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Sample records for volume vav air

  1. Modulating ventilation - low cost VAV for office buildings. [Variable Air Volume]; Modulerende ventilation - low cost VAV til kontor-bygninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoej Christensen, A.; Olsen, Hans; Drivsholm, C.

    2012-02-15

    The report describes a concept for renovating older existing Constant Air Volume (CAV) ventilation systems to modulating low-cost Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems. The concept is based on the total ventilated area being divided into appropriate indoor climate zones, which can cover from one to several offices with similar climate needs. For this initial climate assessment two relatively ''simple'' tools were developed that can estimate the temperature level in one room from the ventilation airflow, heat loads, etc.: - BSimFast (24-hour mean temperature calculation according to SBI-196, 2000); - BSimLight (Temperature simulation based on Danvak Textbook of Heat and Climate Technology). The concept of 'one room' can also be extended to 'one zone' with appropriate assumptions. However, only one mean room temperature is calculated. The different climate zones were equipped with Halton HFB control unit at the air supply and exhaust side. The project the following feedback options were used: - HFB unit's damper opening degree (0 to 90 degrees); - HFB unit's current flow; - HFB unit's exhaust temperature; and feedback from: - Frequency transformer (fan speed); - The central static duct pressure at the ventilation unit. In the project a control algorithm is developed that ensures a robust control of the entire ventilation system without adverse cyclic variations, based among other things on the exhaust temperature for each climate zone, and with the requirement that at least one throttle valve is always at least 80% open. It turned out that information on the current partial air volumes was necessary in addition to the individual throttle settings. Otherwise, a cyclic variations could not be controlled..Thus, it was the exhaust temperature from individual climate zones that defined the respective volumes of air. The concept was implemented on a complete CAV system and on part of a large CAV system, respectively. (LN)

  2. Proper setpoint for CO{sub 2} control of Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems; Riktig set-punkt ved CO{sub 2}-regulering av VAV-anlegg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bjoern R.; Jensen, Bjoernulf

    2003-07-01

    The article discusses some important issues relating to CO{sub 2}-control of VAV systems and demonstrates how to determine a setpoint that is in agreement with the regulations. Adjusting the setpoint is important both for the air quality and for the energy consumption. It is only when the need for ventilation is essentially determined by occupancy that controlling to 1000 ppm will give air quantities approaching the requirement of the regulations. In all other situations a setpoint of 1000 is too high.

  3. Genetic Optimization Algorithm of PID Decoupling Control for VAV Air-Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiangjiang; AN Dawei; ZHANG Chunfa; JING Youyin

    2009-01-01

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is a multi-variable system and has multi coupling control loops. While all of the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. A multi-variable decoupling PID controller is designed for VAV air-conditioning system. Diagonal matrix decoupling method is employed to eliminate the coupling between the loop of supply air temperature and that of thermal-space air temperature. The PID controller parameters are optimized by means of an improved genetic algorithm in floating point representations to obtain better performance. The population in the improved genetic algorithm mutates before crossover, which is helpful for the convergence. Additionally the micro mutation algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the convergence during the later evolution. To search the best parameters, the optimized parameters ranges should be amplified l0 times the initial ideal parameters. The simulation and experiment results show that the decoupling control system is effective and feasible. The method can overcome the strong coupling feature of the system and has shorter governing time and less over-shoot than non-optimization PID control.

  4. The Predictive Control Method of VAV Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiejia LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the characteristics which variable air volume air conditioning system is multi-variable, nonlinear and uncertain system, normal fuzzy neural network is hard to meet the requirements which dynamic control of multi-variable. In this paper, we put forward a recursive neural network predictive control strategy based on wavelet neural network model. Through recursive wavelet neural network predictor on line established controlled object’s mathematical model, and using Elman neural network controller on line corrected information we get, thus to improve control effect. The simulation results show that recursive wavelet neural network predictive control has stronger robustness and adaptive ability, high control precision, better and reliable control effect and other advantages.

  5. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  6. Reducing airflow energy use in multiple zone vav systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Ahmed Gidado

    Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are the most popular HVAC systems in commercial buildings. VAV systems are designed to deliver airflows at design conditions which only occur for a few hours in a year. Minimizing energy use in VAV systems requires reducing the amount of airflow delivered through the system at part load conditions. Air Handling Unit (AHU) fans are the major drivers of airflow in VAV systems and installing a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) is the most common method of regulating airflow in VAV systems. A VFD drive does not necessarily save energy without use of an appropriate control strategy. Static pressure reset (SPR) is considered to be the most energy efficient control strategy for AHU fans with VFDs installed. The implementation of SPR however has many challenges; for example, rogue zones--zones which have faulty sensors or failed controls and actuators, system dynamics like hunting and system diversity. By investigating the parameters associated with the implementation of SPR in VAV systems, a new, improved, more stable SPR algorithm was developed and validated. This approach was further improved using Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) to eliminate rogue zones. Additionally, a CO2-Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) based minimum airflow control was used to further reduce ventilation airflow and save more energy from SPR. Energy savings ranging from 25% to 51% were recorded in actual buildings with the new SPR algorithm. Finally, a methodology that utilizes historical VAV data was developed to estimate the potential savings that could be realized using SPR. The approach employed first determines an effective system loss coefficient as a function of mean damper position using the historical duct static pressure, VAV damper positions and airflows. Additionally, the historical data is used to identify the maximum mean duct damper position realizable as a result of insuring a sufficient number of VAVs are fully open at any time. Savings are

  7. Simulation of Variable Air Volume System with Different Duct Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua(陈华); TU Guang-bei(涂光备); FRANCIS W H Yik

    2004-01-01

    The duct static pressure reset (DSPR) control method is a popular modern control method widely applied to variable air volume (VAV) systems of commercial buildings. In this paper, a VAV system simulation program was used to predict the system performance and zone air temperature of two kinds of layouts that were applied to a typical floor of an existing building office in Hong Kong. The position where the static pressure sensor was placed should affect the zones temperature and energy consumption. The comparison of predictions of the two kinds of layouts indicates that with the same DSPR control method the layout of the air duct might influence the fan control result and energy savings.

  8. Final Project Report: Self-Correcting Controls for VAV System Faults Filter/Fan/Coil and VAV Box Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Cort, Katherine A.; Cho, Heejin; Ngo, Hung; Goddard, James K.

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses original research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the California Institute for Energy and Environment on self-correcting controls for variable-air-volume (VAV) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and focuses specifically on air handling and VAV box components of the air side of the system. A complete set of faults for these components was compiled and a fault mode analysis performed to understand the detectable symptoms of the faults and the chain of causation. A set of 26 algorithms was developed to facilitate the automatic correction of these faults in typical commercial VAV systems. These algorithms include training tests that are used during commissioning to develop models of normal system operation, passive diagnostics used to detect the symptoms of faults, proactive diagnostics used to diagnose the cause of a fault, and finally fault correction algorithms. Ten of the twenty six algorithms were implemented in a prototype software package that interfaces with a test bed facility at PNNL's Richland, WA, laboratory. Measurement bias faults were instigated in the supply-air temperature sensor and the supply-air flow meter to test the algorithms developed. The algorithms as implemented in the laboratory software correctly detected, diagnosed and corrected these faults. Finally, an economic and impact assessment was performed for the State of California for deployment of self-correcting controls. Assuming 15% HVAC energy savings and a modeled deployment profile, 3.1-5.8 TBu of energy savings are possible by year 15.

  9. 壁挂式太阳能空气集热器变风量控制运行效果研究%Experimental Study on Operational Effect of Wall-mounted Solar Air Collector (WSAC) by VAV Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志成; 陈滨; 姚微; 杨文晓

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, taking the wall-mounted solar air collector (WSAC) as a research object, the experimental and theoretical studies were carried out. In detail, based on the relationships of solar irradiance, supply air flowrate, WSAC transient thermal efficiency and WSAC net efficiency,a strategy to improve the operational efficiency was proposed under the VAV conditions when the building energy consumption was considered. Furthermore, in a physical experimental room, WSAC thermal performance and energysaving effect were analyzed under the air supply modes of constant, variable and intermittent air volumes, respectively. The results shown that the net efficiency of VAV air supply mode was larger than others in considering of the WSAC net efficiency, and compared to the constant air volume air supply mode, the energy-saving rate was 63%. In addition, the best control operation mode was obtained with the changing of solar irradiance.%本文以壁挂式太阳能空气集热器(Wall-mounted Solar Air Collector,WSAC)为研究对象,采用现场实测和理论分析的方法,通过研究太阳辐射照度、送风量与WSAC瞬时效率以及纯效率的关联性,提出了综合考虑建筑能耗时变风量工况下提高WSAC运行效率的途径.而后,利用实体大实验房,分别采用连续定风量送风、变风量送风以及问歇定风量送风的运行方式,对WSAC热性能及节能效果进行了实验研究.结果表明,在考虑WSAC纯效率的情况下,变风量送风的运行效率优于其它送风方式.相对连续定风量送风节能63%,同时还得到了随着太阳辐射照度变化的最佳控制运行模式.

  10. Energioptimering VAV eller CAV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Barky, Tarek; Andersen, Dan Bomholt

    2008-01-01

    Når et HVAC-anlæg projekteres, vælges der oftest mellem fortrængnings- og opblandingsventilation. Herefter vælges hvorvidt luftfl owet skal være variabelt eller konstant – det vil sige, om der skal vælges. VAV eller CAV. Dette valg mellem VAV eller CAV bør foretages på baggrund af en vurdering af...

  11. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct

  12. Variable Static Pressure Control Based on LabVIEW in VAV Air-Conditioning System%基于LabVIEW的变风量空调系统变静压控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程贝贝; 任庆昌

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the current situation that system airflow control mostly used fixed static pressure control method in VAV air-conditioning project, the variable static pressure control based on LabVIEW in VAV air-conditioning system is studied in Xi' an university of architecture & technology VAV laboratory. Compared with the fixed static pressure control mode, it verified that the variable static pressure control has energy-saving potential. It achieved good results based on RBF neural network auto-tuning PID control method.%针对目前变风量空调工程中系统风量多采用定静压控制的情况,结合西安建筑科技大学变风量空调实验室为研究平台。研究了基于LabVIEW的空调系统变静压控制。经验证,与定静压控制方式相比,变静压控制具有节能潜力。采用基于RBF神经网络自整定PID的控制方法,能取得良好的效果。

  13. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  14. Applications and Energy Consumption of Demand Controlled Ventilation Systems. Modelling, Simulation and Implementation of Modular Built Dynamical VAV Systems and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bjoern R.

    2002-07-01

    This thesis discusses many topics of heating and ventilation. This is because the ventilation system is an integrated part of its host building. The functionality and effectiveness of the ventilation system are very much dependent on the building's architectural design, its internal materials, its occupants, its air tightness characteristics and its placement in the terrain. Although this thesis emphasizes strongly on VAV (Variable Air Volume) systems and, in particular, modelling and simulation of such systems, it touches a range of important HVAC related issues. The scope is however, limited to the field of comfort ventilation. That is because ventilation in industrial environments often is subject to separate regulations, and requires other and specialized methods of design and evaluation of ventilation performance. The main objectives have been to: (1) Develop mathematical models for VAV components and systems. (2) Evaluate existing and develop new strategies for VAV demand controlled ventilation by system simulation. (3) Investigate the potential for saving energy and the impact on indoor climate. The development of mathematical models and simulation of VAV systems are given quite much attention compared to the other topics discussed.

  15. Comparative analysis of the heat transfer rates in constant (CAV) and variable (VAV) volumes type multi zone acclimation system operating in hot and humid climate; Analise comparativa das taxas transferencia de calor em sistemas de climatizacao do tipo volume de ar constante (CAV) e volume de ar variavel (VAV) multizona operando em clima quente e umido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cesar A.G.; Correa, Jorge E. [Para Univ., Belem (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: gsantos@ufpa.br; jecorrea@amazon.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This work performs a comparative analysis among the constant and variable air volume multi zones acclimation systems, used for provide the thermal comfort in buildings. The work used the simulation HVAC2KIT computer program. The results of sensible and latent heats transfer rates on the cooling and dehumidification, inflating fan capacity, and heat transfer on the final heating condenser were obtained and analysed for the climate conditions of the Brazilian city of Belem from Para State, presenting hot and humid climate during all the year.

  16. VAV2 and VAV3 as candidate disease genes for spontaneous glaucoma in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Fujikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Nonetheless, the mechanism of its pathogenesis has not been well-elucidated, particularly at the molecular level, because of insufficient availability of experimental genetic animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that deficiency of Vav2 and Vav3, guanine nucleotides exchange factors for Rho guanosine triphosphatases, leads to an ocular phenotype similar to human glaucoma. Vav2/Vav3-deficient mice, and to a lesser degree Vav2-deficient mice, show early onset of iridocorneal angle changes and elevated intraocular pressure, with subsequent selective loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping, which are the hallmarks of glaucoma. The expression of Vav2 and Vav3 tissues was demonstrated in the iridocorneal angle and retina in both mouse and human eyes. In addition, a genome-wide association study screening glaucoma susceptibility loci using single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis identified VAV2 and VAV3 as candidates for associated genes in Japanese open-angle glaucoma patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Vav2/Vav3-deficient mice should serve not only as a useful murine model of spontaneous glaucoma, but may also provide a valuable tool in understanding of the pathogenesis of glaucoma in humans, particularly the determinants of altered aqueous outflow and subsequent elevated intraocular pressure.

  17. Simulations of the potential revenue from investment in improved indoor air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Djukanovic, Rade

    2005-01-01

    of improved worker performance; benefits from reduced health costs and sickness absence were not included. The building was simulated in a cold, a moderate and a hot climate. It was ventilated by a constant air volume (CAV) system with heat recovery and by a variable air volume (VAV) system with an economizer...

  18. Association of VAV2 and VAV3 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Fernández-Mateos, Javier; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Rodriguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Morales, Ana I.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension, diabetes and obesity are cardiovascular risk factors closely associated to the development of renal and cardiovascular target organ damage. VAV2 and VAV3, members of the VAV family proto-oncogenes, are guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho and Rac GTPase family, which is related with cardiovascular homeostasis. We have analyzed the relationship between the presence of VAV2 rs602990 and VAV3 rs7528153 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage (heart, vessels and kidney) in 411 subjects. Our results show that being carrier of the T allele in VAV2 rs602990 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of obesity, reduced levels of ankle-brachial index and diastolic blood pressure and reduced retinal artery caliber. In addition, being carrier of T allele is associated with increased risk of target organ damage in males. On the other hand, being carrier of the T allele in VAV3 rs7528153 polymorphism is associated with a decreased susceptibility of developing a pathologic state composed by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity or cardiovascular damage, and with an increased risk of developing altered basal glycaemia. This is the first report showing an association between VAV2 and VAV3 polymorphisms with cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage. PMID:28157227

  19. Application of Residual-Based EWMA Control Charts for Detecting Faults in Variable-Air-Volume Air Handling Unit System

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Wang

    2016-01-01

    An online robust fault detection method is presented in this paper for VAV air handling unit and its implementation. Residual-based EWMA control chart is used to monitor the control processes of air handling unit and detect faults of air handling unit. In order to provide a level of robustness with respect to modeling errors, control limits are determined by incorporating time series model uncertainty in EWMA control chart. The fault detection method proposed was tested and validated using re...

  20. Active flow control integrated diffuser (afcid) for increased energy efficiency in variable air volume systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Schijff, Hermanus P.

    Variable air volume (VAV) air terminals are designed to save energy by reducing airflow into a given space based on occupancy and required load. Systems are typically designed to operate at peak load, however as load is reduced, performance is compromised due to inadequate throw. As a result, fans are installed to adjust for the losses, negating many of the energy savings. Additionally flow is vectored by the use of vanes, a basic passive type of flow control. An experimental investigation was performed to study the application of flow control on that of a HVAC diffuser using synthetic jets distributed evenly along the diffuser edge parallel to the flow field. The study was conducted on a 1:3 scale typical office space (150 ft2), which included a simulated scale HVAC system supplied by compressed air. Two different jet blowing ratios were investigated for system loads of 60% and 90%. The flow field was established using hot wire anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of synthetic jet based active flow control at controlling airflow, showing ability to affect throw parameters for changing flow rates within the test chamber. Vectoring of up to 20% and improvement in jet spread of 200% was demonstrated. The use of such devices has the potential to improve air quality and air distribution in building while simultaneously lowering energy demands of HVAC systems.

  1. The End Noise Control of Variable Air Volume Air-Conditioning System%变风量空调系统末端噪声控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勤

    2012-01-01

    The variable air volume(VAV) air conditioning system with its huge energy advantage more and more widely used.But interior excessive noise problems make installation and debugging personnel feel awkward.In this paper,according to the actual VAV air conditioning system problems in some high-grade building appeared in the construction process,analyzing the end noise source of VAV air conditioning system,making use of the noise attenuation of each part of end unit and noise control at the end is resaerched,and the measures of end noise control are put forward in VAV air conditioning system.%变风量空调系统以其巨大的节能优势越来越得到广泛应用,但是室内噪声超标的问题令安装、调试人员感到棘手。根据实际参加某高档楼盘变风量空调系统建设过程中出现的问题,通过分析变风量空调系统末端噪声的来源,研究利用末端单元各部分噪声的衰减影响来控制末端噪声,提出了变风量空调系统未端噪声的具体控制措施。

  2. The Development of Control Method and Simulation of VAV BOX%VAV末端装置控制方式与仿真技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正松; 刘桂雄; 陈佳实

    2011-01-01

    vAvBOX作为变风量中央空调的重要节能装置,其控制方式直接决定着节能的效果。论文在对VAVBOX结构与控制方式进行研究的基础上,重点对其控制系统仿真方法与相应控制算法进行了比较。结合变风量中央空调发展需求以及智能家居的物联网技术发展,指出物联网化是变风量中央空调系统控制技术的重要发展趋势。%As one of the most important saving device in VAV central air-conditioning system ,the control method of VAV BOX directly decides the effect of energy saving. Based on the study of VAV BOX structure and control method, the thesis is focused on the comparison between simulation and control algorithm. Combining requirement of the VAV central air-conditioning system and the development of Smart home technology as well as the Internet of things, it pointed out that Intemet of things is an important trend of the VAV central air-conditioning system control technology.

  3. The Rho exchange factors Vav2 and Vav3 favor skin tumor initiation and promotion by engaging extracellular signaling loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Menacho-Márquez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of GDP/GTP exchange factors (GEFs is considered critical to maintain the typically high activity of Rho GTPases found in cancer cells. However, the large number of them has made it difficult to pinpoint those playing proactive, nonredundant roles in tumors. In this work, we have investigated whether GEFs of the Vav subfamily exert such specific roles in skin cancer. Using genetically engineered mice, we show here that Vav2 and Vav3 favor cooperatively the initiation and promotion phases of skin tumors. Transcriptomal profiling and signaling experiments indicate such function is linked to the engagement of, and subsequent participation in, keratinocyte-based autocrine/paracrine programs that promote epidermal proliferation and recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells. This is a pathology-restricted mechanism because the loss of Vav proteins does not cause alterations in epidermal homeostasis. These results reveal a previously unknown Rho GEF-dependent pro-tumorigenic mechanism that influences the biology of cancer cells and their microenvironment. They also suggest that anti-Vav therapies may be of potential interest in skin tumor prevention and/or treatment.

  4. LIME mediates immunological synapse formation through activation of VAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoungsun; Park, Inyoung; Lee, Ok-Hee; Rhee, Inmoo; Park, Changwon; Yun, Yungdae

    2012-04-01

    Lck Interacting Membrane protein (LIME) was previously characterized as a transmembrane adaptor protein mediating TCR-dependent T cell activation. Here, we show that LIME associates with Vav in response to TCR stimulation and is required for Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity for Rac1. Consistent with this finding, actin polymerization at the immunological synapse (IS) was markedly enhanced by overexpression of LIME, but was reduced by expression of a LIME shRNA. Moreover, TCR-mediated cell adhesion to ICAM-1, laminin, or fibronectin was downregulated by expression of LIME shRNA. In addition, in the IS, LIME but not LAT was found to localize at the peripheral-supramolecular activation cluster (p-SMAC) where the integrins were previously shown to be localized. Together, these results establish LIME as a transmembrane adaptor protein linking TCR stimulation to IS formation and integrin activation through activation of Vav.

  5. A novel nuclear role for the Vav3 nucleotide exchange factor in androgen receptor coactivation in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S; Lyons, L S; Fahrenholtz, C D; Wu, F; Farooq, A; Balkan, W; Burnstein, K L

    2012-02-01

    Increased androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity mediated by coactivator proteins may drive castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) growth. Vav3, a Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), is overexpressed in human prostate cancers, particularly in models of CRPC progression. Vav3 coactivates AR in a Vav3 pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-dependent but GEF-independent manner. Ectopic expression of Vav3 in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cells conferred robust castration-resistant xenograft tumor growth. Vav3 but not a Vav3 PH mutant greatly stimulated interaction between the AR amino and carboxyl termini (N-C interaction), which is required for maximal receptor transcriptional activity. Vav3 was distributed between the cytoplasm and nucleus with nuclear localization-dependent on the Vav3 PH domain. Membrane targeting of Vav3 abolished Vav3 potentiation of AR activity, whereas nuclear targeting of a Vav3 PH mutant rescued AR coactivation, suggesting that nuclear localization is an important function of the Vav3 PH domain. A nuclear role for Vav3 was further demonstrated by sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, which revealed that Vav3 and AR were recruited to the same transcriptional complexes of an AR target gene enhancer. These data demonstrate the importance of Vav3 in CRPC and define a novel nuclear function of Vav3 in regulating AR activity.

  6. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: Emission Sources, Control Methods, Measurement Methods, Air Quality Measurements, Atmospheric Interaction, Basic Science and Technology, Effects--Human…

  7. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  8. Air Pollution Translations: A Bibliography with Abstracts - Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Raleigh, NC.

    This volume is the second in a series of compilations presenting abstracts and indexes of translations of technical air pollution literature. The 444 entries are grouped into 12 subject categories: General; Emission Sources; Atmospheric Interaction; Measurement Methods; Control Methods; Effects--Human Health; Effects--Plants and Livestock;…

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of improved air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukanovic, R.; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis of measures to improve air quality in an existing air-conditoned office building (11581 m2, 864 employees) was carried out for hot, temperate and cold climates and for two operating modes: Variable Air Volume (VAV) with economizer; and Constant Air Volume (CAV) with heat...... recovery. The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system were calculat4ed using DOE 2.1E for different levels of air quality (10-50% dissatisfied). This was achieved by changing the outdoor air supply rate and the pollution loads. Previous studies have documented a 1.1% increase in office...... productivity for every 10% reduction in the proportion of occupants entering a space who are dissatisfied with the air quality. With this assumption, the annual benefit due to improved air quality was always at least 10 times higher than the increase in annual energy and maintenance costs. The payback time...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of improved air quality in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djukanovic, R.; Wargocki, Pawel; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    productivity for every 10% reduction in the proportion of occupants entering a space who are dissatisfied with the air quality. With this assumption, the annual benefit due to improved air quality was always at least 10 times higher than the increase in annual energy and maintenance costs. The payback time......A cost-benefit analysis of measures to improve air quality in an existing air-conditoned office building (11581 m2, 864 employees) was carried out for hot, temperate and cold climates and for two operating modes: Variable Air Volume (VAV) with economizer; and Constant Air Volume (CAV) with heat...... recovery. The annual energy cost and first cost of the HVAC system were calculat4ed using DOE 2.1E for different levels of air quality (10-50% dissatisfied). This was achieved by changing the outdoor air supply rate and the pollution loads. Previous studies have documented a 1.1% increase in office...

  11. 中国汉族人群中Vav2基因和Vav3基因多态性与原发性闭角型青光眼之间关系的研究%Lack of Association of Vav2 and Vav3 Polymorphisms with Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma in Chinese Han Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小劲; 李平华

    2012-01-01

    目的 本实验的目的是研究Vav2和Vav3基因多态性与中国汉族人群中原发性闭角型青光眼(Primary angle-closure glaucoma,PACG)的遗传性是否有联系.方法 211名原发性闭角型青光眼患者和206名性别和种族匹配的健康对照者纳入到本病例对照研究中.2个单核苷酸多态(the single nucleotide polymorphisms,SNPs)rs2156323 (Vav2)和rs2801219( Vav3)的基因分型用聚合酶链反应的限制性片段长度多态性分析(polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorpohism,PCR -RFLP).这两个基因位点的多态性与PACG遗传性之间的关系用卡方检验来评价.结果 rs2156323( Vav2)和rs2801219 (Vav3)的基因频率在所有参与者中均没有偏离哈迪-温伯格平衡( Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium,HWE,p >0.05).该两个位点的等位基因频率和基因型频率的分布在PACG患者和正常对照者之间均没有差异.结论 本研究的结果显示rs2 156323和rs2801219可能不是中国汉族PACG的易感基因位点,Vav2和Vav3基因可能不是中国汉族PACG患者的易感基因.%Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether Vav2 and Vav3 polymorphisms were associated with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in a Chinese Han population. Methods A case-control analysis was performed in 211 PACG patients and 206 sex-,and ethnical-matched healthy controls. These two SNPs rs2156323 (Vav2) and rs2801219( Vav3) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The association between these genetic polymorphisms and risk of PACG was estimated by x2 . Results The genotypic frequency of rs2156323 (Vav2) and rs2801219 ( Vav3 ) polymorphism in all subjects did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ( HWE; p > 0. 05 ) . Allelic and genotypic frequency analysis of rs2156323 ( Vav2 ) and rs2801219 (Vav3) revealed no significant difference between patients with PACG and healthy controls. Conclusions The results

  12. Vav1 is essential for mechanotactic crawling and migration of neutrophils out of the inflamed microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Mia; Heit, Bryan; Parsons, Sean A; Petri, Björn; Mullaly, Sarah C; Colarusso, Pina; Gower, R Michael; Neely, Gregory; Simon, Scott I; Kubes, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Mac-1-dependent crawling is a new step in the leukocyte recruitment cascade that follows LFA-1-dependent adhesion and precedes emigration. Neutrophil adhesion via LFA-1 has been shown to induce cytoskeletal reorganization through Vav1-dependent signaling, and the current study investigates the role of Vav1 in the leukocyte recruitment process in vivo with particular attention to the events immediately downstream of LFA-1-dependent adhesion. Intravital and spinning-disk-confocal microscopy was used to investigate intravascular crawling in relation to endothelial junctions in vivo in wild-type and Vav1(-/-) mice. Adherent wild-type neutrophils almost immediately began crawling perpendicular to blood flow via Mac-1 until they reached an endothelial junction where they often changed direction. This pattern of perpendicular, mechanotactic crawling was recapitulated in vitro when shear was applied. In sharp contrast, the movement of Vav1(-/-) neutrophils was always in the direction of flow and appeared more passive as if the cells were dragged in the direction of flow in vivo and in vitro. More than 80% of Vav1(-/-) neutrophils moved independent of Mac-1 and could be detached with LFA-1 Abs. An inability to release the uropod was frequently noted for Vav1(-/-) neutrophils, leading to greatly elongated tails. The Vav1(-/-) neutrophils failed to stop or follow junctions and ultimately detached, leading to fewer emigrated neutrophils. The Vav1(-/-) phenotype resulted in fewer neutrophils recruited in a relevant model of infectious peritonitis. Clearly, Vav1 is critical for the complex interplay between LFA-1 and Mac-1 that underlies the programmed intravascular crawling of neutrophils.

  13. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  14. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  15. Modification of various metals by volume discharge in air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulepov, Mikhail A.; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Oskomov, Konstantin V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    The results of the modification of stainless steel, niobium and titanium by volume discharge induced by a beam of runaway electrons in air under normal pressure are presented. Changes in the chemical composition of the surface layers of metal by the action of the discharge, structural changes and changes of hardness were studied. It has been found that the concentration of oxygen and carbon in the surface layers of the samples depend on the number of discharge pulses. The aim of this work is to find possible application of this type of discharge in science and industrial production.

  16. Vav3, a GEF for RhoA, Plays a Critical Role under High Glucose Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe role of small GTPase molecules is poorly understood under high glucose conditions.MethodsWe analyzed the expression pattern of Vav3 in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells under high glucose culture condition with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. We also measured glucose uptake using isotope-labelled glucose.ResultsWe showed that expression of Vav3 (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA increased. mRNA and protein levels in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells under high glucose conditions. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxy-amide-1-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR suppressed high glucose-induced Vav3 induction. In addition, exposure of cells to high glucose concentration increased the phosphorylation of PAK-1, a molecule downstream of RhoA. The phosphorylation of paxillin, a downstream molecule of PAK-1, was also increased by exposure to high glucose. Phosphorylation of these molecules was not observed in the presence of AICAR, indicating that AMPK is involved in the RhoA signal pathway under high glucose conditions. Knock down of Vav3 enhances metformin-mediated glucose uptake. Inhibition of AMPK blocked the increases of Vav3 knock down-induced glucose uptake. Metformin-mediated Glut4 translocation was also increased by Vav3 knock-down, suggesting that Vav3 is involved in metformin-mediated glucose uptake.ConclusionThese results demonstrate that Vav3 is involved in the process of metformin-mediated glucose regulation.

  17. Control of intramolecular interactions between the pleckstrin homology and Dbl homology domains of Vav and Sos1 regulates Rac binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B; Shu, X; Day, G J; Han, J; Krishna, U M; Falck, J R; Broek, D

    2000-05-19

    Vav and Sos1 are Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which activate Rho family GTPases in response to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase products. A pleckstrin homology domain adjacent to the catalytic Dbl homology domain via an unknown mechanism mediates the effects of phosphoinositides on guanine nucleotide exchange activity. Here we tested the possibility that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase substrates and products control an interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain and the Dbl homology domain, thereby explaining the inhibitory effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase substrates and stimulatory effects of the products. Binding studies using isolated fragments of Vav and Sos indicate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase substrate promotes the binding of the pleckstrin homology domain to the Dbl homology domain and blocks Rac binding to the DH domain, whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase products disrupt the Dbl homology/pleckstrin homology interactions and permit Rac binding. Additionally, Lck phosphorylation of Vav, a known activating event, reduces the affinities between the Vav Dbl homology and pleckstrin homology domains and permits Rac binding. We also show Vav activation in cells, as monitored by phosphorylation of Vav, Vav association with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, and Vav guanine nucleotide exchange activity, is blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. These results suggest the molecular mechanisms for activation of Vav and Sos1 require disruption of inhibitory intramolecular interactions involving the pleckstrin homology and Dbl homology domains.

  18. Development of a high-volume air sampler for nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, M; Thongyen, T; Bao, L; Hoshino, A; Otani, Y; Ikeda, T; Furuuchi, M

    2013-02-01

    As a tool to evaluate the characteristics of aerosol nano-particles, a high-volume air sampler for the collection of nano-particles was developed based on the inertial filter technology. Instead of the webbed fiber geometry of the existing inertial filter, wire mesh screens alternately layered using spacing sheets with circular holes aligned to provide multi-circular nozzles were newly devised and the separation performance of the filter was investigated experimentally. The separation performance was evaluated for a single-nozzle inertial filter at different filtration velocities. A webbed stainless steel fiber mat attached on the inlet surface of the developed inertial filter was discussed as a pre-separator suppressing the bouncing of particles on meshes. The separation performance of a triple-nozzle inertial filter was also discussed to investigate the influence of scale-up on the separation performance of a multi-nozzle inertial filter. The influence of particle loading on the pressure drop and separation performance was discussed. A supplemental inlet for the nano-particle collection applied to an existing portable high-volume air sampler was devised and the consistency with other types of existing samplers was discussed based on the sampling of ambient particles. The layered-mesh inertial filter with a webbed stainless steel fiber mat as a pre-separator showed good performance in the separation of particles with a d p50 ranging from 150 to 190 nm keeping the influence of loaded particles small. The developed layered-mesh inertial filter was successfully applied to the collection of particles at a d p50∼ 190 nm that was consistent with the results from existing samplers.

  19. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  20. MFAC和前馈补偿组合的VAV系统解耦控制仿真%The Decoupling of VAV Based on the Combination of MFAC and Feedforward Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯增喜; 任庆昌

    2014-01-01

    在空调机风量优化控制的研究中,变风量(Variable Air Volume,VAV)系统存在多变量、耦合强烈、非线性及带有时延等特点.针对子系统耦合严重的现象,提出了无模型自适应控制(Model Free Adaptive Control,MFAC)和前馈补偿相结合方法,建立了两个空气处理机组成的耦合系统的数学模型,设计了MFAC控制器和前馈补偿解耦网络,对所建立的耦合系统进行了解耦控制.仿真结果表明:相对PID与前馈补偿组合解耦而言,无模型自适应控制配合前馈补偿的方法可以大幅减少调节时间,且超调量为0,具有很好的解耦效果,可以解决变风量系统的耦合问题.

  1. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK and Vav1 contribute to Dectin1-dependent phagocytosis of Candida albicans in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Strijbis

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans by cells of the innate immune system is vital to prevent infection. Dectin-1 is the major phagocytic receptor involved in anti-fungal immunity. We identify two new interacting proteins of Dectin-1 in macrophages, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK and Vav1. BTK and Vav1 are recruited to phagocytic cups containing C. albicans yeasts or hyphae but are absent from mature phagosomes. BTK and Vav1 localize to cuff regions surrounding the hyphae, while Dectin-1 lines the full length of the phagosome. BTK and Vav1 colocalize with the lipid PI(3,4,5P3 and F-actin at the phagocytic cup, but not with diacylglycerol (DAG which marks more mature phagosomal membranes. Using a selective BTK inhibitor, we show that BTK contributes to DAG synthesis at the phagocytic cup and the subsequent recruitment of PKCε. BTK- or Vav1-deficient peritoneal macrophages display a defect in both zymosan and C. albicans phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack BTK or Vav1 show reduced uptake of C. albicans, comparable to Dectin1-deficient cells. BTK- or Vav1-deficient mice are more susceptible to systemic C. albicans infection than wild type mice. This work identifies an important role for BTK and Vav1 in immune responses against C. albicans.

  2. Vav1 Oncogenic Mutation Inhibits T Cell Receptor-induced Calcium Mobilization through Inhibition of Phospholipase Cγ1 Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazhitsky, Mira; Moas, Etay; Shaginov, Ekaterina; Luria, Anna; Braiman, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Robust elevation of the cytosolic calcium concentration is a crucial early step for T cell activation triggered by the T cell antigen receptor. Vav1 is a proto-oncogene expressed in hematopoietic cells that is indispensable for transducing the calcium-mobilizing signal. Following T cell receptor stimulation, Vav1 facilitates formation of signaling microclusters through multiple interactions with other proteins participating in the signaling cascade. Truncation of the N terminus of Vav1 produces its oncogenic version, which is unable to support normal calcium flux following T cell activation. We show here that truncation of the N-terminal region of Vav1 alters the fine structure of protein complexes in the signaling clusters, affecting the interaction of Vav1 with phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1). This alteration is accompanied by a decrease in PLCγ1 phosphorylation and inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. We suggest that the structural integrity of the N-terminal region of Vav1 is important for the proper formation of the Vav1-associated signaling complexes. The oncogenic truncation of this region elicits conformational changes that interfere with the Vav1-mediated activation of PLCγ1 and that inhibit calcium mobilization. PMID:22474331

  3. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1 Contribute to Dectin1-Dependent Phagocytosis of Candida albicans in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbis, Karin; Tafesse, Fikadu G.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Witte, Martin D.; Dougan, Stephanie K.; Watson, Nicki; Spooner, Eric; Esteban, Alexandre; Vyas, Valmik K.; Fink, Gerald R.; Grinstein, Sergio; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans by cells of the innate immune system is vital to prevent infection. Dectin-1 is the major phagocytic receptor involved in anti-fungal immunity. We identify two new interacting proteins of Dectin-1 in macrophages, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) and Vav1. BTK and Vav1 are recruited to phagocytic cups containing C. albicans yeasts or hyphae but are absent from mature phagosomes. BTK and Vav1 localize to cuff regions surrounding the hyphae, while Dectin-1 lines the full length of the phagosome. BTK and Vav1 colocalize with the lipid PI(3,4,5)P3 and F-actin at the phagocytic cup, but not with diacylglycerol (DAG) which marks more mature phagosomal membranes. Using a selective BTK inhibitor, we show that BTK contributes to DAG synthesis at the phagocytic cup and the subsequent recruitment of PKCε. BTK- or Vav1-deficient peritoneal macrophages display a defect in both zymosan and C. albicans phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack BTK or Vav1 show reduced uptake of C. albicans, comparable to Dectin1-deficient cells. BTK- or Vav1-deficient mice are more susceptible to systemic C. albicans infection than wild type mice. This work identifies an important role for BTK and Vav1 in immune responses against C. albicans. PMID:23825946

  4. Structural and Energetic Mechanisms of Cooperative Autoinhibition and Activation of Vav1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bingke; Martins, Ilídio R.S.; Li, Pilong; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Umetani, Junko; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Machius, Mischa; Tomchick, Diana R.; Rosen, Michael K. (Mayo); (UTSMC)

    2010-05-12

    Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They control processes including T cell activation, phagocytosis, and migration of normal and transformed cells. We report the structure and biophysical and cellular analyses of the five-domain autoinhibitory element of Vav1. The catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain of Vav1 is controlled by two energetically coupled processes. The DH active site is directly, but weakly, inhibited by a helix from the adjacent Acidic domain. This core interaction is strengthened 10-fold by contacts of the calponin homology (CH) domain with the Acidic, pleckstrin homology, and DH domains. This construction enables efficient, stepwise relief of autoinhibition: initial phosphorylation events disrupt the modulatory CH contacts, facilitating phosphorylation of the inhibitory helix and consequent GEF activation. Our findings illustrate how the opposing requirements of strong suppression of activity and rapid kinetics of activation can be achieved in multidomain systems.

  5. Cbl enforces Vav1 dependence and a restricted pathway of T cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chiang

    Full Text Available Extensive studies of pre-TCR- and TCR-dependent signaling have led to characterization of a pathway deemed essential for efficient T cell development, and comprised of a cascade of sequential events involving phosphorylation of Lck and ZAP-70, followed by phosphorylation of LAT and SLP-76, and subsequent additional downstream events. Of interest, however, reports from our lab as well as others have indicated that the requirements for ZAP-70, LAT, and SLP-76 are partially reversed by inactivation of c-Cbl (Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets multiple molecules for ubiquitination and degradation. Analysis of signaling events in these Cbl knockout models, including the recently reported analysis of SLP-76 transgenes defective in interaction with Vav1, suggested that activation of Vav1 might be a critical event in alternative pathways of T cell development. To extend the analysis of signaling requirements for thymic development, we have therefore assessed the effect of Cbl inactivation on the T cell developmental defects that occur in Vav1-deficient mice. The defects in Vav1-deficient thymic development, including a marked defect in DN3-DN4 transition, were completely reversed by Cbl inactivation, accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 and ERKs in response to pre-TCR/TCR cross-linking of Vav1⁻/⁻Cbl⁻/⁻ DP thymocytes. Taken together, these results suggest a substantially modified paradigm for pre-TCR/TCR signaling and T cell development. The observed consensus pathways of T cell development, including requirements for ZAP-70, LAT, SLP-76, and Vav1, appear to reflect the restriction by Cbl of an otherwise much broader set of molecular pathways capable of mediating T cell development.

  6. Variable volume combustor with an air bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Ostebee, Heath Michael; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-02-07

    The present application provides a combustor for use with flow of fuel and a flow of air in a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within a liner and an air bypass system position about the liner. The air bypass system variably allows a bypass portion of the flow of air to bypass the micro-mixer fuel nozzles.

  7. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 1, Spring 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    I had to convince people of.� Young, a heavy equipment operator who has worked snow removal at Grand Forks Air Force Base, N.D.; Osan Air Base, Korea...storage tanks at Spangdahlem AB, Germany. Geer is a 2000 Lance P. Sijan Air Force Leadership Award recipient. (Photo by SrA Esperanza Berrios) 31 CE

  8. Overexpression of the VAV proto-oncogene product is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia displaying loss on 13q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Sánchez, Rosario M.; Hernández, José A.; García, Juan L.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; Miguel, Jesús San; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Hernández, Jesús M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The expression of the VAV proto-oncogene in 57 patients with chronic myeloproliferative disease (CMD), B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BALL) and B-cell non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (B-NHL), and 61 with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) was analysed. VAV overexpression was observed in 19.5% of cases and 81% of VAV-positive tumours also displayed VAV phosphorylation. Overexpression was not observed in B-ALL or CMD, but 13% of B-NHL and 34.4% of B-CLL patients (P = 0.002) overexpressed VAV. The overexpression and phosphorylation of VAV was detected more frequently in 13q- chronic lymphocytic leukaemias (71.4%) versus other B-CLLs (23.4%, P = 0.001). Overexpression of VAV protein is a frequent event in patients with B-CLL displaying loss of 13q sequences. PMID:16704440

  9. Vav3 proto-oncogene deficiency leads to sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzeau, Vincent; Sevilla, María A; Rivas-Elena, Juan V; de Alava, Enrique; Montero, María J; López-Novoa, José M; Bustelo, Xosé R

    2006-07-01

    Although much is known about environmental factors that predispose individuals to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, little information is available regarding the genetic and signaling events involved. Indeed, few genes associated with the progression of these pathologies have been discovered despite intensive research in animal models and human populations. Here we identify Vav3, a GDP-GTP exchange factor that stimulates Rho and Rac GTPases, as an essential factor regulating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Vav3-deficient mice exhibited tachycardia, systemic arterial hypertension and extensive cardiovascular remodeling. These mice also showed hyperactivity of sympathetic neurons from the time of birth. The high catecholamine levels associated with this condition led to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, increased levels of kidney-related hormones and the progressive loss of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with drugs targeting sympathetic and renin-angiotensin responses confirmed the causative role and hierarchy of these events in the development of the Vav3-null mouse phenotype. These observations uncover the crucial role of Vav3 in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and cardiovascular physiology, and reveal a signaling pathway that could be involved in the pathophysiology of human disease states involving tachycardia and sympathetic hyperactivity with unknown etiologies.

  10. Detection of venom-antivenom (VAV) immunocomplexes in vitro as a measure of antivenom efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, M A; Isbister, G K

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of free venom with enzyme immunoassay in serum of patients with snake envenoming is used to confirm snake identification and to determine if sufficient antivenom has been given. Recent studies with Russell's viper (RV; Daboia russelii) envenoming have detected free venom post-antivenom despite recovery of coagulopathy. This raises the question as to whether this assay also measures venom-antivenom (VAV) complexes. In this study we developed an assay to measure VAV complexes and investigate the binding of venom and antivenom in vitro. The assay consisted of rabbit anti-snake venom IgG attached to a microplate which binds the venom component of VAV and anti-horse IgG antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase to detect the antivenom portion of VAV. A known amount of venom or toxin was incubated with increasing antivenom concentrations and VAV was detected as absorbance at 450 nm and plotted against AV concentration. Pseudonaja textilis (brown snake), Notechis scutatus (tiger snake), Oxyuranus scutellatus (taipan), Tropidechis carinatus (rough-scaled snake), Pseudechis porphyriacus (red-bellied black snake) and D. russelii mixtures with appropriate antivenoms were assayed. Measured VAV initially increased with increasing antivenom concentration until it reached a maximum after which the VAV concentration decreased with further increasing antivenom concentrations. The VAV curves for two Australian snake venom-antivenom mixtures, Hoplocephalus stephensii and Ancanthophis antarcticus, had broad VAV peaks with two maxima. Two fractions isolated from N. scutatus venom and Russell's viper factor X activator toxin produced similar VAV curves to their whole venoms. The antivenom concentration for which the maximum VAV occurred was linearly related to the venom concentration, and this slope or ratio was consistent with that used to define the neutralisation units for Australian antivenoms. The maximal VAV point appears to represent the antivenom

  11. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 1, Spring 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Operations during the Cold War. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 1997. Leary , William M. Fueling the Fires of Resistance: Army Air Forces Special... Timothy L. Rider, “Blue Force Tracking to Expand across Force,” Army News Service, 14 April 2004, http://www4.army.mil/ ocpa/read.php?story_id_key

  12. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

  13. Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Crabeck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate 3-D images of air-volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4–22 cm sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air-volume fractions 5 mm. While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of air inclusions, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice microstructure (granular and columnar as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration and can help considerably improving parameterization of these processes in sea ice biogeochemical models.

  14. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 3. Logistics and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    that had to prepare the requests and the embassy staffs that received them. The process was expedited by interna - tional support for U.S. and...DC-10 with modifIcations for air reibeling. ඕHit. Oklahoma City Air Logistica , Center, Placidc Yeau 199 1, p 137. 7’Searock Interview. 7’(S-DRAPT...The potential outcome with a different mix of resources and time deserves consideration. A Longer View of Logistica Perfornance To this pint, the

  15. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 18, Number 4, Winter 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Lacy W. Breckenridge, USAF, Retired Lufkin , Texas 12 APJ I just want to say this. I want to say it gently, but I want to say it firmly. There is a...121 Lt Gen William E. Odom, USA , Retired Reviewer: Maj Gary Pounder...Advocate USAF Air Combat Command Dr. Stephen Fought USAF Air War College Col David M. Glantz, USA , Retired Journal of Slavic Military Studies Col

  16. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 12, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Topics discussed include: a) Data Mining Methods Applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Comparison to Standard Statistical Methods; b) Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry; c) Carving a Niche for the "No-Frills" Carrier, Air Arabia, in Oil-Rich Skies; d) Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control; and e) The Very Light Jet Arrives: Stakeholders and Their Perceptions.

  17. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 24, Number 3, Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Elephant Envisioning a Successful Light Attack Program for the US Air Force Lt Col Michael W. Pietrucha, USAF Femme Fatale 2010 Lt Col Kristal...aircraft in the US inventory and played a pivotal global role in building partner­ ship capacity with other nations. Femme Fatale 2010 ❙ 59 Lt Col...combat deployments, with two additional combat deployments on the ground in Iraq and Afghanistan. 58 | Air & Space Power Journal Fall 2010 | 59 Femme

  18. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case–control study protocol (LOD-Hipertensión)

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; José I Recio-Rodríguez; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    [Introduction]: Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. [Methods and analysis]: A case-control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486...

  19. Energy saving system of terminal regulated air volume in intelligent building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJiangtao; WANGPu

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application and the prominent energy saving of the new tecnnique Terminai Reguiation Air Volume(TRAV) air conditioning systems in intelligent building. Furthermore, it studies the problem taking full advantage of the Building Automation System(BAS) to save energy and to meet with demands of the intelligent building individuation.

  20. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 3: Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    485 The Architects Collaborative (Harvard University) see Gropius , Walter , under Architects and Engineers, across the Department of Defense The...Sons (Newark, New Jersey) Volume II: 250 Graham, Anderson, Probst & White (Chicago) Volume II: 392, 455, 460, 461,475 Gropius , Walter ...models for Air Force research and development centers Gropius , Walter (The Architects Collaborative) see Architects and Engineers, across the

  1. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  2. Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabeck, Odile; Galley, Ryan; Delille, Bruno; Else, Brent; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Lemes, Marcos; Des Roches, Mathieu; Francus, Pierre; Tison, Jean-Louis; Rysgaard, Søren

    2016-05-01

    Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate images of air volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4-22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air volume fractions bubbles (Ø bubbles (1 mm bubbles (Ø > 5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of gas bubbles, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice texture (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration.

  3. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 4, Winter 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    and MSgt Paul Fazzini, AMC/PA, Scott AFB, Ill. Above: Members of the 615th Air Mobility Squadron, Travis AFB, Calif., erect tents on Naval Air...Col Jeffrey Pitchford , commander of the 16th CES, at Aviano AB, Italy. Both were members of the advance on-site team sent to Diyarbakir to do initial...joined Lt Col Pitchford and SMSgt Dewar in Diyarbakir. They were the first CE forces at the Diyarbakir site, arriving in mid-February to begin their

  4. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 14, Number 3, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Preparatory School. SrA Jeremiah Celis, TSgt Harold Ackett and then-A1C Lee set up the Trimble 5700 Base Station and Trimble Trimark III Radio receiver...U.S. Air Forces in Europe is working dili- gently to ensure that all civil works are completed on time. MSgt John Lasky Air Force Print News...MSgt Harold Hailer, 27th FW EOD Flight Chief. “Capt Evans’ comrades will always remember the big smile he had on his face since setting off his

  5. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy

  6. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Lucas, Sarah (Editor); Scarpellini-Metz, Nanette (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JA is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  7. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation; Volume 9, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JAT will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  9. Vav1: A Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde protein--good for the hematopoietic system, bad for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Shulamit

    2015-10-06

    Many deregulated signal transducer proteins are involved in various cancers at numerous stages of tumor development. One of these, Vav1, is normally expressed exclusively in the hematopoietic system, where it functions as a specific GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), strictly regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Vav was first identified in an NIH3T3 screen for oncogenes. Although the oncogenic form of Vav1 identified in the screen has not been detected in clinical human tumors, its wild-type form has recently been implicated in mammalian malignancies, including neuroblastoma, melanoma, pancreatic, lung and breast cancers, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In addition, it was recently identified as a mutated gene in human cancers of various origins. However, the activity and contribution to cancer of these Vav1 mutants is still unclear. This review addresses the physiological function of wild-type Vav1 and its activity as an oncogene in human cancer. It also discusses the novel mutations identified in Vav1 in various cancers and their potential contribution to cancer development as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes.

  10. Required response time for variable air volume fume hood controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, L E; Melin, J

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes results from tests made with the aim of investigating how quickly the exhaust air flow rate through fume hoods needs to be controlled in order to prevent contaminants from leaking out of the fume hood and putting the safety of the laboratory personnel at risk. The measurements were made on a laboratory fume hood in a chemical laboratory. There were no other fume hoods in the laboratory, and the measurements were made without interference from persons entering or leaving the laboratory or walking about in it. A tracer gas method was used with the concentration of dinitrogen oxide (N(2)O) being recorded by a Foxboro Miran 101 infra-red gas analyser. In parallel with the tracer gas measurements, the air velocity through the face opening was also measured, as was the control signal to the damper controlling the air flow rate. The measurements show an increased outward leakage of tracer gas from the fume hood if the air flow rate is not re-established within 1-2 s after the sash is opened. If the delay exceeds 3 s the safety function is temporarily defeated. The measurements were made under virtually ideal conditions. Under more typical conditions, the fume hood could be exposed to various other external perturbations, which means that the control system should re-establish the correct exhaust flow more quickly than indicated by the measurement results obtained under these almost ideal conditions.

  11. Air & Space, Volume 2, Number 4, March-April, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Julie, Ed.

    This newsletter, produced by the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, contains an article on the Apollo 11 spaceflight, an article on hypersonic and supersonic flight which compares the Concorde, the X-15, and the Shuttle Orbiter, an article presenting photographs of the construction of the Shuttle Orbiter, and an article…

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 21: Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Legal References: Air Pollution Control Regulations Manual is the last in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The manual…

  13. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantineau, Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Groves, Gordon E. (Tijeras, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  14. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  15. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    percent (as high as 47 percent) in the 1950s and 60s. One can imagine a natural inversion of budget shares, whereby 12 percent of the defense budget... Sociedad Colombo Alemana de Transporte Aéreo (SCADTA), a German-owned and -operated air service, increased its presence throughout South America...had recently estab- lished businesses and preferred renting apartments in lieu of hotel rooms.11 Even Mexico was not immune. Covert agents spent large

  16. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 16, Number 2, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Information Modeling “Red Bulls” at Gitmo Green Roofs Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...reduce their energy cost, increase the life span of their roofs, and improve the quality of their environment. The Air Force and Green Roofs There...plants mature and become fully established. Pros & Cons of Green Roofs Vegetative roofs are not cheap; there is a large initial investment. Life

  17. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-25

    Illinois University - 1 Bethel College - 1 Northwestern University - I Boston College - 1 Notre Dame, University of - 1 Brescia College - 1 Ohio State...CENTER (Arnold Air Force Base) Dr. Brian Beecken Dr. Lang-Wah Lee Bethel College University of Wisconsin-Platteville Svecialty: Physics Specialty...Kenneth L.; King, John Leslie . Computer-Based Systems for Cooperative Work and Group Decision Making. ACM Computing Surveys; 1988; 20(2). Lai, Kum

  18. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Bee - be’s article needed to be published so that Air and Space power Journal readers would be fully informed about the critiques, discussions, and...Practices in Prediction for Decision-making: Lessons from the Atmospheric and earth Sciences,” Ecology 84, no. 6 (2003): 1351–58, http...tale about read this journal will be more substantial. Many name used by cadets for higher form of truth than histories is open to the corridor

  19. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Fink, Mary (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Analysis of System-wide Investment in the National Airspace System: A Portfolio Analytical Framework and an Example; Regional Air Transport in Europe: The Potential Role of the Civil Tiltrotor in Reducing Airside Congestion; The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub; Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation; The Competitive Effects of Airline Mergers and Acquisitions: More Capital Market Evidence; and The Competitive Position of Hub Airports in the Transatlantic Market.

  20. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 22, Number 3, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    accessed 4 February 2007). 17. david C. aronstein, Michael J. hirschberg, and albert C. Piccirillo, Advanced Tactical Fighter to F-22 Raptor ...significant operational impact resulting from an underlying distrust of the data feeding a network. The combined air operations center, which...ventional behaviour dictated by established norms but not breaking or ignoring the set norms.16 Therefore, is airpower in the South­ ern african region

  1. Influence of the turbinate volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging on nasal air conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Joerg; Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Vital, Victor; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Pauls, Sandra; Wacke, Florian; Wiesmiller, Kerstin M

    2009-01-01

    Changes in nasal airflow caused by varying intranasal volumes and cross-sectional areas affect the contact between air and surrounding mucosa entailing alterations in nasal air conditioning. This study evaluates the correlation between nasal air conditioning and the volumes of the inferior and middle turbinates as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. Each volunteer had been examined by rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, intranasal air temperature, and humidity measurements at defined intranasal sites as well as MRI of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. The volumetric data of the turbinates was based on the volumetric software Amira. Comparable results were obtained regarding absolute humidity values and temperature values within the nasal valve area and middle turbinate area for both the right and the left side of the nasal cavity. No statistically significant differences were found in the rhinomanometric values and the acoustic rhinometry results of both sides (p > 0.05). No statistical correlations were found between the volumes of the inferior (mean, 6.1 cm3) and middle turbinate (mean, 1.8 cm3) and the corresponding humidity and temperature values. Additionally, the air temperature and humidity values did not correlate with the rhinometrical endonasal volumes (0-20 mm and 20-50 mm from the nasal entrance). The normal range of volumes of the inferior and middle turbinate does not seem to have a significant impact on intranasal air conditioning in healthy subjects. The exact limits where alterations of the turbinate volume negatively affect nasal air conditioning are still unknown.

  2. Problems of Air Defense - and - Appedicies. Volumes I-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-08-01

    u6dertak~e a major project mi~ air defeuse prokbie.ma. nrespon~se to thlis rei~et an~d vih the ’scope s~omewhat broadene in z-ectognition of the...enti_- rou -~Preliminary oral presenitations of the?𔃾e con- clusions_ were gitven to -representatives of thjsos;LI gnce rt b l and Z-1 Jun-e in...Coast should be established at the earliest possible 4tine. TwUo-a.d•. oral ground radars are recomnnended in the Northh.vest. ..... A-_•N’ THEN PIh

  3. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  4. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: The Effects of Safety Information on Aeronautical Decision Making; Design, Development, and Validation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats; Discovering the Regulatory Considerations of the Federal Aviation Administration: Interviewing the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP; An Attempt to Measure the Traffic Impact of Airline Alliances; and Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-level Airport Operations and Management Personnel.

  5. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 3, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    adversary’s behaviour and mind-set in a manner close to that which was originally intended.3 The planning process undertaken occurs predominantly...reconnaissance prior to strikes and for post- strike BDA.14 The Predator was used in Af- ghanistan to feed imagery to AC-130 special operations gunships and...Operation Allied Force for the function of counterair. Lock- heed Martin’s F-22 Raptor is likely to play the key role in America’s air superiority efforts

  6. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  7. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  8. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  9. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2 is a negative regulator of parathyroid hormone receptor/Gq signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami-Nemini, Alexander; Gohla, Antje; Urlaub, Henning; Lohse, Martin J; Klenk, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the endocrine and paracrine effects of parathyroid hormone and related peptides through the activation of phospholipase Cβ-, adenylyl cyclase-, mitogen-activated protein kinase-, and β-arrestin-initiated signaling pathways. It is currently not clear how specificity among these downstream signaling pathways is achieved. A possible mechanism involves adaptor proteins that affect receptor/effector coupling. In a proteomic screen with the PTHR C terminus, we identified vav2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho GTPases, as a PTHR-interacting protein. The core domains of vav2 bound to the intracellular domains of the PTHR independent of receptor activation. In addition, vav2 specifically interacted with activated Gα(q) but not with Gα(s) subunits, and it competed with PTHR for coupling to Gα(q). Consistent with its specific interaction with Gα(q), vav2 impaired G(q)-mediated inositol phosphate generation but not G(s)-mediated cAMP generation. This inhibition of G(q) signaling was specific for PTHR signaling, compared with other G(q)-coupled GPCRs. Moreover, the benefit for PTHR-mediated inositol phosphate generation in the absence of vav2 required the ezrin binding domain of Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger regulatory factor 1. Our results show that a RhoA GEF can specifically interact with a GPCR and modulate its G protein signaling specificity.

  10. 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered four main areas: (1) overviews of NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) and Access to Space Programs, with emphasis on program goals and seal needs; (2) review of turbine engine seal issues from the perspective of end users such as United Airlines; (3) reviews of sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (4) reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrates for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future engine system efficiency and emission goals. GE, Pratt & Whitney, and Honeywell presented advanced seal development work being performed within their organizations. The NASA-funded GE/Stein Seal team has successfully demonstrated a large (3-ft. diam) aspirating seal that can withstand all anticipated pressures, speeds, and rotor runouts anticipated for a GE90 L.P. turbine balance piston location. GE/Stein Seal are fabricating a full-scale seal to be tested in a GE-90 ground test engine in early 2002. Pratt & Whitney and Stein Seal are investigating carbon seals to accommodate large radial movements anticipated in future geared-fan gearbox locations. Honeywell presented a finger seal design being considered for a high-temperature static combustor location incorporating ceramic finger elements. Successful demonstration of the braided carbon rope thermal barriers to extreme temperatures (5500 F) for short durations provide a new form of very high temperature thermal barrier for future Shuttle solid rocket motor nozzle joints. The X-37, X-38, and future highly reusable launch vehicles pose challenging control surface seal demands that require new seal concepts made from emerging high temperature ceramics and other materials.

  11. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  12. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  13. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  14. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 8, No. 2. Volume 8, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Nickerson, Jocelyn (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The mission of the Journal of Air Transportation (JAT) is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. This journal contains articles on the following:Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft: A FlightOperationsQualityAssurance (F0QA) Analysis;Demand for Air Travel in the United States: Bottom-Up Econometric Estimation and Implications for Forecasts by Origin and Destination Pairs;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part I1 Political Oversight and Promotion;Blind Flying on the Beam: Aeronautical Communication, Navigation and Surveillance: Its Origins and the Politics of Technology: Part 111: Emerging Technologies;Ethics Education in University Aviation Management Programs in the US: Part Two B-Statistical Analysis of Current Practice;Integrating Human Factors into the Human-computer Interface: and How Best to Display Meteorological Information for Critical Aviation Decision-making and Performance.

  15. High nuclear level of Vav1 is a positive prognostic factor in early invasive breast tumors: a role in modulating genes related to the efficiency of metastatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassilli, Silvia; Brugnoli, Federica; Lattanzio, Rossano; Rossi, Cosmo; Perracchio, Letizia; Mottolese, Marcella; Marchisio, Marco; Palomba, Maria; Nika, Ervin; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Piantelli, Mauro; Capitani, Silvano; Bertagnolo, Valeria

    2014-06-30

    Vav1 is one of the signalling proteins normally restricted to hematopoietic cells that results ectopically expressed in solid tumors, including breast cancer. By immunohistochemical analysis on TMAs containing invasive breast tumor from patients without lymph node involvement, we have found that Vav1 is expressed in almost all investigated cancers and shows a peculiar localization inside the nucleus of tumor cells. High amounts of nuclear Vav1 are positively correlated with low incidence of relapse, regardless phenotype and molecular subtype of breast neoplasia. In particular, Kaplan-Meier plots showed an elevated risk of distant metastasis in patients with low Vav1 expression compared with patients with high Vav1 expression in their tumors. Experiments performed with breast tumor-derived cells indicated that Vav1 negatively modulates their invasiveness in vitro and their metastatic efficiency in vivo, possibly by affecting the expression of genes involved in invasion and/or metastasis of breast tumors. Since the high heterogeneity of breast tumors makes difficult to predict the evolution of early breast neoplasias, the evaluation of nuclear Vav1 levels may help in the characterization and management of early breast cancer patients. In particular, Vav1 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and a target for new therapies aimed to prevent breast cancer progression.

  16. Air-kerma determination using a variable-volume cavity ionization chamber standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D T; Kessler, C; Roger, P

    2007-12-01

    A graphite-walled cavity ionization chamber of modular design and variable volume has been used to determine the air-kerma rate in the reference 60Co field at the BIPM. The chamber can be configured in five sizes. High-accuracy mechanical measurements of the volume of the air cavity were made for each configuration using a co-ordinate measuring machine. Ionization current measurements were made for each configuration and corrected for the effects of ion recombination and diffusion, stem scatter and chamber orientation. Monte Carlo calculations of cavity dose were made to evaluate the correction factors kwall and kan. A reproducibility of the ionization current per mass of 1.5 parts in 10(4) was achieved on the repeated assembly of each configuration. The results show an air-kerma rate determination that increases with volume, the total change being around 8 parts in 10(4). When analysed differentially, the air-kerma rate relative to the BIPM standard is Kdiff/KBIPM = 1.0026(6). A detailed uncertainty budget is presented. Possible reasons for the observed behaviour are discussed that might have consequences for all existing standards for air-kerma.

  17. Relationship between target organ damage and blood pressure, retinal vessel calibre, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in patients with hypertension: a case-control study protocol (LOD-Hipertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Perretta-Tejedor, Nuria; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-04-03

    Target organ damage (TOD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The study objectives were to analyse the relationship of TOD to blood pressure, size of retinal arteries and veins, oxidative stress and different polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes in participants with hypertension. A case-control study to analyse the relationship between clinical, biochemical and genetic parameters and presence of cardiac, vascular and renal TOD in 486 patients with hypertension. Participants with TOD will be considered as cases, and those without TOD will be enrolled as controls. This will be a collaborative study conducted by the groups of Primary Care, Cardiovascular and Metabolic and Degenerative Diseases of the Instituto de Investigación Biomédica of Salamanca (IBSAL). Assessment of cardiac, renal and vascular TOD. Measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure, size of eye fundus arteries and veins, and oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in the VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. The study will be conducted after approval is obtained from the Ethics Committee of Hospital Clínico Universitario of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study, and another consent to agree on the genetic study, in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow for an understanding of the relationship of the different TODs with blood pressure, retinal artery and vein diameters, oxidative stress and polymorphisms in VAV-2 and VAV-3 genes. Clinical Trials. gov Identifier: NCT02022618.

  18. Stroke rates and diving air volumes of emperor penguins: implications for dive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi; Shiomi, Kozue; Marshall, Greg; Kooyman, Gerald L; Ponganis, Paul J

    2011-09-01

    Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), both at sea and at an experimental dive hole, often have minimal surface periods even after performance of dives far beyond their measured 5.6 min aerobic dive limit (ADL: dive duration associated with the onset of post-dive blood lactate accumulation). Accelerometer-based data loggers were attached to emperor penguins diving in these two different situations to further evaluate the capacity of these birds to perform such dives without any apparent prolonged recovery periods. Minimum surface intervals for dives as long as 10 min were less than 1 min at both sites. Stroke rates for dives at sea were significantly greater than those for dives at the isolated dive hole. Calculated diving air volumes at sea were variable, increased with maximum depth of dive to a depth of 250 m, and decreased for deeper dives. It is hypothesized that lower air volumes for the deepest dives are the result of exhalation of air underwater. Mean maximal air volumes for deep dives at sea were approximately 83% greater than those during shallow (emperor penguins, (b) stroke rate at sea is greater than at the isolated dive hole and, therefore, a reduction in muscle stroke rate does not extend the duration of aerobic metabolism during dives at sea, and (c) a larger diving air volume facilitates performance of deep dives by increasing the total body O(2) store to 68 ml O(2) kg(-1). Although increased O(2) storage and cardiovascular adjustments presumably optimize aerobic metabolism during dives, enhanced anaerobic capacity and hypoxemic tolerance are also essential for longer dives. This was exemplified by a 27.6 min dive, after which the bird required 6 min before it stood up from a prone position, another 20 min before it began to walk, and 8.4 h before it dived again.

  19. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying.

  20. Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, M J; Lewis, R A; Morgan, M J; Siu, K K W; Habib, A [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3800 (Australia); Wallace, M J; Siew, M L; Hooper, S B [Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3800 (Australia); Fouras, A [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3800 (Australia); Yagi, N; Uesugi, K [SPring-8/JASRI, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)], E-mail: Marcus.Kitchen@sci.monash.edu.au

    2008-11-07

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging can provide detailed images of lung morphology with sufficient spatial resolution to observe the terminal airways (alveoli). We demonstrate that quantitative functional and anatomical imaging of lung ventilation can be achieved in vivo using two-dimensional phase contrast x-ray images with high contrast and spatial resolution (<100 {mu}m) in near real time. Changes in lung air volume as small as 25 {mu}L were calculated from the images of term and preterm rabbit pup lungs (n = 28) using a single-image phase retrieval algorithm. Comparisons with plethysmography and computed tomography showed that the technique provided an accurate and robust method of measuring total lung air volumes. Furthermore, regional ventilation was measured by partitioning the phase contrast images, which revealed differences in aeration for different ventilation strategies.

  1. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) project conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA Program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. This volume contains the Appendices, which include listings of the FORTRAN code and Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide. 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. A Natural Variant of the T Cell Receptor-Signaling Molecule Vav1 Reduces Both Effector T Cell Functions and Susceptibility to Neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Sahar; Bernard, Isabelle; Dejean, Anne S.; Liblau, Roland; Fournié, Gilbert J.; Colacios, Céline

    2016-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell antigen receptor signals and therefore plays an important role in T cell development and activation. Our previous genetic studies identified a locus on rat chromosome 9 that controls the susceptibility to neuroinflammation and contains a non-synonymous polymorphism in the major candidate gene Vav1. To formally demonstrate the causal implication of this polymorphism, we generated a knock-in mouse bearing this polymorphism (Vav1R63W). Using this model, we show that Vav1R63W mice display reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by MOG35-55 peptide immunization. This is associated with a lower production of effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and GM-CSF) by autoreactive CD4 T cells. Despite increased proportion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in Vav1R63W mice, we show that this lowered cytokine production is intrinsic to effector CD4 T cells and that Treg depletion has no impact on EAE development. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the above phenotype by showing that the Vav1R63W variant has normal enzymatic activity but reduced adaptor functions. Together, these data highlight the importance of Vav1 adaptor functions in the production of inflammatory cytokines by effector T cells and in the susceptibility to neuroinflammation. PMID:27438086

  3. Correction of SCID-X1 using an enhancerless Vav promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, E; Zhang, F; Santilli, G; Blundell, M P; Howe, S J; Thornhill, S I; Bueren, J A; Thrasher, A J

    2011-03-01

    The efficacy of gene therapy for the treatment of inherited immunodeficiency has been highlighted in recent clinical trials, although in some cases complicated by insertional mutagenesis and silencing of vector genomes through methylation. To minimize these effects, we have evaluated the use of regulatory elements that confer reliability of gene expression, but also lack potent indiscriminate enhancer activity. The Vav1 proximal promoter is particularly attractive in this regard and may be useful in situations where high-level or complex regulation of gene expression is not necessary. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a good candidate for such an approach, particularly as there may be additional disease-related intrinsic risks of leukemogenesis, and where safety is therefore a paramount concern. We have tested whether lentiviral vectors expressing the common cytokine receptor gamma chain under the control of the proximal Vav1 gene promoter are effective for correction of signaling defects and the disease phenotype. Despite low-level gene expression, we observed near-complete restoration of cytokine-mediated STAT5 phosphorylation in a model cell line. Furthermore, at low vector copy number, highly effective T- and B-lymphocyte reconstitution was achieved in vivo in a murine model of SCID-X1, in both primary and secondary graft recipients. This vector configuration deserves further evaluation and consideration for future clinical trials.

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  5. Desorption of Herbicides from Atmospheric Particulates During High-Volume Air Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight V. Quiring

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be present in the atmosphere either as vapours and/or in association with suspended particles. High-volume air sampling, in which air is aspirated first through a glass fibre filter to capture pesticides associated with atmospheric particulates and then polyurethane foam (PUF, often in combination with an adsorbent resin such as XAD-2, to capture pesticides present as vapours, is generally employed during atmospheric monitoring for pesticides. However, the particulate fraction may be underestimated because some pesticides may be stripped or desorbed from captured particulates due to the pressure drop created by the high flow of air through the filter. This possibility was investigated with ten herbicide active ingredients commonly used on the Canadian prairies (dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate, diclofop methyl ester, fenoxaprop ethyl ester, trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin and seven hydrolysis products (2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, bromoxynil, diclofop, clopyralid and mecoprop. Finely ground heavy clay soil fortified with active ingredients/hydrolysis products was evenly distributed on the glass fibre filters of high-volume air samplers and air aspirated through the samplers at a flow rate of 12.5 m3/h for a 7-day period. The proportion desorbed as vapour from the fortified soil was determined by analysis of the PUF/XAD-2 resin composite cartridges. The extent of desorption from the fortified soil applied to the filters varied from 0% for each of the dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba to approximately 50% for trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin.

  6. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  7. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  8. Exposure to Severe Urban Air Pollution Influences Cognitive Outcomes, Brain Volume and Systemic Inflammation in Clinically Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Engle, Randall; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Styner, Martin; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Zhu, Hongtu; Jewells, Valerie; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Romero, Lina; Monroy-Acosta, Maria E.; Bryant, Christopher; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Oscar; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to severe air pollution produces neuroinflammation and structural brain alterations in children. We tested whether patterns of brain growth, cognitive deficits and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with exposures to severe air pollution. Baseline and 1 year follow-up measurements of global and regional brain MRI volumes,…

  9. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  10. Rancang Bangun dan Studi Eksperimen Alat Penukar Panas untuk Memanfaatkan Energi Referigerant Keluar Kompresor AC sebagai Pemanas Air pada ST/D=4 dengan Variasi Volume Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binar Kusumah Bagja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sistem referigerasi memiliki energi yang besar dalam melepaskan kalor. Kalor akibat kompresi pada kompresor bisa dimanfaatkan misalnya untuk pemanasan air. Pemanfaatan kalor tersebut dilakukan dengan cara menambahkan water heater sebelum aliran fluida referigeran masuk ke kondensor. Water heater tersebut dalam keadaan tercelup di dalam sebuah tangki berisi air untuk melepas kalor terhadap air. Perancangan water heater dilakukan dengan mencari panjang tube (L, diameter tube (D, dan jarak antar tube. Water Heater ini diletakkan setelah komponen kompressor pada sistem AC. Proses awal untuk mencari rancangan water heater adalah dengan mencari temperatur keluaran kompresor dimana untuk mencari potensi panas yang akan dimanfaatkan untuk memanaskan air. Setelah mencari potensi panas yang dihasilkan dari energi keluaran kompresor adalah mencari kapasitas kalor yang akan diberikan water heater terhadap air dan kemudian selanjutnya mencari perpindahan panas yang terjadi pada proses pemanasan air tersebut yang kemudian dilakukan perhitungan untuk mencari panjang tube (L dan penentuan jarak ST/D pada tube. Setelah diperoleh geometri water heater, langkah selanjutnya adalah melakukan simulasi numerik dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak FLUENT 6.3.2 untuk mengetahui karaketeristik perpindahan panas yang terjadi di dalam proses pemanasan air dengan jarak ST/D yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya. Langkah selanjutnya melakukan eksperimen. Eksperimen dilakukan dengan memvariasikan volume air dalam tangki yaitu sebesar 75 liter; 85 liter; dan 100 liter. Hasil simulasi numerik diperoleh bahwa pola aliran kecepatan dengan nilai tertinggi berada pada daerah sekitaran tube inlet dikarenakan temperatur yang paling tinggi dibandingkan tube lainnya sehingga menimbulkan perbedaan temperatur dan juga densitas pada sekitaran tube inlet. Hasil eksperimen diperoleh bahwa volume air yang besar yaitu sebesar 100 liter memiliki Coefficient of Performance (COP tertinggi yaitu sebesar

  11. Activation of Rac1 and the exchange factor Vav3 are involved in NPM-ALK signaling in anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomba, A; Courilleau, D; Ramel, D; Billadeau, D D; Espinos, E; Delsol, G; Payrastre, B; Gaits-Iacovoni, F

    2008-04-24

    The majority of anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) express the nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) fusion protein, which is oncogenic due to its constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. Transformation by NPM-ALK not only increases proliferation, but also modifies cell shape and motility in both lymphoid and fibroblastic cells. We report that the Rac1 GTPase, a known cytoskeletal regulator, is activated by NPM-ALK in ALCL cell lines (Karpas 299 and Cost) and transfected cells (lymphoid Ba/F3 cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts). We have identified Vav3 as one of the exchange factors involved in Rac1 activation. Stimulation of Vav3 and Rac1 by NPM-ALK is under the control of Src kinases. It involves formation of a signaling complex between NPM-ALK, pp60(c-src), Lyn and Vav3, in which Vav3 associates with tyrosine 343 of NPM-ALK via its SH2 domain. Moreover, Vav3 is phosphorylated in NPM-ALK positive biopsies from patients suffering from ALCL, demonstrating the pathological relevance of this observation. The use of Vav3-specific shRNA and a dominant negative Rac1 mutant demonstrates the central role of GTPases in NPM-ALK elicited motility and invasion.

  12. Activation of Vav/Rho GTPase Signaling by CXCL12 Controls Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinase–Dependent Melanoma Cell Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, Rubén A.; Molina-Ortiz, Isabel; Samaniego, Rafael; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Melanoma cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4, which confers invasive signals on binding to its ligand CXCL12. We show here that knocking down membrane-type matrix metal-loproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression translates into a blockade of invasion across reconstituted basement membranes and type I collagen gels in response to CXCL12, which is the result of lack of MMP-2 activation. Interference with MMP-2 expression further confirms its important role during this invasion. Vav proteins are guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases that regulate actin dynamics and gene expression. We show that melanoma cells express Vav1 and Vav2, which are activated by CXCL12 involving Jak activity. Blocking Vav expression by RNA interference results in impaired activation of Rac and Rho by CXCL12 and in a remarkable inhibition of CXCL12-promoted invasion. Importantly, up-regulation of MT1-MMP expression by CXCL12, a mechanism contributing to melanoma cell invasion, is blocked by knocking down Vav expression or by inhibiting Jak. Together, these data indicate that activation of Jak/Vav/Rho GTPase pathway by CXCL12 is a key signaling event for MT1-MMP/MMP-2–dependent melanoma cell invasion. PMID:16397238

  13. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  14. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  15. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  16. SU-E-I-84: Accuracy Comparison of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using In-Air Micro-CT Image Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fullerton, G; Goins, B [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tumor volume is considered as a better predictor for therapy response monitoring and tumor staging over Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. In this study, the accuracy of subcutaneous rodent tumor volumes using preclinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ultrasound (US) equipment and with an external caliper was compared using in-air micro-CT image volume of excised tumors determined as reference tumor volume in our prior study. Methods: MR, US and micro-CT images of subcutaneous SCC4 head and neck tumor xenografts were acquired 4, 6, 9, 11 and 13 days after tumor cell inoculation. Before MR and US scans, caliper measurements were made. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging and ex vivo caliper measurements were performed. Tumor volumes were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three image modalities and caliper, and compared with reference tumor volume by linear regression analysis as well as Bland-Altman plots. A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was also performed to compare volumes among caliper measurements. Results: The correlation coefficients (R2) of the regression lines for tumor volumes measured by the three imaging modalities and caliper were 0.9939, 0.9669, 0.9806, 0.9274, 0.9619 and 0.9819 for MRI, US and micro-CT, caliperbeforeMRI, caliperbeforeUS and ex vivo caliper respectively. In Bland-Altman plots, the average of tumor volume difference from reference tumor volume (bias) was significant for caliper and micro- CT, but not for MRI and US. Comparison of caliper measurements showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Using the in-air micro-CT image volume, tumor volume measured by MRI was the most accurate among the three imaging modalities. In vivo caliper volume measurements showed unreliability while ex

  17. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya YOKOI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3 ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017. After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05. Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume.

  18. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOKOI, Aya; MARUYAMA, Takayuki; YAMANAKA, Reiko; EKUNI, Daisuke; TOMOFUJI, Takaaki; KASHIWAZAKI, Haruhiko; YAMAZAKI, Yutaka; MORITA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old) participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%)] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3) ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017). After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume. PMID:25760268

  19. Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

    2002-05-16

    An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

  20. 基于迭代学习的变风量空调系统全局优化控制实验研究%Global optimal control of variable air volume air-conditioning system with iterative learning:an experimental case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-long MENG; Xiu-ying YAN; Qing-chang REN

    2015-01-01

    The air-conditioning system in a large commercial or high-rise building is a complex multi-variable system influ-enced by many factors. The energy saving potential from the optimal operation and control of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can be large, even when they are properly designed. The ultimate goal of optimization is to use the minimum amount of energy needed to improve system efficiency while meeting comfort requirements. In this study, a multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) and variable water volume (VWV) air-conditioning system is developed. The steady state modes and dynamic models of the HVAC subsystems are constructed. Optimal control based on large scale system theory for system-level energy-saving of HVAC is introduced. Control strategies such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller (gearshift integral PID and self-tuning PID) and iterative learning control (ILC) are studied in the platform to improve the dy-namic characteristics. The system performance is improved. An 18.2% energy saving is achieved with the integration of ILC and sequential quadratic programming based on a steady-state hierarchical optimization control scheme.%目的:采用实验方法研究变风量全局优化问题,利用迭代学习控制策略优化动态控制性能,获得变风量系统在系统层次的最优。创新点:1.采用全新的兼有变风量和变水量功能的实验平台;2.引入递阶优化控制理论,建立变风量系统的动态和稳态模型;3.采用先进控制策略,如自校正比例积分微分(PID)控制和迭代学习控制等。方法:1.将系统进行分解(图4),并建立系统稳态模型(公式6–11)、动态模型(公式12–15)和能耗模型(公式16);2.在此基础上采用变速积分 PID、自校正 PID 和迭代学习控制对系统底层进行动态控制,在系统整体优化中引入迭代学习。结论:1.先进控制策略的引入有利于优

  1. Essential Role for Vav GEFs in Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-induced Dendritic Spine Growth and Synapse Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Carly F.; Dietz, Karen C.; Varela, Juan A.; Wood, Cody B.; Zirlin, Benjamin C.; Leah S. Leverich; Greene, Robert W.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor, TrkB, regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including dendritic spine formation and functional synapse plasticity. However, the signaling mechanisms that link BDNF-activated TrkB to F-actin remodeling enzymes and dendritic spine morphological plasticity remain poorly understood. We report here that BDNF/TrkB signaling in neurons activates the Vav family of Rac/RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) through a no...

  2. Generation and evaluation of an IPTG-regulated version of Vav-gene promoter for mouse transgenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Grespi

    Full Text Available Different bacteria-derived systems for regulatable gene expression have been developed for the use in mammalian cells and some were also successfully adopted for in vivo use in vertebrate model organisms. However, certain limitations apply to most of these systems, including leakiness of transgene expression, inefficient transgene silencing or activation, as well as limited tissue accessibility of transgene-inducers or their unfavourable pharmacokinetics. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of the lac-operon/lac-repressor (lacO/lacI system for the regulation of the well-established Vav-gene promoter that allows inducible transgene expression in different haematopoietic lineages in mice. Using the fluorescence marker protein Venus as a reporter, we observed that the lacO/lacI system could be amended to modulate transgene-expression in haematopoietic cells. However, reporter expression was not uniform and the lacO elements introduced into the Vav-gene promoter only conferred limited repression and reversion of lacI-mediated gene silencing after administration of IPTG. Although further optimization of the system is required, the lacO-modified version of the Vav-gene promoter may be adopted as a tool where low basal gene-expression and limited transient induction of protein expression are desired, e.g. for the activation of oncogenes or transgenes that act in a dominant-negative manner.

  3. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  5. Numerical modeling of turbulence mixed convection heat transfer in air filled enclosures by finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, first the turbulent natural convection and then laminar mixed convection of air flow was solved in a room and the calculated outcomes are compared with results of other scientists and after showing validation of calculations, aforementioned flow is solved as a turbulent mixed convection flow, using the valid turbulence models Standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and RSM. To solve governing differential equations for this flow, finite volume method was used. This method is a specific case of residual weighting method. The results show that at high Richardson Numbers, the flow is rather stationary at the center of the enclosure. Moreover, it is distinguished that when Richardson Number increases the maximum of local Nusselt decreases. Therefore, it can be said that less number of Richardson Number, more rate of heat transfer.

  6. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; Halverson, M.A.; Hickman, B.J.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command (SPACECOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the SPACECOM VAFB facility located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analysis of EROs are presented in ten common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). In addition, a case study of process loads at Space Launch Complex-4 (SLC-4) is included. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O and M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and value index (VI) of each ERO. Finally, an appendix includes a summary of an economic analysis case study of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP) operating scenarios.

  7. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  8. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  9. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  10. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  11. Electromagnetic design of the KATRIN large-volume air coil system

    CERN Document Server

    Glück, Ferenc; Leiber, Benjamin; Mertens, Susanne; Osipowicz, Alexander; Reich, Jan; Wandkowsky, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The KATRIN experiment is designed to determine the absolute neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV (90 % CL) by measuring the electron energy spectrum close to the endpoint of molecular tritium beta decay. Electrons from a high-intensity gaseous tritium source are guided by a strong magnetic field of a few T to the analyzing plane of the main spectrometer where an integral energy analysis takes place in a low field region (B<0.5 mT). An essential design feature to obtain adiabatic electron transport through this spectrometer is a large volume air coil system surrounding the vessel. The system has two key tasks: to adjust and fine-tune the magnetic guiding field (Low Field Correction System), as well as to compensate the distorting effects of the earth magnetic field (Earth Field Compensation System). In this paper we outline the key electromagnetic design issues for this very large air coil system, which allows for well-defined electron transmission and optimized background reduction in the KATR...

  12. Essential role for vav Guanine nucleotide exchange factors in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced dendritic spine growth and synapse plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Carly F; Dietz, Karen C; Varela, Juan A; Wood, Cody B; Zirlin, Benjamin C; Leverich, Leah S; Greene, Robert W; Cowan, Christopher W

    2011-08-31

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor, TrkB, regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including dendritic spine formation and functional synapse plasticity. However, the signaling mechanisms that link BDNF-activated TrkB to F-actin remodeling enzymes and dendritic spine morphological plasticity remain poorly understood. We report here that BDNF/TrkB signaling in neurons activates the Vav family of Rac/RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factors through a novel TrkB-dependent mechanism. We find that Vav is required for BDNF-stimulated Rac-GTP production in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Vav is partially enriched at excitatory synapses in the postnatal hippocampus but does not appear to be required for normal dendritic spine density. Rather, we observe significant reductions in both BDNF-induced, rapid, dendritic spine head growth and in CA3-CA1 theta burst-stimulated long-term potentiation in Vav-deficient mouse hippocampal slices, suggesting that Vav-dependent regulation of dendritic spine morphological plasticity facilitates normal functional synapse plasticity.

  13. Comparison of annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers for measuring per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Lane, Douglas A; Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J

    2011-12-15

    Overestimation of the particle phase concentration collected on glass-fiber filters (GFFs) has been reported for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) using conventional high volume air samplers. In this study, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in the gas and particulate phases using colocated annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers at a semiurban site in Toronto, Canada, in winter 2010. Samples were analyzed for 7 PFAS classes (i.e., PFCAs, perfluoro-alkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer methacrylates (FTMACs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTACs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs)). The gas diffusion coefficients for individual PFASs were calculated and the denuder performance was evaluated. Modeled subcooled liquid vapor pressures (p(L)) correlated well with the vapor phase breakthrough for the denuder and high volume air systems. Total air concentrations for PFASs measured using annular diffusion denuders and high volume samplers were in agreement within a factor of 4; however, much greater differences were observed for measurements of gas-particle partitioning. Vapor phase PFSAs and PFCAs can adsorb to the GFF using high volume air samplers, resulting in much higher particle-associated fractions for these chemicals compared to the annular diffusion denuder sampler. This effect was not observed for the FTOHs, FTMACs, FTACs, FOSAs, and FOSEs. Thus, for investigations of gas-particle partitioning of PFSAs and PFCAs, the diffusion denuder sampler is the preferred method. The results of this study improve our understanding of the gas-particle partitioning of PFASs, which is important for modeling their long-range transport in air.

  14. Metrology of the radon in air volume activity at the italian radon reference chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciocchetti, G.; Cotellessa, G.; Soldano, E.; Pagliari, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The approach of the Italian National Institute of Ionising Radiations (I.N.M.R.I.-ENEA) on radon metrology has been based on a complete and integrated system which can be used to calibrate the main types of {sup 222}Rn in air measuring instruments with international traceability. The Italian radon reference chamber is a research and calibration facility developed at the Casaccia Research Center in Roma. This facility has an inner volume of one m{sup 3}. The wall is a cylindrical stainless steel vessel coupled with an automated climate apparatus operated both at steady and dynamic conditions. The control and data acquisition equipment is based on Radotron system, developed to automate the multitasking management of different sets of radon monitors and climatic sensors. A novel approach for testing passive radon monitors with an alpha track detector exposure standard has been developed. It is based on the direct measurement of radon exposure with a set of passive integrating monitors based on the new ENEA piston radon exposure meter. This paper describes the methodological approach on radon metrology, the status-of-art of experimental apparatus and the standardization procedures. (authors)

  15. Vav-1 expression correlates with NFkappaB activation and CD40-mediated cell death in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, Annette; Aloyz, Raquel; Baker, Kristi;

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive malignancy with a variable response to therapy. We have previously shown that DLBCL cell lines differ in their susceptibility to CD40-mediated cell death, and that resistance to CD40-targeted antibodies correlated with increased expression...... of markers of immature B-cell and absence of Vav-1 mRNA. We used gene expression profiling to investigate the mechanism of CD40 resistance in these cell lines, and found that resistance correlated with lack of Vav-1 and inability to activate NFkappaB upon CD40 ligation. Analysis of tissue microarrays of 213...

  16. Stimulus-dependent regulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase by a VAV1, Rac1, and PAK1 signaling axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roepstorff, Kirstine; Rasmussen, Izabela Zorawska; Sawada, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    dominant-positive mutants enhanced, whereas dominant-negative mutants inhibited, NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide generation following formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation. Both Rac1 and the GTP exchange factor VAV1 were required as upstream signaling...... proteins in the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced activation of endogenous PAK1. In contrast, PAK1 mutants had no effect on superoxide generation downstream of FcgammaR signaling during phagocytosis of IgG-immune complexes. We further present evidence that the effect of PAK1 on the respiratory...

  17. Relationship between Formation Water Rate, Equivalent Penetration Rate and Volume Flow Rate of Air in Air Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kexiong; Zhang Laibin; Jiang Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    Formation water invasion is the most troublesome problem associated with air drilling. However, it is not economical to apply mist drilling when only a small amount of water flows into wellbore from formation during air drilling. Formation water could be circulated out of the wellbore through increasing the gas injection rate. In this paper,the Angel model was modified by introducing Nikurade friction factor for the flow in coarse open holes and translating formation water rate into equivalent penetration rate. Thus the distribution of annular pressure and the relationship between minimum air injection rate and formation water rate were obtained. Real data verification indicated that the modified model is more accurate than the Angel model and can provide useful information for air drilling.

  18. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 24, Number 4, Winter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    in Santo Domingo, San Isidro Air Base in Santo Domingo and Maria Montez Air Base in Baharona, Do- minican Republic, opened as alternate air- fields...knew the local hiding places very well. Because I was afraid that the KMT sol- diers would eventually find me, I ran off and became a migrant

  19. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  20. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  1. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 1. Overview, technical description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) program conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah, and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide, and Volume 2 contains the Appendices which include listings of the FORTRAN code. 51 refs., 31 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  3. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  4. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 2: Appendices A-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Tomasko, D. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices A-E, containing field data and data validation.

  5. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  6. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 2, March-April 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    attempt to gain consensus for an operation legally vali- dated by UNSCR 1973 and deemed politically legitimate through sup- port of the Arab League ...24 AU WC WPC SMC22 2 1 9 11 1375 208 17 15 3 Legend : AFMC–Air Force Materiel Command AFRC–Air Force Reserve Command AETC–Air Education and Training...Logical Functional Node Legend Connector Legend Figure 2. Logical representations of entities in an operational environment In terms of the war

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its 5th Annual conference at the City University of Hong Kong Campus in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. Titles that comprise Volume 2 include: Intelligent Airport Gate Assignment System; A Study on the Effects of the Personality Compatibility to the Job Performance; ITS/CVO Application for Air cargo Transportation in Korea; An Airport as a Logistics and Economic Hub: The Case of Incheon International Airport; The Impact Of Aviation Safety over the Consumer's Behavior; The Integration of China and Taiwan Air Networks for Direct Air Cargo Services; Quality perception and carrier choice in Civil Aviation; Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making; Cooperation Among German Airports in Europe; Inbound and Outbound Air Passenger Traffic Forecasting between the United States and Selected Asian countries; An Evaluation of Alternative Facilities for Airport Redevelopment using Fuzzy Linguistic Approach; Economic Analysis of Airline Alliances; The Aviation Cooperation between the two Koreas Preparing for the Reunification of the Peninsula; and A Study on the Air Transport Cooperation in Northeast Asia between China, Japan and Korea.

  8. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 9: Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 5, Caesar's Rendering Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  9. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 7: Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 2, People's Pulp Plant is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  10. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 6: Industrialist's Manual No. 1, Shear Power Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 1, Shear Power Company is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  11. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  13. Tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 is indispensable for the interaction with VAV3 in chicken DT40 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihara, Kazuyasu [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Organization for Life Science Advancement Programs, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kimura, Yukihiro [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Division of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Honjoh, Chisato [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shota; Takeuchi, Kenji [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Organization for Life Science Advancement Programs, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Sada, Kiyonao, E-mail: ksada@u-fukui.ac.jp [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Organization for Life Science Advancement Programs, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2014-03-10

    Adaptor protein c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2 (3BP2) is known to play regulatory roles in immunoreceptor-mediated signal transduction. We have previously demonstrated that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 446} in mouse 3BP2 are predominantly phosphorylated by Syk, and the phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 183} and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of mouse 3BP2 are critical for B cell receptor (BCR)-induced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in human B cells. In this report, we have shown that Syk, but not Abl family protein-tyrosine kinases, is critical for BCR-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 in chicken DT40 cells. Mutational analysis showed that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 426} of chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk and the SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} is required for the inducible interaction with the SH2 domain of Vav3. Moreover, the expression of the mutant form of 3BP2 in which Tyr{sup 426} was substituted to Phe resulted in the reduction in BCR-mediated Rac1 activation, when compared with the case of wild-type. Altogether, these data suggest that 3BP2 is involved in the activation of Rac1 through the regulation of Vav3 by Syk-dependent phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} following BCR stimulation. - Highlights: • 3BP2 is phosphorylated by Syk, but not Abl family kinases in BCR signaling. • Tyr183 and Tyr426 in chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk. • The SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2. • Phosphorylation of Tyr426 in 3BP2 is required for the inducible binding with Vav3. • 3BP2 is involved in the regulation of BCR-mediated Rac1 activation.

  14. The effects of the forward speed and air volume of an air-assisted sprayer on spray deposition in tendone trained vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of spray application trials in a tendone trained vineyard in order to evaluate the influence of forward speed and air volume on the foliar deposition of plant protection products (PPPs, maintaining roughly constant the volume applied. The trials used an air-assisted sprayer with a centrifugal fan and 4+4 adjustable fan-shaped diffusers, each with a nozzle-holder group. A full factorial experimental design was implemented, with three forward speeds and two airflow rates, organised with a randomised complete block design including three replicates. In order to consider the influence of canopy development, the tests (one spray application for each replicate of a mixture containing a water-soluble food dye as a tracer were replicated during two phenological stages: i the end of flowering; and ii berry touch. Leaves were picked at random from the canopy after each spray treatment, and foliar PPP deposition was evaluated using a spectrophotometer. This analysis of foliar deposition showed that the airflow rates produced by the fan were unsuitable for the dense canopy typical of this type of vineyard. However, the special shape of the diffusers may make this sprayer effective if the main objective of pesticide applications in tendone trained table grape vineyards is to control bunch diseases.

  15. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  16. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 29, Number 2, March-April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    their own static IP address running solely IPv6 would con- sume less energy, thus providing longer-lasting battery life in mobile March–April 2015 Air...Headquarters US Air Force, America’s Air Force, 15. 24. Stephen Lawson, “ IPv6 Can Boost Mobile Performance, Battery Life, Proponents Say,” Computer World, 11...McFadden Jr. The Rise of IPv6 ❙ 103 Benefits and Costs of Transforming Military Cyberspace Dr. Panayotis A. Yannakogeorgos Departments 129 ❙ Views

  17. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    bases in the middle east, the island of Diego Garcia , and uS navy aircraft carriers. Aircrews, therefore, were obliged to air-refuel several times...SSgt c. Todd Lopez , “changes planned for iSr community,” Air Force print News, 30 January 2007, http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp ?id=123039294...20paper%202008-1.pdf. 29. erik Holmes, “Flight plan,” Air Force Times 68, no. 10 (24 September 2007): 12–13. 30. Moseley, Nation’s Guardians, 6. 31

  18. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Air Force materials with polution potential include jet fuel, deicer, different pesticides and Aqueous Fire Fighting Foam (AFFF). Spills and leakage...L AD-Ai66 178 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM 1/11 1985 TECHNICAL RE..(U) UNIVERSAL ENERGY SYSTEMS INC DAYTON OH R C DARRAH...EIIIIEEEIIIEEE 36 Ml ROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NtATIONdAL "URI4 OF SVAOAS - 963 -A j AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEAfjCH-- ;’’UNITEP.STATES A11R.-FORG

  19. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 34, Numbers 3 and 4, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Can America Afford to Modernize the Air Force? George A. Coggins , Colonel, USAF REWIND: READINGS IN LOGISTICS 44 From Production to...size workloads to the resources available. The latest innovation along this vein is the high-velocity maintenance (HVM) concept being tested in a...Air Force Special Operations C-130s will be the test case. If successful, the migration to the larger C-130 fleet should improve availability by

  20. Air Force Journal of Logistics: Spares Campaign 2002. Volume 26 Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Logistics Management Agency, or the organization where the author works. The Journal is a refereed journal. Manuscripts are subject to expert and peer...Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff, Installations and Logistics, and Mr Gunselman is a consultant , Dynamics Research Corporation ( DRC ), Directorate of...Management, Directorate of Supply Chain Integration, Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff, Installations and Logistics; and Mr Grehawick is a consultant, DRC

  1. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 30, Number 2, Summer 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the Predator and Reaper systems’ exploitation support data (real-time aircraft and sensor payload telemetry ) and digital terrain elevation data...to-air or new air-to-ground weapons. Third-party software can transpose real-time aircraft telemetry data into weapons-employment-zone validation...Wilson (BS, Auburn University; MAS, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University) is a dual -qualified MQ-1B and MQ-9A mission control element flight evaluator

  2. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 29, Number 5, September-October 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    service, is a dual -qualified MQ-1 and MQ-9 instructor pilot who uses his expertise to develop novel concepts for technological progression of the RPA...mission execution), which receives networked RPA telemetry , visualizes the tactical situation, and builds maneuvering solutions automatically...gone. The Next Generation Missile / Joint Dual Role Air Dominance Missile, intended as a replacement for the 94 | Air & Space Power Journal AMRAAM

  3. Air and Space Power Joumal. Volume 25, Number 3, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    pure time perspective, this would be analogous to flying the Wright Flyer in combat today! Given the pressures from budget constraints and the...faculty!” appeared on a slide or otherwise came into play. To return to our flying-unit analogy , everyone in the building was responsible for...Boundary NAF - Naval Air Facility CMAGR - Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range MCAGCC - Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center MCAS- Marine

  4. Immunochemical estimations of allergenic activities from outdoor aero-allergens, collected by a high-volume air sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Poulsen, L K; Mygind, K;

    1989-01-01

    To quantify airborne allergens in amorphus and morphological particles, a survey with collection of aero-allergens on glass fibre filters by means of a high-volume air-sampler (HIVOL) was conducted. In preliminary laboratory experiments we compared various filter elution techniques......, and the pulverizing elution technique was found to be optimal with regard to yield and convenience. When a surfactant, Tween 20 (0.5% v/v), was added to the elution buffer, a recovery of 80% could be obtained. Allergens in eluates were analysed by means of an IgG-subclass RAST inhibition assay. This immunochemical...... method for quantification of airborne allergens was validated, as a high recovery of timothy grass pollen allergens was eluted from air filters, and eluates were shown specific by RAST inhibition. The amount of immunochemically measured airborne timothy and birch allergens collected by means of the HIVOL...

  5. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  6. Comparison of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) System in a Residential Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the indoor climate and the energy performance of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system of 0.5h-1 with a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system controlled by occupancy and relative humidity for a studio apartment. Furthermore the impact of building materials...... hygroscopic properties on indoor climate and energy consumption was investigated for the two systems. Dynamic simulations of the studio apartment were carried out in the program WUFI+ with weather data from Copenhagen including outside temperature end relative humidity. For the non-hygroscopic case...

  7. Ultimate detectability of volatile organic compounds: how much further can we reduce their ambient air sample volumes for analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-10-02

    To understand the ultimately lowest detection range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, application of a high sensitivity analytical system was investigated by coupling thermal desorption (TD) technique with gas chromatography (GC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The performance of the TD-GC/TOF MS system was evaluated using liquid standards of 19 target VOCs prepared in the range of 35 pg to 2.79 ng per μL. Studies were carried out using both total ion chromatogram (TIC) and extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode. EIC mode was used for calibration to reduce background and to improve signal-to-noise. The detectability of 19 target VOCs, if assessed in terms of method detection limit (MDL, per US EPA definition) and limit of detection (LOD), averaged 5.90 pg and 0.122 pg, respectively, with the mean coefficient of correlation (R(2)) of 0.9975. The minimum quantifiable mass of target analytes, when determined using real air samples by the TD-GC/TOF MS, is highly comparable to the detection limits determined experimentally by standard. In fact, volumes for the actual detection of the major aromatic VOCs like benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in ambient air samples were as low as 1.0 mL in the 0.11-2.25 ppb range. It was thus possible to demonstrate that most target compounds including those in low abundance could be reliably quantified at concentrations down to 0.1 ppb at sample volumes of less than 10 mL. The unique sensitivity of this advanced analytical system can ultimately lead to a shift in field sampling strategy with smaller air sample volumes facilitating faster, simpler air sampling (e.g., use of gas syringes rather than the relative complexity of pumps or bags/canisters), with greatly reduced risk of analyte breakthrough and minimal interference, e.g., from atmospheric humidity. The improved detection limits offered by this system can also enhance accuracy and measurement precision.

  8. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  9. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  10. The U.S. Air Service in World War I. Volume IV. Postwar Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    annotation to a mini- mum. All ef the documents reproduced here nave been taken from a microfilm copy of Edgar S. Gorroll, "History of the Air Service, AEF...World War I He directed that such information be sent to Col. Edgar S. Gorrell. Assistant Chief of Staff. who was compiling the history of the Air...piingurvaiuonapigs Commanding ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ orin wither the bebogt2oraie h dsiiitt and ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Orhs Frar’.cc.ri 14 th tulran ilno al o orepc Theion tops

  11. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    1950–1953, rev. ed. (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1983), 480–85; and Gen O. P. Weyland, transcript of oral history interview by Dr...craft in the war, see the official history: Direccion de Est­ dios Historicos, Vcom (Lt Col) Ruben Moro, ed., Historia de la Fuerza Aerea Argentina...the war from the Ar­ gentinian side is Comodoro (Col) Ruben Moro, Historia del Conflicto del Atlantico Sur (Buenos Aires: Escuela Supe­ rior de Guerra

  12. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s‑1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  13. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  14. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 4, July-August 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Princeton University Press, 1989), 485. 33. Amir Mizroch, “Nano Drones, Ethical Algorithms: Inside Israel’s Secret Plan for Its Future Air Force,” WIRED...Mindell, Iron Coffin, 48. 40. Ibid., 1. 41. Ibid., 2. 42. “A Utilitarian View of the Monitor’s Fight,” in Herman Melville, Battle-pieces and As- pects of

  15. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  16. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 17, Number 4, Winter 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Nautical and Aviation Publishing Co., 1992), chap. 5. 2. R. J. Overy, Goering : The “Iron Man” (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984), 190. 3. Air... Nuremberg tribunal. Kane acknowledges that German officers never in� ternalized their oath to the Weimar constitution yet fails to recognize the

  17. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 5. A Statistical Compendium and Chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    to target folders and pre- and post-strike photos. They include interviews and oral history materials, SITREPS from several different Services and...css #33) Air Operations: Charleston AFB is designated as the primary aerial port of embarkation for Desert ExpresE . (Msg (S), USCINCTMANS to AIG 11812

  18. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-04-12

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

  19. Refugee Camp Planning And Construction Handbook - Air Force Handbook 10-222, Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    site emergency facility will be required, as well as a preventive medicine facility. Use of local existing facilities will help ease the burden of...are mosquitoes, flies, fleas, and cockroaches . AFH 10-222, Volume 22, 15 June 2000 52

  20. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  1. Activation of Vav/Rho GTPase Signaling by CXCL12 Controls Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinase–Dependent Melanoma Cell Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomé, Rubén A.; Molina-Ortiz, Isabel; Samaniego, Rafael; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2006-01-01

    Melanoma cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4, which confers invasive signals on binding to its ligand CXCL12. We show here that knocking down membrane-type matrix metal-loproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression translates into a blockade of invasion across reconstituted basement membranes and type I collagen gels in response to CXCL12, which is the result of lack of MMP-2 activation. Interference with MMP-2 expression further confirms its important role during this invasion. Vav proteins are g...

  2. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  3. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 25, Number 4, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    117 Merrill L. Bartlett and Jack Sweetman Reviewer: Lt Col Rick Spyker, USAF Arms and...www.mitre.org/news/the_edge/fall_04/byrne .html; Byrne, “Managing Complexity: An Approach to Net-Centric Ops,” Association of Old Crows Sym- posium, Burlington...John H. Modinger, PhD, USAF United States Air Force Academy Leathernecks: An Illustrated History of the United States Marine Corps by Merrill L

  4. Air & Space Power Journal (ASPJ). Volume 27, Number 3, May-June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    percent (as high as 47 percent) in the 1950s and 60s. One can imagine a natural inversion of budget shares, whereby 12 percent of the defense budget... Sociedad Colombo Alemana de Transporte Aéreo (SCADTA), a German-owned and -operated air service, increased its presence throughout South America...had recently estab- lished businesses and preferred renting apartments in lieu of hotel rooms.11 Even Mexico was not immune. Covert agents spent large

  5. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. Program Technical Report. 1990. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-05

    pore. It is argued by Kafka and Dussan [121, that an imprecise treatment of this near contact line region affects only slightly the flow and pressure...disappearence of the Franz -Keldysh oscillation. Suggestions for future experiments are made. 96-2 Acknowledgements I wish to thank the Air Force...to cap the doped GaAs 4 . Photoreflectance is a sensitive tool in determining surface electric field in bulk materials 5. For Jarge fields, Franz

  6. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 4, Winter 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    including meta - data, meaning, and information about con- tent. For example, when a Web browser re- quests a Web page, the Web server transmitting the...contractors), then the service could take remedial action. 5. Assemble a team to examine the meta - data exposure of Air Force Web sites and develop...Value,” White Paper, BrightPlanet, 2005, http:// www.brightplanet.com/technology/DeepWeb.asp. 13. Stephen C. Mercado , “Sailing the Sea of OSINT in the

  7. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    D. R., and Golovin , M. N., "Enhanced Energy Coupling Phenomena: A State-of-the-Art Survey and Assessment," Air Force Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB...PPM) (PPM) (PPM) 1-6 9380 8755 625 625 100% 2-1 3000 200 2800 5700 49% 2-6 3090 270 2820 7350 38% 2-11 1940 370 1570 6940 23% 1-10 2830 1250 1580 6020

  8. Air & Space Journal. Volume 28, Number 4. July-August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    sufficiently accurate individual and collective mental models of the world with which to take useful action—involves understanding the whole C2 iceberg and...Advantage Lt Col Paul J. Maykish, USAF The Rest of the C2 Iceberg ❙ 56 Lt Col Dave Lyle, USAF The Imperative to Integrate Air Force Command and...deliver information to the war fighter at the tactical edge without having to rely on the traditional C/AOC model of hundreds of people organized in

  9. Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force Low Altitude Flying Operations. Preliminary Draft. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    and Marketing ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PSD Prevention of Significant Deterioration RAs Restricted Areas SAC Strategic Air Command SO 2 sulfur...resources under IR-700. However, significant impacts have not been reported to the New York Department of Agriculture and Markets (Butcher 1987...nesting of bald eagles at particular sites in Salt River and Verde River canyons, which is an important issue with 3 birdwatchers . The preservation of

  10. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    on Space Nuclear Power Systems, University of New Mexico , Albuquerque, New Mexico , January 11-13, 1984. 4. Chow, L.C., E.T. Mahefkey, and J.E. Yokajty...activity. Impulsive behaviour or execessive machismo , brought about by peer group pressure, are good exampies. The advantage in using the hazardous-thought...accomplished at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, AW, AWY, AWYW at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico . At that facility, special thanks is extended to Capt. Rex

  11. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Toxic Hazards Division. Finally, Jim Stokes of Northrop Services, Inc. should be recognized for his work in the installation and debugging of...Pandolf & Goldman, 1978; Yates, et al, 1980; Webber, et al, 1981; Frye & Flick, 1983; Carpenter & Flick, 1984). In some circumstances, the thermal...Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX. Fanger, P.O., Thermal Comfort , New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. Frye , A.J. and C.A. Flick, "Report on Chamber

  12. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 28, Number 3, Fall 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    confronting What training initially took the mysteries of the geared Hispano- Suiza V-eight, the water-cooled radial Salmson, place in Europe was on...were being built, including the Liberty Motor School in Detroit, Michigan; the Hispano- Suiza centers, and the Air School at New Brunswick, New Jersey...In part, it resulted from difficulties with the type of equipment available like, for example, the complex and delicate, Hispano- Suiza -geared 220 hp

  13. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 26, Number 3, May-June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    beyond. Although current capabilities are intended to be evolutionary , one should nevertheless pursue the analysis of operational interest of new...headquarters (SJFHQ)—in order to showcase the extent to which campaign design and planning have become epistemological , May–June 2012 Air & Space...elaborate epistemological networks, maps, and systems. Buzzwords like transformation and the knowledge battlefield reverberate in meeting rooms and

  14. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1960. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    nothing to it so far except in an experimental way." 12 Nevertheless, during a period of strained relations with Mexico , Army aviators were ordered to...operations against a hostile force in Mexico . The Air Corps submitted these plans on 13July ; on 11 August a special committee ofthe Army General...determined to haggle , particularly over the length of time that prisoners wouldbe held in custody by a neutral nation’s repatriation commission . On 4June

  15. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1987. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Jacqueline Paver (1986) Duke University Specialty: Biomechanical Engineering ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER (Arnold Air Force Systems) Dr...Photo 6. Assembling the stator windings while the inner sphere was pressurized. Soccer ball and football were both used so one could be removed and pumped...Computational methods for turbulent, transonic and viscous flow ( Springer Verlag, NY 1983). M. D. Love and D. C. Leslie - Studies in subgrid. modeling

  16. Gulf War Air Power Survey. Volume 2. Operations and Effects and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    1991, Saddam was apparently able to 17/Bob Simon , the television reporter who spent forty days in various Iraqi prisons around Basm and Baghdad during...specific occasions that sparked speeches were the Iraqi "victory" at Al Khafi, the start of the ground war, and the ceasefire [Bob Simon , Forty Days...CE.TAM/IN) suggested to General Glosson that cutting the Sinek , Saddam, and Univer- sity bridges in Baghdad might finally enable Coalition air strikes

  17. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume IV. Caribbean Region Air Traffic Services System Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Departamento de Transito Aereo) of the National Airways Division (Division de Aerovias Nacionales) as the authority responsible for the general...Directorate of Air Transport and Traffic (Direccion General Sectorial de Transporte y Transito Aereo - DGTTA), which in turn falls under the authority of...Northern Coastal Region of 4 the Directorate of Engineering and Systems (Direccion de Ingenieria y Sistemas), which is responsible for maintenance of the

  18. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    just enough alignment in the organism passively along the field lines. Many animals, such as insects, fish, birds , reptiles , and mammals , have been...STUDENT RESEARCH PROGRAM 1989 PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT UNIVERSAL ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. VOLUME III of III Program Director, UES Program Manager , AFOSR...Bldg. Assigned: Flight Dynamics Laboratory Wilberforce, OH 45384 (513) 376-6435 Dagmar Fertl Degree: BS Texas A&M Univ. Specialty: Biology Wildlife

  19. Air and Space Power Journal - Africa and Francophonie. Volume 7, Number 3, 3rd Quarter, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    and changes to ocean buoyancy caused by melting ice may influence submarine op- erations.4 The 2010 US Quadrennial Defense Review was the first to...and for Conflict Prevention , Including through Peace Missions Shirley V. Scott, PhD Shahedul Khan Volume 7, No. 3 A S P J–A frica and Francophonie...Courts and Tribunals, and Climate Change and Conflict Prevention

  20. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 27, Number 6, November-December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics,” in Francis W. Sears and Mark Waldo Zemansky , University Physics, 2nd ed. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing...New York: Springer, 2004), 26–29. November–December 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 122 Views 7. “Change of Phase,” in Mark Waldo Zemansky , Heat...Spectra and Atomic Physics,” in Sears and Zemansky , University Physics, 884–900. 9. Chuck Walker with Joel Powell, Atlas: The Ultimate Weapon; by Those

  1. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    I06 31 Simultaneous Lidar Measurements Dr. Chester S. Gardner of the Sodium Layer at the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory and the University of...directional stabilizing power of the vertical tail in side slip. Body and nacelle geometry are also factors in determining C-N-BETA. For the C-5 these...of C-N-R is essentially the same as for C-N-BETA, except that C-N-R does not contain a body or nacelle contribution. This would indicate that the

  2. Seconds Before Disaster. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 14, Number 1, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    drill. The light cans were then installed in PVC liners and encased in concrete. This gave a very clean result that didn’t require patching around...anti-personnel mine, designed to blow up not when weight is put on it, but when it is removed. As he stepped off the mine, it exploded, blowing off...young NCO develop and practice those quality Air Force traits. Those traits molded my son into an outstanding NCO with a bright future,” CMSgt

  3. Realistic air filter media performance simulation. Part II: Beyond finite-volume computational fluid dynamics procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Tronville, Paolo Maria

    2013-01-01

    One form of numerical simulation of flow and particle capture by air filter media sees gases as continuous fluids, influenced by the macro-properties viscosity, density, and pressure. The alternate approach treats gases as atoms or molecules in random motion, impacting their own kind and solid surfaces on a micro-scale. The appropriate form for analysis of flow through a given filter medium at a given operating condition depends on the gas condition and the Knudsen number (Kn) of the finest f...

  4. Analysis of air-toxics emissions, exposures, cancer risks and controllability in five urban areas. Volume 2. Controllability analysis and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.; Coleman, B.; Laich, E.; Powell, R.

    1990-04-01

    The report (Volume 2) is the second phase of a study to define the urban air toxics problem and to discern what combination of control measures can best be employed to mitigate the problem. Volume 1 of the study documented the base year analysis (nominally the year 1980), involving dispersion modeling of emissions data for 25 carcinogenic air toxics in five U.S. urban areas and a subsequent assessment of estimated aggregate cancer incidence. The Volume 2 report applies various control strategies and analyzes the resulting reduction in aggregate cancer incidence that would occur between 1980 and 1995. Control scenarios consisted of (1) efforts that were currently underway to reduce air toxics emissions at the time of the study, (2) efforts that were expected to occur by 1995, mainly national standards that were under development, and (3) a series of selected more rigorous controls.

  5. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 3: Cross impact between the 1990 market and the air physical distribution systems, book 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burby, R. J.; Kuhlman, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Book 2 of this volume is divided into the following sections: (1) commodities and system networks; (2) future mode choice decisions and commodity air eligibility; (3) comparative cargo transportation costs - air, truck, rail and water; (4) elasticities of demand; (5) operating cost; (6) operating profit, rate making, and returns; (7) importance of rate and service on future aircraft; (8) potential market demand for new aircraft; (9) scenario of events affecting system/market growth; and (10) future study and technology requirements.

  6. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 4. TAAS (Terminal Advanced Automation System) Terminal Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-29

    entry message* Al 1.6.11 ENTER FDE NOTATIONS TASK TYPE: E COORD MEDIA: FREQUENCY: HI CRITICALITY! 1.24 A1.1.6.11.1 INITIATE EnterEFDE- Natation message...Stat-bsilndicotor. Aircraft Type. Assigned Altitude or Interim ... ( Sea SLS). 48.3.7.1.2.1.1.I-8 SI7UATIUN DISPLAY 779 󈧯.3.7.1.2.1.1.1-01 The...Ind:mctor’, Air’crc’ft Type, Assigned Altitude or, nteriri ... ( Sea 2S5). 40.3.7.1.2.1.1.1-00 SITUATION DISPLAY 7T9 40.3.7.1.2.1.1.1-01 The r’ouir .mtotý .,f

  7. High volume air sampler for environmental nanoparticles using a sharp-cut inertial filter combined with an impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Tianren; Takahashi, Hideaki; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Toriba, Akira; Ikeda, Takuji; Otani, Yoshio; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    A multi-nozzle layered mesh inertial filter, developed by the authors based on inertial filter technology for separating ultrafine particles (UFPs) at a moderate pressure drop, was investigated in an attempt to improve the steepness of the separation efficiency curve by combining an inertial filter and an impactor. In this system, the separation curves overlap each other, while maintaining about a 100 nm difference in cutoff size d p50. Such a combination, which we refer to as a ‘hybrid inertial filter’, was validated for a single nozzle geometry. Using a multi nozzle geometry, it was scaled up to a high volume air sampling flow rate of 400 l min-1 at a pressure drop of  filter using multi-nozzle geometry was confirmed. The features of the hybrid inertial filter included the suppression of the bouncing of particles with sizes  >300 nm, a steeper collection efficiency curve and less pressure drop than those of a previous type of inertial filter. The ambient PM0.13 evaluated for the present unit was found to be in good agreement with values obtained for 2 different types of cascade air samplers.

  8. United States Air Force 1993 Summer Research Program. Volume 10: Wright Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper outlines two main tasks assigned during my employment as a graduate student research associate at the Wright Laboratory, Wright Paterson Air Force Base. Upon arrival at the Wright Laboratories, I was to investigate a method of signal processing, different from the common Fourier transform, in that inherent mathematical properties of the signal space were exploited in retrieving the spectrum of the signal. The two alternative signal processing methods investigated are the MUSIC and Minimum-Norm procedures for high resolution signal processing. The results of the investigation are included with a general comment section regarding the performance of the algorithms. The second main task assigned was the investigation of angle of arrival (AOA) calculation. Traditionally, methods such as beamforming have been used to estimate AOA using arrays of sensors and sophisticated signal processing algorithms. We are curious as to whether the AOA can be measured using only two sensors and FFT processing measuring of the phase difference of the signal at two adjacent sensors. Results of this study are presented with general comments as to the validity of the measuring paradigm.

  9. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 4. Information data base: status of urban congestion, air pollution, and energy use. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.; Putnam, E.S.; Usowicz, T.W.

    1974-12-01

    The objective of the study is to formulate a basis for the design of a joint program which would simultaneously improve urban mobility and air quality and conserve petroleum resources. This fourth volume contains INTERPLAN's initial definition of the transportation-related urban problems now faced by UMTA, EPA, and FEA, and their authority to cope with these problems. The current status of transportation-related urban congestion, air pollution, and energy usage is analyzed on a national level, and the future status likely to obtain if present trends continue unchecked is projected. Congestion and air pollution is also examined in four cities: Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Seattle, and Baltimore.

  10. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  11. Integrated Aircraft Fuel Tank Inerting and Compartment Fire Suppression System. Volume 2. Evaluation of Nitrogen-Enriched Air as a Fire Suppressant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    speculation that such an ideal condition might not occur in an actual test situation, further tests were conducted to determine whether the...TYPE: POOL FUEL TYPE: .JP4 FUEL FLOW RATE; N/A EXTINGUISHANT: C02 RUN1Cn AIR TEMPERATURE: VARIOUS 4 .. i00 PUNtOS RUN117 .110 2 30 4065 VOLUME I

  12. The Conference Proceedings of the 1999 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anming (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Issues around direct flights across Taiwan Strait are always one of the hottest topics in eastern Asia transport market. Although the direct links have not been connected yet, they are still highly concerned by different disciplines of politics, laws, and management. Airlines and related business also watch closely to these issues for policy changes will easily affect their interests in Chinese market which the future of the air transportation in eastern Asia is heavily depending on. In the past decades, Hong Kong was the most important hub in this market; it will still be an important one in the future. It is proved, however, traffic on the link between Hong Kong and Taiwan can be shifted to the link between Macau and Taiwan, so can it be shifted to the links across Taiwan Strait. Moreover, outgoing passengers from China transferred in Hong Kong can also find transit services in Taiwan. These movements will possibly cause a big change in eastern Asian air transport system for there are millions of passengers travelling in this area. The uncertainties of direct links across Taiwan Strait are still leaving, some problems unsolved. Whether the direct links will be defined as international routes or domestic' routes are not clear; the selection of hubs and airlines to provide direct services are not yet made; even the type of freedoms and bilateral agreements can also change the market and network quite a lot. A much bigger volume of passengers can also be found if further travelling deregulation for Chinese to travel across Taiwan Strait can be made. All these variables are making issues around direct flights worthy of continuous observant.

  13. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krause-Gruszczynska, Malgorzata

    2011-12-28

    Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-\\/-, integrin-beta1-\\/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-\\/- and Src\\/Yes\\/Fyn-\\/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR) during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA) and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1\\/2-\\/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  14. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  15. Summer Research Program - 1997 Summer Faculty Research Program Volume 6 Arnold Engineering Development Center United States Air Force Academy Air Logistics Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Fracture Analysis of the F-5, 15%-Spar Bolt DR Devendra Kumar SAALC/LD 6- 16 CUNY-City College, New York, NY A Simple, Multiversion Concurrency Control...Program, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH. [3]AFGROW, Air Force Crack Propagation Analysis Program, Version 3.82 (1997) 15-8 A SIMPLE, MULTIVERSION ...Office of Scientific Research Boiling Air Force Base, DC and San Antonio Air Logistic Center August 1997 16-1 A SIMPLE, MULTIVERSION CONCURRENCY

  16. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  17. Chronic sympathoexcitation through loss of Vav3, a Rac1 activator, results in divergent effects on metabolic syndrome and obesity depending on diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacho-Márquez, Mauricio; Nogueiras, Rubén; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Sauzeau, Vincent; Al-Massadi, Omar; Diéguez, Carlos; Bustelo, Xosé R

    2013-08-01

    The role of the sympathetic nervous system, stress, and hypertension in metabolic syndrome and obesity remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we utilized genetically engineered mice showing chronic sympathoexcitation and hypertension due to lack of Vav3, a Rac1 activator. Here, we report that these animals develop metabolic syndrome under chow diet. However, they show protection from metabolic syndrome and obesity under fatty diets. These effects are elicited by α1-adrenergic- and diet-dependent metabolic changes in liver and the α1/β3 adrenergic-mediated stimulation of brown adipocyte thermogenesis. These responses seem to be engaged by the local action of noradrenaline in target tissues rather than by long-range effects of adrenaline. By contrast, they are not triggered by low parasympathetic drive or the hypertensive state present in Vav3-deficient mice. These results indicate that the sympathetic system plays divergent roles in the etiology of metabolic diseases depending on food regimen, sympathoexcitation source, and disease stage.

  18. Successful Production of Piglets Derived from Expanded Blastocysts Vitrified Using a Micro Volume Air Cooling Method without Direct Exposure to Liquid Nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    MISUMI, Koji; Hirayama, Yuri; EGAWA, Sachiko; Yamashita, Shoko; HOSHI, Hiroyoshi; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blasto...

  19. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 2. Public-private urban transportation modal mixes. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Dei Rossi, J.A.; Henneman, S.S.; Putnam, E.S.; Usowicz, T.W.

    1974-12-01

    The objective of this four-volume study is to formulate a basis for the design of a joint interagency action program which would simultaneously improve urban mobility and air quality and conserve petroleum resources. This second volume presents an algorithm for calculating the impacts on transportation energy use and pollutant emissions of alternative urban transportation mixes. The algorithm is used to compare the change in national urban energy use and pollutant emissions implied by the maximum conceivable diversion of 1990 urban auto travel to bus, rail and para-transit compared to the no-diversion case. This exercise is supported by appendices showing the derivation of the methodology and of the database. The volume also includes a discussion of issues, tradeoffs, and methodologies relevant to the local determination of a balanced modal mix in an individual metropolitan area.

  20. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giramonti, A. J.; Lessard, R. D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    An energy storage system for electric utility peak load applications is a modified gas turbine power system utilizing underground storage of very high pressure air. The compressed air energy storage (CAES) concept involves using off peak electricity generated from indigenous coal or nuclear sources to compress air, storing the air in large underground facilities, and withdrawing the air during peak load periods when it would be heated by combustion and expanded through gas turbines to generate power. The attractiveness of the CAES concept is based upon its potential to supply competitively priced peaking energy, to reduce peak load power plant dependence on petroleum based fuels, and to provide a means for leveling the utility system load demand. Therefore, a technical and economic assessment of coal fired fluidized bed combustor/compressed air energy storage systems was performed and is described.

  1. Impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants in rooms with personalized and total volume ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Cermak, Radim; Kovar, O.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement ventilat......The impact of airflow interaction on inhaled air quality and transport of contaminants between occupants was studied in regard to pollution from floor covering, human bioeffluents and exhaled air, with combinations of two personalized ventilation systems (PV) with mixing and displacement...

  2. DNMT3B modulates the expression of cancer-related genes and downregulates the expression of the gene VAV3 via methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Arrieta, Irlanda; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2017-01-01

    Altered promoter DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic abnormalities in human cancer. DNMT3B, de novo methyltransferase, is clearly related to abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes and its overexpression contributes to oncogenic processes and tumorigenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells on global gene expression and on the methylation of selected genes to the identification of genes that can be target of DNMT3B. We found that the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells, modulate the expression of genes related to cancer, downregulated the expression of 151 genes with CpG islands and downregulated the expression of the VAV3 gene via methylation of its promoter. These results highlight the importance of DNMT3B in gene expression and human cancer. PMID:28123849

  3. DNMT3B modulates the expression of cancer-related genes and downregulates the expression of the gene VAV3 via methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Arrieta, Irlanda; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2017-01-01

    Altered promoter DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic abnormalities in human cancer. DNMT3B, de novo methyltransferase, is clearly related to abnormal methylation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes and its overexpression contributes to oncogenic processes and tumorigenesis in vivo. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells on global gene expression and on the methylation of selected genes to the identification of genes that can be target of DNMT3B. We found that the overexpression of DNMT3B in HaCaT cells, modulate the expression of genes related to cancer, downregulated the expression of 151 genes with CpG islands and downregulated the expression of the VAV3 gene via methylation of its promoter. These results highlight the importance of DNMT3B in gene expression and human cancer.

  4. Compressed air energy storage: Preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 2: Utility system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The performance of an aquifer compressed air energy storage system was studied. The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network are analyzed. Scenarios of 100 percent coal, 50 percent coal and 50 percent nuclear, and 100 percent nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Favorable economics are indicated when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil fired generation.

  5. Compressed-air energy storage preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Volume 5, Part 1: Turbomachinery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, P. A.; Bonk, J. S.; Kobett, W. F.; Kosanovich, N. S.; Long, L. J.; Marinacci, D. J.

    1982-11-01

    The development of the design approach for a combustion turbine heat cycle and the major mechanical equipment for use by an electric utility at a selected aquifer air storage site is documented. A compressed air energy storage (CAES) system utilizes off peak electric power, available from base load power plants, to store compressed air underground in an aquifer. During subsequent periods, the stored air is extracted from the aquifer and used as an air supply for a generating combustion turbine expander. The aquifer has an initial discovery pressure of 840 psia. An initial air injection temperature of 1500 F was selected. The major mechanical equipment considered includes: the turbine motor/generator compressor train, intercooler and aftercooler system, and the exhaust gas regenerator. The cycle and machinery configuration and the specific mechanical equipment were selected for their Media site characteristics. These characteristics and the effect of component interdependency are considered when a conservative component design approach is established which satisfies the Media site CAES system requirements.

  6. Air-to-Air Encounters in Southeast Asia. Volume III. Events from 1 March 1967 to 1 August 1967 and Miscellaneous Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-02-01

    1620H 4 F-105D 2 WIG-2i Sighting 111-157 26 Apr󈨇/i6240 4 F-4C 10 WIG-li 0/0 1/0 Ill- isa 28 Apr*67/i14014 4 F-4C 2 WIS-2lSihtn 111-159 28 Apr󈨇/1630H... RTU to F-4C. BLUE 3 3500 200 TAC righter. F-84 in Korea.F-100 and F-4C School. Comments on this Encounter: BLUE 1: "At the air-to-air ranges we were...Hours Hours Missions Remarks BLUE 2 600 70 Instructed in the RTU BLUE 3 5000 85 BLUE 4 600 338 68 Comments on this Encounter: i It looked like areas had

  7. Feasibility Study for an Air Force Environmental Model and Data Exchange. Volume 2. Appendices B - E. Air Force Needs and Capabilities Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    conferences (both 80 percent). Newsletters (140 percent) and seminars (50 percent) within the Air Force assist much less in technology transfer , which...a microcomputer (desk). *1 d. Network Needs No established environmental technology transfer or information network, automated or otherwise, exists in...Water Modeling Catalog, 1981 13 The following data bases also have model citations which were used for reference: AGRICOLA (National Agriculture

  8. Studi Numerik Karakteristik Pengeringan Batubara pada Fluidized Bed Coal Dyer Terhadap Pengaruh Variasi Temperatur Air Heater dengan Tube Heater Tersusun Staggered dan Perbandingan Volume Chamber dan Volume Batubara Sebesar 50%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Sarah Novrizqa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia mempunyai sumber daya batubara yang cukup besar dan sebagian besar sumber daya tersebut termasuk ke dalam batubara peringkat rendah berupa lignit dan sub-bituminus yang memiliki kadar air yang tinggi. Tingginya kadar air menyebabkan rendahnya nilai kalor, sehingga pemanfaatan batubara jenis ini menjadi terbatas dan sulit untuk dipasarkan. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya teknologi pengeringan yang dapat meningkatkan nilai kalor dari batubara tersebut. Dalam proses pengeringan akan melibatkan perpindahan panas dan massa. Proses ini akan didefinisikan dalam suatu studi numerik, dimana penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode numerik dengan software Fluent 6.3.26. Pemilihan kondisi simulasi digunakan model turbulensi k-ε realizable dan skema interpolasi first-order upwind. Serta mempelajari pengaruh temperatur inlet udara pengering yang divariasikan. Variasi temperatur adalah 316 K, 327 K, 339 K. Dari penelitian ini  dapat diketahui nilai drying rate serta pengaruh temperatur dan posisi batubara dalam proses pengeringan pada drying chamber fluidized bed coal dryer dengan tube heater tersusun staggered serta pengaruh dari perbandingan volume batubara dengan volume chamber sebesar 50%. Moisture content batubara yang paling banyak berkurang dialami oleh temperature outlet terbesar yaitu 339 K dari 0,22 hingga 0,0167. Laju pengeringan yang memiliki waktu paling cepat yaitu pada temperatur 339 K, sekitar 1100 detik, sedangkan yang memiliki waktu paling lama yaitu pada temperatur 316 K, sekitar 4600 detik.

  9. Effects of Water Volume and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of Air-cured Burley Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascione S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a two-year field trial in the region of Campania (Southern Italy the effects of water volume and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of Burley tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L. were investigated with reference to the following traits: cured leaf yield, price index, yield value, leaf area, specific leaf weight, burning capacity, color parameters, total alkaloid, nitrate and chloride leaf content. The experimental design was a factorial comparison among three water volumes (40, 80 and 120% evapotranspiration (ET, four nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 and two genotypes (cv TN86 and the hybrid R7-11. The yield of cured leaves rose with the increase in water and nitrogen availability, albeit at a decreasing rate. With the increase in water volume, the price index, burning capacity, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrate content decreased, while leaf area and chloride content increased. Up to a rate of 160 kg ha-1, nitrogen fertilization increased the price index, yield value, burning capacity, leaf area, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrates, and reduced leaf chloride content especially at 40% ET water volume. Both, nitrogen fertilization and water volume had little influence on leaf color. The year had considerable effects on yield, leaf area and color parameters, with higher values in the rainier season. In the two years, genotype TN86 showed higher stability for yield and yield value, lower alkaloid and higher nitrate content in the leaf than the R7-11 hybrid.

  10. Renewal of the Nellis Air Force Range Land Withdrawal, Legislative Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1. Chapters 1-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    feet (Mozingo and Williams 1980; Air Force 1981). Asclepias eastwoodiana Eastwood milkweed SOC, BLM G2S2 Low, few-stemmed perennial herb from...Desert monkey grasshopper (Psychomastix deserticola) SOC Listed by USFWS as potentially occurring on NAFR Pahranagat naucorid bug (Pelocoris shoshone

  11. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  13. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: Roles of inorganic ions and taurine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Nirmalendu Saha

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (–80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures, respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25–30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 ± 0.54 mol/g liver) due to activation of Ba2+- and quinidine-sensitive K+ channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl¯ (4.35 ± 0.25 mol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68 ± 0.37 mol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride- and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78 ± 0.65 mol/g liver), and also Cl¯ (3.72 ± 0.25 mol/g liver). The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine, an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 ± 0.38 mol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 ± 0.45 mol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4′-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures, thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  14. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions.

  15. Comprehensive Monitoring Program: Final Air Quality Data Assessment Report for FY90, Version 3.1 Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Geometric Means by Phase for CMP- Figure 4.2-10 TSF Results for 9/24/88 Figure 4.2- I1 TSP Results for 9/26/90 0 jIjI- xii - i’"AIR-90.’rOC S S * * LIST...northeast during the early hours of the day, then to the east (toward the Arsenal) at midday. Tabla 6.2-1 provides a continuous record of criteria

  16. Relocation of the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing of the California Air National Guard. Volume III. Comments and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Agency, Region IX. Draft Environmental Impact State- ment/ Modesto Wastewater Facilities Improvements. 3an Francisco, CA: U.S. Environ- mental...information call (209) 998-3631. MATHER AIR FORCE BASE, Sacramento: Extensive low-level routes 1,000-3,000’ AGL:along Sierra foothills between Oroville and...Lake along the Sierras . Extensive low altitude flying in Military Operating Area beneath R- 2508. Base traffic funnels Into a 24 mile final for Rwy 16

  17. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  18. Predicted versus measured thoracic gas volumes of collegiate athletes made by the BOD POD air displacement plethysmography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R

    2015-10-01

    Measured (TGVm) and predicted (TGVp) thoracic gas volumes from the BOD POD were compared in 33 lean, university athletes. On average, TGVp (3.529 L) was not significantly different (p = 0.343) from TGVm (3.628 L); however, there was a bias (r = -0.703, p < 0.001). The difference in the percentage of body fat (BF) was within ±2% BF for 76% of the sample, but athletes at the extremes of height should have TGV measured.

  19. Optimum coil shape for a given volume of conductor to obtain maximum central field in an air core solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper is an expansion of engineering notes prepared in 1961 to address the question of how to wind circular coils so as to obtain the maximum axial field with the minimum volume of conductor. At the time this was a germain question because of the advent of superconducting wires which were in very limited supply, and the rapid push for generation of very high fields, with little concern for uniformity.

  20. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1 for Air Force Plant 6, Cobb County, Georgia. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-09

    GKUUND WArER MONItORING FIELL IAPLEAENTA:TIN ?RoGu(M Site GI Previous Scope of Work Wilson and Companies Architects and Engineers 1. Preliminary...Approved for public release; 10, OtCLASIIhIICATION, IIwNIGRAIIeIO SC34IOUL distribution unlimite 4 -NA F ORGOGANIZATION RPORT NUMIE(S) S MONITORING ...ORGANI1A’iON REPORT NUMPERASE IRP-IIa-AFP6 64 xAfi OF PEROING ORG IS ZArTON Śo 7a.AM OF MONITORING OAYIZAToN Environmental Science ’ aeedwabi.) U.S. Air

  1. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  2. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 2. Volume 3. Luke Air Force Base, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    the plant is discharged into a Canal, which leads to the Agua Fria River. The treated effluent is routinely monitored for conventional parameters...the residual products covered. An estimated volume of 100,000 gallons per year, mostly waste JP-4 fuel, may have been disposed of at this site. 1.3.5...cleaned at an area on-site set up for this purpose. Augers, tools, drill rods, and casing will be inspected to ensure that all residue such as muds

  3. Preliminary feasibility evalution of compressed air storage power systems. Volume II. Appendices, period June 1975--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Interest in compressed air storage has been developing in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, England, and France, as well as the United States. One commercial unit is under construction in Huntorf, West Germany. Compressed air for peak power can be stored either in natural or man-made caverns. Only new excavations in hard rock down to depths of about 2500 feet are considered in this report. In 1974, conditions for underground storage were discussed in a Geological Survey of Potential Cavern Areas in New England, referred to as the CAINE report. In this survey of the northeast region, the rest of the corridor between Washington and Boston has been added. The rock formations in the entire area of about 45,000 square miles are evaluated. The physical properties of rocks and criteria for their evaluation in underground openings are discussed. Methods of rock excavation and the basis for selecting areas are considered. Information on bedrock units along the corridor is reviewed. A list of favorable rock formations is included.

  4. Gas dispersion and immobile gas volume in solid and porous particle biofilter materials at low air flow velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G

    2010-07-01

    Gas-phase dispersion in granular biofilter materials with a wide range of particle sizes was investigated using atmospheric air and nitrogen as tracer gases. Two types of materials were used: (1) light extended clay aggregates (LECA), consisting of highly porous particles, and (2) gravel, consisting of solid particles. LECA is a commercial material that is used for insulation, as a soil conditioner, and as a carrier material in biofilters for air cleaning. These two materials were selected to have approximately the same particle shape. Column gas transport experiments were conducted for both materials using different mean particle diameters, different particle size ranges, and different gas flow velocities. Measured breakthrough curves were modeled using the advection-dispersion equation modified for mass transfer between mobile and immobile gas phases. The results showed that gas dispersivity increased with increasing mean particle diameter for LECA but was independent of mean particle diameter for gravel. Gas dispersivity also increased with increasing particle size range for both media. Dispersivities in LECA were generally higher than for gravel. The mobile gas content in both materials increased with increasing gas flow velocity but it did not show any strong dependency on mean particle diameter or particle size range. The relative fraction of mobile gas compared with total porosity was highest for gravel and lowest for LECA likely because of its high internal porosity.

  5. Natural air ventilation in underground galleries as a tool to increase radon sampling volumes for geologic monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eff-Darwich, Antonio [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Francisco, Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/Via Lactea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: adarwich@ull.es; Vinas, Ronaldo [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Francisco, Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Soler, Vicente [Estacion Volcanologica de Canarias, IPNA-CSIC, Av. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuez, Julio de la; Quesada, Maria L. [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofisico Francisco, Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    A simple numerical model was implemented to infer airflow (natural ventilation) in underground tunnels from the differences in the temporal patterns of radon, {sup 222}Rn, concentration time-series that were measured at two distant points in the interior of the tunnels. The main purpose of this work was to demonstrate that the installation of radon monitoring stations closer to the entrance of the tunnels was sufficient to remotely analyse the distribution of radon concentration in their interiors. This could ease the monitoring of radon, since the effective sampling volume of a single monitoring station located closer to the entrance of a tunnel is approximately 30,000 times larger than the sampling volume of a sub-soil radon sensor. This methodology was applied to an underground gallery located in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands. This island constitutes an ideal laboratory to study the geo-dynamical behaviour of radon because of the existence of a vast network of galleries that conforms the main water supply of the island.

  6. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 5: Site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A six-step site selection process undertaken to identify and subsequently rank potential sites suitable for either an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility, or a water-compensated hard-rock cavern compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility is described. The region of study was confined to the service area of the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and contiguous areas. Overriding considerations related to geology, environmental impact and transmission-line routing were studies within the context of minimizing plant costs. The selection process led to the identification of several sites suitable for the development of either a CAES or an UPH facility. Design development and site exploration at the selected site are described.

  7. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 6 Appendix E - Historical Minimum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  8. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 4 Appendix C - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  9. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 2 Appendix A - Historical Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF A HYDROCYCLONE INCLUDING THE SIMULATION OF AIR-CORE EFFECT, USING THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Felipe Aguilera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.

  11. Determinação de volumes e pressões de balonetes de tubos traqueais insuflados com ar ambiente ou óxido nitroso Determinación de volúmenes y presiones de balones de tubos traqueales insuflados con aire ambiente u óxido nitroso Volume and pressure of tracheal tube cuffs filled with air or nitrous oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Leonardo Cárpio Peña

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A pressão exercida pelo balonete do tubo traqueal contra a parede da traquéia deve permitir fluxo capilar adequado e prevenir escapes de ar ou aspiração pulmonar. Esta pesquisa procurou determinar as variações de pressão do balonete insuflado com ar ambiente ou com óxido nitroso a 100%. MÉTODO: Trinta pacientes foram selecionados para receber anestesia geral balanceada com intubação orotraqueal. O balonete foi insuflado conforme critérios clínicos. As medidas de base foram realizadas após 15 minutos do início da anestesia com um manômetro aneróide calibrado em cm de H2O e forneceram os valores iniciais de pressão e volume. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: balonete reinsuflado com ar ambiente, grupo A, ou com óxido nitroso, grupo B. As medidas de pressão foram obtidas em intervalos até a primeira hora e os resultados comparados. RESULTADOS: Os grupos mostraram-se comparáveis para idade e sexo. Em ambos os grupos os valores basais médios para pressão foram próximos de 40 cmH2O com 8 ml de volume. No grupo com ar ambiente, as pressões aumentaram até 36 cmH2O em uma hora. No grupo de balonete insuflado com N2O, as pressões diminuíram abaixo de 20 cmH2O entre 20 e 30 minutos de anestesia. CONCLUSÕES: O uso de N2O a 100% para insuflação do balonete de sonda traqueal não constitui método seguro, acarretando progressiva perda da capacidade de vedação. O uso de ar ambiente promove aumento de volume e de pressão no balonete, aumentando possibilidade de lesão da mucosa traqueal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La presión ejercida por el balón del tubo traqueal contra la pared de la traquea debe permitir flujo capilar adecuado y prevenir escapes de aire o aspiración pulmonar. Esta pesquisa buscó determinar las variaciones de presión del balón insuflado con aire ambiente o con óxido nitroso a 100%. MÉTODO: Treinta pacientes fueron seleccionados para recibir anestesia general

  12. Uncertainty evaluation of the kerma in the air, related to the active volume in the ionization chamber of concentric cylinders, by Monte Carlo simulation; Avaliacao de incerteza no kerma no ar, em relacao ao volume ativo da camara de ionizacao de cilindros concentricos, por simulacao de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Bianco, A.S.; Oliveira, H.P.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: abianco@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    To implant the primary standard of the magnitude kerma in the air for X-ray between 10 - 50 keV, the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) must evaluate all the uncertainties of measurement related with Victtoren chamber. So, it was evaluated the uncertainty of the kerma in the air consequent of the inaccuracy in the active volume of the chamber using the calculation of Monte Carlo as a tool through the Penelope software

  13. Automatic air flow control in air conditioning ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Device is designed which automatically selects air flow coming from either of two directions and which can be adjusted to desired air volume on either side. Device uses one movable and two fixed scoops which control air flow and air volume.

  14. Assessment and prediction of thoracic gas volume in pregnant women: an evaluation in relation to body composition assessment using air displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2013-01-14

    Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0·033) higher than measured TGV by 6 % on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0·043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0·5 % BF, on average. A Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from -1·9 to 2·9 % BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.

  15. A role of kindlin-3 in integrin αMβ2 outside-in signaling and the Syk-Vav1-Rac1/Cdc42 signaling axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Xue

    Full Text Available Integrins mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix attachments. Integrins are signaling receptors because their cytoplasmic tails are docking sites for cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. Kindlins are a family of band 4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin-containing intracellular proteins. Apart from regulating integrin ligand-binding affinity, recent evidence suggests that kindlins are involved in integrin outside-in signaling. Kindlin-3 is expressed in platelets, hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In humans, loss of kindlin-3 expression accounts for the rare autosomal disease leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD type III that is characterized by bleeding disorders and defective recruitment of leukocytes into sites of infection. Studies have shown that the loss of kindlin-3 expression leads to poor ligand-binding properties of β1, β2 and β3 integrin subfamilies. The leukocyte-restricted β2 integrin subfamily comprises four members, namely αLβ2, αMβ2, αXβ2 and αDβ2. Integrin αMβ2 mediates leukocyte adhesion, phagocytosis, degranulation and it is involved in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Here we provide further evidence that kindlin-3 is required for integrin αMβ2-mediated cell adhesion and spreading using transfected K562 cells that expressed endogenous kindlin-3 but not β2 integrins. K562 stable cell line expressing si-RNA targeting kindlin-3, but not control-si-RNA, and transfected with constitutively activated integrin αMβ2N329S adhered and spread poorly on iC3b. We also show that kindlin-3 is required for the integrin αMβ2-Syk-Vav1 signaling axis that regulates Rac1 and Cdc42 activities. These findings reinforce a role for kindlin-3 in integrin outside-in signaling.

  16. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  17. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  18. Successful production of piglets derived from expanded blastocysts vitrified using a micro volume air cooling method without direct exposure to liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Koji; Hirayama, Yuri; Egawa, Sachiko; Yamashita, Shoko; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Imai, Kei

    2013-12-17

    This study was conducted to clarify the feasibility of newly developed vitrification techniques for porcine embryos using the micro volume air cooling (MVAC) method without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN₂). Expanded blastocysts were vitrified in a solution containing 6 M ethylene glycol, 0.6 M trehalose and 2% (wt/vol) polyethylene glycol in 10% HEPES-buffered PZM-5. The blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified using the new device (MVAC) or a Cryotop (CT). Blastocysts were stored in LN₂ for at least 1 month. After warming, cryoprotective agents were removed using a single step. Survival of the embryos was assessed by in vitro culture (Experiment 1) and by embryo transfer to recipients (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the embryos vitrified by the MVAC or CT and fresh embryos without vitrification (Control) were used. The survival rates of embryos in the MVAC, CT and Control groups were 88.9% (32/36), 91.7% (33/36) and 100% (34/34), respectively, after 48 h culture, and the hatching rates of embryos after 48 h incubation were 69.4% (25/36), 63.9% (23/36) and 94.1% (32/34), respectively. In Experiment 2, 64 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 8 healthy piglets were produced from 3 recipients in the MVAC group. Similarly, 66 vitrified embryos were transferred to 5 recipient gilts, and 9 healthy piglets were produced from 2 recipients in the CT group. These results indicated that porcine expanded blastocysts can be cryopreserved using the MVAC method without potential pathogen contamination from LN₂.

  19. The relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viability of in vivo-derived pig embryos vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, N; Nishida, K; Misumi, K; Hirayama, Y; Yamashita, S; Hoshi, H; Misawa, H; Akiyama, K; Suzuki, C; Yoshioka, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the viability of vitrified-warmed in vivo-derived pig embryos after measuring the oxygen consumption rate. Six days after artificial insemination, blastocysts were collected from gilts and vitrified by the micro volume air cooling method. The oxygen consumption rate was measured in 60 vitrified-warmed embryos, which were then cultured for 48h to assess the viability. The survival (re-expansion) rate of embryos after warming was 85.0%. The average oxygen consumption rate of embryos immediately after warming was greater in embryos which could re-expand during subsequent culture (F=0.75±0.04) than that in those which failed to re-expand (F=0.33±0.05). Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed embryos was greater in the hatched (F=0.88±0.06) than that in the not-hatched group (F=0.53±0.04). When the oxygen consumption rate of the vitrified-warmed embryos and the numbers of viable and dead cells in embryos were determined, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen consumption rate and the number of live cells (Pconsumption rate were surgically transferred into uterine horns of two recipients. Both of the recipients become pregnant and farrowed 12 healthy piglets. These results demonstrate that the oxygen consumption rate of vitrified-warmed pig embryos can be related to the number of live cells and that the measurement of oxygen consumption of embryos after cryopreservation may be useful for estimating embryo survivability.

  20. Assistência de ar e volumes de aplicação na deposição de calda e no controle do arroz vermelho (Oryza sativa L. Air assistance and volume of application in spray deposition and in red rice control (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo L. S. Vigano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora e de três volumes de pulverização na dessecação e deposição da calda em arroz vermelho, sob cultivo de nabo forrageiro, em áreas de recuperação de várzeas, utilizando o herbicida paraquat e o corante Azul Brilhante, respectivamente. Os volumes de pulverização foram 100; 200 e 300 L ha-1 da solução aquosa, contendo corante alimentício (1.500 mg L-1. Com ou sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, foram utilizadas pontas de pulverização de jato plano tipo AXI 110015 à pressão de 117,3 kPa, AXI 11002 e AXI 11003 a 276 kPa. A avaliação da deposição da pulverização deu-se em folhas de plantas de arroz vermelho. Os maiores volumes (200 e 300 L ha-1 pulverizados com a assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora proporcionaram maiores depósitos do corante em relação ao volume de 100 L ha-1. Não foram constatadas diferenças na deposição do corante para os volumes pulverizados, sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, tampouco entre os volumes de 200 e 300 L ha-1 com a assistência de ar junto à barra. As maiores percentagens de controle do arroz vermelho foram obtidas com a assistência de ar junto à barra, independentemente do volume pulverizado, equivalendo-se ao controle obtido com 300 L ha-1, sem o uso dessa tecnologia.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of air-assistance on spraying at three volumes in spray deposition and control of red rice under fodder radish cultivation. To evaluate the control of this weed and spray deposition were used paraquat herbicide and a Brilliant Blue dye, respectively. The three spraying volumes were 100, 200 and 300 L ha-1, using a tracer dye at 1,500 mg L-1. Both solutions and volumes were sprayed with flat fan nozzles AXI 110015 at 117.3 kPa, AXI 11002 and AXI 11003 at 276 kPa, respectively, with and without air-assistance on the boom. The evaluation of deposition

  1. 压空缓冲罐和真空缓冲罐容积的确定%Determination of Volumes for Compressed Air Buffer Tank and Vacuum Buffer Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍宇

    2015-01-01

    介绍了制药行业压空缓冲罐和真空缓冲罐容积的计算公式,并结合实例对储气罐、稳压罐的容积计算方法、组合方式进行了讨论,同时对缓冲罐的气液分离效果及设备直径的确定给出了计算方法。%In this article, the formulas for calculating the volumes of compressed air buffer tank and vacuum buffer tank used in pharmaceutical industry were introduced. Combined with practical examples, the methods of calculating the volumes of air storage tank and pressure stability tank and tank combination forms were discussed. Meanwhile, the calculating methods for determining the effect of gas-liquid separation and the diameter of vessel were provided.

  2. 适应新版GMP对药厂风量-压力控制的探讨%Discussion on the Control of Air Volume and Pressure in Pharmaceutical Factory to Meet the New GMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付永飞; 刘燕敏; 胡崔健

    2012-01-01

    In order to better meet the requirements of the new GMP for the pharmaceutical clean room construction and environmental control, a new Smart Venturi valve is used to control air volume and pressure in the pharmaceutical cleanroom. Through analyzing and comparing the air volumes and static pressure differences before and after the transformation of the system, the results show that the Smart Venturi valve can effectively ensure the requirements of air volume and pressure control in the cleanroom.%为了更好地满足我国新版GMP对药厂洁净室的建设与环境控制的要求,采用新型的智能文丘里阀来控制药厂洁净室的风量.压力参数。通过整改前后系统送风量和静压差的比较与分析,表明智能文丘里阀能行之有效地保证洁净室风量与压力的控制要求。

  3. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  4. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  5. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  6. Quantitative assessment of global and regional air trappings using non-rigid registration and regional specific volume change of inspiratory/expiratory CT scans: Studies on healthy volunteers and asthmatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sol; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chae, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Kim, Nam Kug [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare air trapping in healthy volunteers with asthmatics using pulmonary function test and quantitative data, such as specific volume change from paired inspiratory CT and registered expiratory CT. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 9 asthmatics underwent paired inspiratory/expiratory CT. DeltaSV, which represents the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation, was measured with paired inspiratory and anatomically registered expiratory CT scans. Air trapping indexes, DeltaSV0.4 and DeltaSV0.5, were defined as volume fraction of lung below 0.4 and 0.5 DeltaSV, respectively. To assess the gravity effect of air-trapping, DeltaSV values of anterior and posterior lung at three different levels were measured and DeltaSV ratio of anterior lung to posterior lung was calculated. Color-coded DeltaSV map of the whole lung was generated and visually assessed. Mean DeltaSV, DeltaSV0.4, and DeltaSV0.5 were compared between healthy volunteers and asthmatics. In asthmatics, correlation between air trapping indexes and clinical parameters were assessed. Mean DeltaSV, DeltaSV0.4, and DeltaSV0.5 in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (all p < 0.05). DeltaSV values in posterior lung in asthmatics were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer group (p = 0.049). In asthmatics, air trapping indexes, such as DeltaSV0.5 and DeltaSV0.4, showed negative strong correlation with FEF25-75, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. DeltaSV map of asthmatics showed abnormal geographic pattern in 5 patients (55.6%) and disappearance of anterior-posterior gradient in 3 patients (33.3%). Quantitative assessment of DeltaSV (the ratio of air fraction released after exhalation) shows the difference in extent of air trapping between health volunteers and asthmatics.

  7. Background culturable bacteria aerosol in two large public buildings using HVAC filters as long term, passive, high-volume air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicholas J; Kuehn, Thomas H; Kim, Seung Won; Raynor, Peter C; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-04-01

    Background culturable bacteria aerosols were collected and identified in two large public buildings located in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Seattle, Washington over a period of 5 months and 3 months, respectively. The installed particulate air filters in the ventilation systems were used as the aerosol sampling devices at each location. Both pre and final filters were collected from four air handing units at each site to determine the influence of location within the building, time of year, geographical location and difference between indoor and outdoor air. Sections of each loaded filter were eluted with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The resulting solutions were cultured on blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 36 degrees C. Various types of growth media were then used for subculturing, followed by categorization using a BioLog MicroStation (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) and manual observation. Environmental parameters were gathered near each filter by the embedded on-site environmental monitoring systems to determine the effect of temperature, humidity and air flow. Thirty nine different species of bacteria were identified, 17 found only in Minneapolis and 5 only in Seattle. The hardy spore-forming genus Bacillus was the most commonly identified and showed the highest concentrations. A significant decrease in the number of species and their concentration occurred in the Minneapolis air handling unit supplying 100% outdoor air in winter, however no significant correlations between bacteria concentration and environmental parameters were found.

  8. A change in the electro-physical properties of narrow-band CdHgTe solid solutions acted upon by a volume discharge induced by an avalanche electron beam in the air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of a nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at atmospheric pressure on the CdHgTe (MCT) epitaxial films of the p-type conduction with the hole concentration 2·1016 cm3 and mobility 500 cm2·V-1·s-1 is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the MCT specimens upon irradiation shows that a layer exhibiting the n-type conduction is formed in the near-surface region of the epitaxial films. After 600 pulses and more, the thickness and the parameters of the layer are such that the measured field dependence of the Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of the n-type conduction. Analysis of the preliminary results reveals that the foregoing nanosecond volume discharge in the air at atmospheric pressure is promising for modification of electro-physical MCT properties.

  9. Intelligent Control of Air Compressor Unit Volume%空压机组气量调节的智能控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎章杰

    2016-01-01

    Air compressor is one of the important equipment in cement plant whose power consumption is very large and has a long running time, so it is of vital importance to optimize working condition of air compressor unit. In view of the air compressor unit in cement factory, a kind of new intelligent control method of gas regulation was designed, which can achieve a wide range of automatic stepless adjustment of the air compressor unit displacement according to the user's actual air demand, ensure the compressor system pipe network pressure and make full use of the stability of the displacement.%空压机是水泥厂的主要耗电设备之一,其运行时间长,耗电量大,故对空压机组进行工况优化是至关重要的。针对水泥厂空压机组,设计出一种新的气量调节的智能控制方法,使空压机组的排气量能根据用户的实际需气量实现大范围的自动无级调节,保证压缩机组排气量的充分利用和系统管网压力稳定。

  10. Compressed-air energy storage preliminary design and site-development program in an aquifer. Volume 2: Utility-system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    The benefits derived from the integration of a compressed air energy storage facility with a hypothetical electrical network were analyzed. The analysis was based on three study scenarios each having a target generation mix of 65% base, 25% intermediate, and 10% peaking capacity. Scenarios of 100% coal, 50% coal and 50% nuclear, and 100% nuclear base load capacity additions were examined. Final results of the analyses indicate favorable economics when compressed air energy storage is installed as an alternative to combustion turbine peaking capacity on a system with a significant amount of oil-fired generation.

  11. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  12. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 3. The potential of dual mode. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.

    1974-12-01

    Interdependence of goals of the three agencies, EPA, UMTA, and FEA generates this four-volume study. The common issue around which all three agencies' policies revolve is the use of the private auto involving both incentives and penalties to catalyze a change in existing urban travel characteristics. This third volume expresses INTERPLAN's judgment about the applicability, timing, and impact of dual mode urban transportation technologies. A three-system, three-phase, gradual evolution of demand for dual mode is suggested. The dual mode essay is prefaced by a short overview and comparison of the propulsion and energy use characteristics of conventional and future urban transportation modes.

  13. Flow Rate Calculation in the Auto Air Leakage Volume Test System Based on Constant Pressure Method%基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统流量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 赵鑫; 李振亮; 许玮

    2013-01-01

    An auto air leakage volume test system based on constant pressure method was designed. Using standard orifice plate as throttle device,after testing some original data such as the differential pressure between both sides of the throttle device,temperature of the dry-bulb and the wet-bulb,and so on,the auto air leakage volume can be calculated. The formulas and methods involved were demonstrated in detail and the experiment was designed based on an analysis of the measurement theory. According to the result of the experiment,this method proved stable and reliable and can satisfy the requirement of the measurement.%  设计了基于恒压法的汽车整车漏风量测试系统。采用标准孔板作为节流件,通过测量节流件上下游的压力差、干球温度和湿球温度等基础数据,经过计算可得到整车漏风量。在分析测量原理的基础上,详细给出了计算漏风量的公式和方法,并进行了实验。实验结果表明,该计算方法稳定可靠,可满足测量要求。

  14. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 5, Appendix A, Part 1, Field Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  15. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  16. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  17. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Volume XXVI. 1975 Edition of Course of Study Outlines. Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools and Middlesex County Adult Technical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capizzi, James

    The two courses of study described and outlined here are offered at Burr D. Coe Vocational and Technical High School in East Brunswick, New Jersey, for students wishing to prepare for a career in air conditioning and refrigeration. Section 1 deals with a 4-year high school course, Section 2 with a 1-year course for those who have completed high…

  18. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 16. Arnold Engineering Development Center. Frank J. Seiler Research Laboratory. Wilford Hall Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Laboratory: AEDC/ North Jackson St. Vol-Page No: 16- 1 Tullahoma Nigh School Tullahoma, TN 37388-0000 Bowlby , Andrea Laboratory: PL/GP Mudge Way Vol-Page No...January 1982. New York: Scientific American, Inc. 2. Charles Hirsch. Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows, Volumes 1 & 2. Chichester: John

  19. [Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  20. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  1. Review of air quality modeling techniques. Volume 8. [Assessment of environmental effects of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Air transport and diffusion models which are applicable to the assessment of the environmental effects of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation are reviewed. The general classification of models and model inputs are discussed. A detailed examination of the statistical, Gaussian plume, Gaussian puff, one-box and species-conservation-of-mass models is given. Representative models are discussed with attention given to the assumptions, input data requirement, advantages, disadvantages and applicability of each.

  2. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    radar stations also occupied temporary quarters—often, prefabricated Jamesway hutments—while awaiting the completion of the permanent Type 1 and 2...within the year (Plate 79). For a brief period, the 690th AC&W squadron was also on base in Jamesway hutments. The Air Force planned the ADCC in...was a Jamesway hutment in a cleared area five miles north of the Elmendorf runway. The division’s ADDC used the basement of a 500-man permanent

  3. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 6: Site investigation: Shallow drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The work was undertaken to define the surficial geological conditions and the nature of the overburden and the bedrock at shallow depths as part of the field exploration program for underground pumped hydro (UPH) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility. Testing was performed on selected rock and soil samples to define the physical and mechanical properties of the subsurface material. Piezometers were installed on the site for long term monitoring of the groundwater.

  4. Analysis of air-toxics emissions, exposures, cancer risks, and controllability in five urban areas. Volume 1. Base year analysis and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.; Istvan, D.; Laich, E.; Lahre, T.

    1989-07-01

    This report is the first phase of a study to define the multiple-source, multiple pollutant nature of the urban air-toxics problem (also known as 'urban soup') and to discern what control measures (or combinations of measures) can best be employed to mitigate the urban air-toxics problem. The report documents the base year analysis, involving dispersion modeling of emissions data for 25 carcinogenic air toxics in five U.S. urban areas and a subsequent exposure/risk assessment to estimate aggregate cancer incidence. Aggregate (multi-source, multi-pollutant) cancer incidence (or population risk) across the 5 cities in this study averaged about 6 excess cases per million persons, ranging from about 2 to 10 in individual cities. The most-important pollutants contributing to aggregate incidence are polycyclic organic matter, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and hexavalent chromium. The most-important sources are road vehicles, comfort and industrial cooling towers, chrome platers, solvent use, and fuel combustion, including wood stoves.

  5. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  6. Image quality and volume computed tomography air kerma index (C{sub vol}) evaluation in Recife; Avaliacao da qualidade de imagem e do indice volumetrico de Kerma ar em tomografia computadorizada (C{sub vol}) em Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Ely Almeida

    2008-07-01

    The Computed Tomography (CT) is an important diagnostic imaging method, widely used. However, in spite of all the advantages and technologic advances within the CT scanners, the tomographic procedures result in high absorbed doses to patients. The main objective of this work was to perform a dosimetric study of CT scanners located at Recife and to evaluate the image quality on CT examinations in these equipment. The volume CT air kerma index (C{sub VOL}) and air kerma length product (P{sub KL,CT}) were estimated. These values were calculated using normalized weighted air kerma indexes in CT standard dosimetry phantoms ({sub n}C{sub W}), supplied by ImPACT group for several CT scanners, and the scan parameters of routine head, routine chest and hi-resolution chest CT exams performed at 20 institutions. The irradiation parameters of 15 adult patients for each CT procedure were registered at six participating centres, at which the phantom from the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation protocol was used for the image quality measurements. For routine head exams, the C{sub VOL} values varied between 12 and 58 mGy (at the posterior fossa) and 15 to 58 mGy (at the cerebrum) and the P{sub KL,CT}, from 150 to 750 mGy{center_dot}cm. The C{sub VOL} values for routine chest procedures varied from 3 to 26 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT}, between 120 and 460 mGy{center_dot}cm. In relation to Hi-resolution chest exams, C{sub VOL} values were from 1.0 to 2.7 mGy and the P{sub KL,CT} values varied between 24 and 67 mGy{center_dot}cm. The image quality evaluations results showed that almost all scanners presented at least one inadequacy. One of the equipment presented faults at 70% of the tests. With regard to the image noise, only two scanners presented acceptable results. From these results, it is possible to conclude that the volume CT air kerma index values are lower than the European reference levels. However, the image quality of these CT scanners does not attend the

  7. Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Aircraft Parking Apron Area. Volume 1. 152nd Reconnaissance Group, Nevada Air National Guard, Reno-Cannon International Airport, Reno, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    addition of oxygen, nutrients, or the introduction of different strains of microorganisms are required to obtain optimum I bioremediation at the Site. I I...in Groundwater Samples, IRP Site No. 12 152nd RG, Nevada Air National Guard, Reno, Nevada Well IUD Sam0*1ID Number Round (ji MW2 MW2-(1) Round 1...addition of microorganisms is required to obtain optimum bioremediation at the site. 6.2.1 Soil Vapor Survey The soil vapor survey consisted of a

  8. Remedial investigation report. Alpena combat readiness training center Alpena County Regional Airport, Michigan Air National Guard, Alpena, Michigan. Volume 3. Appendices A - I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Remedial Investigation Report of Sites 1-9 at Alpens CRTC,. Alpena MI. Volume III Appendicies A-I. A remedial investigation was performed on 9 sites at the Alpena CRTC to determine the extent of contamination at the sites. The sites involved in this investigation include: Site 1 POL Storage Area; Site 2 Motor Pool Area; Site 3 Former Garage; Site 4 Third Fire Training Area; Site 5 Second Fire Training Area; Site 3 Former Landfill; Site 7 First Fire Training Area; Site 8 Former Hanger 9; Site 10 Hazardous Waste Storage Area. Soil and groundwater contamination above state action levels was found at the sites An FS has been initiated.

  9. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH. Appendix A: Upper reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Overriding considerations including operating range, volume and lining of reservoir, embankment design, intake/outlet arrangements and filling and make up water provisions were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to the selection of a reservoir formed by embankment of compacted rockfill together with an intake/outlet structure located in the embankment. The reservoir floor and upstream slopes of the embankment will have an asphalt lining to prevent leakage. The material and cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  10. Effect of Pulse Nanosecond Volume Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure on Electrical Properties of Mis Structures Based on p-HgCdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the pulse nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the admittance of MIS structures based on MBE graded-gap p-Hg0.78Cd0.22Te is studied in a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. It is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electrical characteristics of MIS structures (the density of positive fixed charge increases), to the changes in the nature of the hysteresis of capacitance-voltage characteristics, and to an increase in the density of surface states. A possible reason for the changes in the characteristics of MIS structures after exposure to the discharge is substantial restructuring of the defect-impurity system of the semiconductor near the interface.

  11. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  12. Simulated performance of the Thermo Active Building System (TABS) with respect to the provided thermal comfort and primary energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    The central module of an office building conditioned by a Thermo Active Building System (TABS) coupled with constant volume ventilation was evaluated by means of dynamic computer simulations. Additionally, the same building model was simulated with a conventional all air VAV ventilation system...

  13. Energy Reduction Strategies for Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Assessment and Recommendations Professional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    REO renewable energy optimization t tons RE renewable energy UPS uninterruptible power supply SAM Solar Advisory Model VAV variable air volume SCF...information system PEM proton exchange membrane GPM gallons per minute PPA power purchase agreement GSHP ground source heat pump PV Photovoltaic HOMER...Energy Potential Professional Report 35 Photovoltaic Power Overview Photovoltaic Power ( PV ) panels convert sunlight directly into electricity. They

  14. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  15. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  16. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  17. Volume-surface barrier discharge in dried air in three-electrode system fed by impulse high voltage with nanosecond rise time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashin, Maxim; Rebrov, Igor; Nebogatkin, Sergey; Sokolova, Marina; Nikitin, Alexey; Voevodin, Vadim; Krivov, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Results of experimental investigation of a volume-surface barrier discharge in a three-electrode system under periodic impulse voltage applied to the surface discharge (SD) electrodes and a d.c. potential applied to an additional third electrode are presented. It is shown that there is a strong influence of polarity and amplitude of the d.c. potential on the direct current "extracted" out of the surface discharge plasma layer by electric field of the third electrode. The amount of charged positive species that constitute the "extracted" current prevails under positive impulse voltage for low values of the negative d.c. potential of the third electrode. The amount of negative species prevails with higher values of the positive d.c. positive of the third electrode. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  18. Proposed Expansion of German Air Force Operations at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Hearing Transcripts and Responses to Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    1 V : 0 V2 0 b) 02 02 viH 0 S0 2 0- 0 H 0 Id r . 01 3 H 0 02 0 a) 02 4. 0 U(a0 02 4 J 0 Hd 0 1 M .) 10 0d $4 H 4) Fi $4 >. 0 c) $4 0 Un M H H) 01 U 0...RESPONSES TO COMMENTS U U I I I I U I I I I I I Response to Oral and Written Comments Presented at the Public HearingsI The following provides responses...which were submitted in writing. Comments provided at the public hearing, either orally or in writing, are included in Volume II of the FEIS. Written

  19. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH. Appendix E: Lower reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Operational, construction, and geotechnical requirements were examined. Overriding considerations including operating range, volume, construction methods, cavern cross section and reservoir layout were studied within the context of minimizing facility costs and optimizing the plant layout. The study led to a preliminary arrangement of fourteen parallel caverns, each 60 ft wide by 85 ft high in cross section and 3610 ft in length. The requirements for and preliminary design of the intermediate reservoir in the case of a two step UPH facility is also described. The design and the cost estimates presented are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage at a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  20. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  1. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  2. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  3. Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Volume 1, Concept evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.

    1991-11-01

    The performance of a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was measured with intake oxygen levels of up to 35% and fuel water contents of up to 20%. Because a previous study indicated that the use of a less-expensive fuel would be more economical, two series of tests with No. 4 diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel were conducted. To control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), water was introduced into the combustion process in the form of water-emulsified fuel, or the fuel injection timing was retarded. In the first series of tests, compressed oxygen was used; in the second series of tests, a hollow-tube membrane was used. Steady-state engine performance and emissions data were obtained. Test results indicated a large increase in engine power density, a slight improvement in thermal efficiency, and significant reductions in smoke and particulate-matter emissions. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased, they could be controlled by introducing water and retarding the injection timing. The results further indicated that thermal efficiency is slightly increased when moderately water-emulsified fuels are used, because a greater portion of the fuel energy is released earlier in the combustion process. Oxygen-enriched air reduced the ignition delay and caused the heat-release rate and cumulative heat-release rates to change measurably. Even at higher oxygen levels, NO{sub x} emissions decreased rapidly when the timing was retarded, and the amount of smoke and the level of particulate-matter emissions did not significantly increase. The single-cylinder engine tests confirmed the results of an earlier technical assessment and further indicated a need for a low-pressure-drop membrane specifically designed for oxygen enrichment. Extension data set indexed separately. 14 refs.

  4. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Duane C.

    2011-10-25

    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  5. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  6. F-15E Availability Model. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    model output to actual field performance of the F-15C/1 MSIP aircraft. Volume I includes the background, scenarios, computer language, description...Improveamnt Program ( MS P) NMIS rate. However, spares which need to be increased to maintain the "normal" NMCS rate are documented and briefed with model...the basic F-15C MSIP capability for the air-to-air role; however, air-to-air performance characteristics may be limited by the increased basic aircraft

  7. Air conditioning boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Technical data, layout and function of air conditioning boxes by 6 German producers are described. The boxes cover a volume flow range of 1000 to 100000 m/sup 3//h. All boxes are equipped with heat exchangers, moisturizers, filters, and control elements.

  8. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  9. PAN AIR - A Computer Program for Predicting Subsonic or Supersonic Linear Potential Flows about Arbitrary Configurations Using a Higher Order Panel Method. Volume I. Theory Document (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-15

    general and PAN AIR in particula -, with detailed mathematical formulations re3erved For the appendices. Section 2 contains a brief discussion of fluid...discusses the general theory of panel methods without discussing PAN AIR in particula ’. Section 4 is an overview of PAN AIR as it compares to older panel

  10. Simulation of static pressure reset control in comfort ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    Variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems reduce fan power consumption compared to constant air volume (CAV) systems because they supply air according to the airflow demand. However VAV ventilation systems do not take fully into account the potential energy savings as the control strategy...... operates the terminal boxes and the air handling unit (AHU) independently without pressure integration. The pressure in the main duct is maintained at a constant static pressure (CSP) which corresponds to the pressure required under the design full load condition. Under part load conditions, the fan...... the fan generates only enough pressure to satisfy the airflow demand in the most critical zone. Consequently the airflow resistance of the ductwork is maintained at a minimum and the fan operation is optimized. There are various approaches to implement the control scheme of the SPR method; the state...

  11. Ultrasound attenuation dependence on air compression or expansion processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakevicius, L.; Demcenko, A.; Mardosaite, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work variation of ultrasonic attenuation coefficient is analyzed in terms of air compression or expansion processes. In closed spaces changing air volume, the ultrasound attenuation coefficient depends on thermodynamic processes which occur during the air volume change. Two limiting cases ar

  12. Air Traffic Control Tools Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Noskievič

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly air transport in today’s world wouldn’t be able to exist without any air traffic control service. As the air transport has been coming through major changes and it has been expanding, it is assumed that its volume will be doubled in the next 15 years. Air traffic control uses strictly organised procedures to ensure safe course of air operations. With the skies covered with more airplanes every year, new tools must be introduced to allow the controllers to manage this rising amount of flying aircraft and to keep the air transport safe. This paper provides a comprehensive and organized material, which describes the newest tools and systems used by air traffic control officers. It proposes improvements for further research and development of ATC tools.

  13. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  14. 上海银行大厦空调设计介绍与分析%Introduction and analysis of air conditioning design for Bank of Shanghai Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金鸣

    2013-01-01

    该工程在设计过程中运用了多种空调技术,并结合CFD模拟来辅助设计,其中艺术广场大厅的大空间采用了置换通风结合二次回风的空调方式,空调冷热源采用了并联混合配置的方式,办公区域按朝向分区并采用了变风量末端加窗边风机的空调系统.模拟和现场测试结果表明系统实际运行效果基本满足设计要求.%Abstract The project adopts several air conditioning technologies in the design process with the aid of CFD simulation.The large space of the Art Square applies the air conditioning scheme of displacement ventilation combined with secondary return air,the air conditioning cold and heat sources are parallel hybrid configuration mode and the office areas apply the air conditioning system with VAV terminals and window fans according to their orientation.The simulation and field testing results indicate that the operating effect of the system can satisfy the designing requirements.

  15. Caracterización genotípica de SNPs de PPARγ, endotelina, VAV-3, IL-10, IL-12B y GNB3, asociados a factores clínicos y bioquímicos como predictores de la evolución de la hipertensión arterial

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Oterino, José Ángel

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Caracterización genotípica de SNPs de PPARγ, endotelina, VAV-3, IL-10, IL-12B y GNB3, asociados a factores clínicos y bioquímicos como predictores de la evolución de la hipertensión arterial en una cohorte de 252 pacientes hipertensos a los que se realizó un seguimiento con una media de 8'6 años. Se observó que determinados polimorfismos de IL-12B presentaban relación con la progresión de la HTA, así como que factores clínicos, tales como la presencia de obesidad abdominal también mostr...

  16. Development of energy-efficient comfort ventilation plants with air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. Part 3. Final report with documentation of the field test; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 3. Endbericht mit Dokumentation des Feldtests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Hacke, Ulrike [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-10-25

    Residential ventilation systems with a heat recovery contribute to the improvement of the air quality and to the reduction of heat losses caused by ventilation. An additional opening of the windows in residential buildings results in a clearly increasing consumption of thermal heat because the thermal heat of the out coming air cannot be utilized furthermore. Continuous information on the energetic effects of the opening of windows is helpful. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the development of energy efficient comfort ventilation systems with an air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. The contribution under consideration is the third part of a project concerning to this theme. This part encompasses a field test with four single-family houses in which the air quality control as well as the detection of the status of the windows aperture is tested and optimized for a long period. This contribution also contains the results of the second part of the project. The second project investigate the technical implementation of a air quality regulation at prototypes and test facilities.

  17. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 2. Technical report. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 104-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  18. Assessment of international air pollution prevention and control technology. Volume 1. Executive summary. Report to Congress under CAA amendments of 1990, section 901(e) public law 101-549. Final report, December 1993-December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burklin, C.; Gundappa, M.; Jones, D.

    1996-08-01

    The report gives results of a study that identifies new and innovative air pollution prevention and/or control technologies, of selected industrialized countries, that are not currently used extensively in the U.S. The study addressed technologies that prevent or control the emissions of the pollutants from each of four sources of air pollution: (1) Urban emissions--ozone precursors to include nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic componds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), and air toxics; (2) Motor vehicle emissions--NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and PM; (3) Toxic air emissions--any one of the 189 compounds on the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 CAAA (Title III); and (4) Acid deposition--NOx, sulfur oxides (SOx), and, to a lesser extent, VOCs. The report describes the approach taken to identify potentially useful technologies, gives results of the technology search and evaluation, and describes the selected technologies.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  20. Rational use of supply air in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2009-01-01

    The ventilation rate influences the air quality by determining the intensity of pollution sources. This paper compared the intensity of the sensory pollution during occupied hours in an apartment ventilated by a constant air volume system and demand controlled ventilation systems controlled...... by occupancy. The systems supplied the same total volume of air daily. It was found that the supply air could be used more rationally by redistributing it according to occupancy compared to maintaining a constant ventilation rate during all hours....

  1. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  2. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis: e0150469

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahua G Choudhury; Nirmalendu Saha

    2016-01-01

    ...) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from...

  3. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suying

    2010-08-19

    Volume II of the Site Environmental Report for 2009 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to Volume I, which contains the body of the report. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results of routine and nonroutine sampling at the Laboratory, except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in Chapter 4 of Volume I. The results from sample collections are more comprehensive in Volume II than in Volume I: for completeness, all results from sample collections that began or ended in calendar year (CY) 2009 are included in this volume. However, the samples representing CY 2008 data have not been used in the summary results that are reported in Volume I. (For example, although ambient air samples collected on January 6, 2009, are presented in Volume II, they represent December 2008 data and are not included in Table 4-2 in Volume I.) When appropriate, sampling results are reported in both conventional and International System (SI) units. For some results, the rounding procedure used in data reporting may result in apparent differences between the numbers reported in SI and conventional units. (For example, stack air tritium results reported as < 1.5 Bq/m3 are shown variously as < 39 and < 41 pCi/m3. Both of these results are rounded correctly to two significant digits.)

  4. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m(3) and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  5. A NEW AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FAN MODEL BASED ON NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Nassif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of energy use in buildings is attributed to air movement devices. Accurate estimation of fan performance is a key element in maximizing fan efficiency. This study proposes a new fan model that can be used in several applications such as optimization and fault detection and can also be incorporated into any commercial building models. The model uses a numerical analysis based on an interpolation technique for the data generated by basic fan laws. It can use any two variables among all four variables of airflow rate, total fan pressure, speed and power as inputs or outputs. Another advantage of this model is the flexibility of using any size of data for calibration, obtained either from manufacturers or field measured data. The model was tested for accuracy using two different manufacturers’ data of roof top unit packages with capacity ranging from 2 to 20 tons. Furthermore, the model was evaluated and tested on an actual VAV system using three months’ worth of measured data. The results show that the model can provide accurate estimation with the Coefficient of Variance (CV less than 2% and it can be used for several applications.

  6. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  7. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  8. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 2: Volume 2 of 3. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The characteristics of sites in Indiana and Illinois which are being investigated as potential sites for compressed air energy storage power plants are documented. These characteristics include geological considerations, economic factors, and environmental considerations. Extensive data are presented for 14 specific sites and a relative rating on the desirability of each site is derived. (LCL)

  9. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  10. Air conditioning system and component therefore distributing air flow from opposite directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.; Bauer, H. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The air conditioning system comprises a plurality of separate air conditioning units coupled to a common supply duct such that air may be introduced into the supply duct in two opposite flow directions. A plurality of outlets such as registers or auxiliary or branch ducts communicate with the supply duct and valve means are disposed in the supply duct at at least some of the outlets for automatically channelling a controllable amount of air from the supply duct to the associated outlet regardless of the direction of air flow within the supply duct. The valve means comprises an automatic air volume control apparatus for distribution within the air supply duct into which air may be introduced from two opposite directions. The apparatus incorporates a freely swinging movable vane in the supply duct to automatically channel into the associated outlet only the deflected air flow which has the higher relative pressure.

  11. Interactive Effect of Air-Water Ratio and Temperature on the Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    KEYWORDS: Interactive effect, air-water ratio, temperature, volatile organic ... VOCs removal from wastewater by increasing the surface ... surface area (m2). ... where α and n are constants, DL is liquid diffusion coefficient .... Packing volume.

  12. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  13. Environnement et transports. Transport et pollution de l'air. 2ème(15e), conférence, Reims, 12-14 juin 2006 - Volume 1 communications orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Ces actes de la 2e conférence Environnement & Transports, incluant la 15e conférence Transports et pollution de l'air, à Reims du 12 au 14 juin 2006, regroupent les communications orales (tome 1) ou sous forme d'affiches (tome 2) sur des sujets aussi variés et complémentaires que le développement durable, les différents impacts des transports sur l'environnement et leur modélisation, les caractéristiques du trafic routiers, les facteurs d'émission, les inventaires d'émissions, le cas des tran...

  14. Environnement et transports. Transport et pollution de l'air. 2ème(15e), conférence, Reims, 12-14 juin 2006 - Volume 2 communications affichées

    OpenAIRE

    Joumard, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Ces actes de la 2e conférence Environnement & Transports, incluant la 15e conférence Transports et pollution de l'air, à Reims du 12 au 14 juin 2006, regroupent les communications orales (tome 1) ou sous forme d'affiches (tome 2) sur des sujets aussi variés et complémentaires que le développement durable, les différents impacts des transports sur l'environnement et leur modélisation, les caractéristiques du trafic routiers, les facteurs d'émission, les inventaires d'émissions, le cas des tran...

  15. Optimized damper control of pressure and airflow in ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Conventional control strategies in variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems do not take fully into advantage the potential energy savings since the system operation is based on maintaining a constant static pressure (CSP) set point in the main duct irrespective of the actual pressure demand....... The static pressure reset (SPR) control strategy can optimize the operation of the supply air fans by adjusting the pressure set point to be just enough to deliver the required airflow to the most critical zone. This study investigated the operation and energy savings potential of an SPR control algorithm...... by using the Simulink programming tool which is addon software to MATLAB mathematical programming language. A model of a VAV ventilation system was created in Simulink based on the International Building Physics Toolbox (IBPT); the IBPT thermal zone was remodelled in order to calculate dynamically...

  16. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  17. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The DART II is a remote, interactive, microprocessor-based data acquistion system suitable for use with air monitors. This volume of DART II documentation contains the following appendixes: adjustment and calibration procedures; mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets; ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction list, octal listing; and cable lists. (RWR)

  18. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mix, Michael; Müller, Frank; Merk, Stefan; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81+/-15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV(LBM)).

  19. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  20. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 2, Appendix A: Fixed bed gasifier and sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem computer model development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  1. Installation restoration program. Remedial investigation report. Volume 2. Sections 4-6. Alpena Combat Readiness Training Center, Alpena County Regional Airport, Michigan Air National Guard, Alpena, Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report is Volume II, Sections 4-6 of the Remedial Investigation Report of Sites 1-9 at Alpens CRTC Alpena Ml. A remedial investigation was performed on 9 sites at the Alpena CRTC to determine the extent of contamination at the sites. The sites involved ill this investigation include: Site 1, POL Storage Area; Site 2, Motor Pool Area; Site 3, Former Garage; Site 4, Third Fire Training Area; Site 5, Second Fire Training Area; Site 6, Former Landfill; Site 7, First Fire Training Area; Site 8, Former Hanger 9; and Site 9, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. Soil and groundwater contamination above state action levels was found at the sites. An FS has been initiated.

  2. Installation restoration program. Remedial investigation report. Volume 5. Appendices P-W. Alpena Combat Readiness Training Center, Alpena County Regional Airport, Michigan Air National Guard, Alpena, Michigan. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report is Volume V, Appendices P-W of the Remedial Investigation Report of Sites 1-9 at Alpens CRTC Alpena MI. A remedial investigation was performed on 9 sites at the Alpena CRTC to determine the extent of contamination at the sites. The sites involved in this investigation include: Site 1, POL Storage Area; Site 2, Motor Pool Area; Site 3, Former Garage; Site 4, Third Fire Training Area; Site 5, Second Fire Training Area; Site 6, Former Landfill; Site 7, First Fire Training Area; Site 8, Former Hanger 9; and Site 9, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. Soil and groundwater contamination above state action levels was found at the sites. An FS has been initiated.

  3. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  4. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  5. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  6. Study on Variable Volume and Gas Injection DC Inverter Air Conditioner Compressor%变频变容喷气增焓空调压缩机的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向卫民

    2016-01-01

    The lower heating capacity in low ambient temperature is the defect of the air-conditioner. Some schemes have been proposed to solve the problem, but they can't improve the quantity of heat more than 50%in low ambient tem-perature and improve efficiency in general temperature at the same time. This paper proposes a vapor-injection varicap compressor, and studies its heating capacity and efficiency properties. The experimental results show that the APF of the air-conditioner increased by 6%when using the vapor-injection varicap compressor, and the quantity of heat increased by 85%, at the same time.%低温制热能力不足问题一直是空调的诟病,研发人员在前期也提出过几种解决温制热量的方案,但都以难满足APF工况下的能效提升和低温-15℃环境温度下高制热量的两个目标。针对这一难题,提出一种集变频技术、变容技术和喷气增焓技术为一体的压缩机设计方案,通过原理分析进行了样机的结构设计,研究其性能及低温能力特性,经验证,搭载空调系统测试时,喷气能力能效提升效果明显,在喷气情况下,搭载系统APF比基准机型提高了约6%,同时,搭载系统的低温-15℃的制热能力相对基准机提升了约85%,效果显著。

  7. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  8. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  10. What is a solar air system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, S.R. [Solararchitektur, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-07-01

    An introduction is given by the editor of the book ''Solar Air Systems - Built Examples'' describing all the examples of buildings in the volume. It outlines all the different types of collectors together with diagrams, and maps showing the location of some of buildings throughout Europe and North America. An explanation is given of the solar air system and its applications. (UK)

  11. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  12. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  13. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  14. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  15. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  16. Indoor air quality: recommendations relevant to aircraft passenger cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the human component of aircraft cabin air quality the effects of respiration of a resting adult on air quality in an enclosed space are estimated using standard equations. Results are illustrated for different air volumes per person, with zero air exchange, and with various air change rates. Calculated ventilation rates required to achieve a specified air quality for a wide range of conditions based on theory agree to within 2% of the requirements determined using a standard empirical formula. These calculations quantitatively confirm that the air changes per hour per person necessary for ventilation of an enclosed space vary inversely with the volume of the enclosed space. However, they also establish that the ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an enclosed space with a resting adult remains the same regardless of the volume of the enclosed space. Concentration equilibria resulting from the interaction of the respiration of a resting adult with various ventilation conditions are compared with the rated air exchange rates of samples of current passenger aircraft, both with and without air recirculation capability. Aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations calculated from the published ventilation ratings are found to be intermediate to these sets of results obtained by actual measurement. These findings are used to arrive at recommendations for aircraft builders and operators to help improve aircraft cabin air quality at minimum cost. Passenger responses are suggested to help improve their comfort and decrease their exposure to disease transmission, particularly on long flights.

  17. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  18. Padrões de distribuição volumétrica de pontas de pulverização de jato plano 11002, com e sem indução de ar, sob diferentes espaçamentos e alturas Distribution pattern of 11002 flat fan nozzles, with and without air induction, under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Bauer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a distribuição volumétrica de pontas de pulverização hidráulica de jato de uso ampliado 11002, com e sem indução de ar, em laboratório, bem como o padrão de deposição da pulverização, por meio da estimativa do coeficiente de variação (C.V. obtido pela simulação da sobreposição de jatos adjacentes. As pontas foram posicionadas, isoladamente, no centro da mesa de teste, a 30; 40 e 50 cm de altura da mesa e a 300 e 500 kPa de pressão. Foram avaliadas 20 unidades de cada tipo de ponta, e a deposição média foi utilizada para a simulação da deposição ao longo da barra pulverizadora, com as pontas espaçadas em 30; 40; 50 e 60 cm entre si. A uniformidade da distribuição foi estimada pelo cálculo do C.V. resultante da simulação da sobreposição das pontas em barra de 8 m, sendo utilizados somente os 4 m centrais no cálculo do C.V. Os resultados mostraram haver diferenças relacionadas à deposição entre os dois tipos de ponta. A ponta com indução de ar resultou em área de deposição inferior à ponta sem indução de ar. Esse comportamento foi observado em todas as alturas da barra e nas duas pressões, podendo-se inferir que esse comportamento possa ser característico das pontas com indução de ar.The spray distribution and uniformity characteristics of 11002 flat fan nozzles type with and without air induction were evaluated in the present research. Twenty units of flat fan nozzles with and without air induction were tested in patternator table. Each one of the units was tested separately, at the 30; 40 and 50 cm above the patternator table and submitted to pressures of 300 and 500 kPa. The means of the colleted spray volume distribution of each nozzle type was evaluated and entered in a PC program. Based on the deposition patterns, distribution uniformity for nozzles spaced at 30; 40; 50 and 60 cm was simulated in PC Program. The distribution uniformity was

  19. 单风道变风量与被动式冷梁复合系统设计初探%Combined system design of single duct VAV terminals and passive chilled beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翔; 徐春华

    2012-01-01

    Presents the combined system design in an EXPO pavilion project, and analyses the characteristics of the system in economic rationality, energy saving and comfort. Indicates that the combined system brings the complementary advantages of the all-air system and radiant cooling system into play and shows a notable potential of application in future.%介绍了上海世博会某展馆的单风道变风量与被动式冷梁复合系统的设计,分析了复合系统在整体经济性、节能性和舒适性方面的特点,指出该复合系统起到了全空气系统和辐射供冷系统优势互补的作用,具有一定的应用潜力.

  20. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  1. Biomonitoring of air quality using plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulgrew, A.; Williams, P. [King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre - WHO Collaborating Centre for Monitoring and Assessment

    2000-02-01

    This report is an update of the MARC Report No. 32 'Biological Monitoring' and a first volume referring to a WHO project on biological monitoring. The monograph reviews comprehensively the existing literature on biological monitoring of air quality with plants. This review includes consideration of all plant species that are currently, or have a potential of, being used as bioindicators of air pollution. This review is intended to serve as a background paper for the derivation of guidelines for the use of biological monitors in air pollution control. (orig.)

  2. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  3. Supplementary Computer Generated Cueing to Enhance Air Traffic Controller Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    assess the complexity of air traffic control (Mogford, Guttman, Morrow, & Kopardekar, 1995; Laudeman, Shelden, Branstrom, & Brasil , 1998). Controllers...Traffic Management R&D Seminar. Santa Fe, New Mexico , USA. European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (2007). The Human Factors Case...Behaviorial Sciences: Volume 1: Methodological Issues Volume 2: Statistical Issues, 1, 257. Laudeman, I. V., Shelden, S. G., Branstrom, R., & Brasil

  4. Sisters of the sinuses: cetacean air sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    This overview assesses some distinguishing features of the cetacean (whale, dolphin, porpoise) air sac system that may relate to the anatomy and function of the paranasal sinuses in terrestrial mammals. The cetacean respiratory tract has been modified through evolution to accommodate living in water. Lack of paranasal sinuses in modern cetaceans may be a diving adaptation. Bone-enclosed air chambers are detrimental, as their rigid walls may fracture during descent/ascent due to contracting/re-expanding air volumes. Flexible-walled "sinuses" (extracranial diverticula) are a logical adaptation to diving. Odontocetes (toothed whales) exhibit several pairs of paranasal air sacs. Although fossil evidence indicates that paranasal sinuses occur in archaeocetes (ancestors/relatives of living cetaceans), it is not known whether the paranasal sacs derive from these sinuses. Sac pigmentation indicates that they derived from invaginations of the integument. Unlike sinuses, paranasal sacs are not circumferentially enclosed in bone, and therefore can accommodate air volume changes that accompany diving pressure changes. Paired pterygoid sacs, located ventrally along the cetacean skull, connect the pharynx and middle ear cavities. Mysticetes (baleen whales) have a large midline laryngeal sac. Although cetacean air sacs do not appear to be homologous to paranasal sinuses, they may serve some analogous respiratory, vocal, or structural functions. For example, these sacs may participate in gas exchange, thermoregulation, resonance, and skeletal pneumatization. In addition, they may subserve unique aquatic functions, such as increasing inspiratory volume, mitigating pressure-induced volume change, air shunting to reduce respiratory dead space, and facilitating underwater sound production and transmission.

  5. Air flow in a collapsing cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Ivo R; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally study the airflow in a collapsing cavity created by the impact of a circular disk on a water surface. We measure the air velocity in the collapsing neck in two ways: Directly, by means of employing particle image velocimetry of smoke injected into the cavity and indirectly, by determining the time rate of change of the volume of the cavity at pinch-off and deducing the air flow in the neck under the assumption that the air is incompressible. We compare our experiments to boundary integral simulations and show that close to the moment of pinch-off, compressibility of the air starts to play a crucial role in the behavior of the cavity. Finally, we measure how the air flow rate at pinch-off depends on the Froude number and explain the observed dependence using a theoretical model of the cavity collapse.

  6. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  7. Acute management of vascular air embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Nissar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular air embolism (VAE is known since early nineteenth century. It is the entrainment of air or gas from operative field or other communications into the venous or arterial vasculature. Exact incidence of VAE is difficult to estimate. High risk surgeries for VAE are sitting position and posterior fossa neurosurgeries, cesarean section, laparoscopic, orthopedic, surgeries invasive procedures, pulmonary overpressure syndrome, and decompression syndrome. Risk factors for VAE are operative site 5 cm  above the heart, creation of pressure gradient which will facilitate entry of air into the circulation, orogenital sex during pregnancy, rapid ascent in scuba (self contained underwater breathing apparatus divers and barotrauma or chest trauma. Large bolus of air can lead to right ventricular air lock and immediate fatality. In up to 35% patient, the foramen ovale is patent which can cause paradoxical arterial air embolism. VAE affects cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system. High index of clinical suspicion is must to diagnose VAE. The transesophgeal echocardiography is the most sensitive device which will detect smallest amount of air in the circulation. Treatment of VAE is to prevent further entrainment of air, reduce the volume of air entrained and haemodynamic support. Mortality of VAE ranges from 48 to 80%. VAE can be prevented significantly by proper positioning during surgery, optimal hydration, avoiding use of nitrous oxide, meticulous care during insertion, removal of central venous catheter, proper guidance, and training of scuba divers.

  8. Air pollution and COPD in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoping; Zhong, Nanshan; Ran, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many researchers paid more attentions to the association between air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Haze, a severe form of outdoor air pollution, affected most parts of northern and eastern China in the past winter. In China, studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of outdoor air pollution and biomass smoke exposure on COPD; and most studies have focused on the role of air pollution in acutely triggering symptoms and exacerbations. Few studies have examined the role of air pollution in inducing pathophysiological changes that characterise COPD. Evidence showed that outdoor air pollution affects lung function in both children and adults and triggers exacerbations of COPD symptoms. Hence outdoor air pollution may be considered a risk factor for COPD mortality. However, evidence to date has been suggestive (not conclusive) that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Cross-sectional studies showed biomass smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. A long-term retrospective study and a long-term prospective cohort study showed that biomass smoke exposure reductions were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and with a decreased risk of COPD. To fully understand the effect of air pollution on COPD, we recommend future studies with longer follow-up periods, more standardized definitions of COPD and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments.

  9. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  10. Diffusion of air (1); furfural (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) furfural

  11. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  12. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, K.S. [ed.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance.

  13. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  14. Impact of the duct static pressure reset control strategy on the energy consumption by the HVAC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaszczyk Juliusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses different duct static pressure control strategies which could be implemented in variable air volume air-conditioning systems (VAV. Two pressure reset control strategies are compared to the commonly used control solution based on the “Constant static pressure” method. First pressure reset control strategy, known as PID Control, uses signals from VAV boxes controllers to reset duct static pressure in a way that one of the VAV dampers is maintained almost entirely open. Second strategy decreases static pressure setpoint until an adjustable number of pressure requests occur. As a response to the certain amount of requests, static pressure setpoint is increased. This strategy is called Trim & Respond. Both static pressure reset control strategies described in this paper are considered to have more significant potential for energy savings than the “Constant static pressure” method. In order to validate this potential, several simulations for different control strategies were carried out and the obtained results are compared and analysed. The theoretical limit of the energy savings - set of the optimal control actions, was estimated with Nelder-Mead algorithm and also presented in this article. General description of the static pressure control strategies "Constant static pressure", PID Control and Trim & Respond is given.

  15. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlan Burdick

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  16. Aerophagia : Excessive Air Swallowing Demonstrated by Esophageal Impedance Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with aerophagia suffer from the presence of an excessive volume of intestinal gas, which is thought to result from excessive air ingestion. However, this has not been shown thus far. The aim of this study was therefore to assess swallowing and air swallowing frequencies i

  17. Risk for intracranial pressure increase related to enclosed air in post-craniotomy patients during air ambulance transport: a retrospective cohort study with simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändström, Helge; Sundelin, Anna; Hoseason, Daniela; Sundström, Nina; Birgander, Richard; Johansson, Göran; Winsö, Ola; Koskinen, Lars-Owe; Haney, Michael

    2017-05-12

    Post-craniotomy intracranial air can be present in patients scheduled for air ambulance transport to their home hospital. We aimed to assess risk for in-flight intracranial pressure (ICP) increases related to observed intracranial air volumes, hypothetical sea level pre-transport ICP, and different potential flight levels and cabin pressures. A cohort of consecutive subdural hematoma evacuation patients from one University Medical Centre was assessed with post-operative intracranial air volume measurements by computed tomography. Intracranial pressure changes related to estimated intracranial air volume effects of changing atmospheric pressure (simulating flight and cabin pressure changes up to 8000 ft) were simulated using an established model for intracranial pressure and volume relations. Approximately one third of the cohort had post-operative intracranial air. Of these, approximately one third had intracranial air volumes less than 11 ml. The simulation estimated that the expected changes in intracranial pressure during 'flight' would not result in intracranial hypertension. For intracranial air volumes above 11 ml, the simulation suggested that it was possible that intracranial hypertension could develop 'inflight' related to cabin pressure drop. Depending on the pre-flight intracranial pressure and air volume, this could occur quite early during the assent phase in the flight profile. DISCUSSION: These findings support the idea that there should be radiographic verification of the presence or absence of intracranial air after craniotomy for patients planned for long distance air transport. Very small amounts of air are clinically inconsequential. Otherwise, air transport with maintained ground-level cabin pressure should be a priority for these patients.

  18. Influence of Visitors' Flows on Indoor Air Quality of Museum Premises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Volodymyr; Lysak, Pavlo

    2012-06-01

    The article considers the influence of visitors' flows on indoor air quality of museum premises and work of ventilation and air conditioning systems. The article provides the analysis of the heat input from visitors, the results of mathematical simulation of visitors flow influence on indoor air quality. Several advice options are provided on application of variable air volume systems for provision of constant indoor air quality.

  19. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  20. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  1. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  2. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  3. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  4. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  5. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  6. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  7. Využití zdrojů financování VaV ve vybraných podnicích odvětví elektrotechnického průmyslu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bočková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: This paper examines the impact of the Czech R&D Tax Incentives scheme on the number of Innovations and patenting. Czech R&D spending in business sector is low by OECD and EU Innovation standards. To achievement the aims of strategy Europa 2020 in 2005 the Czech government introduced a R&D Tax Incentives. This type of R&D Tax Incentives is the best in EU-27, how simulated ZEW Mannheim team used European Tax Analyser. Methodolgy/methods: We analysed the effects of R&D Tax Incentives on the likelihood of innovating and patenting in business companies, NACE 26.51 Measuring, testing and navigating equipment; watches and clocks. We used three databases: Database for Czech firms, data of Financial Administration of the Czech Republic and results of questionnaire Research and Development of Czech Statistical Office. Scientific aim: The aim of this paper is to analyze and assess the current state of investment in own R&D in manufacturing enterprises of electro technical industry in the Czech Republic, especially in relation to the actual realization of innovations and patents, financing sources used in relation to the size of the business. Czech companies using public subsidies to R&D activities, structural funding from EU, own resources and R&D Tax Incentives. Findings: The part of Manufacturing Industry is the part of the third fastest growing industry and the most R&D Tax Incentives volume (in CZK. R&D investment is for SME risky. SMEs likely produce for a large company, than starting new products line by themselves. Moreover, it is very difficult for financial and government institutions to judge the quality of the R&D investment because of its uncertain outcome and firms’ reluctance to disclose all of the relevant information. For SMEs, particularly small firms and start-ups, will be more likely to be credit constrained when investing in R&D. Conclusions: Enterprises of business sector with own R&D are more competitiveness

  8. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  9. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  10. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  11. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program . Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-25

    Blystone Dr. Gwendolyn Howze Trinity University Texas Southern University Specialty: Zoology Specialty: Molecular Biology Dr. Carolyn Caudle -Alexander Dr...Effect of Microwave Radiation on Cultured Cells Dr. C. Caudle -Alexander 210-1OMG-097 92 In Vivo Processing of Tetraisopropyl Dr. James Chambers...R. Fivaz, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 28 (1967) 839. [16] H. C. Casey , Jr. and M. G. Panish, Hetrostructure Lasers. New York: Academic, 1978. [17] H

  12. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 21, Number 3, Fall 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    making such people more useful leaders and better members of the service. Modesty a certain amount of egoism has a definite mo­ tivating value for...opinionated and obstinate about taking ad­ vice from colleagues and subordinates. In some cases , they may consciously enjoy a feel­ ing of superiority and...Contract Management Agency Boston, Massachusetts FIT (AND READY) TO FIGHT Author 2d Lt Nickolas Stewart makes an inter­ esting case for hand-to

  13. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 16, Number 3, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    irrigation from the Colorado Springs municipality. Gray water (a.k.a. graywater, greywater , and grey water) is water collected from bathroom sinks...tubs, and showers and clothes washers for treatment and reuse . Gray water is primarily used for sub-surface irrigation or, when highly treated, for...intended reuse . Non-potable well water comes from two sources: from a formerly potable well that has become contaminated or deteriorated so that it no

  14. Air Force Research Initiation Program 1986 Technical Report Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    violet radiation), high speed, and extreme temperature the aircraft would encounter both on the ground or while in-service. Still other failures sight have...logical ring. 2. if a token destined for this site is received and if its INCARNATION is less than the greatest existing IN CARNATION , (a) remove this

  15. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 13, Number 4, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    great synergy.” Ed. note: Since this article was written, Col Anthony Maida has retired. Lt Col John Elwood is now the ANGRC’s Chief of Readiness. Col...to have today.” said Lt Col John Elwood, the ANGRC’s Chief of Readiness. “At the RTSs and REOTS, we have the equipment we can’t afford to have...daily. Mr. Rich Updike HQ AMC/A7OS amc-geobase@scott.af.mil AMC GeoBase MacDill AFB uses GeoBase to keep emergency responders up to date during

  16. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-25

    Dr. Phanindramohan Das Dr. Thomas Miller Texas A&M University University of Oklahoma Specialty Geophysical Science Specialty: Physics Dr. Alan Kafka Dr...39 Rg as a Depth Discriminant for Earthquakes and Dr. Alan Kafka Explosions in New England and Eastern Kazakhstan 210-1OMG-082 40 Time-of-Flight...They base this assumption on the fact that the energy period of the oscillatory PR signal, known -as the Franz -Keldysh sclliations (FKO), scales with

  17. Air Force Research Initiation Program. 1986 Technical Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    34Modifications of Vortex Interactions in a Reattaching Separated Flow," AIAA Journal, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1986, pp. 623-692. 6. Ahuja, K.K., "Acoustic...Through the Nerve Center. Arch Psyc NY. 1912; 23. 17. Poon, LW, Thompson, LW and Marsh, GR. Average Evoked Potential Changes as a Function of Task

  18. Air and Space Power Journal (ASPJ). Volume 25, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Kurt M. Campbell , ed. Reviewer: Maj Thomas G. Aranda, USAF The Candy Bombers: The Untold Story of the Berlin Airlift and America’s Finest Hour...opinion, the military is appropri- ately targeting Farsi and Pashtoon capabili- ties because those languages are the “ soupe du jour” for the current war... Campbell . Brook- ings Institution Press (http://www.brookings .edu/press/), 1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036, 2008, 237 pages

  19. US Air Force 1989 Research Initiation Program. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-25

    Relation to Toxic Nephropathy from Compounds of Military Interest 210-10MG-101 104 Parametric Studies of the Breakdown of Total Dr. Ethel Matin Information...protecting group allows for the ensuing lithium /halogen exchange reaction to occur presumably without the interference of the amine hydrogens which would...are employed to carry out the lithium /halogen exchange 2. However, the protecting group was found to be somewhat temperamental with regards to its

  20. Air Force Journal of Logistics. Volume 23, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    while the other allows us What are useful sources to collect past performance to throw peanuts on the floor -both aspects exceed your information...to our continual more emphasis among tradeoffs than selections based on the demands that kept the waitress from doing anything but bending Lowest...each new deciding if poor waitress service is relevant to our requirement acquisition as their predominant means of collecting past of having

  1. Air Force Research Initiation Program 1986 Technical Report Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    University Specialty: Mathematics Specialty: Aerodynamics Dr. Barbara Rice Mr. Jim Sirkis (GSRP) Alabama A&M University Florida University Specialty...Tech- Mr. Chris Reed niques for TRansonic Projectile Base Flow Problems 76n-6MG-034 Vnlume III 07 Utilization of the Image Algebra Dr. Barbara Rice 760...1-18. 2. Swanson, J. T., L. P. Davis, R. C. Dorey, and W. R. Carper , "An EPR Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Molten 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene and

  2. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 21, Number 4, Winter 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    troops in support of operation Fard Al Qanoon and delivered humanitarian- relief supplies in response to an earthquake in Irbil and a cholera ... outbreak in sulayminiyah.1 The most common request for the IqAF’s C-130 airlift involves the transport of distinguished visitors and high-ranking...So San, a north Ko­ rean vessel carrying a cargo of Scud missiles between the reclusive Pyongyang regime and yemen .37 To some extent, this capability

  3. Air & Space Power Journal (ASPJ). Volume 26, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    China. I can use a server in Malaysia or in Brunei.”36 The worldwide diffusion and geoambiguity of cyberspace complicate effective ISR, since there are... skin is the principal cause of its maintenance troubles, with unexpected shortcomings.”59 The service needs to maintain these coatings continu- ously...I don’t much care where—” said Alice. “Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the Cat. “—so long as I get SOMEWHERE,” Alice added as an

  4. High Volume Air Sampling for Viral Aerosols: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    are shown to be very effective. Meltzer et al. modeled potential response strategies to a release of smallpox as a biowarfare agent. Quarantine and...isolated starting 30 days after agent release and projected that by 240 days post release no new cases would occur ( Meltzer , Damon, LeDuc, & Millar...lpm). The study found that found that for flow rates less than 2.5 lpm, very little media depression occurs in the AGI-30 and the fluid remains

  5. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 19, Number 2, Summer 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    salary for his postretirement civil­ ian efforts. He is antithetical to the megarich consultants and Enronized chief executive of­ ficers of...and “Firm Tied to Abu Ghraib Scandal Still under Contract in Iraq,” WorldTribune.Com, 11 August 2004, http://216.26. 163.62/2004/ss_military_08_11

  6. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 2, Summer 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    which we pride ourselves, and it has been a truly rewarding tour to witness the bottomless potential of our troops fully realized.� Meeting the...and SMSgt James Ferrell were in charge of the excavation phase of the project. They requested every shop in the 384th ECES offer up troops to help run...and Marketing Office. CMSgt Glenn Deese is the opera- tions manager for the Civil Engineer Maintenance, Inspection and Repair Team, Tyndall AFB, FL

  7. A Survey of Modern Air Traffic Control. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    1288 ff. VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin, 1969 9 Franz , K., Lassen, H.: Antennen und Ausbreitung, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg, 19^6. 10...link , whil e the othe r simpl e r version uses a s ing l e transmitt e r a boa r d the ai r raft as a tran s ponde r beac o n fo r l a nding

  8. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 9, Number 2, Summer 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    facilities for the new school constructed in El Porvenir, Guatemala. (Photo by SrA Shannon Collins) (Right) Amn Nathan Geldner and A1C Erik Field, 820th...effec- tive environmental management programs at their locations,� said Juan D. Lopez , acting chief of staff of the White House Task Force on...at a point where we can really offer what our customers need from us.� Col Sam Garcia , executive direc- tor and military commander, noted that AFCEE

  9. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 11, Number 1, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    1.5-foot vertical depressions while taxiing . The 819th/219th ERHS jumped into action and mobilized by moving 317 short tons of tools and equipment to...runway remained active during our entire project. Flying was restricted for seven hours a day, but even during re- stricted hours we still had to pull...manufactured high-voltage stepdown transformer, deliv- ered them to Dubai International Airport in the United Arab Emirates, and made arrangements for

  10. Integrated Unmanned Air-Ground Robotics System, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-20

    Winkeler, Sherri Adlich Programmatics Pat McInnis, Jim Sanders, John Carter, Jim Kirkwood Systems Integration Jim Dinges; George Smith Mechanical...les vies des soldats sur les champs de bataille , le développement de drones apparaît comme la solution idéale. Ces systèmes étant capables de missions...préserver les vies des soldats sur les champs de bataille , le développement de drones apparaît comme la solution idéale. Ces systèmes étant capables de

  11. Air-to-Ground Visual Simulation Demonstration. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    influences by such methods as returning to the first device evaluated for an additional sortie and providing each pilot with an equal amount of task...taken at longer intervals after exposure. 11-51 With the passage of time, factors which influence a rater become less distinct. In Phase II, ratings...efforts are required to develop a more compact, high resolution, high brightness color televison projector. 6. Day/Dusk/Night Capability The display must be

  12. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  13. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  14. Reversibility of trapped air on chest computed tomography in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Rosenow, Tim; Gorbunova, Vladlena;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in trapped air volume and distribution over time and compare computed tomography (CT) with pulmonary function tests for determining trapped air. METHODS: Thirty children contributed two CTs and pulmonary function tests over 2 years. Localized changes in trapped air...... measured by plethysmography and helium dilution, residual volume to total lung capacity ratio, forced expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity, and maximum mid-expiratory flow as pulmonary function test markers of trapped air. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon's signed rank test and Spearman...... air on CT correlated statistically significantly with all pulmonary function measures (p

  15. Development of Level 3 (gridded) products for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie L.; Leroy, Stephen S.; Manning, Evan M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Oliphant, Robert B.; Braverman, Amy; Lee, Sung-Yung; Lambrigtsen, Bjom H.

    2004-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) sounding system is a suite of infrared and microwave instruments flown as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) onboard the Aqua platform. The AIRS dataset provides a daily, global view of Earth processes at a finer vertical resolution than ever before. However, analysis of the AIRS data is a daunting task given the sheer volume and complexity of the data. The volume of data produced by the EOS project is unprecedented; the AIRS project alone will produce many terabytes of data over the lifetime of the mission. This paper describes development of AIRS Level 3 data products that will help to alleviate problems of access and usability.

  16. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems...... are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through...

  17. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  18. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  19. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  20. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  1. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Air Land Organization, Hurricane Block, Headquarters Air Command, Royal Air Force High Wycombe, Wal- ters Ash, Buckinghamshire, UK. The reset to con...MAJ James Edwards, USA Air LTC Brian Gross, USAF LTC Blake Keil, USA Maj William Harvey , USMC MAJ Jeffrey Hazard, USA Maj Darin Lupini, USAF ALSA

  2. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  3. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  4. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  5. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  6. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-03-18

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs.

  7. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  8. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  9. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  10. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  11. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  12. October 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The October 2015 pulmonary journal club focused on the review of older studies evaluating lung volume reduction surgery and how this has transitioned toward the development of non-surgical modes of lung volume reduction. The physiology behind dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex process. One of the proposed mechanisms has been hyperinflation associated with air trapping. In the mid 1990s studies by Cooper and Peterson (1 offered a promising approach in which lung volume reduction (LVR could improve ventilatory mechanics and improve dyspnea. As the procedure gained more popularity, additional larger scale trials were performed to support its validity. We reviewed 2 studies looking at lung volume reduction. The first was "The Effect of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery In Patients With Severe Emphysema” (2 . This was a smaller, randomized controlled trial (RCT that looked at 2 groups of 24 patients. Once group received LVR while the ...

  13. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  14. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  15. Total Dose Hardness Assurance. Volume I. Identification of Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    under Contract F29601-78-C-0022. The project officer for the Air Force was Mr. Roe J. Maier. The program manager and principal investigator for BDM was...Assurance Techniques," AFWL-TR-73-134, 3 Volumes, January 1974. 44. Bruncke, W. C. et al. " Tecniques for Screening Bipolar Transistor Degradation Due to

  16. Optimizing the Air Dissolution Parameters in an Unpacked Dissolved Air Flotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dassey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the various parameters that influence air solubility and microbubble production in dissolved air flotation (DAF, a multitude of values that cover a large range for these parameters are suggested for field systems. An unpacked saturator and an air quantification unit were designed to specify the effects of power, pressure, temperature, hydraulic retention time, and air flow on the DAF performance. It was determined that a pressure of 621 kPa, hydraulic retention time of 18.2 min, and air flow of 8.5 L/h would be the best controlled parameters for maximum efficiency in this unit. A temperature of 7 °C showed the greatest microbubble production, but temperature control would not be expected in actual application. The maximum microbubble flow from the designed system produced 30 mL of air (±1.5 per L of water under these conditions with immediate startup. The maximum theoretical dissolved air volume of 107 mL (±6 was achieved at a retention time of 2 h and a pressure of 621 kPa. To isolate and have better control over the various DAF operational parameters, the DAF unit was operated without the unsaturated flow stream. This mode of operation led to the formation of large bubbles at peak bubble production rates. In a real-world application, the large bubble formation will be avoided by mixing with raw unsaturated stream and by altering the location of dissolved air output flow.

  17. A methodology of estimation on air pollution and its health effects in large Japanese cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirota, Keiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Shogo; Kashima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between air pollution and health effects in large Japanese cities presents a great challenge owing to the limited availability of data on the exposure to pollution, health effects and the uncertainty of mixed causes. A methodology for quantitative relationships (between the emission volume and air quality, and the air quality and health effects) is analysed with a statistical method in this article; the correlation of air pollution reduction policy in Japan from 1974 to 2007. ...

  18. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Besharat; Maria Teresa Viseu; Helena M. Ramos

    2017-01-01

    An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP), confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV), has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH) events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water ...

  19. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through mecha

  20. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through mecha

  1. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  2. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  3. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  4. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  5. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  6. The WSTIAC Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    elements of command– Major Eric D. Trias Captain Bryan M. Bell US Air Force You have to know the past to understand the present. — Carl Sagan This article is...Quarterly, Volume 9, Number 4 3 INTRODUCTION Carl von Clausewitz defined war as “…an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will...controlled systems. NOTES & REFERENCES ‡ Joint Pub 3-13 provides the doctrinal foundation for the conduct of IO in joint operations. [1] von Clausewitz, Carl

  7. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-23

    The DART II is a data acquisition system that can be used with air pollution monitoring equipment. This volume contains appendices that deal with the following topics: adjustment and calibration procedures (power supply adjustment procedure, ADC calibration procedure, analog multiplexer calibration procedure); mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets (microprocessor, asynchronous receiver/transmitter, analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic processing unit, 5-volt power supply, +- 15-volt power supply, 24-volt power supply, floppy disk formater/controller, random access static memory); ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction set, octal listing; and cable lists. (RR)

  8. ICFA instrumentation bulletin, Volume 15, Fall 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis in the field of high-energy physics. This volume contains the following four papers: (1) Streamers in MSGC's and Other Gaseous Detectors; (2) Soft X-Ray Production in Spark Discharges in Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Air, Argon, and Xenon Gases; (3) Beam Tests of the CLEO III LiF-TEA Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector; and (4) Electron Multiplication and Secondary Scintillation in Liquid Xenon: New Prospects.

  9. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  10. Air Power and Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, V.3...et al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  11. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  12. Specific Properties of Air Flow Field Within the Grinding Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Junyi; JIANG Zhengfeng; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    Air barrier of grinding means a boundary layer of air existing at the circumference of the rotating wheel, which hinders coolant from entry. This paper makes a research on air flow field of the grinding zone through experiments and numerical simulations, focusing on acquainting with the specific properties of the air flow field. Finite volume method is applied to analyze air flow field within grinding wheel in the course of numerical calculations. The test devices such as Hot-wire anemometer and Betz manometer are used during the experiments of testing the pressure and velocity within grinding zone. Results of experiments agree by and large with numerical results of calculations. The conclusions obtained in this paper, the distribution of wall pressure and the distribution of air flow velocity, are important and useful to navigate the delivery of coolant into the grinding zone. In conclusion, some recommendations are made for further study and practical applications in such field.

  13. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  14. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  15. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  16. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  17. 40 CFR 80.599 - How do I calculate volume balances for designation purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... June 30, 2013. July 1, 2013 May 31, 2014. (2) (b) Volume balance for motor vehicle diesel fuel. (1) A facility's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume balance is calculated as follows: MVB = MVI−MVO−MVINVCHG...

  18. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  19. Oscillation of large air bubble cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)

  20. Behaviour of air discharged from a sparger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This research has been performed as a part of the project, Development of Design Verification Technology for Korea Next Generation Reactor. At first, current state of the art of the bubble dynamics and the result will be used to develop an optimum tool including computer code for analysis of air or air-steam mixture bubble, which is discharged from a sparger. Introduced are linear perturbation; spherical bubble cloud theory; bubble interaction; and Volume of Fluid, a method of tracking free surface, which is to be used in computational fluid dynamics. An analysis was performed for the oscillation of an air bubble of perfect spherical shape. The heat transfer through the bubble surface is considered, although the effect was not so significant. The effect of initial and boundary conditions were investigated and the correlation equation was developed. 42 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  2. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  3. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  4. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  5. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  6. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  7. Quality Horizons. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-15

    PRODUCTS PRODUCTS Bruel & Kjaer Standard Electric GOVERNMENT AGENCIES US Embassy Office of Defense Cooperation Ministry of Commerce Royal Danish Air Force...Combined Material Agency (DCMA) BELGIUM COMMERCIAL & MILITARY PRODUCTS MBLE (Manufacture Beige DeLampes St De Materiel Electronique ) GOVERnMENT AGENCIES

  8. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  9. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  10. 3D quantification of microclimate volume in layered clothing for the prediction of clothing insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yejin; Hong, Kyunghi; Hong, Sung-Ae

    2007-05-01

    Garment fit and resultant air volume is a crucial factor in thermal insulation, and yet, it has been difficult to quantify the air volume of clothing microclimate and relate it to the thermal insulation value just using the information on the size of clothing pattern without actual 3D volume measurement in wear condition. As earlier methods for the computation of air volume in clothing microclimate, vacuum over suit and circumference model have been used. However, these methods have inevitable disadvantages in terms of cost or accuracy due to the limitations of measurement equipment. In this paper, the phase-shifting moiré topography was introduced as one of the 3D scanning tools to measure the air volume of clothing microclimate quantitatively. The purpose of this research is to adopt a non-contact image scanning technology, phase-shifting moiré topography, to ascertain relationship between air volume and insulation value of layered clothing systems in wear situations where the 2D fabric creates new conditions in 3D spaces. The insulation of vests over shirts as a layered clothing system was measured with a thermal manikin in the environmental condition of 20 degrees C, 65% RH and air velocity of 0.79 m/s. As the pattern size increased, the insulation of the clothing system was increased. But beyond a certain limit, the insulation started to decrease due to convection and ventilation, which is more apparent when only the vest was worn over the torso of manikin. The relationship between clothing air volume and insulation was difficult to predict with a single vest due to the extreme openings which induced active ventilation. But when the vest was worn over the shirt, the effects of thickness of the fabrics on insulation were less pronounced compared with that of air volume. In conclusion, phase-shifting moiré topography was one of the efficient and accurate ways of quantifying air volume and its distribution across the clothing microclimate. It is also noted

  11. Nasal air conditioning in relation to acoustic rhinometry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Joerg; Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Wiesmiller, Kerstin M

    2009-01-01

    Changes of nasal dimensions can influence the air-conditioning capacity of the nose because of alterations of airflow patterns. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intranasal temperature and humidity values and nasal dimensions, assessed by means of acoustic rhinometry. Eighty healthy volunteers (40 men and 40 women; median age, 51 years; range, 20-84 years) were enrolled in the study. In total, 160 nasal cavities were examined. All volunteers underwent a standardized acoustic rhinometry. Additionally, intranasal air temperature and humidity measurements at defined intranasal detection sites within the anterior nasal segment were performed. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left side of the nose regarding air temperature, absolute humidity, and acoustic rhinometric values. A negative correlation was established between the rhinometric nasal volumes/minimal cross-sectional areas and air temperature and absolute humidity values at the three intranasal detection sites. According to our results, nasal volumes and cross- sectional areas relevantly influence nasal air conditioning. A healthy nasal cavity with smaller volumes and cross-sectional areas seems to present a more effective air-conditioning function than a too "wide" open nose because of changes in airflow patterns. This observation should be considered as a limitation for overly extensive nasal surgery especially of the turbinates.

  12. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement; Medida de los descendientes del radon en aire por Espectrometria Alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-07-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air Quality Action Days / Alerts AirCompare Air Quality Index (AQI) ...

  14. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  15. Authentic Assessment in the Geometry Classroom: Calculating the Classroom Air-Exchange Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a room air-exchange activity designed to assess student understanding of the concept of volume. Lists materials for the activity and its procedures. Includes the lesson plan and a student worksheet. (KHR)

  16. Pressure-volume characteristics of lungs of rats during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridy, E E

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lung volumes in pregnant women show that the functional residual capacity and residual volume are reduced by 17-25% at late pregnancy. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a decrease in FRC at pregnancy may result from an increase in retractive forces of the lung. The air and saline pressure-volume characteristics of excised lungs were studied in rats daily during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In comparison to non-pregnancy rats, the air PV measurements indicated that: (1) the retractive forces of the lungs were increased late in pregnancy resulting in reduction in both MLV (lung air volume at 40 cm H2O Ptp) and in V%10 (volume at 10/volume at 40 cm H2O Ptp X 100); (2) MLV was greater in lactating than in non-lactating and in non-pregnant rats. Lung saline volume was also greater in lactating than in non-lactating rats at early postpartum period. Lung phospholipids content was increased at late pregnancy and in lactating rats; (3) there was an increase in MLV and in V% immediately after delivery and 2-3 days after an abrupt cessation of lactation ("dried" rats). The minimal surface tension of lung lavages also decreased in these rats. A shift to that left of the air PV curve in "dried" rats suggest that under normal circumstances lung surface forces are not at their lowest.

  17. Characterization of a free air ionization chamber for low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Xavier, Marcos; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: nsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Free air ionization chambers are used by most primary metrology laboratories as primary standards of the quantities air kerma and exposure in X-ray beams. The free air ionization chamber for low energies of the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN showed in a characterization test a problem in the set responsible for the variation of its sensitive volume. After a modification in the support of the micrometers used for the movement of the internal cylinder and the establishment of a new alignment system protocol, the tests were redone. The objective of this work was to present the results obtained in the new condition. (author)

  18. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  19. Contact air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  20. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  1. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2007-01-01

    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  2. MANAJEMEN KULTUR ROTIFER DENGAN TANGKI VOLUME KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberhasilan pembenihan ikan sangat dipengaruhi keberhasilan produksi jasad pakan rotifer secara tepat dan efisien. Penelitian kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil bertujuan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi produksi yang paling optimal dan memenuhi prinsip dasar akuakultur low volume high density. Penelitian menggunakan tangki polyethylene dengan volume 500 L dan volume media awal 100 L, padat tebar awal 200 ind. rotifer per mL dengan sediaan pakan dasar fitoplankton Nannocloropsis occulata, ragi roti (0,05 g/mio.rot./feeding dan suplemen Scott emulsion (0,005 g/mio.rot./feeding. Penelitian dilakukan secara bertahap; tahap pertama (I tanpa penambahan air laut, peningkatan volume hanya dari penambahan 15 L Nannochloropsis tiap hari sampai hari kelima, tahap kedua (II dengan penambahan alga 40 L dan air laut 40 L; serta tahap ketiga (III dengan menggandakan pemberian ragi roti. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada percobaan tahap I: total produksi rata-rata 122,37 x 106 ind. rotifer, pada tahap II: 97,67 x 106 ind. rotifer, dan pada tahap III: dicapai rata-rata total produksi tertinggi dengan 187,17 x 106 ind. rotifer per tanki kultur 500 L. Pengelolaan kultur pada tahap III memberikan hasil terbaik dengan simpangan terkecil antar tangki kultur ulangan, dan membuktikan sebagai pengelolaan terbaik untuk kultur rotifer dengan tangki volume kecil.  Success of marine seed production is highly influenced by effective and efficient production performance of life food rotifer. Observation on rotifer culture using small volume tank was aimed to get the optimum production and efficiency, to fulfill the basic principle of aquaculture “low volume high density”. Polyethylene tanks of 500 L. were used as culture container, with initial 100 liter sea water as culture medium and initial density of 200 ind. rotifer per mL. N. occulata, baker yeast (0.05 g/mio.rotifer/feeding and Scott emulsion (0.005 g/mio.rotifer/feeding were used as basic feed, and

  3. A Novel Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    OpenAIRE

    Erren Yao; Xinbing Wang; Liqin Wang; Huanran Wang

    2013-01-01

    A novel pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage (PHCA) system is proposed in this paper to resolve the problems of bulk energy storage in the wind power generation industry over an area in China, which is characterised by drought and water shortages. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy storage system, which focuses on the pre-set pressure, storage volume capacity, water air volume ratio, pump performance, and water turbine performance of the storage system, is also presented...

  4. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  5. Solar Air Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Nation's first solar-cell-powered air monitoring station was installed at Liberty State Park, New Jersey. Jointly sponsored by state agencies and the Department of Energy, system includes display which describes its operation to park visitors. Unit samples air every sixth day for a period of 24 hours. Air is forced through a glass filter, then is removed each week for examination by the New Jersey Bureau of Air Pollution. During the day, solar cells provide total power for the sampling equipment. Excess energy is stored in a bank of lead-acid batteries for use when needed.

  6. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  7. The application of air abrasion in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandinić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of contemporary dentistry is to preserve healthy tooth structure by applying techniques of noninvasive treatment. Air abrasion is a minimally invasive nonmechanical technique of tooth preparation that uses kinetic energy to remove carious tooth structure. A powerful narrow stream of moving aluminum-oxide particles hit the tooth surface and they abrade it without heat, vibration or noise. Variables that affect speed of cutting include air pressure, particle size, powder flow, tip’s size, angle and distance from the tooth. It has been proposed that air abrasion can be used to diagnose early occlusal-surface lesions and treat them with minimal tooth preparation using magnifier. Reported advantages of air abrasion include reduced noise, vibration and sensitivity. Air abrasion cavity preparations have more rounded internal contours than those prepared with straight burs. This may increase the longevity of placed restorations because it reduces the incidence of fractures and a consequence of decreased internal stresses. However, air abrasion cannot be used for all patients, i.e. in cases involving severe dust allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, recent extraction or other oral surgery, open wounds, advanced periodontal disease, recent placement of orthodontic appliances and oral abrasions, or subgingival caries removal. Many of these conditions increase the risk of air embolism in the oral soft tissues. Dust control is a challenge, and it necessitates the use of rubber dam, high-volume evacuation, protective masks and safety eyewear for both the patient and the therapist. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  8. Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.

  9. Droplet detachment by air flow for microstructured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengfei; Lv, Cunjing; Yao, Zhaohui

    2013-04-30

    Quantitative correlation between critical air velocity and roughness of microstructured surface has still not been established systematically until the present; the dynamics of water droplet detachment by air flow from micropillar-like superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated by combining experiments and simulation comparisons. Experimental evidence demonstrates that the onset of water droplet detachment from horizontal micropillar-like superhydrophobic surfaces under air flow always starts with detachment of the rear contact lines of the droplets from the pillar tops, which exhibits a similar dynamic mechanism for water droplet motion under a gravity field. On the basis of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, an explicit analytical model is proposed for investigating the detaching mechanism, in which the critical air velocity can be fully determined by several intrinsic parameters: water-solid interface area fraction, droplet volume, and Young's contact angle. This model gives predictions of the critical detachment velocity of air flow that agree well with the experimental measurements.

  10. 大体积采样结合高分辨气相色谱-电子捕获负化学源-低分辨质谱法测定空气中的短链氯化石蜡%Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史蕾蒙; 高媛; 侯晓虹; 张海军; 张亦弛; 陈吉平

    2016-01-01

    建立了大体积采样结合高分辨气相色谱-电子捕获负化学源-低分辨质谱( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS)测定空气中短链氯化石蜡( SCCPs)的定量分析方法.联合使用酸化硅胶复合层析柱和碱性氧化铝层析柱净化处理空气样品中的 SCCPs,并对净化条件进行优化.使用该方法计算得到氯含量为58. 1%~63. 3%的 SCCPs系列标准储备溶液的总响应因子与氯含量线性相关,相关系数(R2)大于 0. 99.该方法的仪器检出限(S/N≥3)为 4. 2 pg,定量限(S/N≥10)为12 pg.SCCPs的方法检出限(MDL)为0. 34 ng/m3(n=7),实际样品加标回收率均达 80%以上.该方法灵敏度高、选择性好,能满足空气样品中 SCCPs的监测和分析需求.%An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins( SCCPs)in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS ) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity(R2>0. 99)between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The lim-its of detection( S/N≥3 ) and the limits of quantification( S/N≥10 ) were 4. 2 and 12 pg, respectively. The method detection limit( MDL)for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m 3( n=7). The recov-eries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  11. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  12. A survey of perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides in indoor and outdoor air using passive air samplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, M.; Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada (Canada); Wilford, B.; Jones, K. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Science; Zhu, J. [Chemistry Research Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has recently emerged as a priority environmental pollutant due to its widespread detection in biological samples from remote regions including the Arctic and the Mid-North Pacific Ocean. Because PFOS is fairly involatile, it is hypothesized that its occurrence in remote regions is the result of atmospheric transport of more volatile precursor compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASs). PFASs are used in variety of consumer products for water and oil resistance including surface treatments for fabric, upholstery, carpet, paper and leather. In a recent pilot study employing high volume air samples, indoor air concentrations of PFASs were approximately 100 times greater than outdoor levels. This is of significance because people typically spend about 90% of their time indoors 5 and this exposure may serve as an important uptake pathway. Indoor air also serves as a source of PFASs to the outside where PFASs are ultimately transported and distributed throughout the environment. The current study is intended to be a more comprehensive survey of indoor and outdoor air allowing more confident conclusions to be made. Passive air samplers comprised of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were used. These are quiet, non-intrusive samplers that operate without the aid of a pump or electricity. Air movement delivers chemical to the sampler which has a high retention capacity for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PUF disks samplers have been previously used successfully to monitor different classes of hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants POPs.

  13. Noncontact Monitoring of Respiration by Dynamic Air-Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, Tohru; Asada, Tetsunosuke; Sumi, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that a dynamic air-pressure sensor system allows respiratory status to be visually monitored for patients in minimally clothed condition. The dynamic air-pressure sensor measures vital information using changes in air pressure. To utilize this device in the field, we must clarify the influence of clothing conditions on measurement. The present study evaluated use of the dynamic air-pressure sensor system as a respiratory monitor that can reliably detect change in breathing patterns irrespective of clothing. Twelve healthy volunteers reclined on a dental chair positioned horizontally with the sensor pad for measuring air-pressure signals corresponding to respiration placed on the seat back of the dental chair in the central lumbar region. Respiratory measurements were taken under 2 conditions: (a) thinly clothed (subject lying directly on the sensor pad); and (b) thickly clothed (subject lying on the sensor pad covered with a pressure-reducing sheet). Air-pressure signals were recorded and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration were calculated. This information was compared with expiratory tidal volume measured simultaneously by a respirometer connected to the subject via face mask. The dynamic air-pressure sensor was able to receive the signal corresponding to respiration regardless of clothing conditions. A strong correlation was identified between expiratory tidal volume and time integration values for air pressure during each expiration for all subjects under both clothing conditions (0.840-0.988 for the thinly clothed condition and 0.867-0.992 for the thickly clothed condition). These results show that the dynamic air-pressure sensor is useful for monitoring respiratory physiology irrespective of clothing.

  14. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  15. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  16. Reversibility of trapped air on chest computed tomography in cystic fibrosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeve, Martine [Department of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Rosenow, Tim [Department of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital (Netherlands); School of Paediatrics and Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Gorbunova, Vladlena [Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hop, Wim C.J. [Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Tiddens, Harm A.W.M., E-mail: H.Tiddens@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Bruijne, Marleen de [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Trapped air in CF is thought to represent small airways disease. • Trapped air in CF is weakly associated with small airway measures of lung function. • Around one third of regional trapped air is stable in CF over 2 years. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate changes in trapped air volume and distribution over time and compare computed tomography (CT) with pulmonary function tests for determining trapped air. Methods: Thirty children contributed two CTs and pulmonary function tests over 2 years. Localized changes in trapped air on CT were assessed using image analysis software, by deforming the CT at timepoint 2 to match timepoint 1, and measuring the volume of stable (TA{sub stable}), disappeared (TA{sub disappeared}) and new (TA{sub new}) trapped air as a proportion of total lung volume. We used the difference between total lung capacity measured by plethysmography and helium dilution, residual volume to total lung capacity ratio, forced expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity, and maximum mid-expiratory flow as pulmonary function test markers of trapped air. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon's signed rank test and Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Median (range) age at baseline was 11.9 (5–17) years. Median (range) of trapped air was 9.5 (2–33)% at timepoint 1 and 9.0 (0–25)% at timepoint 2 (p = 0.49). Median (range) TA{sub stable}, TA{sub disappeared} and TA{sub new} were respectively 3.0 (0–12)%, 5.0 (1–22)% and 7.0 (0–20)%. Trapped air on CT correlated statistically significantly with all pulmonary function measures (p < 0.01), other than residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (p = 0.37). Conclusion: Trapped air on CT did not significantly progress over 2 years, may have a substantial stable component, and is significantly correlated with pulmonary function markers.

  17. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  18. Air pollution exposure is associated with restrictive ventilatory patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Vonk, Judith M.; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Stolk, Ronald P.; van der Plaat, Diana A.; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide [1]. In a recent paper, Adam et al. [2] showed significantly impaired levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) associated with exposure to the ambien

  19. CASE REPORT Air embolus revisited – a diagnostic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the widespread use of pump injectors for intravenous contrast deliv- ery and the increasing use of ... and treatment, as this specifically relates to the practice of diagnostic ... body cavities for endoscopic surgery.4 It is also well documented that air may ... important. A large volume of 50 ml or greater infused at a rapid rate is.

  20. Air pollution emission inventory along a major traffic route within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soyannwo, Olusola

    Increasing road congestion and high traffic volume is often times an indicator of ... Data was collected monthly over a period of four months in the morning peak, off ... There was a strong correlation (p=0.05) between ambient CO levels and traffic ... Key words: Air quality, vehicular emissions, traffic density, carbon dioxide.