparing the results from CFD method with experiments by foreign authors and relative document literature,a conclusion shows that CFD is a powerful tool to calculate and analysis the hydro-planing of tires.
Characteristics of shell thickness in a slab continuous casting mold
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Di-feng Wu; Shu-sen Cheng; Zi-jian Cheng
2009-01-01
The key to reduce shell breakout in the continuous casting process is to control shell thickness in the mold.A numerical simulation on the turbulent flow and heat transfer coupled with solidification in the slab mold using the volume of fluid (VOF) model and the enthalpy-porosity scheme was conducted and the emphasis was put upon the flow effect on the shell thickness profiles in longitudinal and transverse directions.The results show that the jet acts a stronger impingement on the shell of narrow face,which causes a zero-increase of shell thickness in a certain range near the impingement point.The thinnest shell on the slab cross-section locates primarily in the center of the narrow face,and secondly near the comer of the wide face.Nozzle optimization can obviously increase the shell thickness and make it more uniform.
Superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flow
Li, Yixuan; Alame, Karim; Mahesh, Krishnan
2016-11-01
The drag reduction effect of superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flow is studied using direct numerical simulation. The volume of fluid (VOF) methodology is used to resolve the dynamics of the interface. Laminar flow simulations show good agreement with experiment, and illustrate the relative importance of geometry and interface boundary condition. An analytical solution for the multi-phase problem is obtained that shows good agreement with simulation. Turbulent simulations over a longitudinally grooved surface show drag reduction even in the fully wetted regime. The statistics show that geometry alone can cause an apparent slip to the external flow. Instantaneous plots indicate that the grooves prevent the penetration of near wall vorticity, yielding overall drag reduction. Results for spectra, wall pressure fluctuations and correlations will be presented. Unsteady effects on the air-vapor interface will be discussed. Results for random roughness surfaces will be presented. Supported by Office of Naval Research.
Mathematical modeling of a gas jet impinging on a two phase bath
Delgado-Álvárez, J.; Ramírez-Argáez, Marco A.; González-Rivera, C.
2012-09-01
In this work a three phase 3D mathematical model was developed using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) algorithm, which is able to accurately describe the cavity geometry and size as well as the liquid flow patterns created when a gas jet impinges on a two phase liquid free surface. These phenomena are commonly found in steelmaking operations such as in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) where oxygen jets impinge on a steel bath and they control heat, momentum and mass transfer. The cavity formed in the liquids by the impinging jet depends on a force balance at the free surface where the inertial force of the jet governs these phenomena. The inertial force of the jet and its angle play important roles, being the lowest angle the best choice to shear the bath and promote stronger circulation and better mixing in the liquids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boudiaf H’ssine
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This study aims at describing a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent flow with a high Reynolds number in a rectangular open channel with the presence of a disruptive element (obstacles transversely. The numerical study is based on measuring the flow velocity in two directions, i.e., horizontal and vertical, in four planes located near the obstacle built across a simulated channel. For the modeling of the free surface, a Volume Of Fluid (VOF multiphase flow model is used. In the present case, namely a study of turbulence, three numerical models are compared, a k-ε standard, a k-w standard and a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM. The verification of the simulation results has allowed us to show the advantages of the Reynolds stress model. This model is more representative of the phenomena of an intense vortex flow in the presence of obstacles, especially in drainage systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Aishuang; XU Songlin
2005-01-01
Velocity field of evaporating liquid film in a wiped molecular distillator was simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and two turbulent models treating near-wall flow were compared. Differences between wiped and other molecular distillations were introduced to explain why turbulent model should be used in this simulation. Three assumptions were made in order to simplify simulating processes. In rotating coordinate system, fixed other settings, the above two turbulent models were used, and the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model was also applied to tracking the liquid-gas surface. Both of the simulating results are basically identical with real situation and were compared in several aspects. It was concluded that both of the turbulent models are suitable in this simulation.
Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Gas-Liquid Flow in a T-Junction Microchannel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongtruong Pham
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Gas-liquid flow in microchannels is widely used in biomedicine, nanotech, sewage treatment, and so forth. Particularly, owing to the high qualities of the microbubbles and spheres produced in microchannels, it has a great potential to be used in ultrasound imaging and controlled drug release areas; therefore, gas-liquid flow in microchannels has been the focus in recent years. In this paper, numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows in a T-junction microchannel was carried out with computational fluid dynamics (CFD software FLUENT and the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF model. The distribution of velocity, pressure, and phase of fluid in the microchannel was obtained, the pressure distribution along the channel walls was analyzed in order to give a better understanding on the formation of microbubbles in the T-junction microchannel.
Water behavior in a U-shaped flow channel of PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-036
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quan, P.; Zhou, B.; Sobiesiak, A. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: bzhou@uwindsor.ca; Liu, Z.-S. [National Research Council Canada, Inst. for Fuel Cell innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)
2005-07-01
The behavior of liquid water inside a U-shaped channel for a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell was investigated through CFD modeling with the FLUENT software package. The Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) model was adopted to track dynamic air-water interfaces. Three cases with varying initial water phase distributions corresponding to different fuel cell operating conditions were numerically simulated to obtain a better understanding of water behavior inside the serpentine channel. The results show that the bend area in the serpentine flow channel has significant effects on the flow field, which in turn affects the air-water flow and water liquid distribution inside the channel or along the interior channel surfaces, thus affecting fuel cell performance. (author)
Some Experiences with Numerical Modelling of Overflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.
2007-01-01
Overflows are commonly applied in storm sewer systems to control flow and water surface level. Therefore overflows play a central role in the control of discharges of pollutants from sewer systems to the environment. The basic hydrodynamic principle of an overflow is the so-called critical flow...... across the edge of the overflow. To ensure critical flow across the edge, the upstream flow must be subcritical whereas the downstream flow is either supercritical or a free jet. Experimentally overflows are well studied. Based on laboratory experiments and Froude number scaling, numerous accurate...... the term for curvature of the water surface (the so-called Boussinesq approximation) 2. 2- and 3-dimensional so-called Volume of Fluid Models (VOF-models) based on the full Navier-Stokes equations (named NS3 and developed by DHI Water & Environment) As a general conclusion, the two numerical models show...
EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON HORIZONTAL OIL-GAS FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Experiments were carried out to investigate the characteristics of oil-gas flow in a horizontal pipe on a large scale (with the inner diameter D = 125 mm). With the experimental data, the flow patterns were presented. Through the analyses for the flow regime transition, it was found that there was a critical superficial velocity of liquid phase for the flow regime transiting from stratified flow to slug flow. The slug flow could not occur until the superficial velocity of liquid phase was higher than the critical velocity. For the flow pattern transiting from stratified to slug flow, the transmitting velocity of gas phase decreases with the augmentation of superficial velocity of liquid phase. On the basis of the experiments, numerical simulations of different flow patterns and their transitions were performed with the use of the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) technique. The results of the computations are shown to match well with the measured data in the experiments.
Molded underfill (MUF) encapsulation for flip-chip package: A numerical investigation
Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, M. K.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ariff, Z. M.; Saad, Abdullah Aziz; Hamid, M. F.; Ismail, M. A.
2017-07-01
This paper presents the numerical simulation of epoxy molding compound (EMC) filling in multi flip-chip packages during encapsulation process. The empty and a group flip chip packages were considered in the mold cavity in order to study the flow profile of the EMC. SOLIDWORKS software was used for three-dimensional modeling and it was incorporated into fluid analysis software namely as ANSYS FLUENT. The volume of fluid (VOF) technique was used for capturing the flow front profiles and Power Law model was applied for its rheology model. The numerical result are compared and discussed with previous experimental and it was shown a good conformity for model validation. The prediction of flow front was observed and analyzed at different filling time. The possibility and visual of void formation in the package is captured and the number of flip-chip is one factor that contributed to the void formation.
Malgarinos, I.; Nikolopoulos, N.; Marengo, M.; Antonini, C.; Gavaises, M.
2014-01-01
Introduction In this study,a novel numerical implementation for the adhesion of liquid droplets impacting normally on solid dry surfaces is presented. The advantage of this new approach, compared to the majority of existing models, is that the dynamic contact angle forming during the surface wetting process is not inserted as a boundary condition, but is derived implicitly by the induced fluid flow characteristics (interface shape) and the adhesion physics of the gas-liquid-surface interfa...
Development of High Precision Tsunami Runup Calculation Method Coupled with Structure Analysis
Arikawa, Taro; Seki, Katsumi; Chida, Yu; Takagawa, Tomohiro; Shimosako, Kenichiro
2017-04-01
The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) has shown that tsunami disasters are not limited to inundation damage in a specified region, but may destroy a wide area, causing a major disaster. Evaluating standing land structures and damage to them requires highly precise evaluation of three-dimensional fluid motion - an expensive process. Our research goals were thus to develop a coupling STOC-CADMAS (Arikawa and Tomita, 2016) coupling with the structure analysis (Arikawa et. al., 2009) to efficiently calculate all stages from tsunami source to runup including the deformation of structures and to verify their applicability. We also investigated the stability of breakwaters at Kamaishi Bay. Fig. 1 shows the whole of this calculation system. The STOC-ML simulator approximates pressure by hydrostatic pressure and calculates the wave profiles based on an equation of continuity, thereby lowering calculation cost, primarily calculating from a e epi center to the shallow region. As a simulator, STOC-IC solves pressure based on a Poisson equation to account for a shallower, more complex topography, but reduces computation cost slightly to calculate the area near a port by setting the water surface based on an equation of continuity. CS3D also solves a Navier-Stokes equation and sets the water surface by VOF to deal with the runup area, with its complex surfaces of overflows and bores. STR solves the structure analysis including the geo analysis based on the Biot's formula. By coupling these, it efficiently calculates the tsunami profile from the propagation to the inundation. The numerical results compared with the physical experiments done by Arikawa et. al.,2012. It was good agreement with the experimental ones. Finally, the system applied to the local situation at Kamaishi bay. The almost breakwaters were washed away, whose situation was similar to the damage at Kamaishi bay. REFERENCES T. Arikawa and T. Tomita (2016): "Development of High Precision Tsunami Runup
Fluid Mechanics of Liquid-Liquid Systems.
Richards, John Reed
The detailed hydrodynamics of selected liquid -liquid flow systems are investigated to provide a firm foundation for the rational design of separation processes. The implementation of this objective centers on the development of a robust code to simulate liquid-liquid flows. We have applied this code to the realistic simulation of aspects of the complex fluid mechanical behavior, and developed quantitative insight into the underlying processes involved. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is combined with the Continuous Surface Force (CSF) algorithm to provide a numerically stable code capable of solving high Reynolds numbers free surface flows. One of the developments during the testing was an efficient method for solving the Young-Laplace equation describing the shape of the meniscus in a vertical cylinder for a constrained liquid volume. The steady-state region near the nozzle for the laminar flow of a Newtonian liquid jet injected vertically into another immiscible Newtonian liquid is investigated for various Reynolds numbers by solving the axisymmetric transient equations of motion and continuity. The analysis takes into account pressure, viscous, inertial, gravitational, and surface tension forces, and comparison with previous experimental measurements shows good agreement. Comparisons of the present numerical method with the numerical results of previous boundary-layer methods help establish their range of validity. A new approximate equation for the shape of the interface of the steady jet, based on an overall momentum balance, is also developed. The full transient from liquid-liquid jet startup to breakup into drops is also simulated numerically. In comparison with experiment, the results of the present numerical method show a greater sensitivity of the jet length to the Reynolds number than the best predictions of previous linear stability analyses. The formation of drops is investigated at low to high Reynolds numbers before and after jet formation. The
Nayfeh, Ali H
2008-01-01
1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417
Numerical simulation and scale effect of self-propulsion test of a full-scale ship%实船自航试验数值模拟及尺度效应分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李亮; 王超; 孙帅; 孙盛夏
2016-01-01
In this study, we adopt the Reynolds⁃averaged Navier⁃Stokes ( RANS ) method and volume of fluid ( VOF) model to carry out a numerical simulation of a self⁃propulsion test of a full⁃scale ship, considering a free surface on a KCS ship and KP505 propeller. First, we performed a numerical computation of a model⁃scale KCS under the conditions of a self⁃propulsion point and open⁃water propeller performance. The calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental data, thereby verifying the feasibility of the calculation method. Next, we an⁃alyzed the scale effect on the ship resistance, wave pattern, and velocity field, and obtained the propulsion factors of a full⁃scale ship. Based on the curves of the numerical self⁃propulsion test, we confirmed the self⁃propulsion point of the full⁃scale ship. Using the interpolation method, we identified the propulsion factors and found the scale effect of the rotational speed at the self⁃propulsion point and wake fraction to be obvious. The results show that the wake fraction of a full⁃scale ship is smaller than that of a model ship and its rotational speed at the self⁃propulsion point is greater.%以KCS船和KP505桨为计算对象，采用RANS方法和VOF模型，开展了考虑自由液面的实船自航试验数值模拟。首先进行KCS船模自航点工况下的流场计算和KP505桨的敞水性能计算，计算结果与试验值吻合较好，验证了计算方法的可行性。本文分析了船体阻力、波形和速度场的尺度效应，获得了实船的推进因子。根据数值自航试验曲线确定了自航点，进而插值计算得到实船推进因子，并分析发现自航点转速和伴流分数尺度效应明显。结果表明：实船伴流分数要小于船模，自航点转速要大于船模。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谭丽媛; 袁希钢; KALBASS IMohammad Ali
2015-01-01
A volume of fluid (VOF) model of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used to simulate the liquid distribution on the structured packing surface. 3D simulation visualized liquid distribution. The results were used to estimate liquid film thickness and effective interfacial area ratio on the structured packing surface quantitatively,and the results were validated with existing correlations in the literature. Different systems with different surface tension values were used in the simulation and the effect of both surface tension and viscosity of liquid phase on liquid distribution were examined. Based on the simulation a new equation to predict the effective interfacial area ratio was proposed. The simulation results showed that the CFD method can be used as an effective tool to provide information on the details of the gas and liquid flows in complex packing geometries.%采用计算流体力学(computational fluid dynamics,CFD)中的VOF方法对规整填料表面液相分布进行了三维建模和仿真,实现规整填料内液相分布的可视化并得到了液膜厚度和有效相界面积比等相关定量信息.通过分析比较不同物系的数值模拟结果,发现液体的表面张力和黏度都对填料表面上液体分布有影响.表面张力越小,液相在填料片上分布越均匀,有效相界面积比越大,液膜厚度越小;黏度增加,有效相界面积比和液膜厚度也随之增加.较之于黏度对液相分布的影响程度,表面张力的影响程度更大,为主要影响因素.本文还提出一个预测有效相界面积比的新公式,并将数值模拟结果与已有文献进行对比,吻合性较好.
Evaluation of tsunami run-up on coastal areas at regional scale
Gonzalez, Ernesto Mauricio; Aniel-Quiroga, Íñigo; Gutiérrez, Omar
2017-04-01
Tsunami hazard assessment is commonly tackled by means of numerical model simulations, giving as a result, the areas that are flooded by the tsunami wave inland. To achieve this, some input data is required, i.e., the high resolution topobathymetry of the study area, the earthquake focal mechanism parameters, etc. The computational cost of these kinds of simulation are still excessive. Besides, an important restriction for the elaboration of large scale maps at National or regional scale is the reconstruction of high resolution topobathymetry on the coastal zone. An alternative and traditional method consists of the application of empirical-analytical formulations to calculate the run-up at several coastal profiles (i.e. Synolakis, 1987), combined with numerical simulations offshore without including coastal inundation. In this case, the numerical simulations are faster but some limitations are added as the coastal bathymetric profiles are very simply idealized. In this work, we propose an extension of these second method, including the consideration of realistic profiles and the numerical simulation of tsunami events. To get this, hundreds of worldwide topobathymetric profiles have been parameterized, using 5 parameters (2 depths and 3 slopes). In addition, tsunami waves have been also parameterized by their height and period. The coastal parameterized coastal profiles and tsunami waves have been combined to build a populated database of run-up calculations. The combination was tackled by means of numerical simulations in a numerical flume formed by 2 models that were coupled ad hoc for this work: a non-linear shallow water equations model (NLSWE) for the offshore part of the propagation and a Volume of Fluid model (VOF) for the areas near the coast and inland, applying each numerical scheme where they better reproduce the tsunami wave. The result is a tsunami run-up database that considers real profiles shape, realistic tsunami waves, and optimized numerical
Cross-flow turbines: physical and numerical model studies towards improved array simulations
Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.
2015-12-01
Cross-flow, or vertical-axis turbines, show potential in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) and wind energy applications. As turbine designs mature, the research focus is shifting from individual devices towards improving turbine array layouts for maximizing overall power output, i.e., minimizing wake interference for axial-flow turbines, or taking advantage of constructive wake interaction for cross-flow turbines. Numerical simulations are generally better suited to explore the turbine array design parameter space, as physical model studies of large arrays at large model scale would be expensive. However, since the computing power available today is not sufficient to conduct simulations of the flow in and around large arrays of turbines with fully resolved turbine geometries, the turbines' interaction with the energy resource needs to be parameterized, or modeled. Most models in use today, e.g. actuator disk, are not able to predict the unique wake structure generated by cross-flow turbines. Experiments were carried out using a high-resolution turbine test bed in a large cross-section tow tank, designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. To improve parameterization in array simulations, an actuator line model (ALM) was developed to provide a computationally feasible method for simulating full turbine arrays inside Navier--Stokes models. The ALM predicts turbine loading with the blade element method combined with sub-models for dynamic stall and flow curvature. The open-source software is written as an extension library for the OpenFOAM CFD package, which allows the ALM body force to be applied to their standard RANS and LES solvers. Turbine forcing is also applied to volume of fluid (VOF) models, e.g., for predicting free surface effects on submerged MHK devices. An
Prediction of pressure induced by liquid sloshing for LNG carrier%LNG船液舱晃荡压强预报
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱仁庆; 马海潇; 缪泉明; 郑文涛
2013-01-01
A numerical technique to predict the pressure induced by liquid sloshing in a membrane tank is produced for LNG carrier based on CFD. The motion of incompressible fluid is described by Navier-Stokes equations and continuum equation. The governing equations are discretized by finite volume method and solved by Simple scheme. The profile of liquid surface is reconstructed by the volume of fluid (VOF) tech-nique. A reduced scale (1:55) tank model is used to perform the model test in China Ship Scientific Re-search Center. The numerical results including pressure and free surface profile are compared with the test ones, showing a good agreement. These comparisons show that the presented method is useful to predict the load induced by liquid sloshing for LNG carrier.% 基于CFD技术，提出了数值预报LNG船薄膜型液舱晃荡压强的方法。流体运动方程由不可压缩的连续方程和N-S动量方程描述，并采用有限体积法进行离散，通过Simple算法求解，其中液体自由表面运动采用VOF技术进行追踪并重构。在中国船舶科学研究中心，以1：55的液舱试验模型为研究对象，开展了试验研究。数值预报结果与试验结果进行了比较，结果显示测点处的压力时间历程与自由液面波形与试验值相当吻合，说明所建立的数值模型可以有效地预报LNG船液舱晃荡载荷。
Flow Characteristics of Film Flow over 3D Corrugations Column Plate%三维波纹结构塔板上薄膜流体的流动特性研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
童仲尧; 洪伟荣; 郭雅琼; 李杰
2015-01-01
Film flow is often employed to improve the mass transfer between gas and liquid in chemical industry application. Corrugations on packing surface are used to alter the flow characteristics of liquid film to enhance the mass transfer efficiency. In this investigation, film flow over three dimensional corrugations was simulated with numerical method. The effect of three dimensional corrugations on film flow was studied and the flow characteristics relating to the mass transfer was analyzed. In the numerical simulations, a multiphase solver in the open source computational fluid dynamics software OpenFOAM was used to track the free surface position with VOF method. The simulated results were validated by the PIV based experimental data published in literature. After the validation of the numerical model, an analysis of the velocity field in the liquid film was conducted. The results show that three dimensional corrugations can induce disturbance not only in the vertical direction, but also in the cross direction in film flow, which is not found in film flow over two dimensional corrugations. For film flow over three dimensional corrugations, fluid is converged at the troughs of the three dimensional waves and dispersed on the wave crest. This flow behavior is helpful for the mixing of fluids with different concentrations and dramatically enhances the mass transfer efficiency between the gas and liquid.%在化工传质过程中，薄膜流体(film flow)经常被用来改善液体与气体间的质量传递。填料板上的波纹结构能引起液体薄膜流动特性的改变，从而提高薄膜流体的传质效率。在本次研究中，作者对三维波纹结构塔板上的液体薄膜进行数值仿真，研究了三维波纹结构对液体薄膜流动特性的影响，并分析流动特性与气液两相间传质的联系。数值仿真中使用了开源计算流体力学软件 OpenFOAM中基于VOF(volume of fluid)法的多相流求解器计算薄膜流体自
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1993-06-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1996-12-01
The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin
1999-01-01
When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....
Berezin, I S
1965-01-01
Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjellsson, G.
1994-01-01
OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90.......OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢金树; 刘枫琛; 朱哲野
2014-01-01
为研究双壳油船因搁浅或触礁导致底部破舱油品水下泄漏的过程，文中基于流体动力学理论，建立了双壳油船油舱三维数值模型，利用VOF模型表面跟踪方法对互不相容流体交界面液相流动问题进行了模拟，通过动态监测舱内油、水等运动特征对整个泄漏过程进行了阶段划分及特征分析，并将数值模拟结果与实验结果进行比较。比较结果表明：文中的三维数值模型能够比较准确地反映油品水下泄漏过程，可用于分析双层底内部流场特征。%In order to study the process of oil spilling from the damaged double hull tanker in grounding and col-lision incidents,the 3D model tank was built based on the theory of fluid dynamics.The volume of fluid ( VOF) method was used to simulate the interface flow between water and oil.The whole leakage progress was divided in-to different stages and studied by dynamically monitoring the motion characteristic of oil and water in the tank. The result of numerical simulation was compared with the experimental results from the references.It shows that the 3D numerical model can reflect the actual process precisely.The model can well illustrate the process of oil leakage from the double hull tanker damaged on the bottom.Meanwhile,this paper provides a reliable numerical simulation model for the study the characters of fluid field in the double hull space.
Modelling Time and Length Scales of Scour Around a Pipeline
Smith, H. D.; Foster, D. L.
2002-12-01
The scour and burial of submarine objects is an area of interest for engineers, oceanographers and military personnel. Given the limited availability of field observations, there exists a need to accurately describe the hydrodynamics and sediment response around an obstacle using numerical models. In this presentation, we will compare observations of submarine pipeline scour with model predictions. The research presented here uses the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model FLOW-3D. FLOW-3D, developed by Flow Science in Santa Fe, NM, is a 3-dimensional finite-difference model that solves the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. Using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique, FLOW-3D is able to resolve fluid-fluid and fluid-air interfaces. The FAVOR technique allows for complex geometry to be resolved with rectangular grids. FLOW-3D uses a bulk transport method to describe sediment transport and feedback to the hydrodynamic solver is accomplished by morphology evolution and fluid viscosity due to sediment suspension. Previous investigations by the authors have shown FLOW-3D to well-predict the hydrodynamics around five static scoured bed profiles and a stationary pipeline (``Modelling of Flow Around a Cylinder Over a Scoured Bed,'' submit to Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering). Following experiments performed by Mao (1986, Dissertation, Technical University of Denmark), we will be performing model-data comparisons of length and time scales for scour around a pipeline. Preliminary investigations with LES and k-ɛ closure schemes have shown that the model predicts shorter time scales in scour hole development than that observed by Mao. Predicted time and length scales of scour hole development are shown to be a function of turbulence closure scheme, grain size, and hydrodynamic forcing. Subsequent investigations consider variable wave-current flow regimes and object burial. This investigation will allow us to identify different regimes for the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐让书; 李骏; 牛玲; 常柱宇
2014-01-01
基于VOF方法和滑移网格技术，研究喷射润滑下主轴承内部压力、温度场及油气体积比随转子转速及滑油流量的变化规律。给出滑油在轴承内的相界面分布，描述轴承内油膜分布及运动。结果表明：轴承内压力和油气两相在轴承内分布不均匀；油液体积分数随转速的升高而降低，随供油量的增加而增加，呈非线性关系；轴承内最高工作温度随主轴转速的增加而增加；轴承润滑效果与供油量有直接的关系，不同的转速下对应不同的最佳供油量。%Based on the volume of fluid(VOF)method and sliding mesh technique,the effect of rotor speed and the oil inlet flow rate on the pressure,temperature field and oil volume fraction in the rolling bearing with spay lubrication were in-vestigated.The film distribution and movement in oil and air interface were showed.The results show that the pressure and the oil-air two-phase flow distribution is not homogenized in the bearing.The oil volume fractionis decreased with the in-crease of revolution speed,and is increased with speeding up the lubrication flow rate nonlinearly.The highest temperature of the bearing is increased with the increase of revolution speed.The effect of the bearing lubrication is directly related with the lubrication flow rate,and an optimum oil feeding rate exists at different rotor speed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
智冬; 李双喜; 张秋翔; 蔡纪宁
2012-01-01
针对普通离心密封用于气体场合下存在的问题,提出一种带有连续注排密封液结构的新型离心密封,介绍该密封的工作原理及特点.基于VOF方法,利用Fluent软件对离心密封内的气液两相流进行数值模拟,求得密封液流量、气液交界面位置以及压力折减系数等密封特性参数,研究操作参数和结构参数对密封性能的影响.结果表明:该密封适用于高转速下的气体密封,在一定的密封间隙范围内,增加转轴转速会减少密封液的流量,而在密封液进口处设置环形积水槽会增加密封液的流量；增加密封液的注入压力,减小密封间隙有助于降低环形漩涡的影响.%Aimed at the problems of the common centrifugal seal for sealing gas, a configuration of the new-type centrif ugal seal device with continuous injection and elimination of the sealing fluid was proposed,and the operating principle and feature of the seal were introduced. The software Fluent was used for the numerical simulations of internal gas-liquid flow in the centrifugal seal,applying the Volume of Fluid(VOF) method. The mass flow rate of the sealing fluid,the air-liquid in terface and the reduced coefficient of pressure were gained. The influences of the operation parameters and structural pa rameters on the sealing property were studied. The investigation results show that the seal is suit for the condition of gas seal of high speed. Within certain ranges of the sealing gap,the flow rate of the sealing fluid is reduced with the raise of the rotor speed,and is increased when the annular water tank is set at the entrance of the sealing fluid. The influence of the an nular vortex can be reduced by increasing the injection pressure of the sealing fluid and decreasing the seal gap.
潜艇水面与水下粘性绕流数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Viscous Flow Around Submarine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张楠; 应良镁; 姚惠之; 沈泓萃; 高秋新
2005-01-01
The flow fields of SUBOFF hull with various appendages are numerically simulated by solving RANS equations with four turbulence models.Numerical predictions of the axial velocities for given radii at the propeller plane are compared with experimental data. Comparison shows that turbulence model plays an important role in numerical simulation. The performance of submarine at full surface condition is important. Computational study of free surface flow around submarine is a focus of attention in ship hydrodynamics. In this paper,the numerical simulations of free surface flow around two submarine models at different Froude numbers are carried out with Volume of Fluid (VOF) algorithm which is an interface-capturing method. Computational results including resistances,wave profiles and wave patterns are analyzed and compared with experimental data. The comparison between the prediction and the model test measurement shows fairly good agreement. Some generic features of submarine hydrodynamics with free surface are discussed. The capability of the CFD approach to the prediction of viscous flow of submarine is validated.%本文采用求解RANS方程的方法结合四种湍流模型,对于带有不同附体的SUBOFF模型尾流场进行了数值模拟.数值预报的桨盘面处不同半径上的轴向无量纲速度与试验结果进行了对比,结果表明湍流模型在数值模拟中起到重要作用.潜艇水面航行性能十分重要,因而对于潜艇自由液面绕流的数值模拟备受关注.本文采用VOF方法对于两条潜艇模型在不同傅汝德数下的自由液面绕流进行了数值模拟.计算得到的阻力、波形与试验结果吻合较好.文中也探讨了潜艇自由液面绕流的一般特性.并验证了用CFD手段预报潜艇粘性流场的能力.
带自由液面的艇/桨干扰特性数值模拟与验证研究%Numerical simulation of hull/propeller interaction with free surface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张楠; 张胜利; 沈泓萃; 谢华
2012-01-01
带自由液面的艇/桨干扰特性研究是水动力学领域的重点与难点.此文采用数值模拟方法研究了潜艇近水面航行时的艇/桨干扰特性.首先介绍了计算方法:流场采用RANS方法结合RNGk -ε湍流模型求解；自由液面捕捉采用VOF方法；螺旋桨运转采用滑移网格方法；带螺旋桨潜艇表面与计算域内全部采用结构化网格进行离散.然后,对于SUBOFF潜艇模型在不同浸深下的阻力特性进行了数值模拟,分析了自由液面对于模型阻力的定量影响.最后,对于带螺旋桨的SUBOFF潜艇模型在深潜与近水面状态下的艇后推力、扭矩进行了数值模拟,分析了自航因子,研究了艇/桨干扰特性.计算结果与试验结果进行了详细的对比分析,验证了计算方法与计算结果的可靠性.本文的工作可为将来构建数值拖曳水池提供技术支撑.%Hull/propeller interaction with free surface is important for powering performance prediction in ship hydrodynamics. The numerical simulation of hull/propeller interaction of submarine in near surface condition is presented in the paper. The flow field is numerically simulated by solving RANS equations with RNG k ~ e turbulence model. Free surface is captured by Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. The effect of propeller is simulated by sliding mesh technique. The resistance and wave pattern of a submarine model at different depths of submergence are computed, and the effect of free surface on resistance is investigated. The thrust and torque of self-propulsion submarine in deep submergence and near surface conditions are computed to analyze the self-propulsion factors and hull/propeller interaction. The comparison between the prediction and the model test measurement shows fairly good agreement. The results in the paper will support numerical towing tank establishment in future.
电弧炉用氧技术的多相流数值模拟研究%Modeling Research of an Impinging Oxygen Jet in the Electric Arc Furnace
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李桂海; 何春来; 朱荣; 董凯
2011-01-01
A mathematical model has been developed to analyze the transient three-dimensional and three-phase flow in the 150 t EAF using single oxygen when the oxygen flow rate of 500, 1 450, 1 800, 2 000 m3/h. Multiphase Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is used to clarify the transient phenomena of oxygen impingement on the molten bath, and to simulate the behavior of molten steel and slag. The result of numerical simulations shows that with the increasing of oxygen flow rate, the velocity of molten bath increases, the penetration depth gets bigger and the surface area of uncovered steel on which the slag layer is pushed away by jets is enlarged. The results have been validated against water model experiments. More specially, the penetration depth predicted by numerical simulation has been found to agree well with that by water model. On the basis of numerical simulation, the impact force of jet under different oxygen flow rate is calculated, which shows with the increasing of impact force, the nominal static pressure of molten steel in cavity increases. And the relationship between decarburization rate and index of penetration is established.%对150 t电弧炉冶炼过程中单支氧枪供氧流量分别为500,1 450,1 800,2 000 m/h时氧气射流冲击熔池进行了三维三相流数值模拟.模拟研究表明,随着供氧流量的增加,熔池中钢液和渣液的流动速度、裸露钢液面面积及射流的冲击深度均增大.由数值模拟和水模得到的供氧流量与射流冲击深度的规律得到了很好的吻合.在数值模拟的基础上.计算了不同供氧流量下的射流冲击力;研究表明射流冲击力越大,熔池凹坑受到的静压力越大;并建立了脱碳速度与射流冲击指数之间的关系.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨帆; 施徐明; 戴韧; 郭雪岩; 陈铁军; 吴玉林
2013-01-01
为研究吸气旋涡的产生机理,并进行相应的理论分析,将水利和水工设备进水口前常见的自由表面旋涡现象简化为盆池自由放水模型,采用“流体体积”(VOF)方法结合RNGk-ε湍流模型模拟自由表面旋涡现象.通过数值模拟获得自由液面从纯水涡到吸气旋涡的生成与演化过程,将计算结果与理论Burgers涡模型进行对比,发现Burgers涡模型的切向速度分布方程与计算结果相符,涡量向中心聚集是导致自由液面发生凹陷并最终产生吸气旋涡现象的原因之一,同时发现Burgers涡的径向速度和轴向速度分布方程与计算结果相比存在很大差异.进一步简化模型后,剔除切向速度影响,模拟了无旋流体的排水过程.通过理论推导在球坐标系下提出“汇球面”模型,获得了较好的速度分布方程,并发现“汇”效应也是产生吸气旋涡现象的重要因素之一.%To study the formulation mechanism of suction vortex and put forward some related theoretical analysis,the phenomenon of free-surface vortex often observed above a drainage intake was simplified into a model of discharging sink water,which was simulated by using VOF (volume of fluid) method and RNG k-ε turbulent model.The process of suction vortex evolving from free-surface vortex was numerically simulated.By comparing the calculated results with Burgers vortex theory,it is found that the tangential velocity distribution equation in Burgers vortex model agrees with the calculation;and that vortexes gather towards the center is one of the factors that cause the free-surface to depress and eventually become suction vortex.It is also found that the other two velocity distributions in Burgers vortex model,the radial and axial velocity distribution equations,in comparison with the calculation,were theoretically incorrect.To further simplify the model,ruling out tangential velocity,water discharge without vortex was simulated.To clarify the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄娜; 周云龙; 高聚
2015-01-01
A numerical simulation based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to study vapor–liquid flow in a 190 mm vertical tube under high pressure, and the flow pattern maps of the two-phase convection flow were investigated under pressure of 5.07, 10.13 and 17.23 MPa, respectively. The results of flow under high pressure were compared with that of normal pressure. The results show that the flow pattern maps under high pressure in large-diameter vertical pipes are not consistent with the Hewitt and Roberts flow pattern maps. No wispy annular is presented under high pressure in large-diameter vertical pipes, and the bubbly zone and churn zone are enlarged. The slug zone becomes particularly small with little change happened to the annular zone. The simulation results show that the interfacial wave amplitude of the vapor-liquid churn flow decreases with the increase of pressure in large-diameter vertical pipes, and the interface stability is enhanced at the same time. The pipe central area has the highest velocity, which fluctuates at the boundary area and reduces to zero on the pipe wall. Moreover, the disorder degree of the oscillatory velocity field near the pipe wall decreases under high pressure. Mechanisms were analyzed following the simulation results dicussed.%采用流体体积模型(VOF)对高压环境下190 mm大管径垂直管内水蒸汽-水混合流动进行数值研究。数值计算得到了5.07，10.13与17.23 MPa高压下大管径垂直管内汽液流型分布图及搅混流态的相分布图和速度场分布，并与常压下的计算结果进行对比，以研究压力环境带来的影响。数值结果表明，高压环境下大管径垂直管内的流型图与Hewitt和Roberts流型图的吻合度较差。高压环境下大管径垂直管内没有出现雾状流；泡状流和搅混流的发生区域扩大；弹状流的发生区域被压缩得很小；环状流的变化最小。随着压力的增大，大管径垂直管内汽液搅混流中
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2005-01-01
, where traditional invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds......The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2002-01-01
invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds of abstraction and reuse......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional...
Comparison of two different ultrasound methods of phacoemulsification.
Helvacioglu, Firat; Yeter, Celal; Sencan, Sadik; Tunc, Zeki; Uyar, O Murat
2014-08-01
To compare the safety and efficacy of microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed with the OZil Intelligent Phaco torsional mode (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, USA) and combined torsional/longitudinal ultrasound mode using 45 degree aperture angled tips. Prospective randomized clinical trial. setting: Maltepe University, Istanbul. patient population: Eighty eyes of 80 cataract patients were randomly assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the OZil Intelligent Phaco torsional mode (Group 1) or combined torsional/longitudinal ultrasound mode (Group 2). observation procedure: Intraoperative fluid and energy usage and postoperative examinations were evaluated. main outcome measures: Ultrasound time, cumulative dissipated energy, longitudinal and torsional ultrasound amplitudes, mean operation time, mean volume of fluid used, and surgical complications. Both groups included 40 eyes. Mean ultrasound time, cumulative dissipated energy, and longitudinal and torsional ultrasound amplitudes in Group 1 were 58.21±33.81 seconds, 7.74±6.23, 0.45±0.30, and 26.30±12.60%, respectively, and these parameters in Group 2 were 64.75±30.23 seconds, 12.61±6.21, 26.32±5.85, and 40.98±8.33%, respectively. Cumulative dissipated energy and longitudinal and torsional amplitudes were found to be significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.001, Ptip, the OZil Intelligent Phaco torsional mode provided more effective lens removal than the combined torsional/longitudinal ultrasound mode, with a lower cumulative dissipated energy and volume of fluid used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.;
2003-01-01
Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....
Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been
Szulc, Stefan
1965-01-01
Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then
Halberstam, Heine
2011-01-01
Derived from the techniques of analytic number theory, sieve theory employs methods from mathematical analysis to solve number-theoretical problems. This text by a noted pair of experts is regarded as the definitive work on the subject. It formulates the general sieve problem, explores the theoretical background, and illustrates significant applications.""For years to come, Sieve Methods will be vital to those seeking to work in the subject, and also to those seeking to make applications,"" noted prominent mathematician Hugh Montgomery in his review of this volume for the Bulletin of the Ameri
Shen, Jie; Wang, Li-Lian
2011-01-01
Along with finite differences and finite elements, spectral methods are one of the three main methodologies for solving partial differential equations on computers. This book provides a detailed presentation of basic spectral algorithms, as well as a systematical presentation of basic convergence theory and error analysis for spectral methods. Readers of this book will be exposed to a unified framework for designing and analyzing spectral algorithms for a variety of problems, including in particular high-order differential equations and problems in unbounded domains. The book contains a large
Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J
2010-01-01
Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a
Rogers, R.
2013-01-01
In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals wi
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)
1993-01-01
Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
A method of conducting radiofluorination of a substrate, comprising the steps of: (a) contacting an aqueous solution of [18F] fluoride with a polymer supported phosphazene base for sufficient time for trapping of [18F] fluoride on the polymer supported phosphazene base; and (b) contacting...
Colquitt, Charlie W; Martin, Tonya S
2017-02-01
The prevention of pregnancy remains an important part of the practice of medicine. Contraception can occur at a number of points in the basic reproductive biological process and through a number of contraceptive product options. Pharmacists are health care providers appropriately positioned to assist patients in suitable contraceptive product selection based on their personal situations and lifestyles. This article provides an overview of available products for prevention of pregnancy and associated risks and benefits. Contraceptive products are categorized by their hormonal content and method of action. Hormonal options include oral contraceptive pills, contraceptive patch, implants, injection, intravaginal, and intrauterine devices. Barrier products prevent pregnancy by creating a physical obstacle to the successful fertilization of an egg by sperm. All products and methods are associated with benefits and potential complications that must be considered as patients, and health care providers select the most satisfactory option.
Dahlquist, Germund
2003-01-01
""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.
A computationally efficient 3D finite-volume scheme for violent liquid–gas sloshing
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Oxtoby, Oliver F
2015-10-01
Full Text Available . The high resolution artificial compressive (HiRAC) volume-of-fluid method is used for accurate capturing of the free surface in violent flow regimes while allowing natural applicability to hybrid-unstructured meshes. The code is parallelised for solution...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ren-hui; WANG Hai-yan; JIA Qi; XIAO Jin; YUAN Chun-xia; ZHANG Ya-jun; HU Qing-shan; WANG Xiu-e
2014-01-01
EST-PCR based molecular markers speciifc for alien chromosomes are not only useful for the detection of the introgressed alien chromatin in the wheat background, but also provide evidence of the syntenic relationship between homoeologous chromosomes. In the present study, in order to develop high density and evenly distributed molecular markers on chromosome 4V ofHaynaldia villosa, a total of 607 primer pairs were designed according to the EST sequences, which were previously located in 23 different bins of wheat chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. By using theTriticum durum-H. villosaamphiploid and T. aestivum-H. villosa alien chromosome lines involving chromosome 4V, it was found that 9.23% of the tested primers could amplify speciifc bands for chromosome 4V. Thirty and twenty-six speciifc markers could be assigned to chromosome arms 4VS and 4VL, respectively. These 4V speciifc markers provided efifcient tools for the characterization of structural variation involving the chromosome 4V as well as for the selection of useful genes located on chromosome 4V in breeding programs.
Analysis of vegetation effect on waves using a vertical 2-D RANS model
A vertical two-dimensional (2-D) model has been applied in the simulation of wave propagation through vegetated water bodies. The model is based on an existing model SOLA-VOF which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the finite difference method on a staggered rectangula...
RBF-Type Artificial Neural Network Model Applied in Alloy Design of Steels
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YOU Wei; LIU Ya-xiu; BAI Bing-zhe; FANG Hong-sheng
2008-01-01
RBF model, a new type of artificial neural network model was developed to design the content of carbon in low-alloy engineering steels. The errors of the ANN model are. MSE 0. 052 1, MSRE 17. 85%, and VOF 1. 932 9. The results obtained are satisfactory. The method is a powerful aid for designing new steels.
Macroscopic analysis of gas-jet wiping: Numerical simulation and experimental approach
Lacanette, Delphine; Gosset, Anne; Vincent, Stéphane; Buchlin, Jean-Marie; Arquis, Éric
2006-04-01
Coating techniques are frequently used in industrial processes such as paper manufacturing, wire sleeving, and in the iron and steel industry. Depending on the application considered, the thickness of the resulting substrate is controlled by mechanical (scraper), electromagnetic (if the entrained fluid is appropriated), or hydrodynamic (gas-jet wiping) operations. This paper deals with the latter process, referred to as gas-jet wiping, in which a turbulent slot jet is used to wipe the coating film dragged by a moving substrate. This mechanism relies on the gas-jet-liquid film interaction taking place on the moving surface. The aim of this study is to compare the results obtained by a lubrication one-dimensional model, numerical volume of fluid-large eddy simulation (VOF-LES) modeling and an experimental approach. The investigation emphasizes the effect of the controlling wiping parameters, i.e., the pressure gradient and shear stress distributions induced by the jet, on the shape of the liquid film. Those profiles obtained experimentally and numerically for a jet impinging on a dry fixed surface are compared. The effect of the substrate motion and the presence of the dragged liquid film on these actuators are analyzed through numerical simulations. Good agreement is found between the film thickness profile in the wiping zone obtained from the VOF-LES simulations and with the analytical model, provided that a good model for the wiping actuators is used. The effect of the gas-jet nozzle to substrate standoff distance on the final coating thickness is analyzed; the experimental and predicted values are compared for a wide set of conditions. Finally, the occurrence of the splashing phenomenon, which is characterized by the ejection of droplets from the runback film flow at jet impingement, thus limiting the wiping process, is investigated through experiments and numerical simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Joseph; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
A thermosyphon, wickless heat pipe, is a heat transfer device of high thermal conductance that functions passively on the principle of evaporation and condensation of a working fluid. The heat-pipe concept was first proposed by Gaugler in 1942. After its independent invention by Grover in the early 1960s, serious development progress was made, and the heat pipe concept was studied intensively for both space and terrestrial applications, because of its beneficial characteristics. Annamalai and Ramalingam developed a CFD modeling for wick part of heat pipe using commercial code, ANSYS CFX. Khurram Kafeel numerically studied thermal hydraulic characteristics of thermosyphon in both transient and steady state. Bandar Fadhl et al. built a CFD modeling for boiling and condensing of thermosyphon using VOF method of ANSYS Fluent. They made user defined function (UDF) to define source term based on Lee model. In this study, CFD model of 1m-thermosyphon has been studied using VOF model. Unlike formal studies, vacuum pressure condition was applied because thermosyphon with vacuum inner pressure is much generally used. Furthermore, to check out hydraulic characteristics of the model, transparent thermosyphon experiment also has been conducted. The main purpose of this research is the investigation of CFD model of thermosyphon. Simulations using VOF method were performed to analyze evaporating, condensing and two phase flow of a thermosyphon. The simulation results show that complex phenomena inside of thermosyphon can be modeled using VOF method. Flow visualizations of working fluid matched well with transparent heat pipe experiment.
... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...
The clinical method and the scientific method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Arteaga Herrera
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is the chapter dedicated to the scientific method and the clinical method in the authors’ Handbook “Teaching of Clinics”. Philosophycal principles of the scientific method and its stages are presented as well as the clinical method as a scientific one and its stages. A relationship between the clinical method and the medical record is established, the role of technology in the clinical method is stated and the most frequent mistakes when applying it in clinical practice are provided. Finally, the teaching of the clinical method and the appropriate settings to do it are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
An inexact Halley's method-Halley-PCG(preconditioned conjugate gradient) method is proposed for solving the systems of linear equations for improved Halley method either by Cholesky factorization exactly or by preconditioned conjugate gradient method approximately. The convergence result is given and the efficiency of the method compared to the improved Halley's method is shown.
Meshless Methods Coupled with Other Numerical Methods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Y.T.GU; G.R.LIU
2005-01-01
Meshless or mesh-free (or shorten as MFree) methods have been proposed and achieved remarkable progress over the past few years. The idea of combining MFree methods with other existing numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM), is naturally of great interest in many practical applications. However, the shape functions used in some MFree methods do not have the Kronecker delta function property. In order to satisfy the combined conditions of displacement compatibility, two numerical techniques, using the hybrid displacement shape function and the modified variational form, are developed and discussed in this paper. In the first technique, the original MFree shape functions are modified to the hybrid forms that possess the Kronecker delta function property. In the second technique, the displacement compatibility is satisfied via a modified variational form based on the Lagrange multiplier method. Formulations of several coupled methods are presented. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present coupling methods.
From Method to Post Method: A Panacea!
Masouleh, Nima Shakouri
2012-01-01
The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…
The Multidimensional WKB Method.
Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.
1989-01-01
Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)
ANALYSIS OF MULTISCALE METHODS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei-nan E; Ping-bing Ming
2004-01-01
The heterogeneous multiscale method gives a general framework for the analysis of multiscale methods. In this paper, we demonstrate this by applying this framework to two canonical problems: The elliptic problem with multiscale coefficients and the quasicontinuum method.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...
Simplifications of CQC method and CCQC method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yu Ruifang; Zhou Xiyuan
2007-01-01
The response-spectrum mode superposition method is widely used for seismic response analyses of linear systems. In using this method, the complete quadratic combination (CQC) is adopted for classically damped linear systems and the complex complete quadratic combination (CCQC) formula is adopted for non-classically damped linear systems.However, in both cases, the calculation of seismic response analyses is very time consuming. In this paper, the variation of the modal correlation coefficients of displacement, velocity and displacement-velocity with frequency and damping ratios of two modes of interest are studied, Moreover, the calculation errors generated by using CQC and square-root-of-the-sum-of-the-squares (SRSS) methods (or CCQC and CSRSS methods) for different damping combinations are compared. In these analyses,some boundary lines for classically and non-classically damped systems are plotted to distinguish the allowed minimum frequency ratio at given geometric mean of the damping ratios of both modes if their relativity is neglected. Furthermore,the simplified method, which is a special mode quadratic combination method considering only relativity of adjacent modes in CQC method and named simplified CQC or partial quadratic combination (PQC) method for classically damped linear system, is proposed to improve computational efficiency, and the criterion for determination of how many correlated modes should be adopted is proposed. Similarly, the simplified CCQC or complex partial quadratic combination (CPQC) method for the non-classically damped linear system and the corresponding criterion are also deduced. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the applicability, computational accuracy and efficiency of the PQC and CPQC methods.
The role of polar, lamdba (Λ)-shaped building units in noncentrosymmetric inorganic structures.
Donakowski, Martin D; Gautier, Romain; Yeon, Jeongho; Moore, Donald T; Nino, Juan C; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R
2012-05-01
A methodology for the design of polar, inorganic structures is demonstrated here with the packing of lambda (Λ)-shaped basic building units (BBUs). Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) solids with interesting physical properties can be created with BBUs that lack an inversion center and are likely to pack into a polar configuration; previous methods to construct these solids have used NCS octahedra as BBUs. Using this methodology to synthesize NCS solids, one must increase the coordination of the NCS octahedra with maintenance of the noncentrosymmetry of the bulk. The first step in this progression from an NCS octahedron to an inorganic NCS solid is the formation of a bimetallic BBU. This step is exemplified with the compound CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7): this compound, presented here, crystallizes in an NCS structure with ordered, isolated [Cu(H(2)O)(5)](2+) cations and [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) anions into Λ-shaped, bimetallic BBUs to form CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(6)·H(2)O, owing to the Jahn-Teller distortion of Cu(2+). Conversely, the centrosymmetric heterotypes with the same formula MVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) (M(II) = Co, Ni, and Zn) exhibit ordered, isolated [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) and [M(H(2)O)(6)](2+) ionic species in a hydrogen bond network. CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) exhibits a net polar moment while the heterotypes do not; this demonstrates that Λ-shaped BBUs give a greater probability for and, in this case, lead to NCS structures.
Sensible Heat Transfer during Droplet Cooling: Experimental and Numerical Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emanuele Teodori
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This study presents the numerical reproduction of the entire surface temperature field resulting from a water droplet spreading on a heated surface, which is compared with experimental data. High-speed infrared thermography of the back side of the surface and high-speed images of the side view of the impinging droplet were used to infer on the solid surface temperature field and on droplet dynamics. Numerical reproduction of the phenomena was performed using OpenFOAM CFD toolbox. An enhanced volume of fluid (VOF model was further modified for this purpose. The proposed modifications include the coupling of temperature fields between the fluid and the solid regions, to account for transient heat conduction within the solid. The results evidence an extremely good agreement between the temporal evolution of the measured and simulated spreading factors of the considered droplet impacts. The numerical and experimental dimensionless surface temperature profiles within the solid surface and along the droplet radius, were also in good agreement. Most of the differences were within the experimental measurements uncertainty. The numerical results allowed relating the solid surface temperature profiles with the fluid flow. During spreading, liquid recirculation within the rim, leads to the appearance of different regions of heat transfer that can be correlated with the vorticity field within the droplet.
Sultan, Tipu
2016-07-01
This article describes the assessment of a numerical procedure used to determine the UV lamp configuration and surface roughness effects on an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The performance of the open channel water disinfection UV reactor was numerically analyzed on the basis of the performance indictor reduction equivalent dose (RED). The RED values were calculated as a function of the Reynolds number to monitor the performance. The flow through the open channel UV reactor was modelled using a k-ε model with scalable wall function, a discrete ordinate (DO) model for fluence rate calculation, a volume of fluid (VOF) model to locate the unknown free surface, a discrete phase model (DPM) to track the pathogen transport, and a modified law of the wall to incorporate the reactor wall roughness effects. The performance analysis was carried out using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent 15.0). Four case studies were analyzed based on open channel UV reactor type (horizontal and vertical) and lamp configuration (parallel and staggered). The results show that lamp configuration can play an important role in the performance of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The effects of the reactor wall roughness were Reynolds number dependent. The proposed methodology is useful for performance optimization of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.
Marudhappan, Raja; Chandrasekhar, Udayagiri; Hemachandra Reddy, Koni
2016-06-01
The design of plain orifice simplex atomizer for use in the annular combustion system of 1100 kW turbo shaft engine is optimized. The discrete flow field of jet fuel inside the swirl chamber of the atomizer and up to 1.0 mm downstream of the atomizer exit are simulated using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The Euler-Euler multiphase model is used to solve two sets of momentum equations for liquid and gaseous phases and the volume fraction of each phase is tracked throughout the computational domain. The atomizer design is optimized after performing several 2D axis symmetric analyses with swirl and the optimized inlet port design parameters are used for 3D simulation. The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used in the simulation. The orifice exit diameter is 0.6 mm. The atomizer is fabricated with the optimized geometric parameters. The performance of the atomizer is tested in the laboratory. The experimental observations are compared with the results obtained from 2D and 3D CFD simulations. The simulated velocity components, pressure field, streamlines and air core dynamics along the atomizer axis are compared to previous research works and found satisfactory. The work has led to a novel approach in the design of pressure swirl atomizer.
Simulation of non-Newtonian ink transfer between two separating plates for gravure-offset printing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Dewan Hasan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyung Jin, E-mail: hjsung@kaist.ac.k [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Soo [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-02-15
The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions compared to Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between two parallel plates when the top plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the bottom plate is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out using the Carreau model to explore the behavior of a non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) model was adopted to demonstrate the stretching and break-up behaviors of the ink. The results indicate that the ink transfer ratio is greatly influenced by the contact angle, especially the contact angle at the upper plate ({alpha}). For lower values of {alpha}, oscillatory or unstable behavior of the position of minimum thickness of the ink between the two parallel plates during the stretching period is observed. This oscillation gradually diminishes as the contact angle at the upper plate is increased. Moreover, the number of satellite droplets increases as the velocity of the upper plate is increased. The surface tension of the conductive ink shows a positive impact on the ink transfer ratio to the upper plate. Indeed, the velocity of the upper plate has a significant influence on the ink transfer in gravure-offset printing when the Capillary number (Ca) is greater than 1 and the surface tension dominates over the ink transfer process when Ca is less than 1.
A Numerical Study on Water Waves Generated by A Submerged Moving Body in A Two-Layer Fluid System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Jia-Zhen; NG Chiu-On; ZHANG Dao-Hua
2009-01-01
This is a numerical study on the time development of surface waves generated by a submerged body moving steadily in a two-layer fluid system, in which a layer of water is underlain by a layer of viscous mud. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations are solved on FLUENT with the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) multiphase scheme in order to simulate the free surface waves as well as the water-mud interface waves as functions of time. The numerical model is validated by mimick-ing a reported experiment in a one-layer system before it is applied to a two-layer system, it is found that the presence of bottom mud in a water layer can lead to large viscous damping of the surface waves. For the investigation of the problem systematically, the effects of the Froude number and the mud layer thickness, density and viscosity relative to those of water are evaluated and discussed in detail.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张小斌; 姚蕾; 邱利民; 张学军
2013-01-01
Characterizing the complex two-phase hydrodynamics in structured packed columns requires a power-ful modeling tool. The traditional two-dimensional model exhibits limitations when one attempts to model the de-tailed two-phase flow inside the columns. The present paper presents a three-dimensional computational fluid dy-namics (CFD) model to simulate the two-phase flow in a representative unit of the column. The unit consists of an entire corrugation channel and describes well the real liquid flow conditions. The detailed unsteady two-phase 3D CFD calculations on column packed with Flexipak 1Y were implemented within the volume of fluid (VOF) mathe-matical framework. The CFD model was validated by comparing the calculated thickness of liquid film with the available experimental data. Special attention was given to quantitative analysis of the effects of gravity on the hy-drodynamics. Fluctuations in the liquid mass flow rate and the calculated pressure drop loss were found to be quali-tatively in agreement with the experimental observations.
Dynamics of water droplets detached from porous surfaces of relevance to PEM fuel cells.
Theodorakakos, A; Ous, T; Gavaises, M; Nouri, J M; Nikolopoulos, N; Yanagihara, H
2006-08-15
The detachment of liquid droplets from porous material surfaces used with proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells under the influence of a cross-flowing air is investigated computationally and experimentally. CCD images taken on a purpose-built transparent fuel cell have revealed that the water produced within the PEM is forming droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. These droplets are swept away if the velocity of the flowing air is above a critical value for a given droplet size. Static and dynamic contact angle measurements for three different carbon gas-diffusion layer materials obtained inside a transparent air-channel test model have been used as input to the numerical model; the latter is based on a Navier-Stokes equations flow solver incorporating the volume of fluid (VOF) two-phase flow methodology. Variable contact angle values around the gas-liquid-solid contact-line as well as their dynamic change during the droplet shape deformation process, have allowed estimation of the adhesion force between the liquid droplet and the solid surface and successful prediction of the separation line at which droplets loose their contact from the solid surface under the influence of the air stream flowing around them. Parametric studies highlight the relevant importance of various factors affecting the detachment of the liquid droplets from the solid surface.
Marudhappan, Raja; Chandrasekhar, Udayagiri; Hemachandra Reddy, Koni
2017-10-01
The design of plain orifice simplex atomizer for use in the annular combustion system of 1100 kW turbo shaft engine is optimized. The discrete flow field of jet fuel inside the swirl chamber of the atomizer and up to 1.0 mm downstream of the atomizer exit are simulated using commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The Euler-Euler multiphase model is used to solve two sets of momentum equations for liquid and gaseous phases and the volume fraction of each phase is tracked throughout the computational domain. The atomizer design is optimized after performing several 2D axis symmetric analyses with swirl and the optimized inlet port design parameters are used for 3D simulation. The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used in the simulation. The orifice exit diameter is 0.6 mm. The atomizer is fabricated with the optimized geometric parameters. The performance of the atomizer is tested in the laboratory. The experimental observations are compared with the results obtained from 2D and 3D CFD simulations. The simulated velocity components, pressure field, streamlines and air core dynamics along the atomizer axis are compared to previous research works and found satisfactory. The work has led to a novel approach in the design of pressure swirl atomizer.
A multiscale methodology for CFD simulation of catalytic distillation bale packings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ding Huidian
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A multiscale model for simulating the hydrodynamic behavior of catalytic bale packings has been proposed. This model combines computational fluid dynamics (CFD and macroscopic calculation. At small scale calculation, the CFD model includes 3-D volume-of-fluid (VOF simulation within representative elementary unit (REU under unsteady-state conditions. The REU constitutes gauze and catalyst domain, and porous media model is applied. At large scale calculation, a new mechanistic model deduced from the unit network model is employed. Based on liquid split proportion from small scale calculation, liquid distribution of the entire bale packing can be predicted. To evaluate different packing design, three common bale arrangements, i.e. one-bale, nine-bales and seven-bales, are compared. The area-weighted Christiansen uniformity coefficient is introduced to assess the distribution performance. A comparison between simulation and experimental results is made to validate the multiscale model. The present methodology is proved to be effective to analysis and design of catalytic distillation columns.
Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga
2016-03-01
Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.
Chen, Liang; Liang, Guo-zhu
2013-12-01
In order to improve depiction of pressure variation and investigate the interrelation among the physical processes in propellant tanks, a 2D axial symmetry Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) CFD model is established to simulate a large-sized liquid propellant tank when the rocket is preparing for launch with propellant loaded at the launch site. The numerical model is considered with propellant free convection, heat transfer between the tank and the external environment, thermal exchange between propellant and inner tank wall surfaces, gas compressibility, and phase change modeled under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. Vaporization rate of the vented LH2 tank and prediction of pressure change in the tank pressurized with GHe are obtained through simulation. We analysis the distributions of phase, temperature, and velocity vectors to reveal interactions among the propellant's own convection motion, heat transfer and phase change. The results show that the vaporization rate is mainly affected by heat leaks though the tank wall when the tank is vented, but it does not completely accord with the trend of the leakage because of convection motion and temperature nonuniformity of the liquid propellant in the tank. We also find that the main factors on pressure variation in the pressurized tank are the heat transfer on the tank wall surface bonding the ullage and propellant vaporization which has comparatively less influence.
Kartuzova, O.; Kassemi, M.; Agui, J.; Moder, J.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the self-pressurization of a large scale liquid hydrogen storage tank. In this model, the kinetics-based Schrage equation is used to account for the evaporative and condensing interfacial mass flows. Laminar and turbulent approaches to modeling natural convection in the tank and heat and mass transfer at the interface are compared. The flow, temperature, and interfacial mass fluxes predicted by these two approaches during tank self-pressurization are compared against each other. The ullage pressure and vapor temperature evolutions are also compared against experimental data obtained from the MHTB (Multipuprpose Hydrogen Test Bed) self-pressurization experiment. A CFD model for cooling cryogenic storage tanks by spraying cold liquid in the ullage is also presented. The Euler- Lagrange approach is utilized for tracking the spray droplets and for modeling interaction between the droplets and the continuous phase (ullage). The spray model is coupled with the VOF (volume of fluid) model by performing particle tracking in the ullage, removing particles from the ullage when they reach the interface, and then adding their contributions to the liquid. Droplet ullage heat and mass transfer are modeled. The flow, temperature, and interfacial mass flux predicted by the model are presented. The ullage pressure is compared with experimental data obtained from the MHTB spray bar mixing experiment. The results of the models with only droplet/ullage heat transfer and with heat and mass transfer between the droplets and ullage are compared.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M.M.RASHIDI; A.HOSSEINI; I.POP; S.KUMAR; N.FREIDOONIMEHR
2014-01-01
The main purpose of this study is to survey numerically comparison of two-phase and single phase of heat transfer and flow field of copper-water nanofluid in a wavy channel. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction is used for heat transfer and flow prediction of the single phase and three different two-phase models (mixture, volume of fluid (VOF), and Eulerian). The heat transfer coefficient, temperature, and velocity distributions are investigated. The results show that the differences between the temperature field in the single phase and two-phase models are greater than those in the hydrodynamic field. Also, it is found that the heat transfer coefficient predicted by the single phase model is enhanced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles for all Reynolds numbers; while for the two-phase models, when the Reynolds number is low, increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles will enhance the heat transfer coefficient in the front and the middle of the wavy channel, but gradually decrease along the wavy channel.
Numerical Simulation of Solitary Wave Induced Flow Motion around a Permeable Submerged Breakwater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jisheng Zhang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical model for the simulation of solitary wave transformation around a permeable submerged breakwater. The wave-structure interaction is obtained by solving the Volume-Averaged Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes governing equations (VARANS and volume of fluid (VOF theory. This model is applied to understand the effects of porosity, equivalent mean diameter of porous media, structure height, and structure width on the propagation of a solitary wave in the vicinity of a permeable submerged structure. The results show that solitary wave propagation around a permeable breakwater is essentially different from that around impermeable one. It is also found that the structure porosity has more impact than equivalent mean diameter on the wave transformation and flow structure. After interacting with the higher structure, the wave has smaller wave height behind the structure with a lower travelling speed. When the wave propagates over the breakwater with longer width, the wave travelling speed is obviously reduced with more wave energy dissipated inside porous structure.
The use of numerical programs in research and academic institutions
Scupi, A. A.
2016-08-01
This paper is conceived on the idea that numerical programs using computer models of physical processes can be used both for scientific research and academic teaching to study different phenomena. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used today on a large scale in research and academic institutions. CFD development is not limited to computer simulations of fluid flow phenomena. Analytical solutions for most fluid dynamics problems are already available for ideal or simplified situations for different situations. CFD is based on the Navier- Stokes (N-S) equations characterizing the flow of a single phase of any liquid. For multiphase flows the integrated N-S equations are complemented with equations of the Volume of Fluid Model (VOF) and with energy equations. Different turbulent models were used in the paper, each one of them with practical engineering applications: the flow around aerodynamic surfaces used as unconventional propulsion system, multiphase flows in a settling chamber and pneumatic transport systems, heat transfer in a heat exchanger etc. Some of them numerical results were validated by experimental results. Numerical programs are also used in academic institutions where certain aspects of various phenomena are presented to students (Bachelor, Master and PhD) for a better understanding of the phenomenon itself.
Water behavior in a u-shaped flow channel of PEM fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quan, P.; Zhou, B.; Sobiesiak, A. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering; Liu, Z.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation
2005-07-01
A study was conducted to find a practical approach for predicting liquid water distribution in the U-shaped flow channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Computational fluid dynamics modeling with the FLUENT software package was used to demonstrate the two-phase flow of the air-water transport process inside the channel. It was noted that no chemical reaction occurs inside the flow channels and the liquid water is formed either on the surfaces of the flow channels or inside the flow channels. The problem can therefore be simplified as a fluid mechanics problem with water sources inside its physical domain or on its boundaries. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) model was used to track dynamic air-water interactions. Three cases with a range of initial water phase distributions corresponding to different fuel cell operating conditions were simulated numerically to gain a better understanding of water behaviour inside the serpentine channel. It was concluded that the bend area in the serpentine flow field affects the fuel cell performance. This is because it influences the flow field which in turn influences the air-water flow and water liquid distribution inside the channel or along the inside channel surfaces. 15 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.
Experiments and numerical simulations on transport of dissolved pollutants around spur dike
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li-ping CHEN; Jun-cheng JIANG
2010-01-01
The flow field around a spur dike has three-dimensional characteristics.In order to analyze the influence of the flow field on pollutant transport,based on a compressive volume of fluid(VOF)scheme,the three-dimensional transient compressive pollutant transport model(CPTM)and the cubic equation(CE)bounded differencing scheme were developed.For the calibration and validation of CPTM,laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume with a non-submerged spur dike.The spur dike was angled at 60°,90°,and 120° from the upstream direction.The simulation results agreed with the experimental results.The simulations and experiments showed that the distribution of pollutant concentration was determined by circumfluence and the main flow.Concentration decay in the circumfluence zone was slower than that in the main flow.Downstream of the spur dike,the concentration fluctuation became intensive with the increase of spur dike angle.
Two-dimensional investigation of forced bubble oscillation under microgravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HONG Ruoyu; Masahiro KAWAJI
2003-01-01
Recent referential studies of fluid interfaces subjected to small vibration under microgravity conditions are reviewed. An experimental investigation was carried out aboard the American Space Shuttle Discovery. Two-dimensional (2-D) modeling and simulation were conducted to further understand the experimental results. The oscillation of a bubble in fluid under surface tension is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The SIMPLEC algorithm was used to solve the partial differential equations on an Eulerian mesh in a 2-D coordinate. Free surfaces were represented with the volume of fluid (VOF) obtained by solving a kinematic equation. Surface tension was modeled via a continuous surface force (CSF) algorithm that ensures robustness and accuracy. A new surface reconstruction scheme, alternative phase integration (API) scheme, was adopted to solve the kinematic equation, and was compared with referential schemes. Numerical computations were conducted to simulate the transient behavior of an oscillating gas bubble in mineral oil under different conditions. The bubble positions and shapes under different external vibrations were obtained numerically. The computed bubble oscillation amplitudes were compared with experimental data.
Three-dimensional simulation of liquid flow on a sieve tray under different inclinations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Ping
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The fluid state on a sieve tray will change when the towers tilt under wind loads. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to predict the flow patters and hydraulics on the tray under different inclinations. The gas and liquid phases are modelled with the volume-of-fluid (VOF framework as two inmiscible phases. Several three-dimensional transient simulations were carried out for a 0.38m diameter tray with varying liquid weir loads and inclined angles. The clear liquid height determined from these simulations is in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements carried out for air-water in a round tray of the same dimensions. The simulation results show that, compared with the horizontal tray, the circulation area is bigger when the liquid flow and inclination direction of the tray are the same, but when they are opposite the circulation area is smaller. The percentage of circulation area to the tray area can obviously be decreased, along with increasing liquid weir loads. It is concluded that CFD can be used for the prediction of liquid flow on sieve trays under different inclinations
Dynamics of magnetic modulation of ferrofluid droplets for digital microfluidic applications
Sen, Uddalok; Chatterjee, Souvick; Sen, Swarnendu; Tiwari, Manish K.; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Ganguly, Ranjan
2017-01-01
Active control of droplet generation in a microfluidic platform attracts interest for development of digital microfluidic devices ranging from biosensors to micro-reactors to point-of-care diagnostic devices. The present paper characterizes, through an unsteady three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) simulation, the active control of ferrofluid droplet generation in a microfluidic T-junction in presence of a non-uniform magnetic field created by an external magnetic dipole. Two distinctly different positions of the dipole were considered - one upstream of the junction and one downstream. While keeping the ferrofluid flow rate fixed, a parametric variation of the continuous phase capillary number, dipole strength, and dipole position was carried out. Differences in the flow behaviour in terms of dripping or jetting and the droplet characteristics in terms of droplet formation time period and droplet size were studied. The existence of a threshold dipole strength, below which the magnetic force was not able to influence the flow behaviour, was identified. It was also observed that, for dipoles placed upstream of the junction, droplet formation was suppressed at some higher dipole strengths, and this value was found to increase with increasing capillary number. Droplet time period was also found to increase with increasing dipole strength, along with droplet size, i.e. an increase in droplet volume.
Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue
2016-12-01
A numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to analyze dropwise evaporative cooling of heated surfaces with various wettability characteristics. The surface wettability was tuned by nanostructure modifications. Spray-cooling experiments on these surfaces show that surfaces with better wettability have better heat transfer rate and higher critical heat flux (CHF). Single droplet impingement evaporative cooling of a heated surface was then investigated numerically with various wettability conditions to characterize the effect of contact angle on spray-cooling heat transfer. The volume of fluid (VOF) model with variable-time stepping was used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain with the kinetic theory model used to predict the evaporation rate at the liquid-gas interface. The numerical results agree with the spray-cooling experiments that dropwise evaporative cooling is much better on surfaces with better wettability because of the better liquid spreading and convection, better liquid-solid contact, and stronger liquid evaporation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范增华; 荣伟彬; 王乐锋; 孙立宁
2016-01-01
A microdroplet distribution method based on water condensation on hydrophobic surface is presented to obtain micromanipulation droplet for capillary gripping. Accordingly, the droplet condition required in micro⁃objects transfer ( pick⁃and⁃place ) is investigated. Model of liquid bridge stretching is established during microdroplet dispensing. Two configurations ( plane⁃plane, plane⁃sphere ) of dynamic liquid bridge is modeled using VOF ( Volume of Fluid ) method to analyze the acquisition process of capillary micromanipulation droplet. Simulation results demonstrate that the contact angle and drawing velocity have a significant influence on the acquisition fraction of auxiliary droplet and rupture distance. The initial liquid bridge moves toward the surface with small contact angle after the formed liquid bridge rupture. Micromanipulation probes with big drawing velocity enable manipulation droplet to split on two surfaces equally. The impact of droplet volume on the acquisition fraction of auxiliary droplet is relatively small, but is proportional to the rupture distance. Configurations ( plane⁃plane, plane⁃sphere) of dynamic liquid bridge are experimental investigated to verify feasibility of the proposed method.%为实现毛细力操作液滴获取，提出基于疏水表面冷凝的毛细力微操作液滴分配方法，研究微对象转移进程中（拾取－释放）所需的操作液滴条件。针对操作液滴分配任务，建立液桥拉伸进程中的模型。基于VOF（ volume of fluid）方法，建立平面－平面、平面－球面配置模式下的动态模型，分析操作液滴的动态获取过程。仿真结果表明：接触角和提升速度均对辅助液滴的获取率和断裂距离起到重要作用，液滴趋向于接触角小的端面，提升速度可促使液滴在两平面均分。液桥体积对辅助液滴获取率的影响较小，液桥断裂距离与液桥体积成正比变化。实验研究了平面－平
Simulations using meshfree methods
P, Kirana Kumara
2015-01-01
In this paper, attempt is made to solve a few problems using the Polynomial Point Collocation Method (PPCM), the Radial Point Collocation Method (RPCM), Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), and the Finite Point Method (FPM). A few observations on the accuracy of these methods are recorded. All the simulations in this paper are three dimensional linear elastostatic simulations, without accounting for body forces.
Numerical Methods for Multilattices
Abdulle, Assyr; Shapeev, Alexander V
2011-01-01
Among the efficient numerical methods based on atomistic models, the quasicontinuum (QC) method has attracted growing interest in recent years. The QC method was first developed for crystalline materials with Bravais lattice and was later extended to multilattices (Tadmor et al, 1999). Another existing numerical approach to modeling multilattices is homogenization. In the present paper we review the existing numerical methods for multilattices and propose another concurrent macro-to-micro method in the homogenization framework. We give a unified mathematical formulation of the new and the existing methods and show their equivalence. We then consider extensions of the proposed method to time-dependent problems and to random materials.
Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods
Wu, Xiaohua
2017-01-01
Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.
Advanced differential quadrature methods
Zong, Zhi
2009-01-01
Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...
Laminar Plunging Jets - Interfacial Rupture and Inception of Entrainment
Kishore, Aravind
Interfacial rupture and entrainment are commonly observed, e.g., air bubbles within a container being filled with water from a faucet. The example involves a liquid jet (density, rho, and viscosity, η) plunging into a receiving pool of liquid. Below a critical liquid-jet velocity, the interface develops a cusp-like shape within the receiving pool. The cusp becomes sharper with increasing liquid-jet velocity, and at a critical velocity ( Vc), the interface between the liquid and the surrounding fluid (density, rho0, and viscosity, η0) ruptures. Interfacial tension (sigma) can no longer preserve the integrity of the interface between the two immiscible fluids, and the plunging jet drags/entrains surrounding fluid into the receiving pool. Subsequently, the entrained fluid breaks up into bubbles within the receiving pool. The focus of this dissertation is the numerical prediction of the critical entrainment inception velocities for laminar plunging jets using the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) method, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to simulate multi-fluid flows. Canonical to bottle-filling operations in the industry is the plunging-jet configuration -- the liquid jet issues from a nozzle and plunges into a container filled with liquid. Simulations of this configuration require capturing flow phenomena over a large range of length scales (4 orders of magnitude). Results show severe under-prediction of critical entrainment velocities when the maximum resolution is insufficient to capture the sharpening, and eventual rupture, of the interfacial cusp. Higher resolutions resulted in computational meshes with prohibitively large number of cells, and a drastic reduction in time-step values. Experimental results in the literature suggest at least a 100-fold increase in the smallest length scale when the entrained fluid is a liquid instead of air. This narrows the range of length scales in the problem. We exploit the experimental correlation between critical capillary
Consumer Behavior Research Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chrysochou, Polymeros
2017-01-01
emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....
Quality Control Analytical Methods: Method Validation.
Klang, Mark G; Williams, LaVonn A
2016-01-01
To properly determine the accuracy of a pharmaceutical product or compounded preparation, tests must be designed specifically for that evaluation. The procedures selected must be verified through a process referred to as method validation, an integral part of any good analytical practice. The results from a method validation procedure can be used to judge the quality, reliability, and consistency of analytical results. The purpose of this article is to deliver the message of the importance of validation of a pharmaceutical product or compounded preparation and to briefly discuss the results of a lack of such validation. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.
Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods
Congdon, Peter D
2010-01-01
Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...
Simulated floating zone method
Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi
2016-01-01
This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...
Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise
2015-04-08
Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.
Geobacteraceae strains and methods
Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana
2015-07-07
Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.
Numerical methods using Matlab
Gupta, Abhishek
2015-01-01
Numerical Methods with MATLAB provides a highly-practical reference work to assist anyone working with numerical methods. A wide range of techniques are introduced, their merits discussed and fully working MATLAB code samples supplied to demonstrate how they can be coded and applied. Numerical methods have wide applicability across many scientific, mathematical, and engineering disciplines and are most often employed in situations where working out an exact answer to the problem by another method is impractical. Numerical Methods with MATLAB presents each topic in a concise and readable
The Generalized Sturmian Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, James Emil
2011-01-01
generations of researchers were left to work out how to achieve this ambitious goal for molecular systems of ever-increasing size. This book focuses on non-mainstream methods to solve the molecular electronic Schrödinger equation. Each method is based on a set of core ideas and this volume aims to explain...... these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new method...
Mimetic discretization methods
Castillo, Jose E
2013-01-01
To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王化明; 吕俊; 陈林; 吴宝山; 赵春慧
2016-01-01
计及多自由度运动的船舶斜航水动力预报对船舶航行安全具有重要意义。文章通过耦合求解船舶运动方程和雷诺平均N-S方程，并采用VOF方法和高精度自由面捕捉技术对作多自由度斜航运动船舶的粘性绕流场进行数值模拟。船舶动态平衡位置根据计算出的力和力矩来决定，得到包括升沉、纵倾和横倾在内的船舶浮态。文中采用的算例与爱荷华大学进行的模型试验相同，通过比较数值计算结果和试验值验证了该方法的有效性。对船模在受约束和自由运动两种状态下的船舶运动和流场进行模拟，通过比较分析船舶升沉、纵倾和横倾的影响。文中计算获得的详细流场细节特征，包括前体和舭部的涡以及船体表面上的压力，有助于理解船舶斜航运动浮态变化的机理。%It is of significance for the safety of ship to predict the hydrodynamic forces on ship in oblique motion with multi-degree of freedom. In this work, the free-surface viscous flow around ship in oblique motion with multi-degree of freedom is simulated by coupling the equations of ship mo-tion with the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The free surface is modeled by using Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) approach and a high-resolution interface-capturing scheme. The cal-culated forces and moments are used to determine the dynamic equilibrium position of the ship at the specified speed. Hereby, the running attitudes including the sinkage, trim and heel are obtained. The computations presented here are an effort to numerically simulate the cases as the same as the experiments reported by IWOA (The University of Iowa), and validation of the present method is veri-fied by comparing the present numerical results and measurements. Two sets of simulations are per-formed, including the model-fixed condition and the model-free condition. Comparisons between the model-fixed condition and model-free condition
Heat and mass transfer of heated falling film under gas-liquid cross-flow condition%气液叉流下受热液膜的热质传递特性
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋斌; 王子云; 付祥钊; 王勇
2011-01-01
采用VOF两相流模型研究了气液叉流条件下受热液膜热质传递特性,在模型中添加了表面张力源项和气液相间传质源项.为了验证所建立模型的可靠性,采用非接触式红外热成像测温方法,进行了相应的气液叉流试验.对叉流条件下受热液膜热质传递过程进行了试验和模拟计算,结果显示无量纲壁面温度计算结果与试验结果吻合很好.应用所建立的模型,模拟计算并分析了表面张力、固液接触角、液膜流量等因素对液膜流动侧形和热质传递性能的影响,结果表明:在其他参数保持不变的情况下,表面张力从0.014 N/m增大到0.072 N/m的过程中,液膜覆盖面积由82.7％减小到73.2％；固液接触角从30°增大到60°的过程中,液膜覆盖面积由80.6％减小到69.4％；液膜流量越小,液膜厚度越小,越有利于液膜的蒸发；相反,较高的液膜流量会使液膜厚度增大,阻碍了液膜蒸发,从而使外掠过液膜的单位体积空气含湿量减小.%Based on volume of fluid(VOF) method,heat and mass transfer of heated falling film under gas-liquid cross-flow condition was investigated. Surface tension and species transport were taken into account. In order to verify reliability of the model,the experiment was performed by non-contact infrared thermal imaging technology under gas-liquid cross-flow condition. Heat and mass transfer of heated falling film under gas-liquid cross-flow condition was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The results show that the simulated dimensionless wall temperature is in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the model, the influence of surface tension coefficient, solid-liquid contact angle and liquid film flow rate on heat transfer of liquid film was simulated. It is found that, remaining constant of other parameters, liquid film interfacial area decreases from 82. 7% to 73. 2% in corresponding with surface tension coefficient increases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田叶盛; 李虎林; 姜永悦; 龙磊; 吉永喆; 蔡扬
2016-01-01
The separation coefficient of carbon isotopes is small ,high-efficiency struc-tured packing should be used in the separation of 13 C . So the self-developed high-efficiency structured packing PACK-13 C was put forward .By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) ,a local falling film flow of mesh corrugated packing PACK-13 C with the gas phase counter-current model using the volume of fluid (VOF) was presen-ted .CO(l)-CO(g) was selected to be the simulation mixtures .Based on the simulated results ,the influences of the plate structures and the mesh sizes on the film flow were investigated .Based on the gas-liquid interface tracking timely ,the influence of interface fluctuation on the mass transfer efficiency was also investigated . The results showed that improving the wall structures to enhance the interface fluctuation was the effective way to strengthen the mass-transfer efficiency .The method of local falling film flow study could be applied to research the multi-scale flow and mass-transfer behavior of the packing w hich provide some theoretical guidance about the optimization of the packing ’s structures .%由于碳同位素分离系数小，分离难度大，需要采用高效规整填料实现13 C的分离。本文通过计算流体力学（CFD）数值模拟研究，采用流体体积函数（VOF）方法，研制了用于13 C分离的高比表面积丝网波纹规整填料（PACK-13C），建立了PACK-13C填料表面伴随有气相逆流的局部液体降膜流动模型，选用CO（l）-CO（g）为模拟计算物系，考察了板面结构、丝网目数等因素对液膜流动的影响，并对填料表面气液相界面进行追踪，探究了气液相界面波动对传质效率的影响，研究表明，改善填料壁面结构能够增强气液相界面波动，可以实现强化传质过程。填料表面局部降膜流动的研究方法，可应用于填料气液传质过程中涉及的多尺度流动及传质现象的可视化研究，
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘向东; 郝英立
2009-01-01
A comprehensive mathematical model including the effects of vapor-liquid interface and surface tension is proposed to describe the vapor-liquid two-phase flow, heat and mass transfer, and the phase change process in oscillating heat pipe (OHP) . The VOF (volume of fluid) method is used for the vapor-liquid distribution and interface motion and the CSF (continuum surface force) model is used for the effect of surface tension. The initial operation of a typical closed loop OHP was simulated based on the proposed model. The results indicate that the initial distribution of working fluid, the complex flow pattern such as bubbly flow, slug flow, semi-annular/annular flow, back-flow and the flow pattern transition can be predicted by the model. The phenomenon of annular flow and slug flow in alternating vertical tubes at initial circulation stage was also simulated successfully. The results coincide well with the experimental observations. The flow and heat transfer of working fluid in two transition sections at initial operation stage were analyzed. It is shown that the changes of temperature, pressure and flow pattern are obvious in the transition section between adiabatic section and condensing section, where the transition of heat transfer conditions takes place.%建立了考虑气液界面存在及其表面张力影响的较全面描述振荡热管内气液两相流动、传热传质和相变过程的气液两相流数理模型.模型中气液分布及界面运动采用VOF方法,表面张力影响采用CSF模型,对一典型闭式循环振荡热管起始工作阶段进行数值模拟.结果表明:所建立的模型成功模拟了振荡热管初始气液分布,启动阶段管内的泡状流、柱塞流、环状/半环状流和壁面回流等复杂气液流动流型和转变,以及起始循环阶段环状流和柱塞流在竖直管段内交替出现的现象.结果与相关定性实验观测非常一致,进而分析了启动阶段2个过渡管段内工质的流动及
Methods for assessing geodiversity
Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco
2017-04-01
The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
2010-01-01
The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... subject to change; The goals of methods are less stable than assumed. The paper finally suggests that ethnomethodology and similar approaches direct our attention to the fact that method use is always a situated and socially interactive affair. It is crucial to attend to these dimensions of method use...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...
Consensus theoretic classification methods
Benediktsson, Jon A.; Swain, Philip H.
1992-01-01
Consensus theory is adopted as a means of classifying geographic data from multiple sources. The foundations and usefulness of different consensus theoretic methods are discussed in conjunction with pattern recognition. Weight selections for different data sources are considered and modeling of non-Gaussian data is investigated. The application of consensus theory in pattern recognition is tested on two data sets: 1) multisource remote sensing and geographic data and 2) very-high-dimensional remote sensing data. The results obtained using consensus theoretic methods are found to compare favorably with those obtained using well-known pattern recognition methods. The consensus theoretic methods can be applied in cases where the Gaussian maximum likelihood method cannot. Also, the consensus theoretic methods are computationally less demanding than the Gaussian maximum likelihood method and provide a means for weighting data sources differently.
Methods of Software Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. E. Gurin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svabo, Connie
2016-01-01
A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...
Wright, Jason T
2012-01-01
This chapter reviews various methods of detecting planetary companions to stars from an observational perspective, focusing on radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, transits, and gravitational microlensing. For each method, this chapter first derives or summarizes the basic observable phenomena that are used to infer the ex- istence of planetary companions, as well as the physical properties of the planets and host stars that can be derived from the measurement of these signals. This chapter then outlines the general experimental requirements to robustly detect the signals us- ing each method, by comparing their magnitude to the typical sources of measurement uncertainty. This chapter goes on to compare the various methods to each other by outlining the regions of planet and host star parameter space where each method is most sensitive, stressing the complementarity of the ensemble of the methods at our disposal. Finally, there is a brief review of the history of the young exoplanet field, from the f...
Phenomenographic Research Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erdem ÇEKMEZ
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Phenomenography, an approach to educational research, emerged from the studies carried out by Ference Marton and his colleagues at the University of Göteborg, Sweden, in the early 1970s. Phenomenography is the empirical study of the different ways in which people experience, perceive, apprehend, understand, conceptualize various phenomena in the world around them. Not only this method has been used much in educational researches in Turkey, but also the books about research methods do not provide detailed information about this method in details. This study explains the aim, characteristics, historical background and how to ensure the generalization, validity and reliability of phenomenographic research outcomes, besides mentions to the studies in which phenomenographic research method was used. In addition, the differences and similarities between this method and methods similar to phenomenology are explained.
The Schwinger Variational Method
Huo, Winifred M.
1995-01-01
Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.
Hageman, Louis A
2004-01-01
This graduate-level text examines the practical use of iterative methods in solving large, sparse systems of linear algebraic equations and in resolving multidimensional boundary-value problems. Assuming minimal mathematical background, it profiles the relative merits of several general iterative procedures. Topics include polynomial acceleration of basic iterative methods, Chebyshev and conjugate gradient acceleration procedures applicable to partitioning the linear system into a "red/black" block form, adaptive computational algorithms for the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method, and comp
Well testing: interpretation methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourdarot, G. [Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France)
1998-12-31
This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.
Well testing: interpretation methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourdarot, G. (Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France))
1998-01-01
This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....
Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J
1985-01-01
Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources.
Investigation and Modeling of Heterogeneously Catalyzed G/L Reactions in Microreactors
Özkan, Furkan
2013-01-01
Missing physical parameters such as the static contact angle of hydrogen/nitrobenzene on stainless steel and on a carbon surface was measured using a static droplet method. Influence of surface tension, geometrical properties, and static contact angle on the chosen two phase flow have been explored in a microchannel using VOF method. One of the main goals of this work was to the model mass transfer from gas to liquid phase while coupling this with the volume change in the gas phase.
Methods for data classification
Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.
2011-10-11
The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.
BOUCHER, JOHN G.
THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diamond, J. M.
1965-01-01
A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....
Method of forming nanodielectrics
Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN
2014-01-07
A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.
Soybean allergen detection methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline
2008-01-01
Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...
Del Grande, John
1993-01-01
Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
2011-01-01
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain.......The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain....
Improved nonlinear prediction method
Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi
2014-06-01
The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun
2015-08-11
A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.
D.R. Gasper (Des)
2003-01-01
textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q
Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.
2011-01-01
"Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…
METHODS OF MAGNETOTELLURIC ANALYSIS
Magnetotelluric prospecting is a method of geophysical exploration that makes use of the fluctuations in the natural electric and magnetic fields...function of the conductivity structure of the earth’s substrata. This report describes some new methods for analyzing and interpreting magnetotelluric
Nölting, Bengt
2006-01-01
Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...
Saucez, Ph
2001-01-01
The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...
Fast Distributed Gradient Methods
Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F
2011-01-01
The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.
Cooperative method development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;
2008-01-01
research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Martin Trandberg
2014-01-01
This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Sümeyra Demirkıran
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Concept of age estimation plays an important role on both civil law and regulation of criminal behaviors. In forensic medicine, age estimation is practiced for individual requests as well for request of the court. In this study it is aimed to compile the methods of age estimation and to make recommendations for the solution of the problems encountered. In radiological method the epiphyseal lines of the bones and views of the teeth are used. In order to estimate the age by comparing bone radiographs; Greulich-Pyle Atlas (GPA, Tanner-Whitehouse Atlas (TWA and “Adli Tıpta Yaş Tayini (ATYT” books are used. Bone age is found to be 2 years older averagely than chronologic age, especially in puberty, according to the forensic age estimations described in the ATYT book. For the age estimation with teeth, Demirjian method is used. In time different methods are developed by modifying Demirjian method. However no accurate method was found. Histopathological studies are done on bone marrow cellularity and dermis cells. No correlation was found between histopathoogical findings and choronologic age. Important ethical and legal issues are brought with current age estimation methods especially in teenage period. Therefore it is required to prepare atlases of bone age compatible with our society by collecting the findings of the studies in Turkey. Another recommendation could be to pay attention to the courts of age raising trials of teenage women and give special emphasis on birth and population records
STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlov A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious
The Prescribed Velocity Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynnerup, Niels
2009-01-01
Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....
Mittemeijer, E J
2013-01-01
The role of diffraction methods for the solid-state sciences has been pivotal to determining the (micro)structure of a material. Particularly, the expanding activities in materials science have led to the development of new methods for analysis by diffraction. This book offers an authoritative overview of the new developments in the field of analysis of matter by (in particular X-ray, electron and neutron) diffraction. It is composed of chapters written by leading experts on 'modern diffraction methods'. The focus in the various chapters of this book is on the current forefront of research on
Jayaraman, Arul
2009-01-01
This volume provides a detailed look at the two main aspects of systems biology: the design of sophisticated experimental methods and the development of complex models to analyze the data. Focusing on methods that are being used to solve current problems in biomedical science and engineering, this comprehensive, richly illustrated resource shows you how to design of state-of-the art methods for analyzing biological systems, implement experimental approaches for investigating cellular behavior in health and disease, use algorithms and modeling techniques for quantitatively describing biomedical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Athanasios Drigas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body and the hand in particular, all according to the Montessori Method along with recent researches over ICTs. Montessori Method within information society age acquires new perspectives, new functionality and new efficacy.
Numerical methods using Matlab
Lindfield, George
2012-01-01
Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.
2016-05-10
This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.
Structural Reliability Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.
of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature......The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...
Generalized subspace correction methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolm, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Arbenz, P.; Gander, W. [Eidgenoessiche Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)
1996-12-31
A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.
Oza, Nikunj C.
2004-01-01
Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.
Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J
2004-04-09
Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.
Methods for cellobiosan utilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linger, Jeffrey; Beckham, Gregg T.
2017-07-11
Disclosed herein are enzymes useful for the degradation of cellobiosan in materials such a pyrolysis oils. Methods of degrading cellobiosan using enzymes or organisms expressing the same are also disclosed.
Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method
Bayindir, Cihan
2016-01-01
In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.
Iii. Sleep assessment methods.
Sadeh, Avi
2015-03-01
Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted.
Stochastic optimization methods
Marti, Kurt
2005-01-01
Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.
Methods for euclidean geometry
Byer, Owen; Smeltzer, Deirdre L
2010-01-01
Euclidean plane geometry is one of the oldest and most beautiful topics in mathematics. Instead of carefully building geometries from axiom sets, this book uses a wealth of methods to solve problems in Euclidean geometry. Many of these methods arose where existing techniques proved inadequate. In several cases, the new ideas used in solving specific problems later developed into independent areas of mathematics. This book is primarily a geometry textbook, but studying geometry in this way will also develop students' appreciation of the subject and of mathematics as a whole. For instance, despite the fact that the analytic method has been part of mathematics for four centuries, it is rarely a tool a student considers using when faced with a geometry problem. Methods for Euclidean Geometry explores the application of a broad range of mathematical topics to the solution of Euclidean problems.
Nölting, Bengt
2010-01-01
Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...
Concrete compositions and methods
Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua
2015-06-23
Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.
Bardenet, R.
2012-01-01
ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1; International audience; Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo methods are sampling algorithms that allow to compute these integrals numerically when they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among which rejection sampling, importance sampling and Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods. We give intuition on the theoretic...
Skribans, V.
2002-01-01
The paper comprises three parts: description of the forecasting conception, classification of forecasting methods, and the general forecasting model. The first part deals with the definition of business forecasting, the second classifies and deals in more detail with the most frequently practiced forecasting methods and comes up with recommendations how to apply them in specific situations. The third part present the analysis of newly established forecasting model.
Bidirectional beam propagation method
Kaczmarski, P.; Lagasse, P. E.
1988-05-01
A bidirectional extension of the beam propagation method (BPM) to optical waveguides with a longitudinal discontinuity is presented. The algorithm is verified by computing a reflection of the TE(0) mode from a semiconductor laser facet. The bidirectional BPM is applicable to other configurations such as totally reflecting waveguide mirrors, an abruption transition in a waveguide, or a waveguide with many discontinuities generating multiple reflections. The method can also be adapted to TM polarization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henn, Fritz
2013-04-09
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY
2012-01-24
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaumburg-Müller, Sten
2014-01-01
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allen, Scott D.; Simoneau, Christopher A.; Keefe, William D.; Conuel, Jeff R.
2016-12-06
The present invention provides methods for reducing induction periods in epoxide-CO.sub.2 copolymerizations. In certain embodiments, the methods include the step of contacting an epoxide with CO.sub.2 in the presence of two catalysts: an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst. In another aspect, the invention provides catalyst compositions comprising a mixture of an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst.
Jandová, Pavlína
2007-01-01
Traditional marketing methods are losing their effectiveness and credibility. It has been worse and worse to communicate with customers, and marketers are therefore looking for new techniques and way how to appeal buyers. They turn to the use of modern marketing methods, which typical features are possibility of accurate targeting and low costs, and, also, the fact that they are still not considered being a classic promotion. In the theoretical part of the diploma thesis the alternative marke...
Painful Bile Extraction Methods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber
[Unproven methods in oncology].
Jallut, O; Guex, P; Barrelet, L
1984-09-08
As in some other chronic diseases (rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, etc.), unproven methods of diagnosis and treatment have long been current in cancer. Since 1960 the American Cancer Society has published an abundant literature on these "unproven methods", which serves as a basis for a historical review: some substances (Krebiozen, Laetrile) have enjoyed tremendous if shortlived success. The present trend is back to nature and "mild medicine". The proponents of this so-called natural medicine are often disciples of a pseudoscientific religion using irrational arguments. Direct attacks on these erroneous theories and their public refutation fail to convince the adepts, who trust in these methods and are not amenable to a scientific approach. Study of their psychological motivations reveals that in fact they seek something more reassuring than plain medical explanation which is aware of its limits. They feel reassured by theories which often bear some resemblance to the old popular medicine. To protect patients against these dangerous methods and all the disillusionment they entail, the Swiss Society of Oncology and the Swiss Cancer League have decided to gather information and draw up a descriptive list of the commonest unproven methods in Switzerland (our File No. 2, "Total anti-cancer cure", is given as an example). The files are published in French, German and English and are available to physicians, nursing teams, and also patients who wish to have more objective information on these methods.
Multicriteria identification sets method
Kamenev, G. K.
2016-11-01
A multicriteria identification and prediction method for mathematical models of simulation type in the case of several identification criteria (error functions) is proposed. The necessity of the multicriteria formulation arises, for example, when one needs to take into account errors of completely different origins (not reducible to a single characteristic) or when there is no information on the class of noise in the data to be analyzed. An identification sets method is described based on the approximation and visualization of the multidimensional graph of the identification error function and sets of suboptimal parameters. This method allows for additional advantages of the multicriteria approach, namely, the construction and visual analysis of the frontier and the effective identification set (frontier and the Pareto set for identification criteria), various representations of the sets of Pareto effective and subeffective parameter combinations, and the corresponding predictive trajectory tubes. The approximation is based on the deep holes method, which yields metric ɛ-coverings with nearly optimal properties, and on multiphase approximation methods for the Edgeworth-Pareto hull. The visualization relies on the approach of interactive decision maps. With the use of the multicriteria method, multiple-choice solutions of identification and prediction problems can be produced and justified by analyzing the stability of the optimal solution not only with respect to the parameters (robustness with respect to data) but also with respect to the chosen set of identification criteria (robustness with respect to the given collection of functionals).
Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.
2017-05-09
Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.
Delaying Modified QUICK Scheme and its Application in Slug Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Yuan-Wei; HE An-Ding; WANG Yue-She; ZHOU Fang-De
2001-01-01
Calculations of several classic questions in numerical heat transfer with delaying modified QUICKscheme show good agreement with benchmark. Combining volume of fluid model with the well known SIMPLEC method, the reasonable Taylor bubble shape has been obtained by using delaying modified QUICK scheme and donoracceptor scheme of inteffacial advection respectively. At the same time the stream field and the liquid film thickness around the Taylor bubble have been well figured out.
Micro and nanotextured polymer fibers for open microfluidics
Yunusa, Muhammad
2016-01-01
Microfluidics is the science of controlling low volumes of fluids in a microchannel. It is used in diverse area of applications such as chemical and biological analysis. Benefits of microfluidics are fast analysis, short reaction times, and portability of device. Current fabrication techniques of lab-on-a-chip microfluidic devices are soft lithography and micromachining. However, these methods suffer from design limitations such as flexibility of product, high cost, integration of external co...
[Barrier methods of contraception].
Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A
1982-01-01
Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes
Henke, Luke
2010-01-01
The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics
VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorisz Talas
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of management can be conducted mainly with real options. This paper briefly describes the essence of the Dividend Discount Model, the Free Cash Flow Model, the benefit from using real options and the Residual Income Model. There are a few words about the Adjusted Present Value approach as well. Different models uses different premises, and an overall truth is that if the required premises are real and correct, the value will be appropriately accurate. Another important condition is that experts, analysts should choose between the models on the basis of the purpose of valuation. Thus there are no good or bad methods, only methods that fit different goals and aims. The main task is to define exactly the purpose, then to find the most appropriate valuation technique. All the methods originates from the premise that the value of an asset is the present value of its future cash flows. According to the different points of view of different techniques the resulted values can be also differed from each other. Valuation models and techniques should be adapted to the rapidly changing world, but the basic statements remain the same. On the other hand there is a need for more accurate models in order to help investors get as many information as they could. Today information is one of the most important resources and financial models should keep up with this trend.
Molecular methods for biofilms
Ferrera, Isabel
2014-08-30
This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and
New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.
Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi
2007-11-01
We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.
Methods for Neutron Spectrometry
Brockhouse, Bertram N.
1961-01-09
The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)
Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J
2001-01-01
The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.
Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
, respectively. The paper thus takes on aesthetics and the social in a manner closely related to a core argument of STS - namely that the scientific fact, and the social processes of constructing, distributing, and using that fact, are co-constructed (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1993). The paper thus contributes......, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...... of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...
Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CarloAlberto Redi
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Cytoskeleton - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2010; Ray H. Gavin (Ed; Springer Protocols methods in molecular biology, vol. 586 Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 390; €95.44; ISBN: 978-1-60761-375-6Ray H. Gavin, from the Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA, wrote a few line as preface of this book. This is quite understandable: there is not a great need of words when there are facts that sustain and favour the dissemination of a cultural product. This is the case of the second edition of Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols, which appears just ten years after the first edition...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adéla Volfová
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Geostatistics is a scientific field which provides methods for processing spatial data. In our project, geostatistics is used as a tool for describing spatial continuity and making predictions of some natural phenomena. An open source statistical project called R is used for all calculations. Listeners will be provided with a brief introduction to R and its geostatistical packages and basic principles of kriging and cokriging methods. Heavy mathematical background is omitted due to its complexity. In the second part of the presentation, several examples are shown of how to make a prediction in the whole area of interest where observations were made in just a few points. Results of these methods are compared.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saadd, Y.
1994-12-31
In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.
Le, Khanh Chau
2012-01-01
The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...
Le, Khanh Chau
2014-01-01
Energy Methods in Dynamics is a textbook based on the lectures given by the first author at Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. Its aim is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It demonstrates that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM), Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB), and Whitham are derivable from this variational-asymptotic analysis. This second edition includes the solutions to all exercises as w...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee
2017-03-07
In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.
Liseikin, Vladimir D
2017-01-01
This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knox, J.A.; Lasater, R.M.
1966-11-22
Chemical compositions and methods are provided for treating underground formations to render their surfaces water-repellent or preferentially oil-wettable. Previous methods have provided only temporary water-repellency because they do not actually act chemically with the reservoir rock. This improvement is obtained by using a treating agent which does not form a precipitate upon hydrolysis with water, such as a liquid organo-halogen- silane or its ester. A water-soluble anhydrous solvent which is nonreactive with the silane is used as a carrier. This method may be used for treating non-oil-bearing aquifers for increasing the flow rate of water, such as in water supply wells, or in water input rate, such as in water disposal wells. (10 claims)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olivarius, Signe
of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future......While increasing evidence appoints diverse types of RNA as key players in the regulatory networks underlying cellular differentiation and metabolism, the potential functions of thousands of conserved RNA structures encoded in mammalian genomes remain to be determined. Since the functions of most...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...
Model Correction Factor Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes
1997-01-01
The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...
Splines and variational methods
Prenter, P M
2008-01-01
One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension
Nonparametric statistical methods
Hollander, Myles; Chicken, Eric
2013-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition"This book should be an essential part of the personal library of every practicing statistician."-Technometrics Thoroughly revised and updated, the new edition of Nonparametric Statistical Methods includes additional modern topics and procedures, more practical data sets, and new problems from real-life situations. The book continues to emphasize the importance of nonparametric methods as a significant branch of modern statistics and equips readers with the conceptual and technical skills necessary to select and apply the appropriate procedures for any given sit
Smith, C.S.
1959-08-01
A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.
Electrorheological fluids and methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.
2015-06-02
Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.
Tautomerism methods and theories
Antonov, Liudmil
2013-01-01
Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectrosc
Unorthodox theoretical methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nedd, Sean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2012-01-01
The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.
Dunn, William L
2012-01-01
Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steijn, Arthur
2016-01-01
Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...
Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.
2008-12-23
Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.
Methods of Multivariate Analysis
Rencher, Alvin C
2012-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit
Methods for pretreating biomass
Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo
2017-05-09
A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.
Apoptosis - Methods and Protocols
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CarloAlberto Redi
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Apoptosis - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2009; Peter Erhardt and Ambrus Toth (Eds; Springer Protocols - Methods in molecular biology, vol. 559; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 400; €88.35; ISBN: 978-1-60327-016-8The editors rightly begin the preface telling us that: “The ability to detect and quantify apoptosis, to understand its biochemistry and to identify its regulatory genes and proteins is crucial to biomedical research”. Nowadays this is a grounding concept of biology and medicine. What is particularly remarkable...
Practical methods of optimization
Fletcher, R
2013-01-01
Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev
Essential numerical computer methods
Johnson, Michael L
2010-01-01
The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface
Welbourne, D
1965-01-01
Analogue Computing Methods presents the field of analogue computation and simulation in a compact and convenient form, providing an outline of models and analogues that have been produced to solve physical problems for the engineer and how to use and program the electronic analogue computer. This book consists of six chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction to analogue computation and discusses certain mathematical techniques. The electronic equipment of an analogue computer is covered in Chapter 2, while its use to solve simple problems, including the method of scaling is elaborat
Patton, Michael Quinn
1980-01-01
Methodological paradigms in evaluation research are discussed. This article is a response to the attacks on paradigmatic perspectives made by Reichardt and Cook in the opening chapter of their edited book, "Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Evaluation Research." (Author/GK)
communication method and apparatus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2005-01-01
The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...
METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION
Cohen, K.
1960-05-10
A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.
Ferrari's Method and Technology
Althoen, Steve
2005-01-01
Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…
Pressley, Michael; And Others
1982-01-01
Available experimental evidence is reviewed concerning the keyword method, a two-stage procedure for remembering materials having an associative component. The review examines subjects' memory for definitions, given vocabulary words; subjects' learning of other aspects of vocabulary, given definitions; group-administered keyword studies; and…