WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume supernova search

  1. Automated search for supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion

  2. Automated search for supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-11-15

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion.

  3. Berkeley automated supernova search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  4. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  5. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...

  6. A Moderate Redshift Supernova Search Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Wheeler, J. C.; Ward, M.; Wren, W. R.; Schmidt, B. P.

    1995-12-01

    We report on a recently initiated supernova (SN) search program using the McDonald Observatory 0.76m telescope and Prime Focus Camera (PFC). This SN search program takes advantage of the PFC's 42.6 x 42.6 arcmin FOV to survey moderate redshift Abell clusters in single Kron-Cousins R-band images. Our scientific goal is to discover and provide quality BVRI photometric follow-up, to R \\ +21, for a significant SNe sample at 0.03 group (Perlmutter et al 1995, ApJ, 440, L41), and the High Redshift SN Search Team (Schmidt et al 1995, Aiguiblava NATO ASI Proceedings). The McDonald SN search program includes a sample of the Abell clusters used by Lauer and Postman (1994, ApJ, 425, 418) to analyze Local Group motion. SNe discovered in these clusters contribute to the resolution of the Local Group motion controversy. We present an overview of the McDonald Observatory supernova search program, and discuss recent results.

  7. Nearby supernova factory announces 34 supernovae in one year'; best Rookie year ever for supernova search

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory), an international collaboration based at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, announced that it had discovered 34 supernovae during the first year of the prototype system's operation (2 pages).

  8. Progress report on the Berkeley/Anglo-Australian Observatory high-redshift supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.; Perlmutter, S.; Pennypacker, C.; Marvin, H.; Muller, R.A.; Couch, W.; Boyle, B.

    1990-11-01

    There are two main efforts related to supernovae in progress at Berkeley. The first is an automated supernova search for nearby supernovae, which was already discussed by Carl Pennypacker at this conference. The second is a search for distant supernovae, in the z = 0.3 to 0.5 region, aimed at measuring Ω. It is the latter that I want to discuss in this paper. 3 refs., 18 figs

  9. An automated supernova search and the design strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design considerations for an automated supernova search are reviewed. If supernova are to be found a week after explosion well before light maximum of both Types I and II, and if a rate of finding of 52 per year is justified, then one needs to keep roughly 5000 galaxies under surveillance out of a full set of 15,000 galaxies at ≅50 Mpc distance. For detection at 1% of Type I maximum light requires a 30-inch telescope, 10 photoelectrons per pixel threshold, a 128 x 128 pixel photodetector operating with a 3-second integration time, and 2 seconds to slew and settle ≅1 0 . A system designed to perform this function in real-time is described. 7 refs

  10. Search for surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions (SCs). Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- (MS-) and helium-rich SCs, the color and magnitude of MS- and helium-rich SCs are predicted as functions of time. The SC candidates in Galactic type Ia supernova remnants (Ia SNR) and nearby extragalactic Ia SNRs are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of MS SCs (helium-rich SCs) is 0.6-4 Mpc (0.4-16 Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to search for SCs. However, only five Ia SNRs have been searched for SCs, showing little support for the standard channels in the singe-degenerate scenario. To better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia, we encourage the search for SCs in other nearby Ia SNRs.

  11. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, G.; Maza, J.; Hamuy, M.; Antezana, R.; Gonzales, L.

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important challenges in modern cosmology will be to figure out the origin of the dark energy, to measure its equation of state and the time rate with which it changes (described by parameters w and w'). The measurement of these parameters will require high levels of accuracy in the Supernova (SN) Type Ia distances and various sources of systematic error such as reddening corrections and possible evolution in the SNcharacteristics which could couple with redshift and mimic the cosmological signal of interest. Fortunately, these concerns can be fully addressed through the comprehensive study of SNe in the local (z < 0.05) universe. Although Type II plateau SNe are not as luminous as SNe Ia, they afford two important, independent routes to cosmological distances using the Expanding Photosphere Method and the Standardized Candle Method. To assess the performance of these techniques a nearby sample of Type II SNe is necessary. With the purpose of addressing these issues the Millennium Center for Supernova Studies (MCSS) is teaming up with the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) to carry out an optical and near infrared (photometry, spectroscopy and polarimetry) follow up of nearby SNe. Unfortunately, the majority of the SNe observed by the MCSS and the CSP are discovered by searches carried out from the northern hemisphere. This entails a number of observational difficulties, in particular, it reduces the number of SNe for which the follow-up starts at very early epochs. The aim of the CHASE project is to remove this search bias by discovering young Southern SNe that will be extensively observed by the MCSS and the CSP. In the first nine-months of operation, CHASE has discovered two SNe: SN007oc (CBET 1114) and SN007pl (CBET 1130), thus demonstrating the feasibility of the survey.

  12. Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petschek, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book offers papers incorporating the latest results and understanding about supernovae, including SN1987A. There are several chapters reviewing all the radio through infrared, visible, and ultraviolet to X-rays and gamma-rays but also neutrinos. Other chapters deal with the classification of supernovae, depending on their spectra and light curves. Three chapters treat supernovae theory, including an idea of a fractal burning front and another on the behavior of neutron stars

  13. In search of Mahutonga: a possible supernova recorded in Maori astronomical traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David A.; Orchiston, Wayne

    Maori astronomical traditions refer to Mahutonga, which can be interpreted as a possible record of a southern supernova (SN) in or near Crux. A search for any known "young" supernova remnants in this region does not reveal any obvious candidate to associate with this possible supernova. Relaxing the positional constraint somewhat, the SN of A.D. 185 near a Centauri is nearby. If this is associated with Mahutonga, then the Maori term must be a relic of an earlier Proto-Polynesian record.

  14. Methodological studies on the search for Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos from Type II Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casentini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Type II SNe, also called Core-collapse SuperNovae have a neutrino (v) emission, as confirmed by SN 1987A, and are also potential sources of gravitational waves. Neutrinos and gravitational waves from these sources reach Earth almost contemporaneously and without relevant interaction with stellar matter and interstellar medium. The upcoming advanced gravitational interferometers would be sensitive enough to detect gravitational waves signals from close galactic Core-collapse SuperNovae events. Nevertheless, significant uncertainties on theoretical models of emission remain. A joint search of coincident low energy neutrinos and gravitational waves events from these sources would bring valuable information from the inner core of the collapsing star and would enhance the detection of the so-called Silent SuperNovae. Recently a project for a joint search involving gravitational wave interferometers and neutrino detectors has started. We discuss the benefits of a joint search and the status of the search project. (paper)

  15. The core collapse supernova rate from 24 years of data of the Large Volume Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, G.; Fulgione, W.; Molinario, A.; Vigorito, C.; LVD Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy is a 1 kt liquid scintillator neutrino observatory mainly designed to study low energy neutrinos from Gravitational Stellar Collapses (GSC) with 100% efficiency over the entire Galaxy. Here we summarize the results of the search for supernova neutrino bursts over the full data set lasting from June 1992 to May 2016 for a total live time of 8211 days. In the lack of a positive observation, either in standalone mode or in coincidence with other experiments, we establish the upper limit to the rate of GSC event in the Milky Way: 0.1 year-1 at 90% c.l..

  16. Near-IR search for lensed supernovae behind galaxy clusters. II. First detection and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Goobar, A.; Paech, K.; Stanishev, V.; Amanullah, R.; Dahlén, T.; Jönsson, J.; Kneib, J. P.; Lidman, C.; Limousin, M.; Mörtsell, E.; Nobili, S.; Richard, J.; Riehm, T.; von Strauss, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Powerful gravitational telescopes in the form of massive galaxy clusters can be used to enhance the light collecting power over a limited field of view by about an order of magnitude in flux. This effect is exploited here to increase the depth of a survey for lensed supernovae at near-IR wavelengths. Methods. We present a pilot supernova search programme conducted with the ISAAC camera at VLT. Lensed galaxies behind the massive clusters A1689, A1835, and AC114 were observed for a tot...

  17. Implication on the core collapse supernova rate from 21 years of data of the Large Volume Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N Y; Antonioli, P; Ashikhmin, V V; Badino, G.; Bari, G; Bertoni, R; Bressan, E; Bruno, G; Dadykin, V L; Dobrynina, E A; Enikeev, R I; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Ghia, P L; Giusti, P; Gomez, F; Kemp, E; Malgin, A S; Molinario, A; Persiani, R; Pless, I A; Porta, A; Ryasny, V G; Ryazhskaya, O G; Saavedra, O; Sartorelli, G; Shakiryanova, I R; Selvi, M; Trinchero, G C; Vigorito, C; Yakushev, V F; Zichichi, A

    2015-01-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) has been continuously taking data since 1992 at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory. LVD is sensitive to neutrino bursts from gravitational stellar collapses with full detection probability over the Galaxy. We have searched for neutrino bursts in LVD data taken in 7335 days of operation. No evidence of neutrino signals has been found between June 1992 and December 2013. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the rate of core-collapse and failed supernova explosions out to distances of 25 kpc is found to be 0.114/y.

  18. SEARCH FOR PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS AMONG TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotjohann, Nora L.; Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shaviv, Nir J. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Fremling, Christoffer; Sollerman, Jesper [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The progenitor stars of several Type IIb supernovae (SNe) show indications of extended hydrogen envelopes. These envelopes might be the outcome of luminous energetic pre-explosion events, so-called precursor eruptions. We use the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) pre-explosion observations of a sample of 27 nearby SNe IIb to look for such precursors during the final years prior to the SN explosion. No precursors are found when combining the observations in 15-day bins, and we calculate the absolute-magnitude-dependent upper limit on the precursor rate. At the 90% confidence level, SNe IIb have on average <0.86 precursors as bright as an absolute R-band magnitude of −14 in the final 3.5 years before the explosion and <0.56 events over the final year. In contrast, precursors among SNe IIn have a ≳5 times higher rate. The kinetic energy required to unbind a low-mass stellar envelope is comparable to the radiated energy of a few-weeks-long precursor that would be detectable for the closest SNe in our sample. Therefore, mass ejections, if they are common in such SNe, are radiatively inefficient or have durations longer than months. Indeed, when using 60-day bins, a faint precursor candidate is detected prior to SN 2012cs (∼2% false-alarm probability). We also report the detection of the progenitor of SN 2011dh that does not show detectable variability over the final two years before the explosion. The suggested progenitor of SN 2012P is still present, and hence is likely a compact star cluster or an unrelated object.

  19. Search for Nonthermal X-Rays from Supernova Remnant Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, R.; Keohane, J.; Hwang, U.; Allen, G.; Gotthelf, E.

    The demonstration by ASCA that the nonthermal X-ray emission from the rim of SN1006 is synchrotron emission from TeV electrons, produced in the same environment responsible for cosmic ray protons and nuclei (Koyama et al. 1995, Nature 378, 255), has stimulated a search for nonthermal X-rays from other remnants. Nonthermal emission has subsequently been found to arise in the shells of at least two other remnants, Cas A and IC 443. In Cas A, a hard tail is detected using ASCA, XTE, and OSSE to energies exceeding 100 keV; the shape of the spectrum rules out all mechanisms except synchrotron radiation. In IC 443, the previously known hard emission has been shown using ASCA to be isolated to a small region along the rim of the remnant, where the shock is interacting most strongly with a molecular cloud. Nonthermal X-ray emission is thought to arise here by enhanced cosmic ray production associated with the shock/cloud interaction (Keohane et al. 1997, ApJ in press). We describe the properties of the nonthermal emission in SN1006, Cas A, and IC 443, and discuss the status of our search for nonthermal emission associated with the shocks of other Galactic and LMC SNR's.

  20. Search for supernova-produced {sup 60}Fe in the Earth's fossil record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Shawn; Ludwig, Peter; Chernenko, Valentyna; Faestermann, Thomas; Famulok, Nicolai; Fimiani, Leticia; Gomez, Jose; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther [TU Muenchen, Physik Department (Germany); Egli, Ramon [ZAMG, Wien (Austria); Frederichs, Thomas [Universitaet Bremen, Geowissenschaften (Germany); Hazlik, Marianne [TU Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Chemie (Germany); Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [HZDR, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 1.8 to 2.8 Myr before the present our planet was subjected to the debris of a supernova explosion. The terrestrial proxy for this event was the discovery of live atoms of {sup 60}Fe in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2004)]. The signature for this supernova event should also reside in magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) magnetofossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria extant at the time of the Earth-supernova interaction; these bacteria were and are ubiquitous in all ocean sediments. We have conducted accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, searching for live {sup 60}Fe in the magnetofossil component of a Pacific Ocean sediment core (ODP Core 848); additional AMS measurements are now ongoing with a second sediment core (ODP Core 851) in which we expect to find a higher {sup 60}Fe signal. This talk presents the current preliminary status of our {sup 60}Fe search results for both sediment cores.

  1. The sloan digital sky Survey-II supernova survey: search algorithm and follow-up observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bassett, Bruce [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Becker, Andrew; Hogan, Craig J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cinabro, David [Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); DeJongh, Fritz; Frieman, Joshua A.; Marriner, John; Miknaitis, Gajus [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Depoy, D. L.; Prieto, Jose Luis [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Dilday, Ben; Kessler, Richard [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Doi, Mamoru [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Garnavich, Peter M. [University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Jha, Saurabh [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Konishi, Kohki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan); Lampeitl, Hubert [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Mercantile House, Hampshire Terrace, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); and others

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey has identified a large number of new transient sources in a 300 deg{sup 2} region along the celestial equator during its first two seasons of a three-season campaign. Multi-band (ugriz) light curves were measured for most of the sources, which include solar system objects, galactic variable stars, active galactic nuclei, supernovae (SNe), and other astronomical transients. The imaging survey is augmented by an extensive spectroscopic follow-up program to identify SNe, measure their redshifts, and study the physical conditions of the explosions and their environment through spectroscopic diagnostics. During the survey, light curves are rapidly evaluated to provide an initial photometric type of the SNe, and a selected sample of sources are targeted for spectroscopic observations. In the first two seasons, 476 sources were selected for spectroscopic observations, of which 403 were identified as SNe. For the type Ia SNe, the main driver for the survey, our photometric typing and targeting efficiency is 90%. Only 6% of the photometric SN Ia candidates were spectroscopically classified as non-SN Ia instead, and the remaining 4% resulted in low signal-to-noise, unclassified spectra. This paper describes the search algorithm and the software, and the real-time processing of the SDSS imaging data. We also present the details of the supernova candidate selection procedures and strategies for follow-up spectroscopic and imaging observations of the discovered sources.

  2. Supernovae in Low-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Observations by the Wise Observatory Optical Transient Search (WOOTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Maoz, Dan; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the Wise Observatory Optical Transient Search (WOOTS), a survey for supernovae (SNe) and other variable and transient objects in the fields of redshift 0.06-0.2 Abell galaxy clusters. We present the survey design and data-analysis procedures, and our object detection and follow-up strategies. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for all viable SN candidates, and present the resulting SN sample here. Out of the 12 SNe we have discovered, seven are associated with our target clus...

  3. Core-Collapse Supernova Progenitors In The Era Of Untargeted Transient Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan Edward

    2014-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the highly energetic explosions of massive stars (≳ 8 M⊙) that are pervasive in their influence throughout astrophysics. They are the phenomenon with primary responsibility for enriching the universe with many of the heavy elements (like carbon and oxygen) that are needed for life, provide a critical feedback pressure which helps to shape the galaxies that host them, and are the likely formation mechanism for stellar mass black holes. In the past decade, the study of these explosions has been revolutionized by the advent of wide field, untargeted transient searches like Pan-STARRS1 (PS1). These new searches permit the discovery of SNe at unprecedented rates, and absent of many of the selection effects that have enforced biases on past, targeted transient searches. This thesis presents a broad survey of core-collapse SN phenomenology exhibited in the discoveries of untargeted searches, and statistically quantifies population properties of these explosions that link them to distinct classes of progenitor stars. Through studies of the host galaxy and explosion properties of extreme PS1-discovered events, and controlled samples of specific classes of core-collapse objects, we constrain the effect of progenitor star chemical composition (metallicity) on their eventual death states. We provide a new observational, photometric tool which lowers the cost of precisely and accurately measuring the metallicities of distant galaxies and supernova host environments. Moreover, we develop and apply a novel, multi-level Bayesian model for optical transient light curves which we apply to simultaneously interpret more than 20,000 PS1 images. This study illustrates how population-level modeling of data from large photometric surveys can yield improved physical inference on their progenitor stars through comparison to physical models. In the coming era, as next-generation facilities like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope come online, the

  4. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  5. DIRECTED SEARCHES FOR BROADBAND EXTENDED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EMISSION IN NEARBY ENERGETIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M., E-mail: mvp@sejong.ac.kr [Room 614, Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong Gwangin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) are factories of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes. SNe Ib/c stand out as potentially originating in relatively compact stellar binaries and they have a branching ratio of about 1% into long gamma-ray bursts. The most energetic events probably derive from central engines harboring rapidly rotating black holes, wherein the accretion of fall-back matter down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) offers a window into broadband extended gravitational wave emission (BEGE). To search for BEGE, we introduce a butterfly filter in time–frequency space by time-sliced matched filtering. To analyze long epochs of data, we propose using coarse-grained searches followed by high-resolution searches on events of interest. We illustrate our proposed coarse-grained search on two weeks of LIGO S6 data prior to SN 2010br (z = 0.002339) using a bank of up to 64,000 templates of one-second duration covering a broad range in chirp frequencies and bandwidth. Correlating events with signal-to-noise ratios > 6 from the LIGO L1 and H1 detectors reduces the total to a few events of interest. Lacking any further properties reflecting a common excitation by broadband gravitational radiation, we disregarded these as spurious. This new pipeline may be used to systematically search for long-duration chirps in nearby CC-SNe from robotic optical transient surveys using embarrassingly parallel computing.

  6. Search for isotopic signatures of a supernova explosion close to the solar system in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Caroline

    2006-06-01

    The recent observation of a 60 Fe peak in a deep-sea ferro-manganese crust has been interpreted as due to a supernova explosion relatively close to the solar system 2.8 ± 0.4 Myr ago. To confirm this interpretation with better time-resolved measurements, and the simultaneous access, on the same sample, to other isotopes and geochemical phases, marine sediments seem to be a tool of choice. The objective of this work was to search for isotopic anomalies which would be characteristic for residues of this supernova. More specifically, 129 I, 60 Fe, and 26 Al have been investigated, being measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Quantifying these nuclides' fluxes would help constrain stellar nucleosynthesis models. These residues are isotopes initially produced during hydrostatic and/or explosive nucleosynthesis. The physical conditions during the explosion (temperature, neutron density) are such that supernovae are thought to be good candidates for the astrophysical site of the r-process. The 129 I study showed that measurement of pre-anthropogenic 129 I/ 127 I ratios need a very strict control of the various potential 129 I sources, especially when working with small quantities (micrograms) of iodine. This study revealed that the expected pre-anthropogenic 129 I/ 127 I ratio for pre-nuclear samples in the marine environment shows a large discrepancy between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. 60 Fe and 26 Al measurements allow us to conclude that, in the authigenic phase of the marine sediments, there is no 60 Fe anomaly in the time interval defined by the signal found on the Fe-Mn crust (from 2.4 to 3.2 Myr), and no 26 Al anomaly from 2.6 to 3.2 Myr. (author)

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) revisited (Graur+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, O.; Bianco, F. B.; Huang, S.; Modjaz, M.; Shivvers, I.; Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2017-10-01

    Most types of supernovae (SNe) have yet to be connected with their progenitor stellar systems. Here, we reanalyze the 10-year SN sample collected during 1998-2008 by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS; see Leaman+, 2011, J/MNRAS/412/1419) in order to constrain the progenitors of SNe Ia and stripped-envelope SNe (SE SNe, i.e., SNe IIb, Ib, Ic, and broad-lined Ic). We matched the LOSS galaxy sample with spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and measured SN rates as a function of galaxy stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and oxygen abundance (metallicity). We find significant correlations between the SN rates and all three galaxy properties. The SN Ia correlations are consistent with other measurements, as well as with our previous explanation of these measurements in the form of a combination of the SN Ia delay-time distribution and the correlation between galaxy mass and age. The ratio between the SE SN and SN II rates declines significantly in low-mass galaxies. This rules out single stars as SE SN progenitors, and is consistent with predictions from binary-system progenitor models. Using well-known galaxy scaling relations, any correlation between the rates and one of the galaxy properties examined here can be expressed as a correlation with the other two. These redundant correlations preclude us from establishing causality-that is, from ascertaining which of the galaxy properties (or their combination) is the physical driver for the difference between the SE SN and SN II rates. We outline several methods that have the potential to overcome this problem in future works. (7 data files).

  8. Constraining the supersaturation density equation of state from core-collapse supernova simulations? Excluded volume extension of the baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this article the role of the supersaturation density equation of state (EOS) is explored in simulations of failed core-collapse supernova explosions. Therefore the nuclear EOS is extended via a one-parameter excluded-volume description for baryons, taking into account their finite and increasing volume with increasing density in excess of saturation density. Parameters are selected such that the resulting supernova EOS represent extreme cases, with high pressure variations at supersaturation density which feature extreme stiff and soft EOS variants of the reference case, i.e. without excluded-volume corrections. Unlike in the interior of neutron stars with central densities in excess of several times saturation density, central densities of core-collapse supernovae reach only slightly above saturation density. Hence, the impact of the supersaturation density EOS on the supernova dynamics as well as the neutrino signal is found to be negligible. It is mainly determined from the low- and intermediate-density domain, which is left unmodified within this generalized excluded volume approach. (orig.)

  9. Search for neutrinos from core-collapse supernova from the global network of detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, Alec, E-mail: ahabig@umn.ed [University of Minnesota Duluth, Physics Department, 10 University Dr., Duluth, MN 55812 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS) is a cooperative effort between the world's neutrino detection experiments to spread the news that a star in our galaxy has just experienced a core-collapse event and is about to become a Type II Supernova. This project exploits the {approx}hours time difference between neutrinos promptly escaping the nascent supernova and photons which originate when the shock wave breaks through the stellar photosphere, to give the world a chance to get ready to observe such an exciting event at the earliest possible time. A coincidence trigger between experiments is used to eliminate potential local false alarms, allowing a rapid, automated alert.

  10. Searching for supernovae in the multiply-imaged galaxies behind the gravitational telescope A370

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushevska, T.; Goobar, A.; Lagattuta, D. J.; Amanullah, R.; Hangard, L.; Fabbro, S.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Kneib, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Strong lensing by massive galaxy clusters can provide magnification of the flux and even multiple images of the galaxies that lie behind them. This phenomenon facilitates observations of high-redshift supernovae (SNe), that would otherwise remain undetected. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) detections are of particular interest because of their standard brightness, since they can be used to improve either cluster lensing models or cosmological parameter measurements. We present a ground-based, nea...

  11. LOSS Revisited. I. Unraveling Correlations between Supernova Rates and Galaxy Properties, as Measured in a Reanalysis of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graur, Or [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bianco, Federica B.; Huang, Shan; Modjaz, Maryam [CCPP, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Eldridge, J. J., E-mail: or.graur@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2017-03-10

    Most types of supernovae (SNe) have yet to be connected with their progenitor stellar systems. Here, we reanalyze the 10-year SN sample collected during 1998–2008 by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) in order to constrain the progenitors of SNe Ia and stripped-envelope SNe (SE SNe, i.e., SNe IIb, Ib, Ic, and broad-lined Ic). We matched the LOSS galaxy sample with spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and measured SN rates as a function of galaxy stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and oxygen abundance (metallicity). We find significant correlations between the SN rates and all three galaxy properties. The SN Ia correlations are consistent with other measurements, as well as with our previous explanation of these measurements in the form of a combination of the SN Ia delay-time distribution and the correlation between galaxy mass and age. The ratio between the SE SN and SN II rates declines significantly in low-mass galaxies. This rules out single stars as SE SN progenitors, and is consistent with predictions from binary-system progenitor models. Using well-known galaxy scaling relations, any correlation between the rates and one of the galaxy properties examined here can be expressed as a correlation with the other two. These redundant correlations preclude us from establishing causality—that is, from ascertaining which of the galaxy properties (or their combination) is the physical driver for the difference between the SE SN and SN II rates. We outline several methods that have the potential to overcome this problem in future works.

  12. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey:Search Algorithm and Follow-up Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; /Pennsylvania U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, D.L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Craig, Hogan, J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U.; Richmond, Michael W.; /Rochester Inst.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Smith, Mathew; /Portsmouth U.; SubbaRao, Mark; /Chicago U. /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Tokyo

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey has identified a large number of new transient sources in a 300 deg2 region along the celestial equator during its first two seasons of a three-season campaign. Multi-band (ugriz) light curves were measured for most of the sources, which include solar system objects, Galactic variable stars, active galactic nuclei, supernovae (SNe), and other astronomical transients. The imaging survey is augmented by an extensive spectroscopic follow-up program to identify SNe, measure their redshifts, and study the physical conditions of the explosions and their environment through spectroscopic diagnostics. During the survey, light curves are rapidly evaluated to provide an initial photometric type of the SNe, and a selected sample of sources are targeted for spectroscopic observations. In the first two seasons, 476 sources were selected for spectroscopic observations, of which 403 were identified as SNe. For the Type Ia SNe, the main driver for the Survey, our photometric typing and targeting efficiency is 90%. Only 6% of the photometric SN Ia candidates were spectroscopically classified as non-SN Ia instead, and the remaining 4% resulted in low signal-to-noise, unclassified spectra. This paper describes the search algorithm and the software, and the real-time processing of the SDSS imaging data. We also present the details of the supernova candidate selection procedures and strategies for follow-up spectroscopic and imaging observations of the discovered sources.

  13. Search for supernova {sup 60}Fe in the Earth's microfossil record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, S.; Ludwig, P.; Egli, R.; Faestermann, T.; Korschinek, G.; Rugel, G. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theresienstrasse 41 80333 Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstra. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-12

    Approximately 2.8 Myr before the present our planet was subjected to the debris of a supernova explosion. The terrestrial proxy for this event was the discovery of live atoms of {sup 60}Fe in a deep-sea ferromanganese crust. The signature for this supernova event should also reside in magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) microfossils produced by magnetotactic bacteria extant at the time of the Earth-supernova interaction, provided the bacteria preferentially uptake iron from fine-grained iron oxides and ferric hydroxides. Using empirically derived microfossil concentrations in a deep-sea drill core, we deduce a conservative estimate of the {sup 60}Fe fraction as {sup 60}Fe/Fe Almost-Equal-To 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15}. This value sits comfortably within the sensitivity limit of present accelerator mass spectrometry capabilities.

  14. A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR THE REMAINING DONOR FOR TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Yong, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jeffery, C. Simon [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Anderson, Jay [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Podsiadlowski, Philipp [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Nomoto, Ken' ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Venn, Kim A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Elliott Building, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: wkerzend@mso.anu.edu.au [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    In this paper, we report on our analysis using Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and Keck-I HIRES spectroscopy of the central six stars of Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572). With these data, we measured the proper motions, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and chemical abundances of these objects. Regarding the chemical abundances, we do not confirm the unusually high [Ni/Fe] ratio previously reported for Tycho-G. Rather, we find that for all metrics in all stars, none exhibit the characteristics expected from traditional Type Ia supernova single-degenerate-scenario calculations. The only possible exception is Tycho-B, a rare, metal-poor A-type star; however, we are unable to find a suitable scenario for it. Thus, we suggest that SN 1572 cannot be explained by the standard single-degenerate model.

  15. A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR THE REMAINING DONOR FOR TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Yong, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S.; Simon, Joshua D.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Anderson, Jay; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Venn, Kim A.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on our analysis using Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and Keck-I HIRES spectroscopy of the central six stars of Tycho's supernova remnant (SN 1572). With these data, we measured the proper motions, radial velocities, rotational velocities, and chemical abundances of these objects. Regarding the chemical abundances, we do not confirm the unusually high [Ni/Fe] ratio previously reported for Tycho-G. Rather, we find that for all metrics in all stars, none exhibit the characteristics expected from traditional Type Ia supernova single-degenerate-scenario calculations. The only possible exception is Tycho-B, a rare, metal-poor A-type star; however, we are unable to find a suitable scenario for it. Thus, we suggest that SN 1572 cannot be explained by the standard single-degenerate model

  16. X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE IN DENSE CIRCUMSTELLAR MATTER ENVIRONMENTS: A SEARCH FOR COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Arcavi, I.; Fox, D.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Bloom, J. S.; Sullivan, M.; Gnat, O.; Frail, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Corsi, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Nugent, P. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Poznanski, D.

    2013-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (the so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (τ ∼> 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and radiation-dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into a collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift/XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 Type IIn SNe, one Type Ibn SN, and eight hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSN-I such as SN 2005ap). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSM. However, the X-ray emission from SN 2006jc can also be explained as originating in an optically thin region. Thus, we propose that the optical light curve of SN 2010jl is powered by shock breakout in CSM. We suggest that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock-breakout model. We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, SNe IIn/Ibn are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all of the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained too early (i.e., near the SN maximum light) for definitive conclusions about their nature. Late-time X-ray observations are required in order to further test whether these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakout in a wind profile. We argue that the timescale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above the

  17. First targeted search for gravitational-wave bursts from core-collapse supernovae in data of first-generation laser interferometer detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, R.G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kamaretsos, I.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, K. N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Santamaria, L.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a search for gravitational-wave bursts coincident with two core-collapse supernovae observed optically in 2007 and 2011. We employ data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), the Virgo gravitational-wave observatory, and the GEO 600

  18. Search for type Ia supernovae within the EROS2 collaboration. Photometric study of nearby SNIa and measurement of H_0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnault, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) are powerful distance indicators. The comparison of nearby (z ∼ 0:1) and distant (z ∼ 1) SNIa apparent magnitudes leads to the determination of the large scale geometry of the universe. Cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant H_0, the matter density Ω_m and the cosmological constant Ω_Λ can thus be determined. The EROS2 experiment devotes about 10% of its observing time to the detection of nearby SNIa. In the spring of 1999, EROS2 participated in a worldwide search conducted by the Supernova Cosmology Project. This campaign resulted in the discovery of 50 supernovae. Among these, 20 turned out to be SNIa discovered within 10 days from maximum. The thesis work is divided into 3 parts. First, we present a quick overview of the standard cosmological model and the main techniques used for measuring the cosmological parameters (SNIa, rich clusters properties, and anisotropies of the cosmological background radiation). We then describe the physics and observational properties of SNIa. In particular, we show that the peak absolute luminosity of these objects is uniform (within 30%), and correlates with other observables. Using these correlations, we can construct a corrected peak luminosity, which exhibits a lower dispersion (∼10%). The second part is devoted to the description of the EROS2 setup, and our SNe search techniques. In the last part, we present the analysis of the spring 1999 SNIa's photometric follow-up data. We describe the photometry software developed for this analysis as well as the complex intercalibration process of the follow-up images taken with 10 different telescopes. In the last chapter, we show how the peak luminosity and the decline rate of each SN can be reconstructed. Using these quantities, we study the correlations between the peak luminosity the decline rate and the color of SNIa, which leads to a value of H_0: H_0 = 67.4 ± 2(int)"+"5"."8_-_6_._4(ext.). (author) [fr

  19. Supernova rates from the SUDARE VST-Omegacam search II. Rates in a galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticella, M. T.; Cappellaro, E.; Greggio, L.; Pignata, G.; Della Valle, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Baruffolo, A.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Capaccioli, M.; Cascone, E.; Covone, G.; De Cicco, D.; Falocco, S.; Haeussler, B.; Harutyunyan, V.; Jarvis, M.; Marchetti, L.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Pastorello, A.; Radovich, M.; Schipani, P.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Vaccari, M.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: This is the second paper of a series in which we present measurements of the supernova (SN) rates from the SUDARE survey. The aim of this survey is to constrain the core collapse (CC) and Type Ia SN progenitors by analysing the dependence of their explosion rate on the properties of the parent stellar population averaging over a population of galaxies with different ages in a cosmic volume and in a galaxy sample. In this paper, we study the trend of the SN rates with the intrinsic colours, the star formation activity and the masses of the parent galaxies. To constrain the SN progenitors we compare the observed rates with model predictions assuming four progenitor models for SNe Ia with different distribution functions of the time intervals between the formation of the progenitor and the explosion, and a mass range of 8-40 M⊙ for CC SN progenitors. Methods: We considered a galaxy sample of approximately 130 000 galaxies and a SN sample of approximately 50 events. The wealth of photometric information for our galaxy sample allows us to apply the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique to estimate the intrinsic rest frame colours, the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) for each galaxy in the sample. The galaxies have been separated into star-forming and quiescent galaxies, exploiting both the rest frame U-V vs. V-J colour-colour diagram and the best fit values of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) from the SED fitting. Results: We found that the SN Ia rate per unit mass is higher by a factor of six in the star-forming galaxies with respect to the passive galaxies, identified as such both on the U-V vs. V-J colour-colour diagram and for their sSFR. The SN Ia rate per unit mass is also higher in the less massive galaxies that are also younger. These results suggest a distribution of the delay times (DTD) less populated at long delay times than at short delays. The CC SN rate per unit mass is proportional to both the sSFR and the galaxy

  20. Constraining the Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: The Search for Hydrogen in Nebular Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Douglas C.

    2007-12-01

    Despite intense scrutiny, the progenitor system(s) that gives rise to Type Ia supernovae remains unknown. The favored theory invokes a carbon-oxygen white dwarf accreting hydrogen-rich material from a close companion until a thermonuclear runaway ensues that incinerates the white dwarf. However, simulations resulting from this single-degenerate, binary channel demand the presence of low-velocity Hα emission in spectra taken during the late nebular phase, since a portion of the companion's envelope becomes entrained in the ejecta. This hydrogen has never been detected, but has only rarely been sought. Here we present results from a campaign to obtain deep, nebular-phase spectroscopy of nearby Type Ia supernovae, and include multiepoch observations of two events: SN 2005am (slightly subluminous) and SN 2005cf (normally bright). No Hα emission is detected in the spectra of either object. An upper limit of 0.01 Msolar of solar abundance material in the ejecta is established from the models of Mattila et al., which, when coupled with the mass-stripping simulations of Marietta et al. and Meng et al., effectively rules out progenitor systems for these supernovae with secondaries close enough to the white dwarf to be experiencing Roche lobe overflow at the time of explosion. Alternative explanations for the absence of Hα emission, along with suggestions for future investigations necessary to confidently exclude them as possibilities, are critically evaluated. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Additional observations were obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a

  1. Search for supernova-produced {sup 60}Fe in the microfossil record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Peter; Bishop, Shawn; Chernenko, Valentyna; Faestermann, Thomas; Famulok, Nicolai; Fimiani, Leticia; Gomez, Jose; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther [TU Muenchen, Physik Department (Germany); Egli, Ramon [ZAMG, Wien (Austria); Frederichs, Thomas [Universitaet Bremen, Geowissenschaften (Germany); Hanzlik, Marianne [TU Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Chemie (Germany); Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [HZDR, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Material distributed into the interstellar medium by supernova explosions can be incorporated into terrestrial archives. After the discovery of live {sup 60}Fe atoms in 2-3 Myr old layers of a Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crust, a confirmation of this signal, as well as a mapping of the signal with high time-resolution is desirable. Another reservoir in which the {sup 60}Fe signature should have been incorporated are the fossils of magnetotactic bacteria in ocean sediment. To this end, two sediment cores from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific were obtained, iron was chemically extracted with high selectivity towards biogenic magnetite, and the extraction procedure was characterized using novel magnetic measurements. The {sup 60}Fe/Fe concentration in the samples was then measured with accelerator mass spectrometry at the GAMS setup in Garching. Preliminary results for both sediment cores are reported.

  2. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  3. The joint search for gravitational wave and low energy neutrino signals from core-collapse supernovae: methodology and status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. B.; Casentini, C.

    2017-09-01

    The detection of gravitational waves opens a new era in physics. Now it's possible to observe the Universe using a fundamentally new way. Gravitational waves potentially permit getting insight into the physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe). However, due to significant uncertainties on the theoretical models of gravitational wave emission associated with CCSNe, benefits may come from multi-messenger observations of CCSNe. Such benefits include increased confidence in detection, extending the astrophysical reach of the detectors and allowing deeper understanding of the nature of the phenomenon. Fortunately, CCSNe have a neutrino signature confirmed by the observation of SN1987A. The gravitational and neutrino signals propagate with the speed of light and without significant interaction with interstellar matter. So that they must reach an observer on the Earth almost simultaneously. These facts open a way to search for the correlation between the signals. However, this method is limited by the sensitivity of modern neutrino detectors that allow to observe CCSNe only in the Local Group of galaxies. The methodology and status of a proposed joint search for the correlation signals are presented here.

  4. The search for faint radio supernova remnants in the outer Galaxy: five new discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie; Foster, Tyler J.; Kothes, Roland; Geisbüsch, Jörn; Tung, Albert

    2014-06-01

    Context. High resolution and sensitivity large-scale radio surveys of the Milky Way are critical in the discovery of very low surface brightness supernova remnants (SNRs), which may constitute a significant portion of the Galactic SNRs still unaccounted for (ostensibly the "missing SNR problem"). Aims: The overall purpose here is to present the results of a systematic, deep data-mining of the Canadian Galactic plane Survey (CGPS) for faint, extended non-thermal and polarized emission structures that are likely the shells of uncatalogued SNRs. Methods: We examine 5 × 5 degree mosaics from the entire 1420 MHz continuum and polarization dataset of the CGPS after removing unresolved "point" sources and subsequently smoothing them. Newly revealed extended emission objects are compared to similarly prepared CGPS 408 MHz continuum mosaics, as well as to source-removed mosaics from various existing radio surveys at 4.8 GHz, 2.7 GHz, and 327 MHz, to identify candidates with non-thermal emission characteristics. We integrate flux densities at each frequency to characterise the radio spectra behaviour of these candidates. We further look for mid- and high-frequency (1420 MHz, 4.8 GHz) ordered polarized emission from the limb brightened "shell"-like continuum features that the candidates sport. Finally, we use IR and optical maps to provide additional backing evidence. Results: Here we present evidence that five new objects, identified as filling all or some of the criteria above, are strong candidates for new SNRs. These five are designated by their Galactic coordinate names G108.5+11.0, G128.5+2.6, G149.5+3.2, G150.8+3.8, and G160.1-1.1. The radio spectrum of each is presented, highlighting their steepness, which is characteristic of synchrotron radiation. CGPS 1420 MHz polarization data and 4.8 GHz polarization data also provide evidence that these objects are newly discovered SNRs. These discoveries represent a significant increase in the number of SNRs known in the outer

  5. SEARCHING FOR OVERIONIZED PLASMA IN THE GAMMA-RAY-EMITTING SUPERNOVA REMNANT G349.7+0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergin, T.; Sezer, A. [TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute, ODTU Campus, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Saha, L.; Majumdar, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal 700064 (India); Gök, F. [Akdeniz University, Faculty of Education, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, Antalya, 07058 (Turkey); Ercan, E. N., E-mail: tulun.ergin@tubitak.gov.tr [Bogazici University, Physics Department, Bebek, 34342, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-05-10

    G349.7+0.2 is a supernova remnant (SNR) expanding in a dense medium of molecular clouds and interacting with clumps of molecular material emitting gamma-rays. We analyzed the gamma-ray data of the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and detected G349.7+0.2 in the energy range of 0.2–300 GeV with a significance of ∼13σ, showing no extended morphology. Modeling of the gamma-ray spectrum revealed that the GeV gamma-ray emission dominantly originates from the decay of neutral pions, where the protons follow a broken power-law distribution with a spectral break at ∼12 GeV. To search for features of radiative recombination continua in the eastern and western regions of the remnant, we analyzed the Suzaku data of G349.7+0.2 and found no evidence for overionized plasma. In this paper, we discuss possible scenarios to explain the hadronic gamma-ray emission in G349.7+0.2 and the mixed morphology nature of this SNR.

  6. Search for cosmic ray origins by the study of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds with HESS and test of HESS II sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiasson, A.

    2008-03-01

    The H.E.S.S. telescope (High energy Stereoscopic System), located in Namibia, is currently the most efficient for the observation of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. It is composed of 4 large diameter telescopes working in stereoscopic mode and allows an unequaled survey of the galactic plane at these extreme wavelengths. The H.E.S.S. experiment showed the presence of high energy particles up to 100 TeV within supernova remnant. This astrophysical objects are believed to be the main particle accelerator within the Galaxy. However, the particle nature remains unclear. This thesis presents a new observational approach in order to show hadronic particles acceleration through diffusive shock within supernova remnant. A search of supernova remnant associated with molecular cloud have been led within the HESS source catalog and the H.E.S.S. observations. An analysis of the new VHE gamma-ray source in Monoceros and its interpretation are presented. As well, the analysis and interpretation of new observations of the unidentified source HESS J1745-303 are presented. The multi-wavelength analysis of the new source HESS J1714-385, coincident with the supernova remnant CTB37A is presented. A contribution to the H.E.S.S. phase II building is also presented. This second phase consists in the building of a fifth telescope at the center of the existing system. The series tests of the new camera sampling system are reported. (author)

  7. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  8. An expanded HST/WFC3 survey of M83: Project overview and targeted supernova remnant search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, William P.; Kuntz, K. D. [The Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Hammer, Derek; Long, Knox S.; Whitmore, Bradley C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Soria, Roberto [Curtin Institute of Radio Astronomy, Curtin University, 1 Turner Avenue, Bentley WA 6102 (Australia); Frank Winkler, P., E-mail: wpb@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: kuntz@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: Rupali.Chandar@utoledo.edu, E-mail: Michael.Dopita@anu.edu.au, E-mail: pghavamian@towson.edu, E-mail: long@stsci.edu, E-mail: hammer@stsci.edu, E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu, E-mail: roberto.soria@icrar.org, E-mail: winkler@middlebury.edu [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present an optical/NIR imaging survey of the face-on spiral galaxy M83, using data from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Seven fields are used to cover a large fraction of the inner disk, with observations in nine broadband and narrowband filters. In conjunction with a deep Chandra survey and other new radio and optical ground-based work, these data enable a broad range of science projects to be pursued. We provide an overview of the WFC3 data and processing and then delve into one topic, the population of young supernova remnants (SNRs). We used a search method targeted toward soft X-ray sources to identify 26 new SNRs. Many compact emission nebulae detected in [Fe II] 1.644 μm align with known remnants and this diagnostic has also been used to identify many new remnants, some of which are hard to find with optical images. We include 37 previously identified SNRs that the data reveal to be <0.''5 in angular size and thus are difficult to characterize from ground-based data. The emission line ratios seen in most of these objects are consistent with shocks in dense interstellar material rather than showing evidence of ejecta. We suggest that the overall high elemental abundances in combination with high interstellar medium pressures in M83 are responsible for this result. Future papers will expand on different aspects of the these data including a more comprehensive analysis of the overall SNR population.

  9. Search for isotopic signatures of a supernova explosion close to the solar system in marine sediments; Recherche de signatures isotopiques dans les sediments marins de l'explosion d'une supernova proche du systeme solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitoussi, Caroline [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, (CSNSM) IN2P3/CNRS, Campus d' Orsay, Bat 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2006-06-15

    The recent observation of a {sup 60}Fe peak in a deep-sea ferro-manganese crust has been interpreted as due to a supernova explosion relatively close to the solar system 2.8 {+-} 0.4 Myr ago. To confirm this interpretation with better time-resolved measurements, and the simultaneous access, on the same sample, to other isotopes and geochemical phases, marine sediments seem to be a tool of choice. The objective of this work was to search for isotopic anomalies which would be characteristic for residues of this supernova. More specifically, {sup 129}I, {sup 60}Fe, and {sup 26}Al have been investigated, being measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Quantifying these nuclides' fluxes would help constrain stellar nucleosynthesis models. These residues are isotopes initially produced during hydrostatic and/or explosive nucleosynthesis. The physical conditions during the explosion (temperature, neutron density) are such that supernovae are thought to be good candidates for the astrophysical site of the r-process. The {sup 129}I study showed that measurement of pre-anthropogenic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios need a very strict control of the various potential {sup 129}I sources, especially when working with small quantities (micrograms) of iodine. This study revealed that the expected pre-anthropogenic {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio for pre-nuclear samples in the marine environment shows a large discrepancy between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al measurements allow us to conclude that, in the authigenic phase of the marine sediments, there is no {sup 60}Fe anomaly in the time interval defined by the signal found on the Fe-Mn crust (from 2.4 to 3.2 Myr), and no {sup 26}Al anomaly from 2.6 to 3.2 Myr. (author)

  10. Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordino, Ilaria; Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Cristelli, Matthieu; Ukkonen, Antti; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people's actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www.

  11. Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Bordino

    Full Text Available We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people's actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www.

  12. Searching for God: Illness-Related Mortality Threats and Religious Search Volume in Google in 16 Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Brett W; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Arndt, Jamie; Carvallo, Mauricio; Solomon, Sheldon; Greenberg, Jeff

    2018-03-01

    We tested predictions about religiosity and terror management processes in 16 nations. Specifically, we examined weekly variation in Google search volume in each nation for 12 years (all weeks for which data were available). In all 16 nations, higher than usual weekly Google search volume for life-threatening illnesses (cancer, diabetes, and hypertension) predicted increases in search volume for religious content (e.g., God, Jesus, prayer) in the following week. This effect held up after controlling for (a) recent past and annual variation in religious search volume, (b) increases in search volume associated with religious holidays, and (c) variation in searches for a non-life-threatening illness ("sore throat"). Terror management threat reduction processes appear to occur across the globe. Furthermore, they may occur over much longer periods than those studied in the laboratory. Managing fears of death via religious belief regulation appears to be culturally pervasive.

  13. A Deep Search with HST for Late Time Supernova Signatures in the Hosts of XRF 011030 and XRF 020427

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sandeep; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Levan, Andrew; Fruchter, Andrew; Rol, Evert; Rhoads, James; Gorosabel, Javier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hjorth, Jens; Wijers, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    X-ray Flashes (XRFs), are, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) thought to signal the collapse of massive stars in distant galaxies. Many models posit that the isotropic equivalent energies of XRFs are lower than those for GRBs, such that they are visible hom a reduced range of distances when compared with GRBs. Here we present the results of two epoch Hubble Space Telescope imaging of two XRFs. These images taken approximately 45 and 200 days post bust reveal no evidence for an associated supernova in either case. Supernovae such as SN 1998bw would have been visible out to z approximately 1.5 in each case, while faint supernovae such as SN 2002ap would be visible to z approximately 1. At these distances the bursts would not fit the observed correlations between E(sub p) and E(sub iso) and would have required extremely luminous X-ray afterglows. We conclude that should these XRFs reside at low redshift, it is necessary either that their line of sight is heavily extinguished, or that XRFs, unlike GRBs do not have temporally coincident supernovae.

  14. Supernova VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, N.

    2009-08-01

    We review VLBI observations of supernovae over the last quarter century and discuss the prospect of imaging future supernovae with space VLBI in the context of VSOP-2. From thousands of discovered supernovae, most of them at cosmological distances, ˜50 have been detected at radio wavelengths, most of them in relatively nearby galaxies. All of the radio supernovae are Type II or Ib/c, which originate from the explosion of massive progenitor stars. Of these, 12 were observed with VLBI and four of them, SN 1979C, SN 1986J, SN 1993J, and SN 1987A, could be imaged in detail, the former three with VLBI. In addition, supernovae or young supernova remnants were discovered at radio wavelengths in highly dust-obscured galaxies, such as M82, Arp 299, and Arp 220, and some of them could also be imaged in detail. Four of the supernovae so far observed were sufficiently bright to be detectable with VSOP-2. With VSOP-2 the expansion of supernovae can be monitored and investigated with unsurpassed angular resolution, starting as early as the time of the supernova's transition from its opaque to transparent stage. Such studies can reveal, in a movie, the aftermath of a supernova explosion shortly after shock break out.

  15. Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Branch, David

    2017-01-01

    Targeting advanced students of astronomy and physics, as well as astronomers and physicists contemplating research on supernovae or related fields, David Branch and J. Craig Wheeler offer a modern account of the nature, causes and consequences of supernovae, as well as of issues that remain to be resolved. Owing especially to (1) the appearance of supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud, (2) the spectacularly successful use of supernovae as distance indicators for cosmology, (3) the association of some supernovae with the enigmatic cosmic gamma-ray bursts, and (4) the discovery of a class of superluminous supernovae, the pace of supernova research has been increasing sharply. This monograph serves as a broad survey of modern supernova research and a guide to the current literature. The book’s emphasis is on the explosive phases of supernovae. Part 1 is devoted to a survey of the kinds of observations that inform us about supernovae, some basic interpreta tions of such data, and an overview of t...

  16. Aspherical supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must been undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new break throughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi-dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally, we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3) And

  17. Smoking supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Haley Louise; Eales, Stephen Anthony; Dunne, L.

    2007-01-01

    The question ‘Are supernovae important sources of dust?’ is a contentious one. Observations with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) only detected very small amounts of hot dust in supernova remnants. Here, we review observations of two young Galactic remnants with the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA), which imply that large quantities of dust are produced by supernovae. The association of dust with the Cassiopeia A remnant is i...

  18. supernovae: Photometric classification of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Moss, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Supernovae classifies supernovae using their light curves directly as inputs to a deep recurrent neural network, which learns information from the sequence of observations. Observational time and filter fluxes are used as inputs; since the inputs are agnostic, additional data such as host galaxy information can also be included.

  19. Type Ia Supernova Rate Measurements to Redshift 2.5 from Candles: Searching for Prompt Explosions in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Strogler, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Graur, Or; Casertano, Stefano; Dickinson, Mark E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Garnavich, Peter; Cenko, Stephen Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) that surveyed a total area of approx. 0.25 deg(sup 2) with approx.900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z approx. 2.5. We classify approx. 24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only approx. 3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction isfP0.530.09stat0.100.10sys0.26, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simplet1power law for all timest40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20 of all SN Ia explosions though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  20. Supernova cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibundgut, B.

    2005-01-01

    Supernovae have developed into a versatile tool for cosmology. Their impact on the cosmological model has been profound and led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion. The current status of the cosmological model as perceived through supernova observations will be presented. Supernovae are currently the only astrophysical objects that can measure the dynamics of the cosmic expansion during the past eight billion years. Ongoing experiments are trying to determine the characteristics of the accelerated expansion and give insight into what might be the physical explanation for the acceleration. (author)

  1. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the 56 Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed

  2. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of his in-depth article on the 1987 supernova, David Schramm of the University of Chicago and the NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Centre reviewed the background to supernovae, the composition of massive stars and the optical history of SN 1987A, and speculated on what the 1987 remnant might be. In such a Type II supernova, gravitational pressure crushes the atoms of the star's interior producing neutron matter, or even a black hole, and releasing an intense burst of neutrinos. 1987 was the first time that physicists were equipped (but not entirely ready!) to intercept these particles, and in the second part of his article, David Schramm covers the remarkable new insights from the science of supernova neutrino astronomy, born on 23 February 1987

  3. Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    Massive stars are thought to end their lives with spectacular explosions triggered by the gravitational collapse of their cores. Interacting supernovae are generally attributed to supernova explosions occurring in dense circumstellar media, generated through mass-loss which characterisie the late phases of the life of their progenitors. In the last two decades, several observational evidences revealed that mass-loss in massive stars may be related to violent eruptions involving their outer layers, such as the luminous blue variables. Giant eruptions of extragalactic luminous blue variables, similar to that observed in Eta Car in the 19th century, are usually labelled 'SN impostors', since they mimic the behaviour of genuine SNe, but are not the final act of the life of the progenitor stars. The mechanisms producing these outbursts are still not understood, although the increasing number of observed cases triggered the efforts of the astronomical community to find possible theoretical interpretations. More recently, a number of observational evidences suggested that also lower-mass stars can experience pre-supernova outbursts, hence becoming supernova impostors. Even more interestingly, there is growing evidence of a connection among massive stars, their outbursts and interacting supernovae. All of this inspired this research, which has been focused in particular on the characterisation of supernova impostors and the observational criteria that may allow us to safely discriminate them from interacting supernovae. Moreover, the discovery of peculiar transients, motivated us to explore the lowest range of stellar masses that may experience violent outbursts. Finally, the quest for the link among massive stars, their giant eruptions and interacting supernovae, led us to study the interacting supernova LSQ13zm, which possibly exploded a very short time after an LBV-like major outburst.

  4. Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Graur, Or; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Hayden, Brian [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W.; McCully, Curtis; Patel, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ∼0.25 deg{sup 2} with ∼900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z ∼ 2.5. We classify ∼24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only ∼3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction is f{sub P} = 0.53{sub stat0.10}{sup ±0.09}{sub sys0.26}{sup ±0.10}, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t {sup –1} power law for all times t > 40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20% of all SN Ia explosions—though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.

  5. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  6. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  7. Searching for the Expelled Hydrogen Envelope in Type I Supernovae via Late-Time H α Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinko, J.; Silverman, J. M.; Wheeler, J. C.; MacQueen, P.; Marion, G. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pooley, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States); Szalai, T. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, Szeged, 6720 (Hungary); Kelly, P. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Sárneczky, K. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege ut 15-17, Budapest, 1121 (Hungary)

    2017-03-01

    We report the first results from our long-term observational survey aimed at discovering late-time interaction between the ejecta of hydrogen-poor Type I supernovae (SNe I) and the hydrogen-rich envelope expelled from the progenitor star several decades/centuries before explosion. The expelled envelope, moving with a velocity of ∼10–100 km s{sup −1}, is expected to be caught up by the fast-moving SN ejecta several years/decades after explosion, depending on the history of the mass-loss process acting in the progenitor star prior to explosion. The collision between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar envelope results in net emission in the Balmer lines, especially H α . We look for signs of late-time H α emission in older SNe Ia/Ibc/IIb with hydrogen-poor ejecta via narrowband imaging. Continuum-subtracted H α emission has been detected for 13 point sources: 9 SN Ibc, 1 SN IIb, and 3 SN Ia events. Thirty-eight SN sites were observed on at least two epochs, from which three objects (SN 1985F, SN 2005kl, and SN 2012fh) showed significant temporal variation in the strength of their H α emission in our Direct Imaging Auxiliary Functions Instrument (DIAFI) data. This suggests that the variable emission is probably not due to nearby H ii regions unassociated with the SN and hence is an important additional hint that ejecta–circumstellar medium interaction may take place in these systems. Moreover, we successfully detected the late-time H α emission from the Type Ib SN 2014C, which was recently discovered as a strongly interacting SN in various (radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray) bands.

  8. Search for tiny or transient sources in the Galaxy's central regions with H.E.S.S. - Application to the study of supernova W49B's remnant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, F.

    2011-09-01

    H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) is an array of four very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescopes located in Namibia. These telescopes use the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique to detect gamma-rays between 100 GeV and a few tens of TeV. The H.E.S.S. cameras, each composed of 960 photomultiplier tubes and a fast electronics, need an accurate calibration of the shower to electronic signal conversion. A spurious capacitive coupling between the photomultiplier tubes and the data acquisition system (the common modes) was revealed and corrected during this thesis, resulting in data of better quality. H.E.S.S. is ideally located to observe the inner regions of the Galactic plane. Hence, the Galactic Plane Survey has been one of the primary goal since the beginning of the array operation in 2004 and led to unveiling the diversity of the VHE gamma-ray sources. This thesis presents the search for VHE gamma-ray sources in the inner regions of the Galactic plane using the most sensitive semi-analytical model based analysis currently available. A search for transient sources was also performed for these regions using powerful methods based on the time difference between consecutive events. These methods have been precisely characterized by simulation and didn't lead to the detection of significant variable sources. The very-high energy gamma-ray emission from the W49 region and the supernova remnant W49B in particular has been revealed during this thesis. The analysis of this region and the implications of this discovery are described in detail in this manuscript. (author)

  9. Popularity of Different Lampyrid Species in Japanese Culture as Measured by Google Search Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kenta

    2011-07-05

    I investigated the popularity of different lampyrid species (34 species) in Japanese culture as part of a study on cultural entomology. Popularity was assessed by the Google search volume for Japanese lampyrid species names in katakana and hiragana scripts, using the Keyword Tool of Google AdWords. The search volume of lampyrid species as "Genji-botaru" (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky), "Heike-botaru" (Luciola lateralis Motschulsky) and "Hime-botaru" (Hotaria parvula Kiesenwetter), in either or both katakana and hiragana syllabic scripts, was enormously high relative to other lampyrid species, indicating the biased attention of Japanese to these lampyrid species. In addition, search volumes for familial or common lampyrid name ("Hotaru") was assessed and compared with that of 34 lampyrid species. This analyzing result showed that: (1) the search volumes for katakana and hiragana were 37.7 and 773.1 times higher for "Hotaru" than "Genji-botaru", respectively; and (2) the search volume for all lampyrid species was clearly higher in katakana than hiragana, whereas the search volumes for "Hotaru" were clearly higher in hiragana than katakana. These results suggest that: (1) the Japanese public tends to perceive lampyrids with not a clear but an ambiguous taxonomic view; and (2) the attitude of the Japanese public toward lampyrids differs between those who perceive lampyrids with a clear taxonomic view (at species level) and with an ambiguous taxonomic view.

  10. Popularity of Different Lampyrid Species in Japanese Culture as Measured by Google Search Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Takada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the popularity of different lampyrid species (34 species in Japanese culture as part of a study on cultural entomology. Popularity was assessed by the Google search volume for Japanese lampyrid species names in katakana and hiragana scripts, using the Keyword Tool of Google AdWords. The search volume of lampyrid species as “Genji-botaru” (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky, “Heike-botaru” (Luciola lateralis Motschulsky and “Hime-botaru” (Hotaria parvula Kiesenwetter, in either or both katakana and hiragana syllabic scripts, was enormously high relative to other lampyrid species, indicating the biased attention of Japanese to these lampyrid species. In addition, search volumes for familial or common lampyrid name (“Hotaru” was assessed and compared with that of 34 lampyrid species. This analyzing result showed that: (1 the search volumes for katakana and hiragana were 37.7 and 773.1 times higher for “Hotaru” than “Genji-botaru”, respectively; and (2 the search volume for all lampyrid species was clearly higher in katakana than hiragana, whereas the search volumes for “Hotaru” were clearly higher in hiragana than katakana. These results suggest that: (1 the Japanese public tends to perceive lampyrids with not a clear but an ambiguous taxonomic view; and (2 the attitude of the Japanese public toward lampyrids differs between those who perceive lampyrids with a clear taxonomic view (at species level and with an ambiguous taxonomic view.

  11. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  12. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  13. Peculiar Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella

    2018-06-01

    What makes a supernova truly "peculiar?" In this review we attempt to address this question by tracing the history of the use of "peculiar" as a descriptor of non-standard supernovae back to the original binary spectroscopic classification of Type I vs. Type II proposed by Minkowski (Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 53:224, 1941). A handful of noteworthy examples are highlighted to illustrate a general theme: classes of supernovae that were once thought to be peculiar are later seen as logical branches of standard events. This is not always the case, however, and we discuss ASASSN-15lh as an example of a transient with an origin that remains contentious. We remark on how late-time observations at all wavelengths (radio-through-X-ray) that probe 1) the kinematic and chemical properties of the supernova ejecta and 2) the progenitor star system's mass loss in the terminal phases preceding the explosion, have often been critical in understanding the nature of seemingly unusual events.

  14. Supernova research with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Norbert; Bietenholz, Michael F.

    2016-06-01

    Core-collapse supernovae have been monitored with VLBI from shortly after the explosion to many years thereafter. Radio emission is produced as the ejecta hit the stellar wind left over from the dyingstar. Images show the details of the interaction as the shock front expands into the circumstellar medium. Measurements of the velocity and deceleration of the expansion provide information on both the ejecta and the circumstellar medium. VLBI observations can also search for the stellar remnant of the explosion, a neutron star or a black hole. Combining the transverse expansion rate with the radial expansion rate from optical spectra allows a geometric determination of the distance to the host galaxy. We will present results from recent VLBI observations, focus on their interpretations, and show updated movies of supernovae from soon after their explosion to the present.

  15. STRESS Counting Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticella, M. T.; Cappellaro, E.; Riello, M.; Greggio, L.; Benetti, S.; Patat, F.; Turatto, M.; Altavilla, G.; Pastorello, A.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.; Harutyunyan, A.; Pignata, G.; Taubenberger, S.

    2008-12-01

    The rate of occurrence of supernovae (SNe) is linked to some of the basic ingredients of galaxy evolution, such as the star formation rate, the chemical enrichment and feedback processes. SN rates at intermediate redshift and their dependence on specific galaxy properties have been investigated in the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search (STRESS). The rate of core collapse SNe (CC SNe) at a redshift of around 0.25 is found to be a factor two higher than the local value, whereas the SNe Ia rate remains almost constant. SN rates in red and blue galaxies were also measured and it was found that the SNe Ia rate seems to be constant in galaxies of different colour, whereas the CC SN rate seems to peak in blue galaxies, as in the local Universe.

  16. A concept of volume rendering guided search process to analyze medical data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianlong; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Zhiyan; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    This paper firstly presents an approach of parallel coordinates based parameter control panel (PCP). The PCP is used to control parameters of focal region-based volume rendering (FRVR) during data analysis. It uses a parallel coordinates style interface. Different rendering parameters represented with nodes on each axis, and renditions based on related parameters are connected using polylines to show dependencies between renditions and parameters. Based on the PCP, a concept of volume rendering guided search process is proposed. The search pipeline is divided into four phases. Different parameters of FRVR are recorded and modulated in the PCP during search phases. The concept shows that volume visualization could play the role of guiding a search process in the rendition space to help users to efficiently find local structures of interest. The usability of the proposed approach is evaluated to show its effectiveness.

  17. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  18. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  19. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  20. Supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; California, University, Livermore, CA); Weaver, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the Ni-56 produced therein is reviewed. The expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra for this model of type I explosions and a model for type II explosions are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed. While the theoretical results of existing models are predicated upon the assumption of a successful core bounce calculation and the neglect of such two-dimensional effects as rotation and magnetic fields the new model suggests an entirely different scenario in which a considerable portion of the energy carried by an equatorially ejected blob is deposited in the red giant envelope overlying the mantle of the star

  1. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Beacom

    2003-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy release and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  2. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA survey. II. Supernova environmental metallicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbany, L.; Stanishev, V.; Mourão, A. M.; Rodrigues, M.; Flores, H.; Walcher, C. J.; Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Badenes, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mollá, M.; Meidt, S.; Pérez, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity of a supernova progenitor, together with its mass, is one of the main parameters that can rule the progenitor's fate. We present the second study of nearby supernova (SN) host galaxies (0.005 ⊙) > 10 dex) by targeted searches. We neither found evidence that the metallicity at the SN

  3. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  4. A Deep Search with the Hubble Space Telescope for Late-Time Supernova Signatures in the Hosts of XRF 011030 and XRF 020427

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Andrew; Patel, Sandeep; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fruchter, Andrew; Rhoads, James; Rol, Evert; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Gorosabel, Javier; Hiorth, Jens; Wijers, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) are, like gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thought to signal the collapse of massive stars in distant galaxies. Many models posit that the isotropic equivalent energies of XRFs are lower than those for GRBs, such that they are visible fiom a reduced range of distances when compared with GRBs. Here we present the results of two-epoch Hubble Space Telescope imaging of two XRFs. These images, taken approximately 45 and 200 days postburst, reveal no evidence of an associated supernova in either case. Supernovae such as SN 1998bw would have been visible out to z approximately 1.5 in each case, while fainter supernovae such as SN 2002ap would have been visible to z approximately 1. If the XRFs lie at such large distances, their energies would not fit the observed correlation between the GRB peak energy and isotropic energy release (E(sub p) proportional to E(sub iso)(sup 1/2), in which soft bursts are less energetic. We conclude that, should these XRFs reside at low redshifts (z less than 0.6), either their line of sight is heavily extinguished, they are associated with extremely faint supernovae, or, unlike GRBs, these XRFs do not have temporally coincident supernovae.

  5. The nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ∼12 SNe/month in 2003

  6. The detectability of supernovae against elliptical galactic disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, E. C.

    A 75 cm telescope has been automated with a Prime 300 mini-computer to search approximately 250 galaxies per hour for young supernovae. The high-speed star-location and comparison algorithms used in the Digitized Astronomy Supernova Search (DASS) system is described.

  7. MATTER MIXING IN ASPHERICAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: A SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING {sup 56}Ni INTO HIGH VELOCITY REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masaomi; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ito, Hirotaka; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Tolstov, Alexey [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masa-aki, E-mail: masaomi.ono@riken.jp [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-08-20

    We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions of a 16.3 M{sub Sun} star with a compact hydrogen envelope. Observations of SN 1987A have provided evidence that {sup 56}Ni synthesized by explosive nucleosynthesis is mixed into fast moving matter ({approx}>3500 km s{sup -1}) in the exploding star. In order to clarify the key conditions for reproducing such high velocity of {sup 56}Ni, we revisit matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions. Explosions are initiated artificially by injecting thermal and kinetic energies around the interface between the iron core and the silicon-rich layer. Perturbations of 5% or 30% amplitude in the radial velocities are introduced at several points in time. We find that no high velocity {sup 56}Ni can be obtained if we consider bipolar explosions with perturbations (5% amplitude) of pre-supernova origins. If large perturbations (30% amplitude) are introduced or exist due to some unknown mechanism in a later phase just before the shock wave reaches the hydrogen envelope, {sup 56}Ni with a velocity of 3000 km s{sup -1} can be obtained. Aspherical explosions that are asymmetric across the equatorial plane with clumpy structures in the initial shock waves are investigated. We find that the clump sizes affect the penetration of {sup 56}Ni. Finally, we report that an aspherical explosion model that is asymmetric across the equatorial plane with multiple perturbations of pre-supernova origins can cause the penetration of {sup 56}Ni clumps into fast moving matter of 3000 km s{sup -1}. We show that both aspherical explosions with clumpy structures and perturbations of pre-supernova origins may be necessary to reproduce the observed high velocity of {sup 56}Ni. To confirm this, more robust three-dimensional simulations are required.

  8. MATTER MIXING IN ASPHERICAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: A SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING 56Ni INTO HIGH VELOCITY REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masaomi; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ito, Hirotaka; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Tolstov, Alexey; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

    2013-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions of a 16.3 M ☉ star with a compact hydrogen envelope. Observations of SN 1987A have provided evidence that 56 Ni synthesized by explosive nucleosynthesis is mixed into fast moving matter (∼>3500 km s –1 ) in the exploding star. In order to clarify the key conditions for reproducing such high velocity of 56 Ni, we revisit matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions. Explosions are initiated artificially by injecting thermal and kinetic energies around the interface between the iron core and the silicon-rich layer. Perturbations of 5% or 30% amplitude in the radial velocities are introduced at several points in time. We find that no high velocity 56 Ni can be obtained if we consider bipolar explosions with perturbations (5% amplitude) of pre-supernova origins. If large perturbations (30% amplitude) are introduced or exist due to some unknown mechanism in a later phase just before the shock wave reaches the hydrogen envelope, 56 Ni with a velocity of 3000 km s –1 can be obtained. Aspherical explosions that are asymmetric across the equatorial plane with clumpy structures in the initial shock waves are investigated. We find that the clump sizes affect the penetration of 56 Ni. Finally, we report that an aspherical explosion model that is asymmetric across the equatorial plane with multiple perturbations of pre-supernova origins can cause the penetration of 56 Ni clumps into fast moving matter of 3000 km s –1 . We show that both aspherical explosions with clumpy structures and perturbations of pre-supernova origins may be necessary to reproduce the observed high velocity of 56 Ni. To confirm this, more robust three-dimensional simulations are required

  9. Supernova hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The explosion of a star supernova occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN or it may collapse, type I and type II SN leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor should be thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 M/sub theta/, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star 6 to 10 M/sub theta/. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to our ability to model the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe. 39 references

  10. The methodology of the search for a correlated signal from a supernova explosion using the data of gravitational wave detectors and neutrino observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, M. B.

    2017-11-01

    The proposed methodology developed in cooperation of the LIGO, VIRGO, Borexino, LVD, and IceCube collaborations is based on a joint analysis of data from neutrino and gravitational wave detectors which record corresponding radiations, almost undistorted by the interstellar medium and propagating with similar speeds. This approach allows to increase the reliability of observations, detect the so-called Silent supernovae and explore the properties and generation mechanisms of gravitational waves.

  11. Masses of supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The possible nature and masses of supernovae progenitors, and the bearing of empirical results on some unsolved theoretical problems concerning the origin of supernovae, are discussed. The author concentrates on two main questions: what is the lower mass limit for stars to die explosively and what stars initiate type I supernovae. The evidence considered includes local supernova rates, empirical estimates of msub(w) (the upper mass limit for death as a white dwarf), the distributions of supernovae among stellar populations in galaxies and the colors of supernova producing galaxies. (B.D.)

  12. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  13. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  14. Prompt effects of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Conflicting theories on the mechanisms of supernova production are examined. Supernova as sources of other phenomena such as comic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, and electromagnetic pulses are considered. 32 references

  15. Supernova neutrino detection in LZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitan, D.

    2018-02-01

    In the first 10 seconds of a core-collapse supernova, almost all of its progenitor's gravitational potential, O(1053 ergs), is carried away in the form of neutrinos. These neutrinos, with O(10 MeV) kinetic energy, can interact via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS) depositing O(1 keV) in detectors. In this work we describe the performances of low-background dark matter detectors, such as LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), optimized for detecting low-energy depositions, in detecting these neutrino interactions. For instance, a 27 Msolar supernova at 10 kpc is expected to produce ~350 neutrino interactions in the 7-tonne liquid xenon active volume of LZ. Based on the LS220 EoS neutrino flux model for a SN, the Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST), and predicted CEνNS cross-sections for xenon, to study energy deposition and detection of SN neutrinos in LZ. We simulate the response of the LZ data acquisition system (DAQ) and demonstrate its capability and limitations in handling this interaction rate. We present an overview of the LZ detector, focusing on the benefits of liquid xenon for supernova neutrino detection. We discuss energy deposition and detector response simulations and their results. We present an analysis technique to reconstruct the total number of neutrinos and the time of the supernova core bounce.

  16. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 (angstrom) for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the loW--redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and folloW--up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based folloW--up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of folloW--up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager

  17. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: user's guide. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Mays, G.T.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This system provides a structured format for detailed coding of component, system, and unit effects as well as personnel errors. The database contains all current LERs submitted by nuclear power plant utilities for events occurring since 1981 and is updated on a continual basis. This four volume report documents and describes SCSS in detail. Volume 1 is a User's Guide for searching the SCSS database. This volume contains updated material through February 1985 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 1

  18. Handbook of supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Murdin, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This reference work gathers all of the latest research in the supernova field areas to create a definitive source book on supernovae, their remnants and related topics. It includes each distinct subdiscipline, including stellar types, progenitors, stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis of elements, supernova types, neutron stars and pulsars, black holes, swept up interstellar matter, cosmic rays, neutrinos from supernovae, supernova observations in different wavelengths, interstellar molecules and dust. While there is a great deal of primary and specialist literature on supernovae, with a great many scientific groups around the world focusing on the phenomenon and related subdisciplines, nothing else presents an overall survey. This handbook closes that gap at last. As a comprehensive and balanced collection that presents the current state of knowledge in the broad field of supernovae, this is to be used as a basis for further work and study by graduate students, astronomers and astrophysicists working in close/r...

  19. Neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics. General relativistic versus multidimensional supernova simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebendoerfer, Matthias; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Recently, simulations of the collapse of massive stars showed that selected models of the QCD phase transitions to deconfined quarks during the early postbounce phase can trigger the supernova explosion that has been searched for over many years in spherically symmetric supernova models. Using sophisticated general relativistic Boltzmann neutrino transport, it was found that a characteristic neutrino signature is emitted that permits to falsify or identify this scenario in the next Galactic supernova event. On the other hand, more refined observations of past supernovae and progressing theoretical research in different supernova groups demonstrated that the effects of multidimensional fluid instabilities cannot be neglected in global models of the explosions of massive stars. We point to different efforts where neutrino transport and general relativistic effects are combined with multidimensional fluid instabilities in supernovae. With those, it will be possible to explore the gravitational wave emission as a potential second characteristic observable of the presence of quark matter in new-born neutron stars. (author)

  20. IceCube Sensitivity for Low-Energy Neutrinos from Nearby Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatikos, M.; Abbasi, R.; Berghaus, P.; Chirkin, D.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Eisch, J.; Feintzeig, J.; Hanson, K.; hide

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the response of the IceCube neutrino telescope located at the geographic South Pole to outbursts of MeV neutrinos from the core collapse of nearby massive stars. IceCube was completed in December 2010 forming a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes that monitor a volume of approx. 1 cu km in the deep Antarctic ice for particle induced photons. The telescope was designed to detect neutrinos with energies greater than 100 GeV. Owing to subfreezing ice temperatures, the photomultiplier dark noise rates are particularly low. Hence IceCube can also detect large numbers of MeV neutrinos by observing a collective rise in all photomultiplier rates on top of the dark noise. With 2 ms timing resolution, IceCube can detect subtle features in the temporal development of the supernova neutrino burst. For a supernova at the galactic center, its sensitivity matches that of a background-free megaton-scale supernova search experiment. The sensitivity decreases to 20 standard deviations at the galactic edge (30 kpc) and 6 standard deviations at the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc). IceCube is sending triggers from potential supernovae to the Supernova Early Warning System. The sensitivity to neutrino properties such as the neutrino hierarchy is discussed, as well as the possibility to detect the neutronization burst, a short outbreak's released by electron capture on protons soon after collapse. Tantalizing signatures, such as the formation of a quark star or a black hole as well as the characteristics of shock waves, are investigated to illustrate IceCube's capability for supernova detection.

  1. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: code listings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, R.B.; Guymon, R.H.; Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.; Cagle, R.J.; Harrington, K.H.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This system provides a structured format for detailed coding of component, system, and unit effects as well as personnel errors. The database contains all current LERs submitted by nuclear power plant utilities for events occurring since 1981 and is updated on a continual basis. Volume 2 contains all valid and acceptable codes used for searching and encoding the LER data. This volume contains updated material through amendment 1 to revision 1 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 2

  2. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: coder's manual. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, R.B.; Guymon, R.H.; Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.; Cagle, R.J.; Harrington, K.H.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This four volume report documents and describes SCSS in detail. Volume 3 and 4 provide a technical processor, new to SCSS, the information and methodology necessary to capture descriptive data from the LER and to codify that data into a structured format and serve as reference material for the more experienced technical processor, and contains information that is essential for the more advanced user who needs to be familiar with the intricate coding techniques in order to retrieve specific details in a sequence. This volume contains updated material through amendment 1 to revision 1 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 4

  3. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: coder's manual. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, R.B.; Guymon, R.H.; Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.; Cagle, R.J.; Harrington, K.H.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This four volume report documents and describes SCSS in detail. Volumes 3 and 4 provide a technical processor, new to SCSS, the information and methodology necessary to capture descriptive data from the LER and to codify that data into a structured format and serve as reference material for the more experienced technical processor, and contains information is essential for the more advanced user who needs to be familiar with the intricate coding techniques in order to retrieve specific details in a sequence. This volume contains updated material through amendment 1 to revision 1 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 3

  4. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  5. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  6. Runaway companions of supernova remnants with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubert, Douglas; Fraser, Morgan; Evans, N. Wyn

    2018-04-01

    It is expected that most massive stars have companions and thus that some core-collapse supernovae should have a runaway companion. The precise astrometry and photometry provided by Gaia allows for the systematic discovery of these runaway companions. We combine a prior on the properties of runaway stars from binary evolution with data from TGAS and APASS to search for runaway stars within ten nearby supernova remnants. We strongly confirm the existing candidate HD 37424 in S147, propose the Be star BD+50 3188 to be associated with HB 21, and suggest tentative candidates for the Cygnus and Monoceros Loops.

  7. Evolution of Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbutina, B.

    2017-12-01

    This book, both a monograph and a graduate textbook, is based on my original research and partly on the materials prepared earlier for the 2007 and 2008 IARS Astrophysics Summer School in Istanbul, AstroMundus course 'Supernovae and Their Remnants' that was held for the first time in 2011 at the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, and a graduate course 'Evolution of Supernova Remnants' that I teach at the aforementioned university. The first part Supernovae (introduction, thermonuclear supernovae, core-collapse supernovae) provides introductory information and explains the classification and physics of supernova explosions, while the second part Supernova remnants (introduction, shock waves, cosmic rays and particle acceleration, magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation, hydrodynamic and radio evolution of supernova remnants), which is the field I work in, is more detailed in scope i.e. technical/mathematical. Special attention is paid to details of mathematical derivations that often cannot be found in original works or available literature. Therefore, I believe it can be useful to both, graduate students and researchers interested in the field.

  8. Nurseries of Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Teddy

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) have long been the gold standard for precision cosmology and after several decades of intense research the supernova (SN) community was in 2011 honored by giving the Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery of Dark Energy to the leaders of the two big SN collaborations: S...

  9. Gravitational collapse and supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattimer, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The collapse of the core of a massive star and the subsequent birth of a neutron star in a supernova explosion are discussed, and a model of the supernova mechanism is developed. The basic theory is then compared with the particular case of SN1987A, whose emitted neutrinos permitted the first direct test of the model. (author)

  10. Supernova 1604, Kepler’s Supernova, and Its Remnant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.; Alsabti, A.W.; Murdin, P.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova 1604 is the last galactic supernova for which historical records exist. Johannes Kepler’s name is attached to it, as he published a detailed account of the observations made by himself and European colleagues. Supernova 1604 was very likely a type Ia supernova, which exploded 350–750 pc

  11. Contribution of infrared observations to the study of supernovae remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvion, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of dust in young supernovae remnants observed in middle infrared, mainly by means of the ISOCAM instrument installed on the ISO satellite. The author first presents the supernovae physics and the studied young remnants, describes dusts and the main sites of formation and destruction, and outlines the difficulties and benefits of observations performed in the middle infrared. Then, the author reports acquired evidences related to the formation of dusts in supernovae, and the search for a millimetre emission by cold dust contained in regions which are not yet excited by the shock, in order to better assess the overall quantities created by supernovae. He reports the use of observations of dust and neon in Cassiopeia A to perform a diagnosis on the mixture of elements during the supernovae explosion [fr

  12. SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Kuhlmann, S.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Crane, I.; Hufford, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Nugent, P. [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D' Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Finley, D. A.; Marriner, J.; Reis, R. R. R. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Jarvis, M. J. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, P.; Parkinson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey 2 Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Sako, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 203 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 deg{sup 2} search area in the griz filter set. We forecast (1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05 supernova with an identified host galaxy will be obtained from spectroscopic observations of the host. A supernova spectrum will be obtained for a subset of the sample, which will be utilized for control studies. In addition, we have investigated the use of combined photometric redshifts taking into account data from both the host and supernova. We have investigated and estimated the likely contamination from core-collapse supernovae based on photometric identification, and have found that a Type Ia supernova sample purity of up to 98% is obtainable given specific assumptions. Furthermore, we present systematic uncertainties due to sample purity, photometric calibration, dust extinction priors, filter-centroid shifts, and inter-calibration. We conclude by estimating the uncertainty on the cosmological parameters that will be measured from the DES supernova data.

  13. SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J. P.; Kuhlmann, S.; Biswas, R.; Kovacs, E.; Crane, I.; Hufford, T.; Kessler, R.; Frieman, J. A.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Nugent, P.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Finley, D. A.; Marriner, J.; Reis, R. R. R.; Jarvis, M. J.; Mukherjee, P.; Parkinson, D.; Sako, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 deg 2 search area in the griz filter set. We forecast (1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05 < z < 1.2 and (2) that the increased red efficiency of the DES camera will significantly improve high-redshift color measurements. The redshift of each supernova with an identified host galaxy will be obtained from spectroscopic observations of the host. A supernova spectrum will be obtained for a subset of the sample, which will be utilized for control studies. In addition, we have investigated the use of combined photometric redshifts taking into account data from both the host and supernova. We have investigated and estimated the likely contamination from core-collapse supernovae based on photometric identification, and have found that a Type Ia supernova sample purity of up to 98% is obtainable given specific assumptions. Furthermore, we present systematic uncertainties due to sample purity, photometric calibration, dust extinction priors, filter-centroid shifts, and inter-calibration. We conclude by estimating the uncertainty on the cosmological parameters that will be measured from the DES supernova data.

  14. Supernovae and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totsuka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    On February 25, 1987, a sheet of telefax came to us from S. A. Bludman, saying Supernova went off in Large Magellanic Clouds. Can you see it? This is what we have been waiting 350 years for exclamation point In few hours, more information arrived. But it was still too early to definitely identify the supernova as type I or type II. This paper reports that the type I supernova is an explosion of a complete star due to uncontrolled nuclear fusion, while the type II supernova is triggered by gravitational collapse of the Fe core of a massive star (≥8 solar mass). It is this type II supernova that would leave a neutron star or a black hole after the liberation of an enormous amount of energy (3 x 10 53 erg) in the form of neutrinos. Therefore only the type II supernova is a relevant place to look for neutrino signals. It was also frustrating that the time when the stellar collapse actually took place was not definitely determined, because it was believed that the supernova brightened up about a day after the collapse and there was an ambiguity in a time lag of the optical observation. There was a possibility that it had happened well before February 24

  15. Mechanisms for supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.I.

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses some of the recent developments in the study of one supernova mechanism, the neutrino transport mechanism, and indicates what future developments are needed before this model can be adequately understood. (Auth.)

  16. Physics of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Presupernova models of massive stars are presented and their explosion by ''delayed neutrino transport'' examined. A new form of long duration Type II supernova model is also explored based upon repeated encounter with the electron-positron pair instability in stars heavier than about 60 Msub solar. Carbon deflagration in white dwarfs is discussed as the probable explanation of Type I supernovae and special attention is paid to the physical processes whereby a nuclear flame propagates through degenerate carbon. 89 refs., 12 figs

  17. Search for VHE γ-ray emission from the direction of the two millisecond pulsars PSR J0437-4715 and PSR J1824-2452 and the composite supernova remnant Kes 75 with H.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuessling, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on the search for pulsed and steady very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission in the energy range extending from 100 GeV up to 100 TeV from the direction of three pulsars with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Pulsed gamma-ray radiation from pulsars with energies beyond 100 GeV was found thus far only for the young and energetic Crab pulsar. A special class of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) is associated with composite supernova remnants (SNRs) where the PWN is centered in an expanding SNR shell. In the first part of this thesis, the results on the search for pulsed and steady VHE gamma-ray emission from the two millisecond pulsars, PSR J0437-4715 and PSR J1824-2452, are presented. Parts of the observations were conducted in a special trigger setup (the topological trigger with convergent pointing) to reduce the energy threshold of the instrument. No signal of pulsed or steady emission is found and upper limits on the pulsed and steady gamma-ray flux are derived. The upper limits on the pulsed gamma-ray flux are compared to existing model predictions and, in the case of PSR J1824-2452, allow the range of possible viewing geometries in some models to be constrained. In the second part of this work, results on the search for pulsed and steady VHE gamma-ray emission from the direction of the composite SNR Kes 75 are presented. The PWN in the center of Kes 75 is powered by a very young and powerful pulsar, PSR J1846-0258, that has an exceptionally high magnetic field. While no hint for pulsed emission is found, steady VHE gamma-ray emission is detected with a statistical significance of 10 sigma from a point-like source. The VHE gamma-ray emission is spatially coincident with the PWN and the SNR shell. Both are discussed as a possible origin for the observed emission. The pulsar of Kes 75 would be the youngest pulsar known to date to power a VHE PWN.

  18. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J., E-mail: takashi.moriya@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  19. Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Isern, Jordi; Perego, Albino; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We present the status and open problems of nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions of both types, responsible for the production of the intermediate mass, Fe-group and heavier elements (with the exception of the main s-process). Constraints from observations can be provided through individual supernovae (SNe) or their remnants (e.g. via spectra and gamma-rays of decaying unstable isotopes) and through surface abundances of stars which witness the composition of the interstellar gas at their formation. With a changing fraction of elements heavier than He in these stars (known as metallicity) the evolution of the nucleosynthesis in galaxies over time can be determined. A complementary way, related to gamma-rays from radioactive decays, is the observation of positrons released in β+-decays, as e.g. from ^{26}Al, ^{44}Ti, ^{56,57}Ni and possibly further isotopes of their decay chains (in competition with the production of e+e- pairs in acceleration shocks from SN remnants, pulsars, magnetars or even of particle physics origin). We discuss (a) the role of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism for the composition of intermediate mass, Fe-group (and heavier?) ejecta, (b) the transition from neutron stars to black holes as the final result of the collapse of massive stars, and the relation of the latter to supernovae, faint supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts/hypernovae, (c) Type Ia supernovae and their nucleosynthesis (e.g. addressing the ^{55}Mn puzzle), plus (d) further constraints from galactic evolution, γ-ray and positron observations. This is complemented by the role of rare magneto-rotational supernovae (related to magnetars) in comparison with the nucleosynthesis of compact binary mergers, especially with respect to forming the heaviest r-process elements in galactic evolution.

  20. The Core Collapse Supernova Rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Galbany, Lluis; Gupta, Ravi R.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2014-08-26

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10(–)(4)((h/0.7)(3)/(yr Mpc(3))) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  1. Presupernova models and supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, D [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Earth Science and Astronomy; Nomoto, K I [Ibaraki Univ., Mito (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1980-02-01

    Present status of the theories for presupernova evolution and triggering mechanisms of supernova explosions are summarized and discussed from the standpoint of the theory of stellar structure and evolution. It is not intended to collect every detail of numerical results thus far obtained, but to extract physically clear-cut understanding from complexities of the numerical stellar models. For this purpose the evolution of stellar cores is discussed in a generalized fashion. The following types of the supernova explosions are discussed. The carbon deflagration supernova of intermediate mass star which results in the total disruption of the star. Massive star evolves into a supernova triggered by photo-dissociation of iron nuclei which results in a formation of a neutron star or a black hole depending on its mass. These two are typical types of the supernova. Between them there remains a range of mass for which collapse of the stellar core is triggered by electron captures, which has been recently shown to leave a neutron star despite oxygen deflagration competing with the electron captures. Also discussed are combustion and detonation of helium or carbon which take place in accreting white dwarfs, and the collapse which is triggered by electron-pair creation in very massive stars.

  2. Auditory Workload Assessment. Volume II: Non-Copyrighted Literature Search Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rench, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In support of the US Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate, HSIAC, the Human Systems Information Analysis Center, conducted an extensive search of scientific literature...

  3. Hot interstellar tunnels. I. Simulation of interacting supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    Reexamining a suggestion of Cox and Smith, we find that intersecting supernova remnants can indeed generate and maintain hot interstellar regions with napproximately-less-than10 -2 cm -3 and Tapprox.10 6 K. These regions are likely to occupy at least 30% of the volume of a spiral arm near the midplane of the gaseous disk if the local supernova rate there is greater than 1.5 x 10 -7 Myr -1 pc -3 . Their presence in the interstellar medium is supported by observations of the soft X-ray background. The theory required to build a numerical simulation of interacting supernova remnants is developed. The hot cavities within a population of remnants will become connected for a variety of assumed conditions in the outer shells of old remnants. Extensive hot cavity regions or tunnels are built and enlarged by supernovae occurring in relatively dense gas which produce connections, but tunnels are kept hot primarily by supernovae occurring within the tunnels. The latter supernovae initiate fast shock waves which apparently reheat tunnels faster than they are destroyed by thermal conduction in a galactic magnetic field or by radiative cooling. However, the dispersal of these rejuvenating shocks over a wide volume is inhibited by motions of cooler interstellar gas in the interval between shocks. These motions disrupt the contiguity of the component cavities of a tunnel and may cause its death.The Monte Carlo simulations indicate that a quasi-equilibrium is reached within 10 7 years of the first supernova in a spiral arm. This equilibrium is characterized by a constant average filling fraction for cavities in the interstellar volume. Aspects of the equilibrium are discussed for a range of supernova rates. Two predictions of Cox and Smith are not confirmed within this range: critical growth of hot regions to encompass the entire medium, and the efficient quenching of a remnant's expansion by interaction with other cavities

  4. Exploring Cosmology with Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xue

    distribution of strong gravitational lensing is developed. For Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia), the rate is lower than core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe). The rate of SNe Ia declines beyond z 1:5. Based on these reasons, we investigate a potential candidate to measure cosmological distance: GRB......-SNe. They are a subclass of CC SNe. Light curves of GRB-SNe are obtained and their properties are studied. We ascertain that the properties of GRB-SNe make them another candidate for standardizable candles in measuring the cosmic distance. Cosmological parameters M and are constrained with the help of GRB-SNe. The first...

  5. Neutrinos in supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs

  6. Type I supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, Ramon; Labay, Javier; Isern, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    We briefly describe the characteristics of Type I supernova outbursts and we present the theoretical models so far advanced to explain them. We especially insist on models based on the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system, even regarding the recent division of Type I supernovae into the Ia and Ib subtypes. Together with models assuming explosive thermonuclear burning in a fluid interior, we consider in some detail those based on partially solid interiors. We finally discuss models that incorporate nonthermonuclear energy contributions, suggested in order to explain Type Ib outbursts. (Author)

  7. ON THE RATES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN DWARF AND GIANT HOSTS WITH ROTSE-IIIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quimby, Robert M.; Yuan Fang; Akerlof, Carl; Wheeler, J. Craig; Warren, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sample of 23 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that were discovered in the background of galaxy clusters targeted by ROTSE-IIIb and use up to 18 of these to determine the local (z-bar 0.05) volumetric rate. Since our survey is flux limited and thus biased against fainter objects, the pseudo-absolute magnitude distribution (pAMD) of SNe Ia in a given volume is an important concern, especially the relative frequency of high- to low-luminosity SNe Ia. We find that the pAMD derived from the volume-limited Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) sample is incompatible with the distribution of SNe Ia in a volume-limited (z B > –16) galaxies, whereas only 1 out of 79 nearby SDSS-II SNe Ia have such faint hosts. It is possible that previous works have undercounted either low-luminosity SNe Ia, SNe Ia in low-luminosity hosts, or peculiar SNe Ia (sometimes explicitly), and the total SNe Ia rate may be higher than the canonical value.

  8. Direct Measurement of the Supernova Rate in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; Rank, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Supernovae play a key role in the dynamics, structure, and chemical evolution of galaxies. The massive stars that end their lives as supernovae live for short times. Many are still associated with dusty star formation regions when they explode, making them difficult to observe at visible wavelengths. In active star forming regions (galactic nuclei and starburst regions), dust extintion is especially severe. Thus, determining the supernova rate in the active star forming regions of galaxies, where the supernova rate can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the average, has proven to be difficult. From observations of SN1987A, we know that the [NiII] 6.63 micron emission line was the strongest line in the infrared spectrum for a period of a year and a half after the explosion. Since dust extintion is much less at 6.63 pm than at visible wavelengths (A(sub 6.63)/A(sub V) = 0.025), the NiII line can be used as a sensitive probe for the detection of recent supernovae. We have observed a sample of starburst galaxies at 6.63 micron using ISOCAM to search for the NiII emission line characteristic of recent supernovae. We did not detect any NiII line emission brighter than a 5sigma limit of 5 mJy. We can set upper limits to the supernova rate in our sample, scaled to the rate in M82, of less than 0.3 per year at the 90% confidence level using Bayesian methods. Assuming that a supernova would have a NiII with the same luminosity as observed in SN1987A, we find less than 0.09 and 0.15 per year at the 50% and 67% confidence levels. These rates are somewhat less if a more normal type II supernovae has a NiII line luminosity greater than the line in SN1987A.

  9. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  10. Theoretical models for supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of recent numerical simulations of supernova explosions are presented and a variety of topics discussed. Particular emphasis is given to (i) the nucleosynthesis expected from intermediate mass (10sub solar less than or equal to M less than or equal to 100 Msub solar) Type II supernovae and detonating white dwarf models for Type I supernovae, (ii) a realistic estimate of the γ-line fluxes expected from this nucleosynthesis, (iii) the continued evolution, in one and two dimensions, of intermediate mass stars wherein iron core collapse does not lead to a strong, mass-ejecting shock wave, and (iv) the evolution and explosion of vary massive stars M greater than or equal to 100 Msub solar of both Population I and III. In one dimension, nuclear burning following a failed core bounce does not appear likely to lead to a supernova explosion although, in two dimensions, a combination of rotation and nuclear burning may do so. Near solar proportions of elements from neon to calcium and very brilliant optical displays may be created by hypernovae, the explosions of stars in the mass range 100 M/sub solar/ to 300 M/sub solar/. Above approx. 300 M/sub solar/ a black hole is created by stellar collapse following carbon ignition. Still more massive stars may be copious producers of 4 He and 14 N prior to their collapse on the pair instability

  11. Supernova neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrinos emitted during a supernova core collapse represent a unique feature to study both stellar and neutrino properties. After discussing the details of the neutrino emission in the star and the effect of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes at Earth, a review of the detection techniques is presented in this paper, with particular attention to the problem of electron neutrino detection

  12. Supernova Cosmology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    , i.e. with the cosmology hidden. Looking Beyond Lambda with the Union Supernova Compilation by Rubin et Matrix Description Covariance Matrix with Systematics Description Full Table of All SNe Description Beyond Lambda Figures Updated 11-18-11 Contact: drubin at physics dot fsu dot edu, saul at lbl dot gov

  13. Decays of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Supernova neutrinos could be well-suited for probing neutrino decay, since decay may be observed even for very small decay rates or coupling constants. We will introduce an effective operator framework for the combined description of neutrino decay and neutrino oscillations for supernova neutrinos, which can especially take into account two properties: one is the radially symmetric neutrino flux, allowing a decay product to be re-directed towards the observer even if the parent neutrino had a different original direction of propagation. The other is decoherence because of the long baselines for coherently produced neutrinos. We will demonstrate how to use this effective theory to calculate the time-dependent fluxes at the detector. In addition, we will show the implications of a Majoron-like decay model. As a result, we will demonstrate that for certain parameter values one may observe some effects which could also mimic signals similar to the ones expected from supernova models, making it in general harder to separate neutrino and supernova properties

  14. Neutrino Emission from Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Hans-Thomas

    Supernovae are the most powerful cosmic sources of MeV neutrinos. These elementary particles play a crucial role when the evolution of a massive star is terminated by the collapse of its core to a neutron star or a black hole and the star explodes as supernova. The release of electron neutrinos, which are abundantly produced by electron captures, accelerates the catastrophic infall and causes a gradual neutronization of the stellar plasma by converting protons to neutrons as dominant constituents of neutron star matter. The emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors carries away the gravitational binding energy of the compact remnant and drives its evolution from the hot initial to the cold final state. The absorption of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos in the surroundings of the newly formed neutron star can power the supernova explosion and determines the conditions in the innermost supernova ejecta, making them an interesting site for the nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements and trans-iron nuclei.

  15. Relationship Between State-Level Google Online Search Volume and Cancer Incidence in the United States: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles A; Barz Leahy, Allison; Li, Yimei; Schapira, Marilyn M; Bailey, L Charles; Merchant, Raina M

    2018-01-08

    In the United States, cancer is common, with high morbidity and mortality; cancer incidence varies between states. Online searches reflect public awareness, which could be driven by the underlying regional cancer epidemiology. The objective of our study was to characterize the relationship between cancer incidence and online Google search volumes in the United States for 6 common cancers. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association of search activity with cancer-related public events and celebrity news coverage. We performed a population-based, retrospective study of state-level cancer incidence from 2004 through 2013 reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and uterine cancers and leukemia compared to Google Trends (GT) relative search volume (RSV), a metric designed by Google to allow interest in search topics to be compared between regions. Participants included persons in the United States who searched for cancer terms on Google. The primary measures were the correlation between annual state-level cancer incidence and RSV as determined by Spearman correlation and linear regression with RSV and year as independent variables and cancer incidence as the dependent variable. Temporal associations between search activity and events raising public awareness such as cancer awareness months and cancer-related celebrity news were described. At the state level, RSV was significantly correlated to incidence for breast (r=.18, P=.001), prostate (r=-.27, P<.001), lung (r=.33, P<.001), and uterine cancers (r=.39, P<.001) and leukemia (r=.13, P=.003) but not colon cancer (r=-.02, P=.66). After adjusting for time, state-level RSV was positively correlated to cancer incidence for all cancers: breast (P<.001, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19), prostate (P=.38, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22), lung (P<.001, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.46), colon (P<.001, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.17), and uterine cancers (P<.001, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.12) and leukemia (P<.001, 95

  16. SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan); Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hsiao, Eric; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Castellon, Sergio; Roth, Miguel [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Hamuy, Mario; Anderson, Joseph P. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Persson, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Ln., Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin, E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2013-08-10

    This is the first release of optical spectroscopic data of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by the Carnegie Supernova Project including 604 previously unpublished spectra of 93 SNe Ia. The observations cover a range of phases from 12 days before to over 150 days after the time of B-band maximum light. With the addition of 228 near-maximum spectra from the literature, we study the diversity among SNe Ia in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, spectroscopic parameters are employed such as expansion velocities from spectral line blueshifts and pseudo-equivalent widths (pW). The values of those parameters at maximum light are obtained for 78 objects, thus providing a characterization of SNe Ia that may help to improve our understanding of the properties of the exploding systems and the thermonuclear flame propagation. Two objects, namely, SNe 2005M and 2006is, stand out from the sample by showing peculiar Si II and S II velocities but otherwise standard velocities for the rest of the ions. We further study the correlations between spectroscopic and photometric parameters such as light-curve decline rate and color. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the pW of Si II absorption features are very good indicators of light-curve decline rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that parameters such as pW2 (Si II 4130) and pW6 (Si II 5972) provide precise calibrations of the peak B-band luminosity with dispersions of Almost-Equal-To 0.15 mag. In the search for a secondary parameter in the calibration of peak luminosity for SNe Ia, we find a Almost-Equal-To 2{sigma}-3{sigma} correlation between B-band Hubble residuals and the velocity at maximum light of S II and Si II lines.

  17. SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hsiao, Eric; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Roth, Miguel; Hamuy, Mario; Anderson, Joseph P.; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Persson, S. E.; Prieto, José L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This is the first release of optical spectroscopic data of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by the Carnegie Supernova Project including 604 previously unpublished spectra of 93 SNe Ia. The observations cover a range of phases from 12 days before to over 150 days after the time of B-band maximum light. With the addition of 228 near-maximum spectra from the literature, we study the diversity among SNe Ia in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, spectroscopic parameters are employed such as expansion velocities from spectral line blueshifts and pseudo-equivalent widths (pW). The values of those parameters at maximum light are obtained for 78 objects, thus providing a characterization of SNe Ia that may help to improve our understanding of the properties of the exploding systems and the thermonuclear flame propagation. Two objects, namely, SNe 2005M and 2006is, stand out from the sample by showing peculiar Si II and S II velocities but otherwise standard velocities for the rest of the ions. We further study the correlations between spectroscopic and photometric parameters such as light-curve decline rate and color. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the pW of Si II absorption features are very good indicators of light-curve decline rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that parameters such as pW2 (Si II 4130) and pW6 (Si II 5972) provide precise calibrations of the peak B-band luminosity with dispersions of ≈0.15 mag. In the search for a secondary parameter in the calibration of peak luminosity for SNe Ia, we find a ≈2σ-3σ correlation between B-band Hubble residuals and the velocity at maximum light of S II and Si II lines

  18. Search for GRB-supernovae correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Hudcová, Věra

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 80, - (2000), s. 06/161-06/163 ISSN 0920-5632. [ Texas symposium on relativistic astrophysics and cosmology /19./. Paris, 14.12.1998-18.12.1998] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2000

  19. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for micr......The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism...... for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is there high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. As predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends...

  20. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  1. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s –1 ) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22 +10 –6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as –5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  2. Binary progenitors of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    1984-12-01

    Among the massive stars that are expected to produce Type II, hydrogen-rich supernovae, the presence of a close companion can increase the main sequence mass needed to yield a collapsing core. In addition, due to mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, the companion enhances the stripping of the stellar hydrogen envelope produced by single star winds and thereby makes it harder for the star to give rise to a typical SN II light curve. Among the less massive stars that may be the basis for Type I, hydrogen-free supernovae, a close companion could be an innocent bystander to carbon detonation/deflagration in the primary. It may alternatively be a vital participant which transfers material to a white dwarf primary and drives it to explosive conditions.

  3. Supernovae and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John F. Beacom

    2002-01-01

    A long-standing problem in supernova physics is how to measure the total energy and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . While of the highest importance, this is very difficult because these flavors only have neutral-current detector interactions. We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. It should be emphasized immediately that the dominant signal is on free protons. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum. The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  4. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ENTITLED "ODDERON SEARCHES AT RHIC" (VOLUME 76)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORGANIZERS: GURYN, W.; KOVCHEGOV, Y.; VOGELSANG, W.; TRUEMAN, L.

    2005-10-25

    The Odderon, a charge-conjugation-odd partner of the Pomeron, has been a puzzle ever since its introduction in 1973. The Pomeron describes a colorless exchange with vacuum quantum numbers in the t-channel of hadronic scattering at high energies. The concept was originally formulated for the non-perturbative regime of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In perturbation theory, the simplest picture of the Poineron is that of a two-gluon exchange process, whereas an Odderon can be thought of as an exchange of three gluons. Both the Pomeron and the Odderon are expected in QCD. However, while there exists plenty of experimental data that could be successfully described by Pomeron exchanges (for example in electron-proton and hadron-hadron scattering at high energies), no experimental sign of the Odderon has been observed. One of the very few hints so far is the difference in the diffractive minima of elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering measured at the ISR. The Odderon has recently received renewed attention by QCD researchers, mainly for the following two reasons. First of all, RHIC has entered the scene, offering exciting unique new opportunities for Odderon searches. RHIC provides collisions of nuclei at center-of-mass energies far exceeding those at all previous experiments. RHIC also provides collisions of protons of the highest center-of-mass energy, and in the interval, which has not been explored previously in p {bar p} collisions. In addition, it also has the unique feature of polarization for the proton beams, promising to become a crucial tool in Odderon searches. Indeed, theorists have proposed possible signatures of the Odderon in some spin asymmetries measurable at RHIC. Qualitatively unique signals should be seen in these observables if the Odderon coupling is large. Secondly, the Odderon has recently been shown to naturally emerge from the Color Glass Condensate (CGC), a theory for the high-energy asymptotics of QCD. It has been argued that

  5. An Empirical Limit on the Kilonova Rate from the DLT40 One Day Cadence Supernova Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Valenti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Corsi, Alessandra; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua; Kouprianov, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Binary neutron star mergers are important in understanding stellar evolution, the chemical enrichment of the universe via the r-process, the physics of short gamma-ray bursts, gravitational waves, and pulsars. The rates at which these coalescences happen is uncertain, but it can be constrained in different ways. One of those is to search for the optical transients produced at the moment of the merging, called a kilonova, in ongoing supernova (SN) searches. However, until now, only theoretical models for a kilonova light curve were available to estimate their rates. The recent kilonova discovery of AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck gives us the opportunity to constrain the rate of kilonovae using the light curve of a real event. We constrain the rate of binary neutron star mergers using the DLT40 Supernova search and the native AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck light curve obtained with the same telescope and software system. Excluding AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck due to visibility issues, which was only discovered thanks to the aLIGO/aVirgo trigger, no other similar transients were detected during the 13 months of daily cadence observations of ∼2200 nearby (<40 Mpc) galaxies. We find that the rate of BNS mergers is lower than 0.47–0.55 kilonovae per 100 years per 1010 {L}{Bȯ } (depending on the adopted extinction distribution). In volume, this translates to < 0.99× {10}-4{}-0.15+0.19, {{Mpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 (SNe Ia–like extinction distribution), consistent with previous BNS coalescence rates. Based on our rate limit, and the sensitivity of aLIGO/aVirgo during O2, it is very unlikely that kilonova events are lurking in old pointed galaxy SN search data sets.

  6. Supernova will continue to glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    On the night of 23/24 February 1987 a new supernova called SN 1987A, was discovered. Within a few hours of the announcement of the discovery, the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) began a series of observations. In this article, the importance of supernovae-exploding stars, and what the SAAO has discovered so far from SN 1987A are discussed

  7. Disturbance Ecology from nearby Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, D. H.; Kretschmer, K.; Diehl, R.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of Galactic Supernovae are carried out to study the rate of nearby events, which may have a direct effect on Earth's ecology though ionizing radiation and cosmic ray bombardment. A nearby supernova may have left a radioactive imprint (60Fe) in recent galactic history.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, I'll give a general introduction to Supernova Theory, beginning with the presupernova evolution and ending with the later stages of the explosion. This will be distilled from a colloquium type of talk. It is necessary to have the whole supernova picture in one's mind's eye when diving into some of its nooks and crannies, as it is quite a mess of contradictory ingredients. We will have some discussion of supernova 1987a, but will keep our discussion more general. Second, we'll look at the infall and bounce of the star, seeing why it goes unstable, what dynamics it follows as it collapses, and how and why it bounces back. From there, we will go on to look at the equation of state (EOS) in more detail. We'll consider the cases T = 0 and T > 0. We'll focus on /rho/ 0 , and then /rho/ > /rho/ 0 and the EOS of neutron stars, and whether or not they contain cores of strange matter. There are many things we could discuss here and not enough time. If I had more lectures, the remaining time would focus on two more questions of special interest to nuclear physicists: the electron capture reactions and neutrino transport. If time permitted, we'd have some discussion of the nucleosynthetic reactions in the explosion's debris as well. However, we cannot cover such material adequately, and I have chosen these topics because they are analytically tractable, pedagogically useful, and rather important. 23 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  9. GALAXY OUTFLOWS WITHOUT SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Sharanya [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe-85287 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: sharanya.sur@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sharanya.sur@asu.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50–100 km s{sup −1} line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s{sup −1}, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  10. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  11. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GSÜ, Department of Physics, Şişli, İstanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  12. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect dumpiness of the circumstellar material.

  13. Mean platelet volume in bipolar disorder: the search for an ideal biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert DG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Derya Guliz Mert,1 Hatice Terzi2 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey Background: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD remains a mystery. In this context, interest in the role of the immune and inflammatory systems in BD has been increasing. We aimed to compare the routine hemogram values of BD patients with those of the participants in the healthy control group, to assess the inflammation levels of the two groups. Mean platelet volume (MPV can be obtained as routine hemogram parameters and may aid in the detection of systemic inflammation. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted with BD (manic episode inpatients (n=132 and healthy controls (n=135. Abnormally distributed variables (ie, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio [NLR], platelet–lymphocyte ratio [PLR], neutrophils, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit [HCT], mean corpuscular volume [MCV], mean corpuscular hemoglobin [MCH], mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration [MCHC], red cell distribution width [RDW], MPV, and plateletcrit [PCT] were compared using the Mann–Whitney U-test. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean ages and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts of the patients with BD against those of the participants in the control group. Results: The comparisons revealed that while the mean WBC and the median NLR, PLR, neutrophil, lymphocyte, MPV, and PCT values were significantly higher in the patients with BD (P<0.05, the median hemoglobin, RBC, HCT, and MCHC values were significantly higher in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Comparisons of hemogram values of patients with BD against those of the healthy control group revealed that inflammatory cells (absolute neutrophil count, platelet count, PCT, and MPV and ratios (NLR, PLR seem to be altered during manic episodes. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammatory activation occurs in BD during manic

  14. Changes in Search Path Complexity and Length During Learning of a Virtual Water Maze: Age Differences and Differential Associations with Hippocampal Subfield Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Bender, Andrew R; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Impairment of hippocampus-dependent cognitive processes has been proposed to underlie age-related deficits in navigation. Animal studies suggest a differential role of hippocampal subfields in various aspects of navigation, but that hypothesis has not been tested in humans. In this study, we examined the association between volume of hippocampal subfields and age differences in virtual spatial navigation. In a sample of 65 healthy adults (age 19-75 years), advanced age was associated with a slower rate of improvement operationalized as shortening of the search path over 25 learning trials on a virtual Morris water maze task. The deficits were partially explained by greater complexity of older adults' search paths. Larger subiculum and entorhinal cortex volumes were associated with a faster decrease in search path complexity, which in turn explained faster shortening of search distance. Larger Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-2 volume was associated with faster distance shortening, but not in path complexity reduction. Age differences in regional volumes collectively accounted for 23% of the age-related variance in navigation learning. Independent of subfield volumes, advanced age was associated with poorer performance across all trials, even after reaching the asymptote. Thus, subiculum and CA1-2 volumes were associated with speed of acquisition, but not magnitude of gains in virtual maze navigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Diffuse remnants of supernova explosions of moving massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The modification of the ambient interstellar medium by the wind of massive stars (the progenitors of most of supernovae) results in that the structure and evolution of diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs) significantly deviate from those derived from standard models of SNRs based of the Sedov-Taylor solution. The stellar proper motion and the regular interstellar magnetic field affect the symmetry of the processed medium and cause the SNR to be non-spherically-symmetric. We show that taking into account these effects allows us to explain the diverse morphologies of the known SNRs (the particular attention is paid to the elongated axisymmetric SNRs and the SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells) and to infer the ``true" supernova explosion sites in some peculiar SNRs (therefore to search for new neutron stars associated with them).

  16. Effects of neutrino oscillations on the supernova signal in LVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietta, M.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P.L.; Giusti, P.; Kemp, E.; Malguin, A.S.; Nurzia, G.; Pesci, A.; Picchi, P.; Pless, I.A.; Ryasny, V.G.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M.; Vigorito, C.; Vissani, F.; Votano, L.; Yakushev, V.F.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zichichi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We study the impact of neutrino oscillations on the supernova neutrino signal in the Large Volume Detector (LVD). The number of expected events for a galactic supernova (D = 10 kpc) is calculated, assuming neutrino masses and mixing that explain solar and atmospheric neutrino results. The possibility to detect neutrinos in different channels makes LVD sensitive to different scenarios for ν properties, such as normal or inverted ν mass hierarchy, and/or adiabatic or non adiabatic MSW resonances associated to U e3 . Of particular importance are the charged current (c.c.) reactions on 12 C: oscillations increase by almost one order of magnitude the number of events expected from this channel

  17. Supernova neutrino detection with LVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy, is a ν observatory mainly designed to study low energy neutrinos from the gravitational collapse of galactic objects.We describe the characteristics of the supernova neutrino signal expected in the LVD detector and, in particular, we investigate the effect of neutrino oscillations. The MSW effect has been studied in detail for neutrinos travelling through the collapsing star and the Earth. We show that the expected number of events and their energy spectrum are sensitive to the oscillation parameters, in particular to the mass hierarchy and the value of θ 13 , presently unknown.The experiment has been monitoring the Galaxy since June 1992, under increasing larger configurations: in January 2001 it has reached its final active mass M = 1 kt. LVD is one of the largest liquid scintillator apparatus for the detection of stellar collapses and, besides SNO, SuperKamiokande and Amanda, it is a charter member of the SNEWS network, that has become fully operational since July 1st, 2005. No gravitational core-collapse has been detected by LVD during 14 years of data acquisition; this allows to put an upper limit of 0.18 events y -1 in our galaxy at the 90% C.L

  18. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, W. R.; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, M.; Messer, O. E. B.; Mezzacappa, A.; Lee, C.-T.; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Marronetti, P.

    2010-03-01

    Our understanding of core-collapse supernovae continues to improve as better microphysics is included in increasingly realistic neutrino-radiationhydrodynamic simulations. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors between 12 and 25 solar mass, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progresses on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  19. How to Find More Supernovae with Less Work: Object ClassificationTechniques for Difference Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, RollinC.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Wong, Daniel

    2007-05-02

    We present the results of applying new object classificationtechniques to difference images in the context of the Nearby SupernovaFactory supernova search. Most current supernova searches subtractreference images from new images, identify objects in these differenceimages, and apply simple threshold cuts on parameters such as statisticalsignificance, shape, and motionto reject objects such as cosmic rays,asteroids, and subtraction artifacts. Although most static objectssubtract cleanly, even a very low false positive detection rate can leadto hundreds of non-supernova candidates which must be vetted by humaninspection before triggering additional followup. In comparison to simplethreshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as Boosted DecisionTrees, Random Forests, and Support Vector Machines provide dramaticallybetter object discrimination. At the Nearby Supernova Factory, we reducedthe number of non-supernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasingour supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will becrucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automatedtransient alert pipelines of upcoming projects such as PanSTARRS andLSST.

  20. Dust in Supernovae and Supernova Remnants II: Processing and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micelotta, E. R.; Matsuura, M.; Sarangi, A.

    2018-03-01

    Observations have recently shown that supernovae are efficient dust factories, as predicted for a long time by theoretical models. The rapid evolution of their stellar progenitors combined with their efficiency in precipitating refractory elements from the gas phase into dust grains make supernovae the major potential suppliers of dust in the early Universe, where more conventional sources like Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars did not have time to evolve. However, dust yields inferred from observations of young supernovae or derived from models do not reflect the net amount of supernova-condensed dust able to be expelled from the remnants and reach the interstellar medium. The cavity where the dust is formed and initially resides is crossed by the high velocity reverse shock which is generated by the pressure of the circumstellar material shocked by the expanding supernova blast wave. Depending on grain composition and initial size, processing by the reverse shock may lead to substantial dust erosion and even complete destruction. The goal of this review is to present the state of the art about processing and survival of dust inside supernova remnants, in terms of theoretical modelling and comparison to observations.

  1. Happy birthday, supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorn, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The advances in understanding that have been made concerning SN 1987A in the year since it appeared are reviewed. The rapidity of the initial rise in brightness and the relatively faint absolute magnitude during the first few weeks have been found to be due to the progenitor star's being a blue giant, relatively small compared to a red giant. The nitrogen lines in the spectrum are evidence that the star was once a red giant whose stellar wind was so strong that the resulting loss of material converted the star into a blue giant. The variations in the light curve of the supernova are explained in terms of the radioactive decay of Ni-56 and Co-56 and the interaction of the resulting gamma rays with the debris cloud. Some of the remaining unanswered questions are summarized

  2. What stars become supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    A variety of empirical lines of evidence is assembled on the masses and stellar population types of stars that trigger supernova (SN) explosions. The main theoretical motivations are to determine whether type I supernovae (SN I) can have massive precursors, and whether there is an interval of stellar mass, between the masses of precursors of pulsars and white dwarfs, that is disrupted by carbon detonation. Statistical and other uncertainties in the empirical arguments are given particular attention, and are found to be more important than generally realized. Relatively secure conclusions include the following. Statistics of stellar birthrates, SN, pulsars, and SN remnants in the Galaxy show that SN II (or all SN) could arise from stars with masses greater than M/sub s/ where M/sub s/ approximately 49 to 12 M solar mass; the precursor mass range cannot be more closely defined from present data; nor can it be said whether all SN leave pulsars and/or extended radio remnants. Several methods of estimating the masses of stars that become white dwarfs are consistent with a lower limit, M/sub s/ greater than or equal to 5 M solar mass, so carbon detonation may indeed be avoided, although this conclusion is not secure. Studies of the properties of galaxies in which SN occur, and their distributions within galaxies, support the usual views that SN I have low-mass precursors (less than or equal to 5 M solar mass and typically less than or equal to 1 M solar mass) and SN II have massive precursors (greater than or equal to 5 M solar mass); the restriction of known SN II to Sc and Sb galaxies, to date, is shown to be consistent, statistically, with massive stars in other galaxies also dying as SN II. Possible implications of the peculiarities of some SN-producing galaxies are discussed. Suggestions are made for observational and theoretical studies that would help answer important remaining questions on the nature of SN precursors

  3. The great supernova of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Seven hundred day after the explosion of the brightest supernova in four centuries, astronomers continue to be both excited and perplexed by its behavior. By now, the supernova has received considerably attention in the literature. This paper emphasizes several aspects of the supernova that continue to be of special interest. These include: the evolution of the presupernova star, why it was blue, what its composition and core structure were; the iron core mass, explosion mechanism, and certain aspects of the neutrino burst; the detailed isotopic composition of the ejecta; the light curve and the requirement for mixing; the expected continued evolution of the supernova at all wavelengths given both the presence of several radioactivities as well as a central collapsed object as a power source; and late breaking news regarding the pulsar

  4. Neutrinos and nucleosynthesis in supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, U [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Fisica de Altas EnergIas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM). Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); D' Olivo, J C [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Fisica de Altas EnergIas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM). Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabral-Rosetti, L G [Departamento de Posgrado, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion y Docencia en Educacion Tecnica (CIIDET), Av. Universidad 282 Pte., Col. Centro, A. Postal 752, C.P. 76000, Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2006-05-15

    The type II supernova is considered as a candidate site for the production of heavy elements. The nucleosynthesis occurs in an intense neutrino flux, we calculate the electron fraction in this environment.

  5. Neutrinos and nucleosynthesis in supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, U; D'Olivo, J C; Cabral-Rosetti, L G

    2006-01-01

    The type II supernova is considered as a candidate site for the production of heavy elements. The nucleosynthesis occurs in an intense neutrino flux, we calculate the electron fraction in this environment

  6. Dimming supernovae without cosmic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Terning, John; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple model where photons propagating in extragalactic magnetic fields can oscillate into very light axions. The oscillations may convert some of the photons, departing a distant supernova, into axions, making the supernova appear dimmer and hence more distant than it really is. Averaging over different configurations of the magnetic field we find that the dimming saturates at about one-third of the light from the supernovae at very large redshifts. This results in a luminosity distance versus redshift curve almost indistinguishable from that produced by the accelerating Universe, if the axion mass and coupling scale are m∼10 -16 eV , M∼4x10 11 GeV . This phenomenon may be an alternative to the accelerating Universe for explaining supernova observations

  7. Spectroscopic classification of AT 2017cfd as a young Type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2017-03-01

    We report the spectroscopic observation of AT 2017cfd, a transient discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) on 2017-03-16. A spectrum (range 3700-9300 Angstroms), taken with the new "Low Resolution Spectrograph-2" (LRS2) on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory by Steve Odewahn on 2017-03-18.16 UT, is similar to that of a Type Ia supernova before maximum light.

  8. Neutron Star/supernova Remnant Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the (diffuse) supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centred supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B 1610-50, PSR B 1757-24, SGR 0525-66) through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR. Taking into account of these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of NS/SNR associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with the example of the association between PSR B 1706-44 and SNR G 343.1-2.3. We show that this association could be real if both objects are the remnants of a SN exploded within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the SN progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud and expanding into an intercloud medium of a much less density). We also show that the SN explosion sites in some middle-aged (shell-like) SNRs could be marked by (compact) nebulae of thermal X-ray emission. The possible detection of such nebulae within middle-aged SNRs could be used for the re-estimation of implied transverse velocities of known NSs or for the search of new stellar remnants possibly associated with these SNRs.

  9. Detecting First Supernovae with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regos, Eniko; FLARE

    2018-01-01

    We have applied for a JWST ERS First Transients Survey, FLARE to answer empirically how the Universe made its first stars. To quest the epoch of reionization we target what happened to these first stars by observing the most luminous events, supernovae. These transients provide direct constraints on star formation rates and the initial mass function.These very rare events can be reached by JWST at 27 mag AB in 2 micron and 4.4 micron over a field of 0.1 square degree visited multiple times each year.The survey may detect massive Pop III SNe at redshifts up to 10, pinpointing the redshift of first stars, a key scientific goal of JWST.We explore all models of star formation history (derived from UV luminosity densities and IR data), DTD, top heavy IMF of early, low metallicity stars, and normalizations to data of SN Ia, II rates (SNLS, CLASH, CANDELS, SDSS, SVISS), as well as SLSN (ROTSE, SNLS) to estimate the expected SN rates as function of redshift.Population synthesis of double degenerate and single degenerate scenarios of SN Ia shows that the shape of the DTD is rather insensitive to the assumptions (common envelope prescription and metallicities, or retention efficiency of accreted H to white dwarf core and mass transfer rate).Indeed GOODS High z SN Ia rates imply substantial delay in their progenitor model, and Hubble Higher z SN search constrains delay time distribution models as well.SLSN (I, II /H/ and extreme rare pulsational pair instability) are magnetars (ULGRB) in high local star formation rate, faint, low metallicity galaxies.

  10. Supernova Cosmology in the Big Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Richard

    Here we describe large "Big Data" Supernova (SN) Ia surveys, past and present, used to make precision measurements of cosmological parameters that describe the expansion history of the universe. In particular, we focus on surveys designed to measure the dark energy equation of state parameter w and its dependence on cosmic time. These large surveys have at least four photometric bands, and they use a rolling search strategy in which the same instrument is used for both discovery and photometric follow-up observations. These surveys include the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II), Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1), Dark Energy Survey (DES), and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We discuss the development of how systematic uncertainties are evaluated, and how methods to reduce them play a major role is designing new surveys. The key systematic effects that we discuss are (1) calibration, measuring the telescope efficiency in each filter band, (2) biases from a magnitude-limited survey and from the analysis, and (3) photometric SN classification for current surveys that don't have enough resources to spectroscopically confirm each SN candidate.

  11. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  12. Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-10-01

    We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.

  13. Offline analysis of the SuperNova Legacy Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, Gurvan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing a photometry-based procedure for the selection of Type Ia Supernovae. More precisely, a first objective is to confirm possible biases in the spectroscopic selection of the SuperNova Legacy Survey (SNLS), and to determine their consequence on the distance module. A second one is to to study the feasibility of a purely photometric analysis within the perspective of future large projects in cosmology. After a presentation of supernovae, of their physical properties, and more particularly those which are used in cosmology, i.e. Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), the author presents the cosmological framework, and the parameters of the standard cosmological model (Hubble constant, matter density, black energy density). The experimental context is then presented with measurements of the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS), and a method used to search for SNe Ia. In the next part, the author describes the different steps of the differed procedure of data processing, from raw images directly extracted from the telescope to the characterisation of light curves of detected objects. Different tools are presented: the SALT2 model of light curves, the simulation of SNe Ia light curves, and an image simulation. The purely photometric selection of SNe Ia is then presented along with steps used to eliminate background noise. Obtained results are then discussed and compared with real time analysis [fr

  14. Positron Survival in Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    B: Computer Program and Flow Diagram 53 References 59 I. Introduction Since the discovery of Supernova 1987A (a Type II supernova) in February of 1987...the fewer number of decays depositing energy within the supernova. The rate of this cooling is unknown because it is uncertain whether a pulsar was

  15. Neutrino astronomy with supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Lindner, Manfred; Xu, Xun-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Modern neutrino facilities will be able to detect a large number of neutrinos from the next Galactic supernova. We investigate the viability of the triangulation method to locate a core-collapse supernova by employing the neutrino arrival time differences at various detectors. We perform detailed numerical fits in order to determine the uncertainties of these time differences for the cases when the core collapses into a neutron star or a black hole. We provide a global picture by combining all the relevant current and future neutrino detectors. Our findings indicate that in the scenario of a neutron star formation, supernova can be located with precision of 1.5 and 3.5 degrees in declination and right ascension, respectively. For the black hole scenario, sub-degree precision can be reached.

  16. Characterizing Dark Energy Through Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tamara M.; Parkinson, David

    Type Ia supernovae are a powerful cosmological probe that gave the first strong evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Here we provide an overview of how supernovae can go further to reveal information about what is causing the acceleration, be it dark energy or some modification to our laws of gravity. We first review the methods of statistical inference that are commonly used, making a point of separating parameter estimation from model selection. We then summarize the many different approaches used to explain or test the acceleration, including parametric models (like the standard model, ΛCDM), nonparametric models, dark fluid models such as quintessence, and extensions to standard gravity. Finally, we also show how supernova data can be used beyond the Hubble diagram, to give information on gravitational lensing and peculiar velocities that can be used to distinguish between models that predict the same expansion history.

  17. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  18. Neutrinos and supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The neutrino emission resulting from stellar collapse and supernova formation is reviewed. The electron capture and consequent neutronization of the collapsing stellar matter at the end of evolution determines both the initial adiabat of core collapse as well as the trapped lepton fraction. The initial lepton fraction, Y/sub l/ = .48 supplies the pressure for neutral support of the star at the Chandrasekhar limit. High trapping values, Y/sub l/ = .4, lead to soft core collapses; low values to harder collapses. The value of Y/sub l/ is presently in dispute. The neutrino emission from initial electron capture is relatively small. A strong core-bounce shock releases both electron neutrino as well as thermal muon and tau neutrinos. Subsequent neutrino emission and cooling can sometimes lead to an unstable buoyancy gradient in the core in which case unstable core overturn is expected. Calculations have already shown the importance of the largest possible eddy or equivalently the lowest mode of overturn. Present models of low lepton trapping ratio lead to high entropy creation by the reflected shock and the stabilization of the core matter against overturn. In such cases the exterior matter must cool below an entropy of approximately s/k approx. = 2 to become unstable. This may require too long a time approximately one second for neutrino cooling from a neutrinosphere at rho approx. = 2 x 10 12 g cm -3 . On the other hand, high values of Y/sub l/ such as .4 lead to softer bounces at lower density and values of the critical stabilizing entropy of 3 or higher. Under such circumstances, core overturn can still occur

  19. Supernovae and their light emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourens, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the properties of supernovae is given. The basic radiation theory and hydrodynamics is described. The work of Imshennik and Nadezhin, Astrophysics and Space Science, 10 (1971) 28-51, and their collaborators in connection with the propagation of a shock wave and associated physical effects in a supernova is discussed. Their results are compared with observations reported in the literature. Criticism is given on the boundary conditions for the diffusion flux F at the outer boundary used in their model, and a new condition proposed [af

  20. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  1. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    and its inhabitants are made comprise only a small fration of the gravitating mass in the Universe. There is now a new component, the "dark energy" which joins the "dark matter" in shaping the large-scale geometric and dynamical structure. Clearly, more observations are needed to further support the findings described here. They will soon be forthcoming, especially from new and large telescopes like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) , that has recently delivered its first, impressive results. But already now, on the verge of the new millenium, we are having a first glimpse of extremely exciting and fundamental aspects in the continuing human quest for the deep truths of nature. Notes: [1] The ESO members of the "High-z Supernova Search" team (see URL: http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/cfa/oir/Research/supernova/HighZ.html) are Bruno Leibundgut and Patrick Woudt (ESO HQ, Garching, Germany) and Jason Spyromilio (Paranal Observatory, Chile). Chris Lidman (La Silla Observatory, Chile) and Isobel Hook (formerly ESO HQ, now Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, UK) are members of the "Supernova Cosmology Project" (see URL: http://www-supernova.lbl.gov/). The astronomers mostly used the ESO 3.6-m and 3.6-m NTT telescopes at La Silla for these research programmes. [2] In astronomy, the redshift (z) denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant galaxy or quasar gives a direct estimate of the universal expansion (i.e. the "recession velocity"). Since this expansion rate increases with the distance, the velocity is itself a function (the Hubble relation) of the distance to the object. For instance, a redshift of z = 0.1 corresponds to a velocity of 30,000 km/sec, and assuming a Hubble constant of 20 km/sec per million light-years, to a distance of about 1,500 million light-years. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http

  2. MAGNETAR-POWERED SUPERNOVAE IN TWO DIMENSIONS. I. SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ke-Jung [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Woosley, S. E.; Sukhbold, Tuguldur, E-mail: ken.chen@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Previous studies have shown that the radiation emitted by a rapidly rotating magnetar embedded in a young supernova can greatly amplify its luminosity. These one-dimensional studies have also revealed the existence of an instability arising from the piling up of radiatively accelerated matter in a thin dense shell deep inside the supernova. Here, we examine the problem in two dimensions and find that, while instabilities cause mixing and fracture this shell into filamentary structures that reduce the density contrast, the concentration of matter in a hollow shell persists. The extent of the mixing depends upon the relative energy input by the magnetar and the kinetic energy of the inner ejecta. The light curve and spectrum of the resulting supernova will be appreciably altered, as will the appearance of the supernova remnant, which will be shellular and filamentary. A similar pile up and mixing might characterize other events where energy is input over an extended period by a centrally concentrated source, e.g., a pulsar, radioactive decay, a neutrino-powered wind, or colliding shells. The relevance of our models to the recent luminous transient ASASSN-15lh is briefly discussed.

  3. Power-law correlations in finance-related Google searches, and their cross-correlations with volatility and traded volume: Evidence from the Dow Jones Industrial components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 428, č. 1 (2015), s. 194-205 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Online searches * Google Trends * Long-term memory * Cross-correlations * Volatility * Traded volume Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.785, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kristoufek-0452317.pdf

  4. High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A 1689

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushevska, T.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Fabbro, S.; Johansson, J.; Kjellsson, T.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Dahle, Håkon; Ferretti, R.; Kneib, J.-P.; Limousin, M.; Nordin, J.; Stanishev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present a ground-based, near-infrared search for lensed supernovae behind the massive cluster Abell 1689 at z = 0.18, which is one of the most powerful gravitational telescopes that nature provides. Methods. Our survey was based on multi-epoch J-band observations with the HAWK-I instrument on VLT, with supporting optical data from the Nordic Optical Telescope. Results. Our search resulted in the discovery of five photometrically classified, core-collapse supernovae with high re...

  5. The great supernova of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite their apparently very different objectives, astrophysics - the study of the largest structures in the Universe - and particle physics - the study of the smallest - have always had common ground. On 23 February 1987 a supernova explosion provided additional impetus to reinforce these links. In this article, David Schramm of the University of Chicago and the NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, explains why

  6. Nonstandard neutrino interactions in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, Charles J.; Väänänen, Daavid J.; Kneller, James P.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Shapiro, Brandon T.

    2016-11-01

    Nonstandard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter can significantly alter neutrino flavor evolution in supernovae with the potential to impact explosion dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and the neutrinos signal. In this paper, we explore, both numerically and analytically, the landscape of neutrino flavor transformation effects in supernovae due to NSI and find a new, heretofore unseen transformation processes can occur. These new transformations can take place with NSI strengths well below current experimental limits. Within a broad swath of NSI parameter space, we observe symmetric and standard matter-neutrino resonances for supernovae neutrinos, a transformation effect previously only seen in compact object merger scenarios; in another region of the parameter space we find the NSI can induce neutrino collective effects in scenarios where none would appear with only the standard case of neutrino oscillation physics; and in a third region the NSI can lead to the disappearance of the high density Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonance. Using a variety of analytical tools, we are able to describe quantitatively the numerical results allowing us to partition the NSI parameter according to the transformation processes observed. Our results indicate nonstandard interactions of supernova neutrinos provide a sensitive probe of beyond the Standard Model physics complementary to present and future terrestrial experiments.

  7. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  8. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  9. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootten, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical properties of molecular clouds near supernova remnants were investigated. Various properties of the structure and kinematics of these clouds are used to establish their physical association with well-known remmnants. An infrared survey of the most massive clouds revealed embedded objects, probably stars whose formation was induced by the supernova blast wave. In order to understand the relationship between these and other molecular clouds, a control group of clouds was also observed. Excitation models for dense regions of all the clouds are constructed to evaluate molecular abundances in these regions. Those clouds that have embedded stars have lower molecular abundances than the clouds that do not. A cloud near the W28 supernova remnant also has low abundances. Molecular abundances are used to measure an important parameter, the electron density, which is not directly observable. In some clouds extensive deuterium fractionation is observed which confirms electron density measurements in those clouds. Where large deuterium fractionation is observed, the ionization rate in the cloud interior can also be measured. The electron density and ionization rate in the cloud near W28 are higher than in most clouds. The molecular abundances and electron densities are functions of the chemical and dynamical state of evolution of the cloud. Those clouds with lowest abundances are probably the youngest clouds. As low-abundance clouds, some clouds near supernova remnants may have been recently swept from the local interstellar material. Supernova remnants provide sites for star formation in ambient clouds by compressing them, and they sweep new clouds from more diffuse local matter

  10. Hydrogen-Poor Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo A.

    Hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) signal the explosive death of stars more massive than the progenitors of hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernovae, i.e., approximately in the range 15-50 M⊙ in main sequence. Since hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae include those that accompany gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which were all rigorously identified with type Ic supernovae, their explosion energies cover almost two decades. The light curves and spectra are consequently very heterogeneous and often bear the signature of an asymmetric, i.e., aspherical, explosion. Asphericity is best traced by early-time (within days of the explosion) optical spectropolarimetry and by late-epoch (more than ˜ 100 days after explosion) low-resolution spectroscopy. While the relationship between hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae to hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae is not understood, a known case of association between an ultra-long gamma-ray burst and a very luminous hydrogen-poor supernova may help unraveling the connection. This is tantalizingly pointing to a magnetar powering source for both phenomena, although this scenario is still highly speculative. Host galaxies of hydrogen-poor supernovae are always star forming; in those of completely stripped supernovae and gamma-ray burst supernovae, the spatial distribution of the explosions follows the blue/ultraviolet light, with a correlation that is more than linear.

  11. Core-collapse supernovae as possible counterparts of IceCube neutrino multiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotjohann, Nora Linn; Kowalski, Marek; Franckowiak, Anna [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Voge, Markus [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    While an astrophysical neutrino flux has been detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory its sources remain so far unidentified. IceCube's Optical Follow-up Program is designed to search for the counterparts of neutrino multiplets using the full energy range of the IceCube detector down to 100 GeV. Two or more muon neutrinos arriving from the same direction within few seconds can trigger follow-up observations with optical and X-ray telescopes. Since 2010 the Palomar Transient Factory has followed up about 40 such neutrino alerts and detected several supernovae. Many of the detections are however likely random coincidences. In this talk I describe our search for supernovae and the prospects of identifying a supernova as a source of high-energy neutrinos.

  12. Supernova Neutrinos - MeV Messengers of the Extreme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova is a nearly perfect neutrino bomb. While capable of outshining its entire host galaxy, this stunning light show represents just a small portion of the explosion.  Indeed, each such cataclysmic event typically radiates two orders of magnitude more energy as low-energy neutrinos than it does as electromagnetic radiation or as kinetic shockwaves. Consequently, MeV-scale neutrinos are made in huge numbers as the star is dying, and because these ghostly subatomic particles interact so rarely with normal matter they easily escape the fireball, providing a window into one of the most violent and interesting volumes in space: the heart of a stellar collapse. This talk will cover some of the history of neutrinos and supernovas, as well as how we are preparing new technology and partnerships to observe the next spectacular explosion in all its multimessenger glory.

  13. Offline analysis in SNLS: measurement of type-Ia supernovae explosion rate and cosmological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusset, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The Supernova Legacy Survey is a second generation experiment for the measurement of cosmological parameters using type-la supernovae. Il follows the discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, attributed to an unknown 'dark energy'. This thesis presents a type-la supernovae search using an offline analysis of SNLS data. It makes it possible to detect the supernovae that were missed online and to study possible selection biases. One of its principal characteristics is that it uses entirely automatic selection criteria. This type of automated offline analysis had never been carried out before for data reaching this redshift. This analysis enabled us to discover 73 additional SNIa candidates compared to those identified in the real time analysis on the same data, representing an increase of more than 50% of the number of supernovae. The final Hubble diagram contains 262 SNIa which gives us, for a flat ACDM model, the following values for the cosmological parameters: Ω_M = 0,31 ± 0,028 (stat) ± 0,036 (syst) et Ω_A = 0,69. This offline analysis of SNLS data opens new horizons, both by checking for possible biases in current measurements of cosmological parameters by supernovae experiments and by preparing the third generation experiments, on the ground or in space, which will detect thousands of SNIa. (author) [fr

  14. First-Year Spectroscopy for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chen; Romani, Roger W.; Sako, Masao; Marriner, John; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert

    2008-03-25

    This paper presents spectroscopy of supernovae discovered in the first season of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. This program searches for and measures multi-band light curves of supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.4, complementing existing surveys at lower and higher redshifts. Our goal is to better characterize the supernova population, with a particular focus on SNe Ia, improving their utility as cosmological distance indicators and as probes of dark energy. Our supernova spectroscopy program features rapid-response observations using telescopes of a range of apertures, and provides confirmation of the supernova and host-galaxy types as well as precise redshifts. We describe here the target identification and prioritization, data reduction, redshift measurement, and classification of 129 SNe Ia, 16 spectroscopically probable SNe Ia, 7 SNe Ib/c, and 11 SNe II from the first season. We also describe our efforts to measure and remove the substantial host galaxy contamination existing in the majority of our SN spectra.

  15. Physics of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosive growth of high-quality data for thermonuclear explosions of a white dwarf star, the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Advances in computational methods provide new insights into the physics of the phenomenon and a direct, quantitative link between observables and explosion physics. Both trends combined provided spectacular results, allowed to address, to identify specific problems and to narrow down the range of scenarios. Current topics include the relation between SNe Ia and their progenitors, the influence of the metallicities and accretion on the explosion, and details of the burning front. How can we understand the apparent homogeneity and probe for the diversity of SNe Ia? Here, we want give an overview of the current status of our understanding of supernovae physics in light of recent results

  16. Mass extinctions and supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Korschinek, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, o...

  17. Conformal Cosmology and Supernova Data

    OpenAIRE

    Behnke, Danilo; Blaschke, David; Pervushin, Victor; Proskurin, Denis

    2000-01-01

    We define the cosmological parameters $H_{c,0}$, $\\Omega_{m,c}$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda, c}$ within the Conformal Cosmology as obtained by the homogeneous approximation to the conformal-invariant generalization of Einstein's General Relativity theory. We present the definitions of the age of the universe and of the luminosity distance in the context of this approach. A possible explanation of the recent data from distant supernovae Ia without a cosmological constant is presented.

  18. Cosmological Results from High-z Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonry, John L.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Barris, Brian; Candia, Pablo; Challis, Peter; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Coil, Alison L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Hogan, Craig; Holland, Stephen T.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Leibundgut, Bruno; Li, Weidong; Matheson, Thomas; Phillips, Mark M.; Riess, Adam G.; Schommer, Robert; Smith, R. Chris; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2003-09-01

    The High-z Supernova Search Team has discovered and observed eight new supernovae in the redshift interval z=0.3-1.2. These independent observations, analyzed by similar but distinct methods, confirm the results of Riess and Perlmutter and coworkers that supernova luminosity distances imply an accelerating universe. More importantly, they extend the redshift range of consistently observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to z~1, where the signature of cosmological effects has the opposite sign of some plausible systematic effects. Consequently, these measurements not only provide another quantitative confirmation of the importance of dark energy, but also constitute a powerful qualitative test for the cosmological origin of cosmic acceleration. We find a rate for SN Ia of (1.4+/-0.5)×10-4h3Mpc-3yr-1 at a mean redshift of 0.5. We present distances and host extinctions for 230 SN Ia. These place the following constraints on cosmological quantities: if the equation of state parameter of the dark energy is w=-1, then H0t0=0.96+/-0.04, and ΩΛ-1.4ΩM=0.35+/-0.14. Including the constraint of a flat universe, we find ΩM=0.28+/-0.05, independent of any large-scale structure measurements. Adopting a prior based on the Two Degree Field (2dF) Redshift Survey constraint on ΩM and assuming a flat universe, we find that the equation of state parameter of the dark energy lies in the range -1.48-1, we obtain wInstitute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This research is primarily associated with proposal GO-8177, but also uses and reports results from proposals GO-7505, 7588, 8641, and 9118. Based in part on observations taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operated by the National Research Council of Canada, le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii. CTIO: Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter

  19. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D BUS 2401, B-2001 Leuven (Belgium); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dunne, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8410 (New Zealand); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gomez, H. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lakicevic, M. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, J. [Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Marti-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M{sub Sun} of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}. Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations.

  20. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE COLD DEBRIS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; McCray, R.; Glenn, J.; Indebetouw, R.; Barlow, M. J.; Matsuura, M.; Baes, M.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Decin, L.; Bolatto, A.; Dunne, L.; Fransson, C.; Gomez, H. L.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Hopwood, R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lakicevic, M.; Marcaide, J.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Meixner, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report spectroscopic and imaging observations of rotational transitions of cold CO and SiO in the ejecta of SN1987A, the first such emission detected in a supernova remnant. In addition to line luminosities for the CO J = 1-0, 2-1, 6-5, and 7-6 transitions, we present upper limits for all other transitions up to J = 13-12, collectively measured from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver. Simple models show the lines are emitted from at least 0.01 M ☉ of CO at a temperature >14 K, confined within at most 35% of a spherical volume expanding at ∼2000 km s –1 . Moreover, we locate the emission within 1'' of the central debris. These observations, along with a partial observation of SiO, confirm the presence of cold molecular gas within supernova remnants and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical processes in the ejecta. Furthermore, we demonstrate the powerful new window into supernova ejecta offered by submillimeter observations

  1. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Folatelli, Gaston [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, 277-8583 Kashiwa (Japan); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R{sub V} , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R{sub V} , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R{sub V} . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R{sub V} or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  2. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Folatelli, Gaston; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R V , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R V , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R V . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R V or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  3. Low-z Type Ia Supernova Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuy, Mario

    The discovery of acceleration and dark energy in 1998 arguably constitutes one of the most revolutionary discoveries in astrophysics in recent years. This paradigm shift was possible thanks to one of the most traditional cosmological tests: the redshift-distance relation between galaxies. This discovery was based on a differential measurement of the expansion rate of the universe: the current one provided by nearby (low-z) type Ia supernovae and the one in the past measured from distant (high-z) supernovae. This paper focuses on the first part of this journey: the calibration of the type Ia supernova luminosities and the local expansion rate of the universe, which was made possible thanks to the introduction of digital CCD (charge-coupled device) digital photometry. The new technology permitted us in the early 1990s to convert supernovae as precise tools to measure extragalactic distances through two key surveys: (1) the "Tololo Supernova Program" which made possible the critical discovery of the "peak luminosity-decline rate" relation for type Ia supernovae, the key underlying idea today behind precise cosmology from supernovae, and (2) the Calán/Tololo project which provided the low - z type Ia supernova sample for the discovery of acceleration.

  4. Progenitor's Signatures in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K.M.; Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The remnants of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can provide important clues about their progenitor histories. We discuss two well-observed supernova remnants (SNRs) that are believed to have resulted from SNe Ia, and use various tools to shed light on the possible progenitor histories. We find that

  5. Type II supernovae: How do they explode?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, E.

    1988-01-01

    I discuss what has been learned from the neutrino observations of Supernova 1987A. The neutrino detections confirmed our basic theoretical scenario that Type II supernovae involve the gravitational collapse of a massive star. The small number of events makes it difficult to infer details about the actual mechanism of collapse. I discuss the current theoretical situation on the mechanism of explosion

  6. Fluid Instabilities of Magnetar-Powered Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Magnetar-powered supernova explosions are competitive models for explaining very luminous optical transits. Until recently, these explosion models were mainly calculated in 1D. Radiation emitted from the magnetar snowplows into the previous supernovae ejecta and causes a nonphysical dense shell (spike) found in previous 1D studies. This suggests that strong fluid instabilities may have developed within the magnetar-powered supernovae. Such fluid instabilities emerge at the region where luminous transits later occur, so they can affect the consequent observational signatures. We examine the magnetar-powered supernovae with 2D hydrodynamics simulations and find that the 1D dense shell transforms into the development of Rayleigh-Taylor and thin shell instabilities in 2D. The resulting mixing is able to fragment the entire shell and break the spherical symmetry of supernovae ejecta.

  7. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.

  8. Supernova observations at McDonald Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The programs to obtain high quality spectra and photometry of supernovae at McDonald Observatory are reviewed. Spectra of recent Type I supernovae in NGC 3227, NGC 3625, and NGC 4419 are compared with those of SN 1981b in NGC 4536 to quantitatively illustrate both the homogeneity of Type I spectra at similar epochs and the differences in detail which will serve as a probe of the physical processes in the explosions. Spectra of the recent supernova in NGC 0991 give for the first time quantitative confirmation of a spectrally homogeneous, but distinct subclass of Type I supernovae which appears to be less luminous and to have lower excitation at maximum light than classical Type I supernovae

  9. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    measurement uncertainty persists. " The asymmetry we have measured in SN 2001el is large enough to explain a large part of this intrinsic uncertainty ", says Lifan Wang, the leader of the team. " If all Type Ia supernovae are like this, it would account for a lot of the dispersion in brightness measurements. They may be even more uniform than we thought ." Reducing the dispersion in brightness measurements could of course also be attained by increasing significantly the number of supernovae we observe, but given that these measurements demand the largest and most expensive telescopes in the world, like the VLT, this is not the most efficient method. Thus, if the brightness measured a week or two after maximum was used instead, the sphericity would then have been restored and there would be no systematic errors from the unknown viewing angle. By this slight change in observational procedure, Type Ia supernovae could become even more reliable cosmic yardsticks. Theoretical implications The present detection of polarised spectral features strongly suggests that, to understand the underlying physics, the theoretical modelling of Type Ia supernovae events will have to be done in all three dimensions with more accuracy than is presently done. In fact, the available, highly complex hydrodynamic calculations have so far not been able to reproduce the structures exposed by SN 2001el. More information The results presented in this press release have been been described in a research paper in "Astrophysical Journal" ("Spectropolarimetry of SN 2001el in NGC 1448: Asphericity of a Normal Type Ia Supernova" by Lifan Wang and co-authors, Volume 591, p. 1110).

  10. Petascale supernova simulation with CHIMERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, O E B [National Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6008 (United States); Bruenn, S W [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 W Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Blondin, J M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Hix, W R [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Mezzacappa, A [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Dirk, C J [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 W Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    CHIMERA is a multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code designed to study core-collapse supernovae. The code is made up of three essentially independent parts: a hydrodynamics module, a nuclear burning module, and a neutrino transport solver combined within an operator-split approach. We describe some major algorithmic facets of the code and briefly discuss some recent results. The multi-physics nature of the problem, and the specific implementation of that physics in CHIMERA, provide a rather straightforward path to effective use of multi-core platforms in the near future.

  11. Revised Distances to 21 Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, S.; Leahy, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We carry out a comprehensive study of H I 21 cm line observations and 13CO line observations of 21 supernova remnants (SNRs). The aim of the study is to search for H I absorption features to obtain kinematic distances in a consistent manner. The 21 SNRs are in the region of sky covered by the Very Large Array Galactic Plane Survey (H I 21 cm observations) and Galactic Ring Survey (13CO line observations). We obtain revised distances for 10 SNRs based on new evidence in the H I and 13CO observations. We revise distances for the other 11 SNRs based on an updated rotation curve and new error analysis. The mean change in distance for the 21 SNRs is ≃25%, i.e., a change of 1.5 kpc compared to a mean distance for the sample of 6.4 kpc. This has a significant impact on interpretation of the physical state of these SNRs. For example, using a Sedov model, age and explosion energy scale as the square of distance, and inferred ISM density scales as distance.

  12. Measuring q0 using supernovae at z ∼ 0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberg, H.J.M.

    1992-07-01

    The measurement of q o is extremely important for understanding the quantity of matter in our universe. The measurement of q o using supernovae of type Ia as standard candles is appealing because it requires less modeling than other methods using galaxies. The challenge with using supernovae to measure q o is in finding enough of them. In order to find supernovas, we have constructed a very popular f/1 camera for the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope. The camera uses reducing optics that put a 17 in. x 17 in. field on a 1024 x 1024 pixel Thomson CCD. Using this system, we image to 23rd magnitude in five minutes. We have developed a software package that uses image subtraction to find supernovae that are approximately magnitude 22.4 or brighter in these images. One field can be processed every 6.6 minutes on a relatively unloaded VAX 6000-6510. We estimate that this system should find one supernova in every 105--139 images (about two nights of observation on the AAT). Throughout the two years of operation, we observed the equivalent of about four nights with seeing better than two arc seconds. Although we found many candidates, we were unable to confirm any supemovae. The next generation of this search is currently using the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope in the Canary Islands. We have solved many problems encountered with the AAT search by targeting distant clusters of galaxies, by operating at a site that allows higher resolution imaging, and by scheduling follow-up observations. This system, although still in its infancy, has yielded one event that could be a high redshift supernova. We estimate that it will require 36 type Ia supernovae, discovered at or before maximum, to find q o to within 0.2, and 144 such supernovae to measure q o within 0.1. Clearly, the program will have to be expanded to find this quantity of supernovae

  13. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - III. 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holoien, T. W. -S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d......This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d...

  14. Oxygen Issue in Core Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhamdi, A.

    2011-06-01

    We study the spectroscopic properties of a selected sample of 26 events within Core Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) family. Special attention is paid to the nebular oxygen forbidden line [OI] 6300, 6364 Å doublet. We analyze the line flux ratio F6300/F6364 and infer information about the optical depth evolution, densities, volume-filling factors in the oxygen emitting zones. The line luminosity is measured for the sample events and its evolution is discussed on the basis of the bolometric light curve properties in type II and in type Ib-c SNe. The luminosities are then translated into oxygen abundances using two different methods. The results are combined with the determined 56Ni masses and compared with theoretical models by means of the [O/Fe] vs. Mms diagram. Two distinguishable and continuous populations, corresponding to Ib-c and type II SNe, are found. The higher mass nature of the ejecta in type II objects is also imprinted in the [CaII] 7291, 7324Å to [OI] 6300, 6364Å luminosity ratios. Our results may be used as input parameters for theoretical models studying the chemical enrichment of galaxies.

  15. Inhomogeneities and the Modeling of Radio Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björnsson, C.-I.; Keshavarzi, S. T., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE–106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-20

    Observations of radio supernovae (SNe) often exhibit characteristics not readily accounted for by a homogeneous, spherically symmetric synchrotron model; e.g., flat-topped spectra/light curves. It is shown that many of these deviations from the standard model can be attributed to an inhomogeneous source structure. When inhomogeneities are present, the deduced radius of the source and, hence, the shock velocity, is sensitive to the details of the modeling. As the inhomogeneities are likely to result from the same mechanism that amplify the magnetic field, a comparison between observations and the detailed numerical simulations now under way may prove mutually beneficial. It is argued that the radio emission in Type Ib/c SNe has a small volume filling factor and comes from a narrow region associated with the forward shock, while the radio emission region in SN 1993J (Type IIb) is determined by the extent of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability emanating from the contact discontinuity. Attention is also drawn to the similarities between radio SNe and the structural properties of SN remnants.

  16. How supernovae launch galactic winds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Drummond; Quataert, Eliot; Martizzi, Davide; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2017-09-01

    We use idealized three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of global galactic discs to study the launching of galactic winds by supernovae (SNe). The simulations resolve the cooling radii of the majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) and thus self-consistently capture how SNe drive galactic winds. We find that SNe launch highly supersonic winds with properties that agree reasonably well with expectations from analytic models. The energy loading (η _E= \\dot{E}_wind/ \\dot{E}_SN) of the winds in our simulations are well converged with spatial resolution while the wind mass loading (η _M= \\dot{M}_wind/\\dot{M}_\\star) decreases with resolution at the resolutions we achieve. We present a simple analytic model based on the concept that SNRs with cooling radii greater than the local scaleheight break out of the disc and power the wind. This model successfully explains the dependence (or lack thereof) of ηE (and by extension ηM) on the gas surface density, star formation efficiency, disc radius and the clustering of SNe. The winds our simulations are weaker than expected in reality, likely due to the fact that we seed SNe preferentially at density peaks. Clustering SNe in time and space substantially increases the wind power.

  17. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected gamma-ray burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A M; Chakraborti, S; Pignata, G; Chevalier, R A; Chandra, P; Ray, A; Wieringa, M H; Copete, A; Chaplin, V; Connaughton, V; Barthelmy, S D; Bietenholz, M F; Chugai, N; Stritzinger, M D; Hamuy, M; Fransson, C; Fox, O; Levesque, E M; Grindlay, J E; Challis, P; Foley, R J; Kirshner, R P; Milne, P A; Torres, M A P

    2010-01-28

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of gamma-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Until now, central-engine-driven supernovae have been discovered exclusively through their gamma-ray emission, yet it is expected that a larger population goes undetected because of limited satellite sensitivity or beaming of the collimated emission away from our line of sight. In this framework, the recovery of undetected GRBs may be possible through radio searches for type Ibc supernovae with relativistic outflows. Here we report the discovery of luminous radio emission from the seemingly ordinary type Ibc SN 2009bb, which requires a substantial relativistic outflow powered by a central engine. A comparison with our radio survey of type Ibc supernovae reveals that the fraction harbouring central engines is low, about one per cent, measured independently from, but consistent with, the inferred rate of nearby GRBs. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported.

  18. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected γ-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A. M.; Chakraborti, S.; Pignata, G.; Chevalier, R. A.; Chandra, P.; Ray, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Copete, A.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Chugai, N.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Hamuy, M.; Fransson, C.; Fox, O.; Levesque, E. M.; Grindlay, J. E.; Challis, P.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Milne, P. A.; Torres, M. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Long duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star). Observationally, this outflow is manifested in the pulse of γ-rays and a long-lived radio afterglow. Until now, central-engine-driven supernovae have been discovered exclusively through their γ-ray emission, yet it is expected that a larger population goes undetected because of limited satellite sensitivity or beaming of the collimated emission away from our line of sight. In this framework, the recovery of undetected GRBs may be possible through radio searches for type Ibc supernovae with relativistic outflows. Here we report the discovery of luminous radio emission from the seemingly ordinary type Ibc SN 2009bb, which requires a substantial relativistic outflow powered by a central engine. A comparison with our radio survey of type Ibc supernovae reveals that the fraction harbouring central engines is low, about one per cent, measured independently from, but consistent with, the inferred rate of nearby GRBs. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported.

  19. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Martínez-González, Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard, E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cmt@ll.iac.es [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core-collapse supernovae (SNe) as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large SN rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II SN era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of the dust-to-gas-mass ratio, and thus the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) versus cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to frequent thermal instabilities that diminish the pressure and inhibit the exit of the reinserted matter. Instead, matter accumulates there and is expected to eventually lead to gravitational instabilities and to further stellar formation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. The main outcome of the calculations is that the critical line is almost two orders of magnitude or more, depending on the assumed value of V {sub A∞}, lower than when only gas radiative cooling is applied. And thus, many massive clusters are predicted to enter the bimodal regime.

  20. The Population of Supernova Remnants in M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Kuntz, K. D.; Winkler, P. Frank

    2017-08-01

    The nearby, actively star-forming, nearly face-on spiral galaxy, M51 (NGC 5194/5), has been the site of four supernovae since 1941. As a result it should have a rich population of young supernova remnants (SNRs). Here we describe a search for optical SNRs in M51 among the 298 X-ray sources discovered inside the D25 contour in deep Chandra observations. The search uses interference filter images obtained with the WFC3 on Hubble Space Telescope and more recent images from GMOS on Gemini North. Of 80 emission nebulae identified in the HST images as SNR candidates based on elevated [SII]: Ha ratios compared to HII regions, 40 have X-ray counterparts. The diameters of the SNRs and SNR candidates detected with HST are systematically smaller than seen in SNR populations of other galaxies at comparable distances. However, this is most likely an instrumental effect, which our ongoing analysis of the new GMOS images will correct. At that point, we will be able to make of fair multi-wavelength comparison of the SNR population in M51 with other nearby, actively star-forming spiral galaxies, such as M83 and NGC6946.

  1. An Open Catalog for Supernova Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillochon, James; Parrent, Jerod; Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Margutti, Raffaella

    2017-01-01

    We present the Open Supernova Catalog , an online collection of observations and metadata for presently 36,000+ supernovae and related candidates. The catalog is freely available on the web (https://sne.space), with its main interface having been designed to be a user-friendly, rapidly searchable table accessible on desktop and mobile devices. In addition to the primary catalog table containing supernova metadata, an individual page is generated for each supernova, which displays its available metadata, light curves, and spectra spanning X-ray to radio frequencies. The data presented in the catalog is automatically rebuilt on a daily basis and is constructed by parsing several dozen sources, including the data presented in the supernova literature and from secondary sources such as other web-based catalogs. Individual supernova data is stored in the hierarchical, human- and machine-readable JSON format, with the entirety of each supernova’s data being contained within a single JSON file bearing its name. The setup we present here, which is based on open-source software maintained via git repositories hosted on github, enables anyone to download the entirety of the supernova data set to their home computer in minutes, and to make contributions of their own data back to the catalog via git. As the supernova data set continues to grow, especially in the upcoming era of all-sky synoptic telescopes, which will increase the total number of events by orders of magnitude, we hope that the catalog we have designed will be a valuable tool for the community to analyze both historical and contemporary supernovae.

  2. An Open Catalog for Supernova Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillochon, James; Parrent, Jerod; Kelley, Luke Zoltan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Margutti, Raffaella, E-mail: jguillochon@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We present the Open Supernova Catalog , an online collection of observations and metadata for presently 36,000+ supernovae and related candidates. The catalog is freely available on the web (https://sne.space), with its main interface having been designed to be a user-friendly, rapidly searchable table accessible on desktop and mobile devices. In addition to the primary catalog table containing supernova metadata, an individual page is generated for each supernova, which displays its available metadata, light curves, and spectra spanning X-ray to radio frequencies. The data presented in the catalog is automatically rebuilt on a daily basis and is constructed by parsing several dozen sources, including the data presented in the supernova literature and from secondary sources such as other web-based catalogs. Individual supernova data is stored in the hierarchical, human- and machine-readable JSON format, with the entirety of each supernova’s data being contained within a single JSON file bearing its name. The setup we present here, which is based on open-source software maintained via git repositories hosted on github, enables anyone to download the entirety of the supernova data set to their home computer in minutes, and to make contributions of their own data back to the catalog via git. As the supernova data set continues to grow, especially in the upcoming era of all-sky synoptic telescopes, which will increase the total number of events by orders of magnitude, we hope that the catalog we have designed will be a valuable tool for the community to analyze both historical and contemporary supernovae.

  3. Supernova models with slow energy pumping and galactic supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utrobin, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    The study of supernova (SN) models with slow energy pumping is continued. At maximum luminosity the main characteristics of a SN are shown to be independent of the initial structure of the model. However, they depend on the mass Msub(e) of the envelope, and on the intensity of energy pumping Lsub(epsilon), with an increase of Msub(e) leading qualitatively to the same changes in the SN parameters as a decrease in Lsub(epsilon). A simple relationship connecting the important SN parameters is obtained. From the inflection of the color index B-V curve, the possibility of deriving the characteristic time of energy pumping with intensity Lsub(epsilon) approximately 10 44 erg s -1 is pointed out. The comparison of the extragalactic type I SN observations with the results of calculations leads to the estimate of Msub(e) approximately 0.3-0.7 solar masses. An investigation of the galactic type I SN remnants is carried out. The estimate of Msub(e) approximately 0.2-0.3 solar masses is obtained for the remnants of supernovae SN 1006, SN 1572, and SN 1604. It completely fits the results for the extragalactic type I SNs. The total initial mass of SN 1604 presupernova was shown to be at least about 7 solar masses. It was established that the Crab nebula resulted from the outburst of a peculiar SN. The unique properties of such SNs, including SN 1054, are due to the low intensity of energy pumping (Lsub(epsilon) approximately 10 42 erg s -1 ). The mass of the envelope of the Crab nebula is evaluated to be Msub(e) approximately 0.7 solar masses. (Auth.)

  4. Supernova rates, galaxy emission, and Hubble type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1991-01-01

    Supernova discovery frequency is found to correlate with emission-line (H-alpha + forbidden N II line) equivalent width, except for the most active galaxies in which some supernovae might be hidden by dust. SNII occur preferentially in active galaxies with emission-line EW not less than 20 A, whereas SNIa favor less active galaxies with EW less than 20 A. The intrinsic frequency of supernovae is found to be an order of magnitude higher in Sc galaxies than it is in early type spirals. The relatively high frequency of SNIa in late-type galaxies suggests that not all such objects have old progenitors. 13 refs

  5. Chiral transport of neutrinos in supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional neutrino transport theory for core-collapse supernovae misses one key property of neutrinos: the left-handedness. The chirality of neutrinos modifies the hydrodynamic behavior at the macroscopic scale and leads to topological transport phenomena. We argue that such transport phenomena should play important roles in the evolution of core-collapse supernovae, and, in particular, lead to a tendency toward the inverse energy cascade from small to larger scales, which may be relevant to the origin of the supernova explosion.

  6. Density and energy of supernova remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy

    1977-12-01

    The effects of an interstellar magnetic field on the gas flow behind a strong shock front are considered. The ambient density and energy of supernova remnants are estimated from the intensity ratio of sulphur lines I(6717)/I(6731). It is found that, on average, the ambient density around galactic supernova remnants is 4 cm/sup -3/. The total energy appears to be the same for all supernova remnants (to within a factor = approximately 5). A mean value of 4 10/sup 51/ erg is found.

  7. Radiative transfer in type I supernovae atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isern, J.; Lopez, R.; Simonneau, E.

    1987-01-01

    Type I Supernovae are thought to be the result of the thermonuclear explosion of a carbon oxygen white dwarf in a close binary system. As the only direct information concerning the physics and the triggering mechanism of supernova explosions comes from the spectrophotometry of the emitted radiation, it is worthwhile to put considerable effort on the understanding of the radiation transfer in the supernovae envelopes in order to set constraints on the theoretical models of such explosions. In this paper we analyze the role played by the layers curvature on the radiative transfer. (Author)

  8. Evidence for nearby supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Narciso; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-01-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are one of the most energetic--and potentially lethal--phenomena in the Universe. We show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at ∼130 pc from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. The deposition on Earth of 60 Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that ∼2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction

  9. Young supernova remnants and INTEGRAL: "4"4Ti lines and non-thermal emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, M.

    2006-10-01

    This thesis deals with the search for and the study of young galactic supernova remnants using the observations performed by IBIS/ISGRI, one of the two main coded-mask instruments onboard the european gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL. This research is based on i) the study of gamma-ray lines coming from the radioactive decay of "4"4Ti, a short-lived nucleus (τ∼ 86 y) exclusively produced during the first stages of stellar explosions, and ii) the study of the nonthermal continuum mechanisms which take place inside the young supernova remnants. I separate the manuscript in four main parts. The first one presents an overview of supernovae from an observational and theoretical point of view. The second part describes the INTEGRAL satellite with its instruments, the techniques used for analyzing the data collected by IBIS/ISGRI, and my personal investigations concerning different developments such as: the spectral calibration of the IBIS/ISGRI instrument, the correction of noisy pixels on the camera, the creation of background maps, and the development of an alternative pipeline useful for dealing with a large amount of data. I also present a method for imaging extended sources with a coded-mask instrument such as IBIS/ISGRI, and its first application on the Coma Cluster. The results obtained on historical supernova remnants like Cas A, Tycho, RXJ0852-4622 (Vela Junior) are presented in the third part. The first chapter of the last part is devoted to the study of the detectability of supernovae in the optical domain with a model of the interstellar extinction. The second chapter reports on the search for missing and hidden young supernova remnants in the Milky Way with the IBIS/ISGRI galactic plane survey through the "4"4Sc gamma-ray lines as well as with a multi-wavelength approach, from the radio domain (VLA) to the new observational window at TeV energies (HESS). I also discuss the constraints on the supernova rate and the "4"4Ti production in core-collapse supernovae

  10. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail

  11. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-27

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  12. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue, E-mail: yuezhang@theory.caltech.edu [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter ''smog'' inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  13. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs.

  14. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs

  15. Discovery of 11 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Cacella, P.; Stone, G.; Fernandez, J. M.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Nicholls, B.; Post, R. S.

    2018-05-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from 14-cm telescopes in Hawaii, Texas, South Africa, and Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  16. Supernovae, dark energy and the accelerating universe

    CERN Multimedia

    Perlmutter, Saul

    1999-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 42 high-redshift supernovae discovered by the supernovae cosmology project, we have found evidence for a positive cosmological constant, Lambda, and hence an accelerating universe. In particular, the data are strongly inconsistent with a Lambda=0 flat cosmology, the simplest inflationary universe model. The size of our supernova sample allows us to perform a variety of statistical tests to check for possible systematic errors and biases. We will discuss results of these and other studies and the ongoing hunt for further loopholes to evade the apparent consequences of the measurements. We will present further work that begins to constrain the alternative physics theories of "dark energy" that have been proposed to explain these results. Finally, we propose a new concept for a definitive supernova measurement of the cosmological parameters.

  17. Supernova brightening from chameleon-photon mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of standard candles and measurements of standard rulers give an inconsistent picture of the history of the universe. This discrepancy can be explained if photon number is not conserved as computations of the luminosity distance must be modified. I show that photon number is not conserved when photons mix with chameleons in the presence of a magnetic field. The strong magnetic fields in a supernova mean that the probability of a photon converting into a chameleon in the interior of the supernova is high, this results in a large flux of chameleons at the surface of the supernova. Chameleons and photons also mix as a result of the intergalactic magnetic field. These two effects combined cause the image of the supernova to be brightened resulting in a model which fits both observations of standard candles and observations of standard rulers

  18. The Search for Eight Glacial Cycles of Deep-Water Temperatures and Global ice Volume From the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, P.; Elderfield, H.; Greaves, M.; McCave, N.

    2007-12-01

    It has been recently suggested "a substantial portion of the marine 100-ky cycle that has been object of so much attention over the past quarter of a century is, in reality, a deep-water temperature signal and not an ice volume signal" (Shackleton, 2000). There are currently few records available of deep-water temperature variations during the Pleistocene and most of our understanding is inferred from the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of benthic foraminifera from deep-sea sediments. However, variations in benthic δ18O reflect some combination of local to regional changes in water mass properties (largely deep- water temperature) as well as global changes in seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) resulting from the growth and decay of continental ice. Recent studies suggest that benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca may be useful in reconstructing deep-water temperature changes, but the application of this method to benthic species has been hampered by a number of unresolved issues, such as uncertainties related to the calibration for benthic Mg at the coldest temperatures. Here we present deep-sea Mg/Ca and δ18O records for the past eight glacial cycles in benthic foraminiferal ( Uvigerina spp.) calcite from a marine sediment core recovered in the mid Southern latitudes. Ocean Drilling Program Site 1123 was retrieved from Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand in the Southwest Pacific Ocean (3290 m water depth). This site lies under the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) that flows into the Pacific Ocean, and is responsible for most of the deep water in that ocean; DWBC strength is directly related to processes occurring around Antarctica. Temperatures derived via pore fluid modeling of the last glacial maximum are available from Site 1123 and represent an important tool to constrain deep-water temperatures estimates using Mg/Ca. In selected time slices, we measured B/Ca ratios in Uvigerina in order to gain information on the deep-water carbonate saturation state and have data of Mg

  19. A New Search for $ \

    CERN Multimedia

    Dore, U; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Loverre, P F

    2002-01-01

    % WA95\\\\ \\\\ The question whether neutrino flavours mix at some level - and the related question whether neutrinos have non-zero mass - is one of the remaining great challenges of experimental physics. Neutrinos from supernovae, from the sun, from the earth's atmosphere, from nuclear reactors and from radioactive decays are currently under study; in this frame, experiments using accelerators play a privileged role because the well known neutrino source properties allow high precision measurements and background control.\\\\ \\\\The main goal of the CHORUS experiment is to search for neutrino oscillations in the $\

  20. Supernova explosion in a very massive star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Eid, M.F.

    1986-07-01

    We describe the final evolution of a 100 solar mass following an evolutionary scenario during which the star evolves from a Wolf-Rayet stage through the electron- positron pair creation supernova. We find that the star is completely disrupted by explosive oxygen burning, and this type of explosion as a possible scenario for the Cassiopeia A remnant. This scenario seems to be also applicable to the supernova 1985f according to the recent observations of this object

  1. Astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos in Supernova detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1985-09-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are the place of very fundamental phenomena, whose privileged messengers are neutrinos. But such events are very rare. Then, SN detection has to be combined with other purposes. The recent developments of SN detectors have been associated with developments of underground particle physics (proton decay, monopoles ...). But here, I will restrict myself to discuss the possibilities for a supernova detector to be sensitive to other sources of neutrinos, astrophysical or terrestrial

  2. A Model of the Vela Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    2000-10-01

    A model of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) based on a cavity explosion of a supernova (SN) star is proposed. It is suggested that the general structure of the remnant is determined by the interaction of the SN blast wave with a massive shell created by the SN progenitor (15-20 M_solar) star. A possible origin of the nebula of hard X-ray emission detected around the Vela pulsar is discussed.

  3. Merging White Dwarfs and Thermonuclear Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    van Kerkwijk, Marten H.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure, and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and our suggestion that these supernovae instead resul...

  4. Pulsar Wind Bubble Blowout from a Supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, John M. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Chevalier, Roger A., E-mail: blondin@ncsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    For pulsars born in supernovae, the expansion of the shocked pulsar wind nebula is initially in the freely expanding ejecta of the supernova. While the nebula is in the inner flat part of the ejecta density profile, the swept-up, accelerating shell is subject to the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. We carried out two- and three-dimensional simulations showing that the instability gives rise to filamentary structure during this initial phase but does not greatly change the dynamics of the expanding shell. The flow is effectively self-similar. If the shell is powered into the outer steep part of the density profile, the shell is subject to a robust Rayleigh–Taylor instability in which the shell is fragmented and the shocked pulsar wind breaks out through the shell. The flow is not self-similar in this phase. For a wind nebula to reach this phase requires that the deposited pulsar energy be greater than the supernova energy, or that the initial pulsar period be in the ms range for a typical 10{sup 51} erg supernova. These conditions are satisfied by some magnetar models for Type I superluminous supernovae. We also consider the Crab Nebula, which may be associated with a low energy supernova for which this scenario applies.

  5. HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H _0, w , and Ω_m via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  6. HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H {sub 0}, w , and Ω{sub m} via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  7. Neutrinos from type-II supernovae and the neutrino-driven supernova mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janka, H.T.

    1996-01-01

    Supernova 1987A has confirmed fundamental aspects of our theoretical view of type-II supernovae: Type-II supernovae are a consequence of the collapse of the iron core of a massive evolved star and lead to the formation of a neutron star or black hole. This picture is most strongly supported by the detection of electron antineutrinos in the IMB and Kamiokande II experiments in connection with SN 1987A. However, the mechanism causing the supernova explosion is not yet satisfactorily understood. In this paper the properties of the neutrino emission from supernovae and protoneutron stars will be reviewed; analytical estimates will be derived and results of numerical simulations will be shown. It will be demonstrated that the spectral distributions of the emitted neutrinos show clear and systematic discrepancies compared with thermal (black body-type) emission. This must be taken into account when neutrino observations from supernovae are to be interpreted, or when implications of the neutrino emission on nucleosynthesis processes in mantle and envelope of the progenitor star are to be investigated. Furthermore, the influence of neutrinos on the supernova dynamics will be discussed, in particular their crucial role in causing the explosion by Wilson's neutrino-driven delayed mechanism. Possible implications of convection inside the newly born neutron star and between surface and the supernova shock will be addressed and results of multi-dimensional simulations will be presented. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., refs

  8. Modelling the interaction of thermonuclear supernova remnants with circumstellar structures: the case of Tycho's supernova remnant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K.M.; Vink, J.; Kaastra, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The well-established Type Ia remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572) reveals discrepant ambient medium-density estimates based on either the measured dynamics or the X-ray emission properties. This discrepancy can potentially be solved by assuming that the supernova remnant (SNR) shock initially

  9. Neutrinos from type-II supernovae and the neutrino-driven supernova mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, H T [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Supernova 1987A has confirmed fundamental aspects of our theoretical view of type-II supernovae: Type-II supernovae are a consequence of the collapse of the iron core of a massive evolved star and lead to the formation of a neutron star or black hole. This picture is most strongly supported by the detection of electron antineutrinos in the IMB and Kamiokande II experiments in connection with SN 1987A. However, the mechanism causing the supernova explosion is not yet satisfactorily understood. In this paper the properties of the neutrino emission from supernovae and protoneutron stars will be reviewed; analytical estimates will be derived and results of numerical simulations will be shown. It will be demonstrated that the spectral distributions of the emitted neutrinos show clear and systematic discrepancies compared with thermal (black body-type) emission. This must be taken into account when neutrino observations from supernovae are to be interpreted, or when implications of the neutrino emission on nucleosynthesis processes in mantle and envelope of the progenitor star are to be investigated. Furthermore, the influence of neutrinos on the supernova dynamics will be discussed, in particular their crucial role in causing the explosion by Wilson`s neutrino-driven delayed mechanism. Possible implications of convection inside the newly born neutron star and between surface and the supernova shock will be addressed and results of multi-dimensional simulations will be presented. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  10. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  11. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arraki, K.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kaib, N.A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aguilera, C.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Blackman, J.W.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Blondin, S.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Challis, P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Clocchiatti, A.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Covarrubias, R.; /Kyushu Sangyo U.; Damke, G.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Davis, T.M.; /Bohr Inst. /Queensland U.; Filippenko, A.V.; /UC, Berkeley; Foley, R.J.; /UC, Berkeley; Garg, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hicken, M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Jha, S.; /Harvard U. /SLAC; Kirshner, R.P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Krisciunas, K.; /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  12. PAIR INSTABILITY SUPERNOVAE: LIGHT CURVES, SPECTRA, AND SHOCK BREAKOUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For the initial mass range (140 M sun sun ) stars die in a thermonuclear runaway triggered by the pair-production instability. The supernovae they make can be remarkably energetic (up to ∼10 53 erg) and synthesize considerable amounts of radioactive isotopes. Here we model the evolution, explosion, and observational signatures of representative pair instability supernovae (PI SNe) spanning a range of initial masses and envelope structures. The predicted light curves last for hundreds of days and range in luminosity from very dim to extremely bright (L ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 ). The most massive events are bright enough to be seen at high redshift, but the extended light curve duration (∼1 yr)-prolonged by cosmological time-dilation-may make it difficult to detect them as transients. A more promising approach may be to search for the brief and luminous outbreak occurring when the explosion shock wave first reaches the stellar surface. Using a multi-wavelength radiation-hydrodynamics code we calculate that, in the rest frame, the shock breakout transients of PI SNe reach luminosities of 10 45 -10 46 erg s -1 , peak at wavelengths ∼30-170 A, and last for several hours. We discuss how observations of the light curves, spectra, and breakout emission can be used to constrain the mass, radius, and metallicity of the progenitor.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Asiago Supernova Catalogue (Version 2008-Mar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbon, R.; Buondi, V.; Cappellaro, E.; Turatto, M.

    2008-02-01

    This catalogue supersedes the previous version by Barbon et al. (1999A&AS..139..531B, Cat. II/227), and contains data about the supernovae observed since 1895 and their parent galaxies until the beginning of 2008. In addition to the list of newly discovered SNe, the literature has been searched for new information on past SNe as well. The data for the parent galaxies have also been homogenized. (1 data file).

  14. Mass Extinctions and Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschinek, Gunther

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation or the direct exposure of lethal X-rays. Another indirect effect is cloud formation, induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere which result in a drop in the Earth's temperature, causing major glaciations of the Earth. The discovery of highly intensive gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which could be connected to SNe, initiated further discussions on possible life-threatening events in the Earth's history. The probability that GRBs hit the Earth is very low. Nevertheless, a past interaction of Earth with GRBs and/or SNe cannot be excluded and might even have been responsible for past extinction events.

  15. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays. Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images. To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount

  16. Gravitational waves from supernova matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidegger, S; Whitehouse, S C; Kaeppeli, R; Liebendoerfer, M

    2010-01-01

    We have performed a set of 11 three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) core-collapse supernova simulations in order to investigate the dependences of the gravitational wave signal on the progenitor's initial conditions. We study the effects of the initial central angular velocity and different variants of neutrino transport. Our models are started up from a 15M o-dot progenitor and incorporate an effective general relativistic gravitational potential and a finite temperature nuclear equation of state. Furthermore, the electron flavour neutrino transport is tracked by efficient algorithms for the radiative transfer of massless fermions. We find that non- and slowly rotating models show gravitational wave emission due to prompt- and lepton driven convection that reveals details about the hydrodynamical state of the fluid inside the protoneutron stars. Furthermore we show that protoneutron stars can become dynamically unstable to rotational instabilities at T/|W| values as low as ∼2% at core bounce. We point out that the inclusion of deleptonization during the postbounce phase is very important for the quantitative gravitational wave (GW) prediction, as it enhances the absolute values of the gravitational wave trains up to a factor of ten with respect to a lepton-conserving treatment.

  17. Stellar core collapse and supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Mayle, R.; Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.

    1985-04-01

    Massive stars that end their stable evolution as their iron cores collapse to a neutron star or black hole long been considered good candidates for producing Type II supernovae. For many years the outward propagation of the shock wave produced by the bounce of these iron cores has been studied as a possible mechanism for the explosion. For the most part, the results of these studies have not been particularly encouraging, except, perhaps, in the case of very low mass iron cores or very soft nuclear equations of state. The shock stalls, overwhelmed by photodisintegration and neutrino losses, and the star does not explode. More recently, slow late time heating of the envelope of the incipient neutron star has been found to be capable of rejuvenating the stalled shock and producing an explosion after all. The present paper discusses this late time heating and presents results from numerical calculations of the evolution, core collapse, and subsequent explosion of a number of recent stellar models. For the first time they all, except perhaps the most massive, explode with reasonable choices of input physics. 39 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  18. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This light echo offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves. 22 references

  19. Collapsing stellar cores and supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, R J [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noorgaard, H [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Bond, J R [Niels Bohr Institutet, Copenhagen (Denmark); California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.)

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of a stellar core is studied during its final quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The core structure and the (poorly known) properties of neutron rich matter are parametrized to include most plausible cases. It is found that the density-temperature trajectory of the material in the central part of the core (the core-center) is insensitive to nearly all reasonable parameter variations. The central density at the onset of the dynamic phase of the collapse (when the core-center begins to fall away from the rest of the star) and the fraction of the emitted neutrinos which are trapped in the collapsing core-center depend quite sensitively on the properties of neutron rich matter. We estimate that the amount of energy Ecm which is imparted to the core-mantle by the neutrinos which escape from the imploded core-center can span a large range of values. For plausible choices of nuclear and model parameters Ecm can be large enough to yield a supernova event.

  20. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Analysis of stripped-envelope supernova light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, F.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Bersten, M.; Baron, E.; Burns, C.; Contreras, C.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M.; Sollerman, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    Stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) include H-poor (Type IIb), H-free (Type Ib), and He-free (Type Ic) events thought to be associated with the deaths of massive stars. The exact nature of their progenitors is a matter of debate with several lines of evidence pointing towards intermediate mass (MinitCarnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) that are unparalleled in terms of photometric accuracy and wavelength range. Light-curve parameters are estimated through the fits of an analytical function and trends are searched for among the resulting fit parameters. Detailed inspection of the dataset suggests a tentative correlation between the peak absolute B-band magnitude and Δm15(B), while the post maximum light curves reveals a correlation between the late-time linear slope and Δm15. Making use of the full set of optical and near-IR photometry, combined with robust host-galaxy extinction corrections, comprehensive bolometric light curves are constructed and compared to both analytic and hydrodynamical models. This analysis finds consistent results among the two different modeling techniques and from the hydrodynamical models we obtained ejecta masses of 1.1-6.2M⊙, 56Ni masses of 0.03-0.35M⊙, and explosion energies (excluding two SNe Ic-BL) of 0.25-3.0 × 1051 erg. Our analysis indicates that adopting κ = 0.07 cm2 g-1 as the mean opacity serves to be a suitable assumption when comparing Arnett-model results to those obtained from hydrodynamical calculations. We also find that adopting He I and O I line velocities to infer the expansion velocity in He-rich and He-poor SNe, respectively, provides ejecta masses relatively similar to those obtained by using the Fe II line velocities, although the use of Fe II as a diagnostic does imply higher explosion energies. The inferred range of ejecta masses are compatible with intermediate mass (MZAMS ≤ 20M⊙) progenitor stars in binary systems for the majority of SE SNe. Furthermore, our hydrodynamical modeling of the

  1. Are crab-type supernova remnants (plerions) short-lived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, K.W.; Panagia, N.

    1978-01-01

    Arguments are given for a possible picture of the origin, maintenance, and lifetimes of the so-called Crab-like supernova remnants. It is suggested that these objects imply the existence of at least two distinct types of supernova events. A possible connection of the remnant types with the optically defined supernovae of Type I and Type II is discussed. Accepting that a pulsar is formed in at least some supernova events, the proposal is made that a rapidly rotating, rapidly slowing pulsar is necessary to create and maintain a Crab-like supernova remnant. Finally, arguments are presented that such a supernova remnant will be relatively short lived with respect to the more common shell-type of supernova remnant, perhaps surviving only 10000-20000 yr before fading into the Galactic background. The name of plerion is proposed for these filled-center supernova remnants and observational possiblities for confirming their nature are suggested. (orig.) [de

  2. Particle acceleration and nonthermal radiation in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirakashvili, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic ray acceleration and magnetic amplification in shell-type supernova remnants is shortly reviewed. The results on the modeling of broadband electromagnetic emission from supernova remnants are presented and compared with observations.

  3. Gravitational lensing of the SNLS supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, T.

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae have become an essential tool of modern observational cosmology. By studying the distance-redshift relation of a large number of supernovae, the nature of dark energy can be unveiled. Distances to Type Ia SNe are however affected by gravitational lensing which can induce systematic effects in the measurement of cosmology. The majority of the supernovae is slightly de-magnified whereas a small fraction is significantly magnified due to the mass distribution along the line of sight. This causes naturally an additional dispersion in the observed magnitudes. There are two different ways to estimate the magnification of a supernova. A first method consists in comparing the supernova luminosity, which is measured to about 15% precision, to the mean SN luminosity at the same redshift. Another estimate can be obtained from predicting the magnification induced by the foreground matter density modeled from the measurements of the luminosity of the galaxies with an initial prior on the mass-luminosity relation of the galaxies. A correlation between these 2 estimates will make it possible to tune the initially used mass-luminosity relation resulting in an independent measurement of the dark matter clustering based on the luminosity of SNe Ia. Evidently, this measurement depends crucially on the detection of this correlation also referred to as the lensing signal. This thesis is dedicated to the measurement of the lensing signal in the SNLS 3-year sample. (author)

  4. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AS SITES OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Sasaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernova remnants, owing to their strong shock waves, are likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Studies of supernova remnants in X-rays and gamma rays provide us with new insights into the acceleration of particles to high energies. This paper reviews the basic physics of supernova remnant shocks and associated particle acceleration and radiation processes. In addition, the study of supernova remnant populations in nearby galaxies and the implications for Galactic cosmic ray distribution are discussed.

  5. HET LRS2 Observations of Halpha in Old Hydrogen-deficient Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig Craig; Pooley, David A.; Vinko, Jozsef; Szalai, Tamas; Marion, Howie H.; Sand, David J.; McQueen, Phillip; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2017-06-01

    For 3 years, we have been using narrow-band filters with the DIAFI imager on the HJS 2.7 m telescope to search for evidence that hydrogen-deficient supernovae undergo delayed collision with previously ejected circumstellar material and associated excitation of Halpha (see abstract by Pooley et al.). A powerful method to determine whether detected Halpha flux is from an HII region or a supernova is to obtain spectra; broad lines (> 1000 km/s) will be a certain indicator of a supernova. We have observed about 20 events that ranged in age from about 1000 days to nearly 80 years for which we have detected Halpha in the vicinity of the supernova. So far, only SN 2014C showed the broad H that is concrete evidence of ongoing circumstellar interaction. One interesting aspect revealed by the spectra is that we often pick up the two [N II] lines that typically accompany H in H II regions. Our spectra of SN 2008ha did not show these [N II] lines. The absence of the [N II] lines might be a clue to circumstellar interaction in conditions where the shock had slowed to a point where the H is not detectably broadened.

  6. A solar-type star polluted by calcium-rich supernova ejecta inside the supernova remnant RCW 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Langer, Norbert; Fossati, Luca; Bock, Douglas C.-J.; Castro, Norberto; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Greiner, Jochen; Johnston, Simon; Rau, Arne; Tauris, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    When a massive star in a binary system explodes as a supernova, its companion star may be polluted with heavy elements from the supernova ejecta. Such pollution has been detected in a handful of post-supernova binaries 1 , but none of them is associated with a supernova remnant. We report the discovery of a binary G star strongly polluted with calcium and other elements at the position of the candidate neutron star [GV2003] N within the young galactic supernova remnant RCW 86. Our discovery suggests that the progenitor of the supernova that produced RCW 86 could have been a moving star, which exploded near the edge of its wind bubble and lost most of its initial mass because of common-envelope evolution shortly before core collapse, and that the supernova explosion might belong to the class of calcium-rich supernovae — faint and fast transients 2,3 , the origin of which is strongly debated 4-6 .

  7. Late-Time Spectral Observations of Type IIP Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Pickett, Stephanie; Wheeler, J. Craig; Filippenko, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe IIP) are H-rich explosions that come from red supergiant (RSG) progenitors. Despite the fact that they are the most common subtype of SN, little work has been done on late-time observations of SNe IIP owing to their relative faintness at these epochs. We analyze 91 late-time (older than about 100 days past explosion) optical spectra of 38 SNe IIP, making this the largest sample of SN IIP nebular spectra ever studied. Quantitative criteria from the spectra themselves are employed to determine if an observation is truly nebular, and thus should be included in the study. We measure the fluxes, shapes, and velocities of various emission lines and investigate their temporal evolution. These values are also compared to photometric data in order to search for correlations that may allow us to gain insight into the RSG progenitors of SNe IIP and learn more about the details of the explosion itself.

  8. Synoptic sky surveys and the diffuse supernova neutrino background: Removing astrophysical uncertainties and revealing invisible supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, Amy; Fields, Brian D.; Beacom, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The cumulative (anti)neutrino production from all core-collapse supernovae within our cosmic horizon gives rise to the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB), which is on the verge of detectability. The observed flux depends on supernova physics, but also on the cosmic history of supernova explosions; currently, the cosmic supernova rate introduces a substantial (±40%) uncertainty, largely through its absolute normalization. However, a new class of wide-field, repeated-scan (synoptic) optical sky surveys is coming online, and will map the sky in the time domain with unprecedented depth, completeness, and dynamic range. We show that these surveys will obtain the cosmic supernova rate by direct counting, in an unbiased way and with high statistics, and thus will allow for precise predictions of the DSNB. Upcoming sky surveys will substantially reduce the uncertainties in the DSNB source history to an anticipated ±5% that is dominated by systematics, so that the observed high-energy flux thus will test supernova neutrino physics. The portion of the universe (z < or approx. 1) accessible to upcoming sky surveys includes the progenitors of a large fraction (≅87%) of the expected 10-26 MeV DSNB event rate. We show that precision determination of the (optically detected) cosmic supernova history will also make the DSNB into a strong probe of an extra flux of neutrinos from optically invisible supernovae, which may be unseen either due to unexpected large dust obscuration in host galaxies, or because some core-collapse events proceed directly to black hole formation and fail to give an optical outburst.

  9. Supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae and their interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaluw, E. van der

    2001-01-01

    A supernova explosion marks the end of the evolution of a massive star. What remains of the exploded star is a high density neutron star or a black hole. The material which has been ejected by the supernova explosion will manifest itself as a supernova remnant: a hot bubble of gas expanding in the

  10. The interaction of Type Ia supernovae with their circumstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiotellis, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the study of a specific class of supernovae, named Type Ia (or thermonuclear) supernovae. In particular, we attempt to gain information about their origin through the study of the interaction of these supernovae with circumstellar structures that have been shaped by their

  11. Supernovae and nuclear structure: Electron capture and the nuclear incompressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author considers the effects of electron capture and the high density equation of state on supernovae. Electron captures on nuclei with 60 s it is helpful for supernovae to have a soft equation of state. Present knowledge of the nuclear matter parameters is considered and implications for supernovae are drawn. (orig.)

  12. Probing Exotic Physics With Supernova Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, Chris; Hooper, Dan

    2010-09-01

    Future galactic supernovae will provide an extremely long baseline for studying the properties and interactions of neutrinos. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of using such an event to constrain (or discover) the effects of exotic physics in scenarios that are not currently constrained and are not accessible with reactor or solar neutrino experiments. In particular, we focus on the cases of neutrino decay and quantum decoherence. We calculate the expected signal from a core-collapse supernova in both current and future water Cerenkov, scintillating, and liquid argon detectors, and find that such observations will be capable of distinguishing between many of these scenarios. Additionally, future detectors will be capable of making strong, model-independent conclusions by examining events associated with a galactic supernova's neutronization burst.

  13. Magnetorotational Explosions of Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Core-collapse supernovae are accompanied by formation of neutron stars. The gravitation energy is transformed into the energy of the explosion, observed as SN II, SN Ib,c type supernovae. We present results of 2-D MHD simulations, where the source of energy is rotation, and magnetic eld serves as a "transition belt" for the transformation of the rotation energy into the energy of the explosion. The toroidal part of the magnetic energy initially grows linearly with time due to dierential rotation. When the twisted toroidal component strongly exceeds the poloidal eld, magneto-rotational instability develops, leading to a drastic acceleration in the growth of magnetic energy. Finally, a fast MHD shock is formed, producing a supernova explosion. Mildly collimated jet is produced for dipole-like type of the initial field. At very high initial magnetic field no MRI development was found.

  14. Photometric properties of type II supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, R [Osservatorio Astrofisico, Asiago (Italy); Trieste Univ. (Italy). Instituto di Matematica); Ciatti, F; Rosino, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico, Asiago (Italy); Pavia Univ. (Italy))

    1979-02-01

    An analysis of the available photometric observations for type II supernovae is presented. The possibility of drawing average curves by the fitting method, as previously done for type I supernovae, is indicated. Two basic shapes have been put into evidence, the first one (2/3 of the objects) is characterized by the presence of a plateau at intermediate phase, the second one by an almost linear decline. Average curves have been also built for the intrinsic color indices. Peculiar cases are discussed, including the unusual objects of types III-IV. The mean absolute magnitude at maximum for type II supernovae has been determined about Msub(B) = -16.45 (sigma=0.78), as a calibration for their use as distance indicators. The distribution in different morphological types and luminosity classes of the parent galaxies is briefly discussed.

  15. Energy conditions bounds and supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.P.; Vitenti, S.D.P.; Reboucas, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The energy conditions play an important role in the description of some important properties of the Universe, including the current accelerating expansion phase and the possible recent phase of super-acceleration. In a recent work we have provided a detailed study of the energy conditions for the recent past by deriving bounds from energy conditions and by making the confrontation of the bounds with supernovae data. Here, we extend and update these results in two different ways. First, by carrying out a new statistical analysis for q(z) estimates needed for the confrontation between the bounds and supernovae data. Second, by providing a new picture of the energy conditions fulfillment and violation in the light of the recently compiled Union set of 307 type Ia supernovae and by using two different statistical approaches

  16. The Stellar Origins of Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, Schulyer

    2017-08-01

    Supernovae (SNe) have a profound effect on galaxies and have been used as precise cosmological probes, resulting in the Nobel-distinguished discovery of the accelerating Universe. They are clearly very important events deserving of intense study. Yet, even with over 10000 classified SNe, we know relatively little about the stars which give rise to these powerful explosions. The main limitation has been the lack of spatial resolution in pre-SN imaging data. However, since 1999 our team has been at the vanguard of directly identifying SN progenitor stars in HST images. From this exciting line of study, the trends from 15 detections for Type II-Plateau SNe appear to be red supergiant progenitors of relatively low mass (8 to 17 Msun) - although this upper mass limit still requires testing - and warmer, envelope-stripped supergiant progenitors for 5 Type IIb SNe. Additionally, evidence is accumulating that some Type II-narrow SNe may arise from exploding stars in a luminous blue variable phase. However, the nature of the progenitors of Type Ib/c SNe, a subset of which are associated with gamma-ray bursts, still remains ambiguous. Furthermore, we continue in the embarrassing situation that we still do not yet know which progenitor systems explode as Type Ia SNe, which are being used for precision cosmology. In Cycles 16, 17, and 20 through 24 we have had great success with our approved ToO programs. As of this proposal deadline, we have already triggered on SN 2016jbu with our Cycle 24 program. We therefore propose to continue this project in Cycles 25 and 26, to determine the identities of the progenitors of 8 SNe within about 20 Mpc through ToO observations using WFC3/UVIS.

  17. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Supernovae Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Moss, Adam

    2017-03-01

    We apply deep recurrent neural networks, which are capable of learning complex sequential information, to classify supernovae (code available at https://github.com/adammoss/supernovae). The observational time and filter fluxes are used as inputs to the network, but since the inputs are agnostic, additional data such as host galaxy information can also be included. Using the Supernovae Photometric Classification Challenge (SPCC) data, we find that deep networks are capable of learning about light curves, however the performance of the network is highly sensitive to the amount of training data. For a training size of 50% of the representational SPCC data set (around 104 supernovae) we obtain a type-Ia versus non-type-Ia classification accuracy of 94.7%, an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve AUC of 0.986 and an SPCC figure-of-merit F 1 = 0.64. When using only the data for the early-epoch challenge defined by the SPCC, we achieve a classification accuracy of 93.1%, AUC of 0.977, and F 1 = 0.58, results almost as good as with the whole light curve. By employing bidirectional neural networks, we can acquire impressive classification results between supernovae types I, II and III at an accuracy of 90.4% and AUC of 0.974. We also apply a pre-trained model to obtain classification probabilities as a function of time and show that it can give early indications of supernovae type. Our method is competitive with existing algorithms and has applications for future large-scale photometric surveys.

  18. Nuclear reactions in ultra-magnetized supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, V.N.

    2002-06-01

    The statistical model is employed to investigate nuclear reactions in ultrastrong magnetic fields relevant for supernovae and neutron stars. For radiative capture processes the predominant mechanisms are argued to correspond to modifications of nuclear level densities, and γ-transition energies due to interactions of the field with magnetic moments of nuclei. The density of states reflects the nuclear structure and results in oscillations of reaction cross sections as a function of field strength, while magnetic interaction energy enhances radiative neutron capture process. Implications in the synthesis of r-process nuclei in supernova site are discussed. (author)

  19. Neutron star kicks and asymmetric supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, D.

    2001-01-01

    Observational advances over the last decade have left little doubt that neutron stars received a large kick velocity (of order a few hundred to a thousand km s -1 ) at birth. The physical origin of the kicks and the related supernova asymmetry is one of the central unsolved mysteries of supernova research. We review the physics of different kick mechanisms, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino - magnetic field driven, and electromagnetically driven kicks. The viabilities of the different kick mechanisms are directly related to the other key parameters characterizing nascent neutron stars, such as the initial magnetic field and the initial spin. Recent observational constraints on kick mechanisms are also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Neutrino Observation of Core Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro

    The event rate of the supernova neutrinos are predicted for the future SK-Gd experiment. With an eye on the neutron tagging by Gd, the energy and angular distributions are calculated both for tagged events from inverse β decay reaction and untagged events from other reactions. As a result, it is indicated that the shock revival in the supernova is detectable through the decrease of the event rate and decline of the average energy of events. It is also implied that a careful treatment for the neutrino spectra is needed to investigate the untagged events owing to the high neutrino threshold energy of 16O reactions.

  1. Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'C Drury, Luke

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes some recent developments in our understanding of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnant shocks. It is pointed out that while good agreement now exists as to steady nonlinear modifications to the shock structure, there is also growing evidence that the mesoscopic scales may not in fact be steady and that significant instabilities associated with magnetic field amplification may be a feature of strong collisionless plasma shocks. There is strong observational evidence for such magnetic field amplification, and it appears to solve a number of long-standing issues concerned with acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova remnants

  2. On neutron star/supernova remnant associations

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2000-01-01

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1757-24, SGR0525-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the circle of possibl...

  3. Detection of supernova neutrinos at spallation neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2016-07-01

    After considering supernova shock effects, Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, neutrino collective effects, and Earth matter effects, the detection of supernova neutrinos at the China Spallation Neutron Source is studied and the expected numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos observed through various reaction channels are calculated with the neutrino energy spectra described by the Fermi-Dirac distribution and the “beta fit” distribution respectively. Furthermore, the numerical calculation method of supernova neutrino detection on Earth is applied to some other spallation neutron sources, and the total expected numbers of supernova neutrinos observed through different reactions channels are given. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205185, 11175020, 11275025, 11575023)

  4. QCD matter in white dwarfs and supernova collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Meixner, M.; Lan, N.Q.; Suh, I.-S.

    2010-01-01

    The search for astrophysical evidence for a transition to QCD matter is an important goal. Although much effort has gone into searching for neutron star candidates, here we describe the exploration of two other possible signatures. One is the search for strange dwarfs. Masses and radii for a large number of white dwarfs have been deduced from a combination of proper motion studies, Hipparcos parallax distances, effective temperatures, and binary or spectroscopic masses. Some stars appear to have radii which are significantly smaller than that expected for a standard electron-degenerate white-dwarf equation of state. We argue that there is marginal evidence for bimodality in the radius distribution. We show that the data exhibit several features consistent with the expected mass-radius relation of strange dwarfs. We identify eight nearby white dwarfs that are possible candidates for strange matter cores and suggest observational tests of this hypothesis. We also review the current status of core-collapse supernova research, and in particular, the effects on the explosion of a QCD phase transition in the proto-neutron-star core. We describe how a first order transition could enhance the explosion and lead to observable effects in the emergent neutrino light curve. (author)

  5. [FeII] as a tracer supernova rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M J F; Van der Werf, P P; Israel, F P

    2012-01-01

    Supernovae play an integral role in the feedback of processed material into the ISM of galaxies and are responsible for most of the chemical enrichment of the universe. The rate of supernovae can also reveal the star formation histories. Supernova rate is usually measured through the non-thermal radio continuum luminosity, but in this paper we establish a quantitative relationship between the [FeII] 1.26 luminosity and supernova rate in a sample of 11 near-by starburst galaxies. SINFONI data cubes are used to perform a pixel pixel analysis of this correlation. Using Bry equivalent width and luminosity as the only observational inputs into Starburst 99, the supernova rate is derived at each pixel and a map of supernova rate is created. This is then compared morphologically and quantitatively to [FeII] 1.26 luminosity map. We find a strong linear and morphological correlation between supernova rate and [FeII] 1.26 on a pixel-pixel basis. The Starburst 99 derived supernova rates are also in good agreement with the radio derived supernova rates, which further demonstrates the strength of [FeII] as a tracer of supernova rate. With the strong correlation found in this sample of galaxies, we now qualitatively use [FeII] 1.26 to derive supernova rate on either a pixel-pixel or integrated galactic basis.

  6. Neutrinoless double beta decay search with SNO+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozza V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SNO+ experiment is the follow up of SNO. The detector is located 2 km underground in the Vale Canada Ltd.’s Creighton Mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The active volume of the detector consists of 780 tonnes of Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB in an acrylic vessel of 12 m diameter, surrounded by about 9500 PMTs. The main goal of the SNO+ experiment is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. With an initial loading of 0.3% of natural tellurium (nearly 800 kg of 130Te, it is expected to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of about 100 meV after several years of data taking. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, other exciting physical goals can be explored, like the measurement of reactor neutrino oscillations and geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch of supernova neutrinos and studies of solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with water filled detector will start at the end of 2013, while the double beta decay phase will start in 2015.

  7. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey,S.; Baltay, C.; Baron, E.; Bauer, A.; Buton, C.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Parrent, J.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.

    2006-10-12

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.

  8. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  9. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - III. 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Brimacombe, J.; Bishop, D. W.; Bose, S.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Chen, Ping; Chomiuk, L.; Falco, E.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Morrell, N.; Pojmanski, G.; Shields, J. V.; Strader, J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Woźniak, P. R.; Bock, G.; Cacella, P.; Conseil, E.; Cruz, I.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Krannich, G.; Marples, P.; Masi, G.; Monard, L. A. G.; Nicholls, B.; Nicolas, J.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.; Wiethoff, W. S.

    2017-11-01

    This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (mpeak ≤ 17), spectroscopically confirmed supernovae discovered in 2016. We then gather the near-infrared through ultraviolet magnitudes of all host galaxies and the offsets of the supernovae from the centres of their hosts from public data bases. We illustrate the results using a sample that now totals 668 supernovae discovered since 2014 May 1, including the supernovae from our previous catalogues, with type distributions closely matching those of the ideal magnitude limited sample from Li et al. This is the third of a series of yearly papers on bright supernovae and their hosts from the ASAS-SN team.

  10. Supernova real-time monitor system in Kamiokande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Y.; Yamada, M.; Ishida, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yokoyama, H.

    1994-01-01

    A data-analysis program to discover possible supernova neutrino bursts has been installed in the online data-acquisition computer of the Kamiokande experiment. The program automatically analyzes data within 20 min and gives an alarm to collaborators if a possible supernova neutrino burst is found. The detection efficiency of the program is 96% for a typical supernova located 50 kpc from Earth. After a careful analysis by the Kamiokande collaborators, it will be possible to inform all optical observatories in the world about the occurrence of a supernova within 3 h from the time of first detecting the neutrino burst. Information concerning the celestial position of a supernova will also be available for supernovae having a distance less than ∼ 10 kpc. This information will be helpful for observing the first optical emissions from the newly born supernova. (orig.)

  11. Things begin to happen around Supernova 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    -nebula'', only two arcsec across, surrounding SN 1987A; it was interpreted as interactions between pre-existing circumstellar material and a shell of matter which was thrown off a few thousand years ago when a red giant star evolved into the blue star that eventually exploded. The best images of this nebula were first obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990. There are also faint outer nebular loops around SN 1987A. It is thought that they trace the outer rim of a large bubble that was formed by the outflowing ``wind'' of matter from the star that later exploded. During the past years, astronomers working at large telescopes in the southern hemisphere have conducted unsuccessful searches for a pulsar inside SN 1987A. Although most theories predict the emergence of a very compact object at the centre of a supernova, even very detailed investigations reaching very faint light levels have so far not been able to prove the existence of such an object in SN 1987A. RECENT CHANGES IN THE RING But the development of SN 1987A is not yet over. After the first seven years, it is now about to enter a new phase. In a Circular of the International Astronomical Union, astronomers Li-Fan Wang (Beijing Observatory) and E. Joseph Wampler (European Southern Observatory) have just reported that changes are seen in the inner ring nebula around SN 1987A when the latest NTT observations are compared with those carried out over the past two years. The distribution of light along the ring has recently changed dramatically. It is now found to be gradually increasing in brightness at several locations. This is most easily seen on images obtained in the light of ionised nitrogen which enhances the contrast between the SN 1987A ring nebulae and their surroundings. Following computer sharpening of December 1993 CCD pictures to a resolution of 0.2 arcseconds - corresponding to the angle subtended by a coin of 1 cm diameter at a distance of 10 km - it is clear that the ring emission regions are now

  12. Neutrino signal from pair-instability supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Warren P.; Gilmer, Matthew S.; Fröhlich, Carla; Kneller, James P.

    2017-11-01

    A very massive star with a carbon-oxygen core in the range of 64M ⊙Earth from two, one-dimensional pair-instability supernova simulations which bracket the mass range of stars which explode by this mechanism taking into account the full time and energy dependence of the neutrino emission and the flavor evolution through the outer layers of the star. We calculate the neutrino signals in five different detectors chosen to represent present or near future designs. We find the more massive progenitors explode as pair-instability supernova which can easily be detected in multiple different neutrino detectors at the "standard" supernova distance of 10 kpc producing several events in DUNE, JUNO, and Super-Kamiokande, while the lightest progenitors produce only a handful of events (if any) in the same detectors. The proposed Hyper-Kamiokande detector would detect neutrinos from a large pair-instability supernova as far as ˜50 kpc allowing it to reach the Megallanic Clouds and the several very high mass stars known to exist there.

  13. Interacting Supernovae: Types IIn and Ibn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    Supernovae that show evidence of strong shock interaction between their ejecta and pre-existing slower circumstellar material (CSM) constitute an interesting, diverse, and still poorly understood category of explosive transients. The chief reason they are extremely interesting is because they tell us that in a subset of stellar deaths, the progenitor star becomes wildly unstable in the years, decades, or centuries before explosion. This is something that has not been included in standard stellar evolution models but may significantly change the end product and yield of that evolution and complicates our attempts to map SNe to their progenitors. Another reason they are interesting is because CSM interaction is an efficient engine for making bright transients, allowing superluminous transients to arise from normal SN explosion energy, and transients of normal supernova luminosity to arise from sub-energetic explosions or low radioactivity yield. CSM interaction shrouds the fast ejecta in bright shock emission, obscuring our view of the underlying explosion, and the radiation hydrodynamics is challenging to model. The CSM interaction may also be highly nonspherical, perhaps linked to binary interaction in the progenitor system. In some cases, these complications make it difficult to tell the difference between a core-collapse and thermonuclear explosion or to discern between a nonterminal eruption, failed supernova, or weak supernova. Efforts to uncover the physical parameters of individual events and connections to progenitor stars make this a rapidly evolving topic that challenges paradigms of stellar evolution.

  14. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Abundance Tomography of Type Ia Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.; Mazzali, P.A.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of early time spectra of Type Ia Supernovae is presented. A new method to derive a detailed abundance distribution of the SN ejecta through comparison with synthetic spectra, called 'Abundance Tomography' is introduced and applied to the normal SN Ia 2002bo. Conclusions regarding the explosion mechanism are drawn

  17. GRAVITATIONAL FIELD SHIELDING AND SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2010-01-01

    A new mechanism for supernova explosions called gravitational field shielding is proposed, in accord with a five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field that unifies the four-dimensional Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory. It is shown that a dense compact collapsing core of a star will suddenly turn off or completely shield its gravitational field when the core collapses to a critical density, which is inversely proportional to the square of mass of the core. As the core suddenly turns off its gravity, the extremely large pressure immediately stops the core collapse and pushes the mantle material of supernova moving outward. The work done by the pressure in the expansion can be the order of energy released in a supernova explosion. The gravity will resume and stop the core from a further expansion when the core density becomes less than the critical density. Therefore, the gravitational field shielding leads a supernova to impulsively explode and form a compact object such as a neutron star as a remnant. It works such that a compressed spring will shoot the oscillator out when the compressed force is suddenly removed.

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order

  19. Discovery of Ten ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, B.; Brimacombe, J.; Kiyota, S.; Stone, G.; Cruz, I.; Trappett, D.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.

    2018-03-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  20. Discovery of 11 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Fernandez, J. M.; Stone, G.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Nicholls, B.

    2018-04-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  1. Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

  2. NEW EQUATIONS OF STATE IN SIMULATIONS OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.; Liebendörfer, M.; Fischer, T.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss three new equations of state (EOS) in core-collapse supernova simulations. The new EOS are based on the nuclear statistical equilibrium model of Hempel and Schaffner-Bielich (HS), which includes excluded volume effects and relativistic mean-field (RMF) interactions. We consider the RMF parameterizations TM1, TMA, and FSUgold. These EOS are implemented into our spherically symmetric core-collapse supernova model, which is based on general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics and three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport. The results obtained for the new EOS are compared with the widely used EOS of H. Shen et al. and Lattimer and Swesty. The systematic comparison shows that the model description of inhomogeneous nuclear matter is as important as the parameterization of the nuclear interactions for the supernova dynamics and the neutrino signal. Furthermore, several new aspects of nuclear physics are investigated: the HS EOS contains distributions of nuclei, including nuclear shell effects. The appearance of light nuclei, e.g., deuterium and tritium, is also explored, which can become as abundant as alphas and free protons. In addition, we investigate the black hole formation in failed core-collapse supernovae, which is mainly determined by the high-density EOS. We find that temperature effects lead to a systematically faster collapse for the non-relativistic LS EOS in comparison with the RMF EOS. We deduce a new correlation for the time until black hole formation, which allows the determination of the maximum mass of proto-neutron stars, if the neutrino signal from such a failed supernova would be measured in the future. This would give a constraint for the nuclear EOS at finite entropy, complementary to observations of cold neutron stars.

  3. Supernova 1987A: 18 Months later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the significance for physics of the closest visual supernova in almost 400 years is presented. The supernova occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), /approximately/50 kpc away. The supernova star was a massive star of /approximately/15--20M. Observations now show that it was once a red-giant but lost its outer envelope. The lower than standard luminosity and higher observed velocities are a natural consequence of the pre-supernova star being a blue rather than a red [supergiant]. Of particular importance to physicists is the detection of neutrinos from the event by detectors in the United States and Japan. Not only did this establish extra-solar system neutrino astronomy, but it also constrained the properties of neutrino. It is shown that the well established Kamioka-IMB neutrino burst experimentally implies an event with about 2--4 /times/ 10/sup 53/ergs emitted in neutrinos and a temperature, T/sub /bar /nu/e//, of between 4 and 4.5 MeV. This event is in excellent agreement with what one would expect from the gravitational core collapse of a massive star. A neutrino detection, such as that reported earlier in Mt. Blanc, would require more than the rest mass energy of a neutron star to be converted to neutrinos, if it were to have its origin in the LMC. Thus it is probably unrelated to the supernova. The anticipated frequency of collapse events in our Galaxy, will also be discussed with a rate as high as 1/10 year shown to be not unreasonable. 61 refs

  4. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.

  5. Probing the Physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae and Ultra-Relativistic Outflows using Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Joseph

    Core-collapse supernovae, the powerful explosions triggered by the gravitational collapse of massive stars, play an important role in evolution of star-forming galaxies like our Milky Way. Not only do these explosions eject the outer envelope of the progenitor star with extremely high velocities, creating a supernova remnant (SNR), the rotational energy of the resultant neutron star powers an ultra-relativistic outflow called a pulsar wind which creates a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) as it expands into its surroundings. Despite almost a century of study, many fundamental questions remain, including: How is a neutron star formed during a core-collapse supernova? How are particles created in the neutron star magnetosphere? How are particles accelerated to the PeV energies inside PWNe? Answering these questions requires measuring the properties of the progenitor star and pulsar wind for a diverse collection of neutron stars. Currently, this is best done by studying those PWNe inside a SNR, since their evolution is very sensitive to the initial spin period of the neutron star, the mass and initial kinetic energy of the supernova ejecta, and the magnetization and particle spectrum of the pulsar wind - quantities critical for answering the above questions. To this end, we propose to measure these properties for 17 neutron stars whose spin-down inferred dipole surface magnetic field strengths and characteristic ages differ by 1.5 orders of magnitude by fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and dynamical properties of their associated PWNe with a model for the dynamical and spectral evolution of a PWN inside SNR. To do so, we will first re-analyze all archival X-ray (e.g., XMM, Chandra, INTEGRAL, NuSTAR) and gamma-ray (e.g., Fermi-LAT Pass 8) data on each PWN to ensure consistent measurements of the volume-integrated properties (e.g., X-ray photon index and unabsorbed flux, GeV spectrum) needed for this analysis. Additionally, we will use a Markoff Chain

  6. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  7. THE RISE TIME OF NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. george Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Graham, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Fourmanoit, N.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Palanque-Delabrouille, N., E-mail: gonzalez@astro.utoronto.ca [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2012-01-20

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02{sup +0.18}{sub -0.28} (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s {<=} 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57{sup +0.47}{sub -0.50} (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s {<=} 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03{sup +0.81}{sub -1.37} (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve.

  8. Exploring JLA supernova data with improved flux-averaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuang; Wen, Sixiang; Li, Miao, E-mail: wangshuang@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: wensx@mail2.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: limiao9@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, University Road (No. 2), Zhuhai (China)

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we explore the cosmological consequences of the ''Joint Light-curve Analysis'' (JLA) supernova (SN) data by using an improved flux-averaging (FA) technique, in which only the type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at high redshift are flux-averaged. Adopting the criterion of figure of Merit (FoM) and considering six dark energy (DE) parameterizations, we search the best FA recipe that gives the tightest DE constraints in the ( z {sub cut}, Δ z ) plane, where z {sub cut} and Δ z are redshift cut-off and redshift interval of FA, respectively. Then, based on the best FA recipe obtained, we discuss the impacts of varying z {sub cut} and varying Δ z , revisit the evolution of SN color luminosity parameter β, and study the effects of adopting different FA recipe on parameter estimation. We find that: (1) The best FA recipe is ( z {sub cut} = 0.6, Δ z =0.06), which is insensitive to a specific DE parameterization. (2) Flux-averaging JLA samples at z {sub cut} ≥ 0.4 will yield tighter DE constraints than the case without using FA. (3) Using FA can significantly reduce the redshift-evolution of β. (4) The best FA recipe favors a larger fractional matter density Ω {sub m} . In summary, we present an alternative method of dealing with JLA data, which can reduce the systematic uncertainties of SNe Ia and give the tighter DE constraints at the same time. Our method will be useful in the use of SNe Ia data for precision cosmology.

  9. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts : the Greatest Explosions since the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash; Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium

    2001-01-01

    Since the dramatic discovery that the supernova SN1998bw coincided in position and time with a gamma-ray burst, the possibility was raised that these two types of spectacular explosions are related. This timely volume presents especially written articles by a host of world experts who gathered together for an international conference at the Space Telescope Science Institute. This was the first meeting in which the communities of supernova researchers and gamma-ray burst researchers were brought together to share ideas. The contributions review the mechanisms for these explosive events, the possible connections between them, and their relevance for cosmology. Both observations and theoretical developments are covered. This book is an invaluable source of information for both active researchers and graduate students in this exciting area of research.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Taylor Shannon; Viktoria Ohstrom, Eva; Harris, James Austin; Hix, William R.

    2018-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis which occurs in core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) is one of the most important sources of elements in the universe. Elements from Oxygen through Iron come predominantly from supernovae, and contributions of heavier elements are also possible through processes like the weak r-process, the gamma process and the light element primary process. The composition of the ejecta depends on the mechanism of the explosion, thus simulations of high physical fidelity are needed to explore what elements and isotopes CCSN can contribute to Galactic Chemical Evolution. We will analyze the nucleosynthesis results from self-consistent CCSN simulations performed with CHIMERA, a multi-dimensional neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics code. Much of our understanding of CCSN nucleosynthesis comes from parameterized models, but unlike CHIMERA these fail to address essential physics, including turbulent flow/instability and neutrino-matter interaction. We will present nucleosynthesis predictions for the explosion of a 9.6 solar mass first generation star, relying both on results of the 160 species nuclear reaction network used in CHIMERA within this model and on post-processing with a more extensive network. The lowest mass iron core-collapse supernovae, like this model, are distinct from their more massive brethren, with their explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis being more like electron capture supernovae resulting from Oxygen-Neon white dwarves. We will highlight the differences between the nucleosynthesis in this model and more massive supernovae. The inline 160 species network is a feature unique to CHIMERA, making this the most sophisticated model to date for a star of this type. We will discuss the need and mechanism to extrapolate the post-processing to times post-simulation and analyze the uncertainties this introduces for supernova nucleosynthesis. We will also compare the results from the inline 160 species network to the post-processing results to study further

  11. Spectroscopic standardisation of Ia type supernovae within the frame of the Supernovae Legacy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, Jeremy

    2008-09-01

    This research thesis first proposes an overview of cosmology science since antiquity until modern times, of its fast development during the 20. century (discovery of galaxies, introduction of general relativity), of the standard cosmological model (Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics, equations of Friedman-Lemaitre, universe radius and curvature, universe evolution, energetic assessment), of the issue of black matter and black energy, and of cosmological probes (diffuse cosmological background, gravitational lenses). The second part presents supernovae: origin, explosion mechanisms, diversity, Ia supernovae). The third part presents the Supernovae Legacy Survey (SNLS): objectives and instruments of the SNLS program, detection strategy. The fourth part describes the spectroscopy of SNLS candidates to the VLT (Very Large Telescope): reduction of spectral data, subtraction of the host galaxy and identification of the supernova, assessment of method performance, flux and position errors, assessment of VLT observations. The fifth part discusses the variability of spectral characteristics of Ia supernovae: measurement of spectral indicators, study of SiII(4128A) line, study of the CaHandK region, equivalent depth as a new spectral indicator. The sixth part discusses cosmological implications of the SNLS, and the last part briefly reports and comments the measurement of spectroscopic indicators in the SNAP/JDEM experiment

  12. Neutrino nucleosynthesis in supernovae: Shell model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Almost all of the 3 · 10 53 ergs liberated in a core collapse supernova is radiated as neutrinos by the cooling neutron star. I will argue that these neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ejected shells of the supernovae to produce new elements. It appears that this nucleosynthesis mechanism is responsible for the galactic abundances of 7 Li, 11 B, 19 F, 138 La, and 180 Ta, and contributes significantly to the abundances of about 15 other light nuclei. I discuss shell model predictions for the charged and neutral current allowed and first-forbidden responses of the parent nuclei, as well as the spallation processes that produce the new elements. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Type Ia Supernovae: Energetics, Neutronization and Nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truran, James W.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Peng, Fang; Vladimirova, Natalia; Lamb, Donald Q.; Brown, Edward F.

    2007-01-01

    The utility of Type Ia supernovae, not simply as probes of the distance scale but also as a means of constraining the properties of dark energy, demands a significant improvement in theoretical predictions of their properties in outburst. To this end, we have given substantial effort to quantifying the energetics and nucleosynthesis properties of deflagration fronts in the interiors of the putative carbon-oxygen white dwarf progenitors of Type Ia thermonuclear supernovae. We briefly review some essential features of our flame model and its properties in this paper and discuss its implications both for our multidimensional numerical simulations of SNe Ia and for nucleosynthesis (specifically 56Ni production) in SNe Ia and Galactic chemical evolution

  14. Cosmogenic Secondary Radiation from a Nearby Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has been found for multiple supernovae within 100 pc of the solar system. Supernovae produce large amounts of cosmic rays which upon striking Earth's atmosphere, produce a cascade of secondary particles. Among these cosmic ray secondaries are neutrons and muons, which penetrate far within the atmosphere to sea level and even below sea level. Muons and neutrons are both forms of ionizing radiation which have been linked to increases in cancer, congenital malformations, and other maladies. This work focuses on the impact of muons, as they penetrate into ocean water to impact the lowest levels of the aquatic food chain. We have used monte carlo simulations (CORSIKA, MCNPx, and FLUKA) to determine the ionizing radiation dose due to cosmic ray secondaries. This information shows that although most astrophysical events do not supply the necessary radiation flux to prove dangerous; there may be other impacts such as an increase to mutation rate.

  15. Probing Neutrino Mass Hierarchy with Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sovan

    2013-01-01

    The rise time of electron antineutrino lightcurve from a Galactic supernova (SN), observable at the IceCube Cherenkov detector, can provide signature of the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ 13 . In the early accretion phase of the SN, the neutrino oscillations are nontrivial. Due to the matter suppression of collective effects at these early post bounce times, only the MSW resonances in the outer layers of the SN influence the neutrino flux. When the oscillations are taken into account, the signal in IceCube shows sufficiently fast rise time for the inverted mass hierarchy compared to the normal hierarchy. An investigation with an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, provides both qualitative and quantitative robustness of these features. Thus opening another avenue to explore the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

  16. THE AGES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Aubourg, Eric; Strauss, Michael A.; Tojeiro, Rita; Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Using light curves and host galaxy spectra of 101 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with redshift z ∼ 2.4 Gyr. We find that each channel contributes roughly half of the Type Ia rate in our reference sample. We also construct the average spectra of high-stretch and low-stretch SN Ia host galaxies, and find that the difference of these spectra looks like a main-sequence B star with nebular emission lines indicative of star formation. This supports our finding that there are two populations of SNe Ia, and indicates that the progenitors of high-stretch supernovae are at the least associated with very recent star formation in the last few tens of Myr. Our results provide valuable constraints for models of Type Ia progenitors and may help improve the calibration of SNe Ia as standard candles.

  17. Autopsy of the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional kinematic reconstructions of optically emitting ejecta in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) are discussed. The reconstructions encompass the remnant's faint outlying ejecta knots, including the exceptionally high-velocity NE and SW streams of debris often referred to as `jets'. The bulk of Cas A's ejecta are arranged in several circular rings with diameters between approximately 30'' (0.5 pc) and 2' (2 pc). We suggest that similar large-scale ejecta rings may be a common phenomenon of young core-collapse remnants and may explain lumpy emission line profile substructure sometimes observed in spectra of extragalactic core-collapse supernovae years after explosion. A likely origin for these large ejecta rings is post-explosion input of energy from plumes of radioactive 56Ni-rich ejecta that rise, expand, and compress non-radioactive material to form bubble-like structures.

  18. Explosions and light curves of supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffet, B.

    1975-01-01

    The models developed to explain supernovae explosions are reviewed. The first one is thermonuclear explosion (simple or preceded by an implosion phase); the neutrino emission which results of such an explosion can have an important dynamical effect, according as the star is opaque or transparent to them; another theory involves the radiation pressure of the pulsar which is formed in the center of the star. The origin of the supernovae brightness is also uncertain: the initial heat due to the explosion does not seem to be sufficient; the brightness can result from the diffusion of the heat through the ejected matter or can be transported more rapidly by a shock wave. A model in which the heat is produced by the pulsar seems compatible with most observations (shapes of the brightness curves and the continuum spectra, expansion velocities, temperature and luminosity at the peak, total kinetic energy) [fr

  19. Impacto ambiental de los remanentes de supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, G. M.

    2015-08-01

    The explosion of a supernovae (SN) represents the sudden injection of about ergs of thermal and mechanical energy in a small region of space, causing the formation of powerful shock waves that propagate through the interstellar medium at speeds of several thousands of km/s. These waves sweep, compress and heat the interstellar material that they encounter, forming the supernova remnants. Their evolution over thousands of years change forever, irreversibly, not only the physical but also the chemical properties of a vast region of space that can span hundreds of parsecs. This contribution briefly analyzes the impact of these explosions, discussing the relevance of some phenomena usually associated with SNe and their remnants in the light of recent theoretical and observational results.

  20. A look at Supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1987-10-01

    Supernova 1987A is reviewed with emphasis on the neutrino observations. It is shown that the results fit well with the expectations for neutrino temperatures (T ∼ 4ε 0 4.5 MeV) and total energy emitted (2ε 0 4 x 10 53 ergs). It is argued that the detection tends to favor collapse models that yield emission for 10 second timescales with a 1ε 0 2 second early accretion phase followed by Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling as opposed to prompt shocks with the immediate onset of cooling. It is also argued that the probable detection of one or more electron scattering event favors a superthermal tail at high energies. Neutrino mass limits and flavor limits are comparable to laboratory experiments. An estimate for future collapse rates in our galaxy of 1/7 year is made based on nucleosynthesis yields. The supernova also has eliminated many axion and majoron models. 69 refs., 3 figs., 27 tabs

  1. Novae, supernovae, and the island universe hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1988-01-01

    Arguments in Curtis's (1917) paper related to the island universe hypothesis and the existence of novae in spiral nebulae are considered. It is noted that the maximum magnitude versus rate-of-decline relation for novae may be the best tool presently available for the calibration of the extragalactic distance scale. Light curve observations of six novae are used to determine a distance of 18.6 + or - 3.5 MPc to the Virgo cluster. Results suggest that Type Ia supernovae cannot easily be used as standard candles, and that Type II supernovae are unsuitable as distance indicators. Factors other than precursor mass are probably responsible for determining the ultimate fate of evolving stars. 83 references

  2. On Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1706-44, PSR B1757-24, SGR 0526-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the circle of possible NS/SNR associations could be enlarged. An observational test is discussed, which could provide a determination of the true birth-places of NSs associated with middle-aged SNRs, and thereby provide more reliable estimates of their transverse velocities.

  3. Genetic algorithms and supernovae type Ia analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; Nesseris, Savvas

    2009-01-01

    We introduce genetic algorithms as a means to analyze supernovae type Ia data and extract model-independent constraints on the evolution of the Dark Energy equation of state w(z) ≡ P DE /ρ DE . Specifically, we will give a brief introduction to the genetic algorithms along with some simple examples to illustrate their advantages and finally we will apply them to the supernovae type Ia data. We find that genetic algorithms can lead to results in line with already established parametric and non-parametric reconstruction methods and could be used as a complementary way of treating SNIa data. As a non-parametric method, genetic algorithms provide a model-independent way to analyze data and can minimize bias due to premature choice of a dark energy model

  4. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning.

  5. Supernovae from Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1986-01-01

    Wolf-Rayet stars are known to originate from the most massive stars. Under the assumption that these stripped stars explode at the end of their evolution through the same instability mechanism as type II supernovae, we calculate their light curve. The latter is found to be quite similar to the typical SN I light curves but is fainter by about 2 magnitudes. A detailed study of its shape leads to identify the WR supernovae with the SNIp (or SNIb) subclass. The more massive WR stars should explode via the e + e - pair production mechanism, with negligible 56 Ni formation. Their rather dim light curve is predicted to have a ∼ 2 month plateau and afterwards a very sharp decline. A delayed manifestation of such an event might be the Cas A remnant

  6. Search Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  7. Acquire information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2010-01-01

    We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ and neutrino masses ...

  8. Photon Dispersion in a Supernova Core

    OpenAIRE

    Kopf, A.; Raffelt, G.

    1997-01-01

    While the photon forward-scattering amplitude on free magnetic dipoles (e.g. free neutrons) vanishes, the nucleon magnetic moments still contribute significantly to the photon dispersion relation in a supernova (SN) core where the nucleon spins are not free due to their interaction. We study the frequency dependence of the relevant spin susceptibility in a toy model with only neutrons which interact by one-pion exchange. Our approach amounts to calculating the photon absorption rate from the ...

  9. Discovery of 7 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Castro, N.; Clocchiatti, A.; Stone, G.; Nicholls, B.; Fernandez, J. M.; Cacella, P.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Bock, G.

    2018-06-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  10. Discovery of 9 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Castro, N.; Clocchiatti, A.; Cacella, P.; Wiethoff, W.; Krannich, G.; Stone, G.; Kiyota, S.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Bock, G.

    2018-05-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  11. Discovery of 8 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Kiyota, S.; Wiethoff, W.; Stone, G.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Bock, G.

    2018-06-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  12. Neutrino oscillations in magnetically driven supernova explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, Shio; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya, E-mail: shio.k@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: takiwaki.tomoya@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kkotake@th.nao.ac.jp [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    We investigate neutrino oscillations from core-collapse supernovae that produce magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explosions. By calculating numerically the flavor conversion of neutrinos in the highly non-spherical envelope, we study how the explosion anisotropy has impacts on the emergent neutrino spectra through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In the case of the inverted mass hierarchy with a relatively large θ{sub 13} (sin{sup 2} 2θ{sub 13} ∼> 10{sup −3}), we show that survival probabilities of ν-bar {sub e} and ν{sub e} seen from the rotational axis of the MHD supernovae (i.e., polar direction), can be significantly different from those along the equatorial direction. The event numbers of ν-bar {sub e} observed from the polar direction are predicted to show steepest decrease, reflecting the passage of the magneto-driven shock to the so-called high-resonance regions. Furthermore we point out that such a shock effect, depending on the original neutrino spectra, appears also for the low-resonance regions, which could lead to a noticeable decrease in the ν{sub e} signals. This reflects a unique nature of the magnetic explosion featuring a very early shock-arrival to the resonance regions, which is in sharp contrast to the neutrino-driven delayed supernova models. Our results suggest that the two features in the ν-bar {sub e} and ν{sub e} signals, if visible to the Super-Kamiokande for a Galactic supernova, could mark an observational signature of the magnetically driven explosions, presumably linked to the formation of magnetars and/or long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  13. Neutrino oscillations in magnetically driven supernova explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Shio; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2009-09-01

    We investigate neutrino oscillations from core-collapse supernovae that produce magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explosions. By calculating numerically the flavor conversion of neutrinos in the highly non-spherical envelope, we study how the explosion anisotropy has impacts on the emergent neutrino spectra through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. In the case of the inverted mass hierarchy with a relatively large θ13 (sin2 2θ13 gtrsim 10-3), we show that survival probabilities of bar nue and νe seen from the rotational axis of the MHD supernovae (i.e., polar direction), can be significantly different from those along the equatorial direction. The event numbers of bar nue observed from the polar direction are predicted to show steepest decrease, reflecting the passage of the magneto-driven shock to the so-called high-resonance regions. Furthermore we point out that such a shock effect, depending on the original neutrino spectra, appears also for the low-resonance regions, which could lead to a noticeable decrease in the νe signals. This reflects a unique nature of the magnetic explosion featuring a very early shock-arrival to the resonance regions, which is in sharp contrast to the neutrino-driven delayed supernova models. Our results suggest that the two features in the bar nue and νe signals, if visible to the Super-Kamiokande for a Galactic supernova, could mark an observational signature of the magnetically driven explosions, presumably linked to the formation of magnetars and/or long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  14. Preferential acceleration in collisionless supernova shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainebach, K.; Eichler, D.; Schramm, D.

    1979-01-01

    The preferential acceleration and resulting cosmic ray abundance enhancements of heavy elements (relative to protons) are calculated in the collisionless supernova shock acceleration model described by Eichler in earlier work. Rapidly increasing enhancements up to several tens times solar ratios are obtained as a function of atomic weight over charge at the time of acceleration. For material typical of hot phase interstellar medium, good agreement is obtained with the observed abundance enhancements

  15. Discovery of Six ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Stone, G.; Kiyota, S.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Bock, G.; Cornect, R.

    2018-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  16. Discovery of 8 ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Tomasella, Lina; Krannich, G.; Stone, G.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Nicholls, B.; Cacella, P.; Kiyota, S.

    2018-05-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  17. Discovery of Eight ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G.; Brimacombe, J.; Cacella, P.; Farfan, R. G.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Trappett, D.

    2018-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  18. Discovery of Four ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Kiyota, S.; Cruz, I.; Stone, G.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.

    2018-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  19. Discovery of Nine ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacella, P.; Brimacombe, J.; Fernandez, J. M.; Kiyota, S.; Krannich, G.; Koff, R. A.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.; Aslan, L.; Bock, G.; Stone, G.

    2018-01-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  20. Discovery of Five ASAS-SN Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J.; Stone, G.; Kiyota, S.; Vallely, P.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Stritzinger, M.; Holmbo, S.

    2018-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, the quadruple 14-cm "Leavitt" telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, the quadruple 14-cm "Payne-Gaposchkin" telescope in Sutherland, South Africa, and the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" and "Paczynski" telescopes in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered several new transient sources.

  1. Evolution of supernova remnants. III. Thermal waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of heat conduction on the evolution of supernova remnants is investigated. A thermal wave, or electron conduction front, can travel more rapidly than a shock wave during the first thousand years of the remnant's evolution. A self-similar solution describing this phase has been found by Barenblatt. Numerical computations verify the solution and give the evolution past the thermal wave phase. While shell formation is not impeded, the interior density and temperature profiles are smoothed by the action of conduction

  2. On the mass ejected by supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, J.

    1984-01-01

    A simple model is developed in order to calculate the mass ejected by superonovae. We find that the 185, 1006, 1572 and 1604 AD events, all of them classified as either probable or possible type I supernovae, ejected between 0.1 and 0.4 solar masses with an expansion velocity of roughly 10,000 km s -1 . This range of masses suggests that a collapsed object is at the center of the remnants produced by these supernovae if the precursor was a white dwarf whose mass was closed to the Chandrasekhar limit. For the Crab we obtain an ejected mass of 0.45 Msub(sun) and point out that this value is not in contradiction with a proposal in which the moderate helium stars are good candidates for producing this kind of supernovae. Finally we obtain an ejected mass of 3.1 Msub(sun) for Cas A, indicating that a type II event produced this remnant. This ejected mass is closed to what would be expected for a progenitor like an OBN star. (author)

  3. Multi-dimensional explorations in supernova theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, Adam; Dessart, Luc; Ott, Christian D.; Livne, Eli

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we bring together various of our published and unpublished findings from our recent 2D multi-group, flux-limited radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse and explosion of the cores of massive stars. Aided by 2D and 3D graphical renditions, we motivate the acoustic mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions and explain, as best we currently can, the phases and phenomena that attend this mechanism. Two major foci of our presentation are the outer shock instability and the inner core g-mode oscillations. The former sets the stage for the latter, which damp by the generation of sound. This sound propagates outward to energize the explosion and is relevant only if the core has not exploded earlier by some other means. Hence, it is a more delayed mechanism than the traditional neutrino mechanism that has been studied for the last twenty years since it was championed by Bethe and Wilson. We discuss protoneutron star convection, accretion-induced-collapse, gravitational wave emissions, pulsar kicks, the angular anisotropy of the neutrino emissions, a subset of numerical issues, and a new code we are designing that should supercede our current supernova code VULCAN/2D. Whatever ideas last from this current generation of numerical results, and whatever the eventual mechanism(s), we conclude that the breaking of spherical symmetry will survive as one of the crucial keys to the supernova puzzle

  4. The Carnegie Supernova Project: The Low-Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuy, Mario; Folatelli, Gastón; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Persson, S. E.; Roth, Miguel; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Contreras, Carlos; Freedman, Wendy L.; Murphy, D. C.; Madore, Barry F.; Wyatt, P.; Maza, José; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Pinto, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Supernovae are essential to understanding the chemical evolution of the universe. Type Ia supernovae also provide the most powerful observational tool currently available for studying the expansion history of the universe and the nature of dark energy. Our basic knowledge of supernovae comes from the study of their photometric and spectroscopic properties. However, the presently available data sets of optical and near-infrared light curves of supernovae are rather small and/or heterogeneous, and employ photometric systems that are poorly characterized. Similarly, there are relatively few supernovae whose spectral evolution has been well sampled, both in wavelength and phase, with precise spectrophotometric observations. The low-redshift portion of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) seeks to remedy this situation by providing photometry and spectrophotometry of a large sample of supernovae taken on telescope/filter/detector systems that are well understood and well characterized. During a 5 year program that began in 2004 September, we expect to obtain high-precision u'g'r'i'BVYJHKs light curves and optical spectrophotometry for about 250 supernovae of all types. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the CSP survey observing and data reduction methodology. In addition, we present preliminary photometry and spectra obtained for a few representative supernovae during the first observing campaign.

  5. Detecting supernova neutrinos in Daya Bay Neutrino Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mingyang; Guo Xinheng; Yang Binglin

    2011-01-01

    While detecting supernova neutrinos in the Daya Bay neutrino laboratory, several supernova neutrino effects need to be considered, including the supernova shock effects, the neutrino collective effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects, and the Earth matter effects. The phenomena of neutrino oscillation is affected by the above effects. Using some ratios of the event numbers of different supernova neutrinos, we propose some possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and neutrino masses. (authors)

  6. Acquiring information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2010-08-01

    We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle θ13, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about θ13 and neutrino masses by detecting supernova neutrinos. We apply these methods to some current neutrino experiments.

  7. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-04-13

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author).

  8. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-01-01

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author)

  9. X- or γ-rays from supernovae in glacial ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, R.T.; Sarazin, C.L.; Zeller, E.J.; Parker, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is reported that in an analysis of N0 3 - in an Antartic ice core, four spikes of high concentration have been found, three of which occur at depths which correspond roughly to the dates of known galactic supernovae. It is shown that the production of the observed N0 3 - peaks by the hard x-rays generated by a supernovae outburst (particularly Type 1) does not seem inconceivable at least from the point of view of energy requirements and current supernovae models. If this hypothesis is correct the bright supernovae of 1006 should be observed about 15 m beyond the end of the current core. (U.K.)

  10. A GRB and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova from a Single Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Duffell, Paul C.; Liu, Yuqian; Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B.; Kasen, Daniel; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2018-06-01

    Unusually high velocities (≳0.1c) and correspondingly high kinetic energies have been observed in a subset of Type Ic supernovae (so-called “broad-lined Ic” supernovae; SNe Ic-BL), prompting a search for a central engine model capable of generating such energetic explosions. A clue to the explosion mechanism may lie in the fact that all supernovae that accompany long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) belong to the SN Ic-BL class. Using a combination of two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics and radiation transport calculations, we demonstrate that the central engine responsible for long GRBs can also trigger an SN Ic-BL. We find that a reasonable GRB engine injected into a stripped Wolf–Rayet progenitor produces a relativistic jet with energy ∼1051 erg, as well as an SN whose synthetic light curves and spectra are fully consistent with observed SNe Ic-BL during the photospheric phase. As a result of the jet’s asymmetric energy injection, the SN spectra and light curves depend on viewing angle. The impact of viewing angle on the spectrum is particularly pronounced at early times, while the viewing-angle dependence for the light curves (∼10% variation in bolometric luminosity) persists throughout the photospheric phase.

  11. On Deep-Ocean $^{60}Fe$ as a Fossil of a Near-Earth Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Fields, Brian D.; Ellis, John

    1999-01-01

    Live $^{60}$Fe has recently been reported in a deep-ocean ferromanganese crust. Analysis of the isotopic ratios in the sample suggests that the measured $^{60}$Fe abundance exceeds the levels generated by terrestrial and cosmogenic sources, and it has been proposed that the excess of $^{60}$Fe is a signature of a supernova that exploded near the earth several Myr ago. In this paper, we consider the possible background sources, and confirm that the measured $^{60}$Fe is significantly higher than all known backgrounds, in contrast with the reported abundance of live $^{53}$Mn. We discuss scenarios in which the data are consistent with a supernova event at a distance $D \\sim 30$ pc and an epoch $t_{\\rm SN} \\sim 5$ Myr ago. We propose tests that could confirm or refute the interpretation of the $^{60}$Fe discovery, including searches for $^{10}$Be, $^{129}$I and $^{146}$Sm. Such a nearby supernova event might have had some impact on the earth's biosphere, principally by enhancing the cosmic-ray flux. This might h...

  12. A reconnaissance of the possible donor stars to the Kepler supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Childress, Michael; Schmidt, Brian P.; Scharwächter, Julia; Do, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    The identity of Type Ia supernova progenitors remains a mystery, with various lines of evidence pointing toward either accretion from a nondegenerate companion or the rapid merger of two degenerate stars leading to the thermonuclear destruction of a white dwarf. In this paper, we spectroscopically scrutinize 24 of the brightest stars residing in the central 38'' × 38'' of the SN 1604 (Kepler) supernova remnant to search for a possible surviving companion star. We can rule out, with high certainty, a red giant companion star—a progenitor indicated by some models of the supernova remnant. Furthermore, we find no star that exhibits properties uniquely consistent with those expected of a donor star down to L > 10 L ☉ . While the distribution of star properties toward the remnant are consistent with unrelated stars, we identify the most promising candidates for further astrometric and spectroscopic follow up. Such a program would either discover the donor star or place strong limits on progenitor systems to luminosities with L << L ☉ .

  13. Expectation and task for constructing the volume reduction system of removed soils. In search of the technical integrity from the intermediate storage to final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hisaki

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate storage volume of the removed soils and incineration ash in Fukushima is supposed about 22 million cubic meters. Within 30 years after starting the intermediate storage, the final disposal outside Fukushima prefecture to these removed soils and incineration ash is determined by the law. Because these removed soils are the very-very low radio activity, the volume reduction method is most effective to reduce the burden of the final disposal. As the volume reduction technology is the stage of research and development, the possibility of the introduction of the volume reduction technology that has the consistency of the final disposal technology is evaluated from the point of view of cost. Since this business is accompanied by economic and technical risk to implement private companies, this project is considered appropriate to be implemented as a national project. (author)

  14. Could Google Trends Be Used to Predict Methamphetamine-Related Crime? An Analysis of Search Volume Data in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma, Alex; Schleifer, Roman; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Buadze, Anna; Liebrenz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To compare the time trends of Google search interest in methamphetamine and criminal offences related to this drug. Google Trends data for the search term "meth" was compared to methamphetamine-related crime statistics (incl. use, possession, and dealing) in Switzerland, Germany, and Austria for the years 2004-2016. Google data was availably monthly. Crime data was available yearly, and monthly values were imputed. On the country level, internet search trends for "meth" roughly paralleled relevant criminal activity. State-level data, which was available for Austria, showed more heterogeneity. Cross-correlations for yearly data almost always peaked at a lag time of 0 and coefficients were mostly between 0.7 and 1.0 on the country level, and between 0.5 to 1.0 on the state level. Monthly cross-correlations based on imputed values were substantially lower, ranging from 0 to 0.6. These results encourage the further evaluation by law enforcement authorities of Google search activity as a possible predictor of methamphetamine-related crime. However, several limitations, in particular the crude temporal resolution of available crime data, precluded a detailed assessment of the relationship between internet search trends and the development of methamphetamine-related crime in central Europe.

  15. Detection of supernova neutrinos in the liquid-scintillator experiment LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jurgen Michael Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The LENA project (Low-Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a planned large-volume liquid-scintillator detector. The good energy resolution, low-energy threshold, and its large mass allow to perform real-time spectroscopy of low-energy neutrinos with high statistics. This is especially beneficial for the observation of rare events such as a galactic core-collapse supernova. In a liquid scintillator, interactions by different particle types cause different scintillation light pulse shapes. They can be used to identify proton recoils induced by neutrino-proton scattering from supernova neutrinos or by cosmogenic knock-out neutrons. In order to evaluate the performance of the detector, a precise characterization of the liquid scintillator is necessary. In the course of this work, an experiment has been set up at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium in Garching in order to determine the pulse shape of proton and electron recoils in different liquid-scintillator mixtures. Neutrons produced via 11 B(p,n) 11 C or an americiumberyllium source were used to induce proton recoils. Compton scattering of simultaneously emitted γs provided information on the electron recoils. A time-of-flight measurement allows for an easy identification of neutron and γ induced events and thus effective background reduction. The tail-to-total and the Gatti method are used in order to determine the energy-dependent discrimination power of proton and electron recoils in liquid scintillator. Combining both methods, a proton recoil identification efficiency of (99.70±0.05)% can be achieved between 1-1.5 MeV, while suppressing 99% of the γ induced recoils for the probable liquid scintillator mixture for LENA, linear alkylbenzene (LAB) as solvent and 3 g/l 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 20mg/l 1,4-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzole (bisMSB) as fluors. Moreover, the decay constants τ i and the respective amplitudes n i are determined for various liquid scintillator mixtures. It can be observed that the decay times

  16. Hidden Markov model tracking of continuous gravitational waves from young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Melatos, A.; Suvorova, S.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    Searches for persistent gravitational radiation from nonpulsating neutron stars in young supernova remnants are computationally challenging because of rapid stellar braking. We describe a practical, efficient, semicoherent search based on a hidden Markov model tracking scheme, solved by the Viterbi algorithm, combined with a maximum likelihood matched filter, the F statistic. The scheme is well suited to analyzing data from advanced detectors like the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO). It can track rapid phase evolution from secular stellar braking and stochastic timing noise torques simultaneously without searching second- and higher-order derivatives of the signal frequency, providing an economical alternative to stack-slide-based semicoherent algorithms. One implementation tracks the signal frequency alone. A second implementation tracks the signal frequency and its first time derivative. It improves the sensitivity by a factor of a few upon the first implementation, but the cost increases by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.

  17. A tomographic test of cosmological principle using the JLA compilation of type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Sang, Yu; Wang, Sai

    2018-05-01

    We test the cosmological principle by fitting a dipolar modulation of distance modulus and searching for an evolution of this modulation with respect to cosmological redshift. Based on a redshift tomographic method, we divide the Joint Light-curve Analysis compilation of supernovae of type Ia into different redshift bins, and employ a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method to infer the anisotropic amplitude and direction in each redshift bin. However, we do not find any significant deviations from the cosmological principle, and the anisotropic amplitude is stringently constrained to be less than a few thousandths at 95% confidence level.

  18. The End of Days -- Chandra Catches X-ray Glow From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    behavior of the doomed star in the years before the explosion. "The combination of X-ray detection and radio non-detection is unusual, but may have less to do with the supernova and more to do with the great sensitivity of Chandra," said Roger Chevalier of University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Chevalier explained that the combined observations indicate that SN1999em shed a relatively small amount of matter before it exploded, compared to other supernovas observed in X rays. The Chandra observation is important because it may represent a more common type of supernova. The Chandra observation also provides an inside look at the hectic, exciting world of the international "quick response" network that scientists have set up to track and investigate supernovas. On Friday, October 29, Alex Fillipenko of the University of California, Berkeley notified Bob Kirshner at Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., that his automated supernova search project had a good candidate in a relatively nearby spiral galaxy, NGC 1637. Nearby in this case means about 25 million light years from Earth. Wei Dong Li, who is visiting Fillipenko's group from the Beijing Astronomical Observatory in China, called his colleagues in Beijing, who confirmed the supernova when the Earth rotated into a position to make viewing from China possible. The astronomers also notified the International Astronomical Union's central bureau for astronomical telegrams in Cambridge, Mass., from which the discovery was broadcast worldwide. Radio astronomers Christina Lacey and Kurt Weiler at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., Schuyler van Dyk at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena and Richard Sramek at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array, Socorro, N.M. were alerted. Kirshner then got in touch via e-mail with Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Chandra X-ray Center at Harvard-Smithsonian a little before 11 p.m. on Saturday night. The Chandra

  19. The Carnegie Supernova Project I. Photometry data release of low-redshift stripped-envelope supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Anderson, J. P.; Contreras, C.; Heinrich-Josties, E.; Morrell, N.; Phillips, M. M.; Anais, J.; Boldt, L.; Busta, L.; Burns, C. R.; Campillay, A.; Corco, C.; Castellon, S.; Folatelli, G.; González, C.; Holmbo, S.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Krzeminski, W.; Salgado, F.; Serón, J.; Torres-Robledo, S.; Freedman, W. L.; Hamuy, M.; Krisciunas, K.; Madore, B. F.; Persson, S. E.; Roth, M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Taddia, F.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    The first phase of the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I) was a dedicated supernova follow-up program based at the Las Campanas Observatory that collected science data of young, low-redshift supernovae between 2004 and 2009. Presented in this paper is the CSP-I photometric data release of low-redshift stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae. The data consist of optical (uBgVri) photometry of 34 objects, with a subset of 26 having near-infrared (YJH) photometry. Twenty objects have optical pre-maximum coverage with a subset of 12 beginning at least five days prior to the epoch of B-band maximum brightness. In the near-infrared, 17 objects have pre-maximum observations with a subset of 14 beginning at least five days prior to the epoch of J-band maximum brightness. Analysis of this photometric data release is presented in companion papers focusing on techniques to estimate host-galaxy extinction and the light-curve and progenitor star properties of the sample. The analysis of an accompanying visual-wavelength spectroscopy sample of 150 spectra will be the subject of a future paper. Based on observations collected at Las Campanas Observatory.Tables 2-8 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A134

  20. Supernova remnants and the origin of cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants have long been considered to be the dominant sources of Galactic cosmic rays. For a long time the prime evidence consisted of radio synchrotron radiation from supernova remnants, indicating the presence of electrons with energies of several GeV. However, in order to explain the

  1. Supernova Remnants as the Sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of cosmic rays holds still manymysteries hundred years after they were first discovered. Supernova remnants have for long been the most likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. I discuss here some recent evidence that suggests that supernova remnants can indeed efficiently accelerate

  2. Why type 2 supernovae do not explode in irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklovskij, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    The conclusion is drawn that reason for an absence of type 2 supernovae explosions in irregular galaxies is their peculiar chemical composition. The observed lack of stellar wind from massive hot giants is due to relatively low heavy element abundance. For this reason evolving massive stars do not form an extended dense envelopes that is a necessary condition for the type 2 supernova phenomenon

  3. Physics, SN1987A, and the next nearby supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific community has extracted quite a bit of information from SN1987A, some of it enduring. I will summarize what I believe we learned, what we did not learn, and what we can learn about supernovae, neutrinos, and particle physics when the next galactic supernova explodes onto the news

  4. An integral view of fast shocks around supernova 1006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolic, S.; Heng, K.; Kupko, D.; Husemann, B.; Raymond, J.C.; Hughes, J.P.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Ven, G. van de

    2013-01-01

    Supernova remnants are among the most spectacular examples of astrophysical pistons in our cosmic neighborhood. The gas expelled by the supernova explosion is launched with velocities ~1000 kilometers per second into the ambient, tenuous interstellar medium, producing shocks that excite hydrogen

  5. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina; Krisciunas, Kevin; Krzeminski, Wojtek; McCarthy, Patrick; Anderson, Joseph P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Folatelli, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values

  6. Radioactive Iron Rain: Evidence of a Nearby Supernova Explosion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A very close supernova explosion could have caused a mass extinction of life in Earth. In 1996, Brian Fields, the late Dave Schramm and the speaker proposed looking for unstable isotopes such as Iron 60 that could have been deposited by a recent nearby supernova explosion. A group from the Technical University of Munich has discovered Iron 60 in deep-ocean sediments and ferromanganese crusts due to one or more supernovae that exploded O(100) parsecs away about 2.5 million years ago. These results have recently been confirmed by a group from the Australian National University, and the Munich group has also discovered supernova Iron 60 in lunar rock samples. This talk will discuss the interpretation of these results in terms of supernova models, and the possible implications for life on Earth.

  7. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aldering, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antilogus, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aragon, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baltay, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bongard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buton, C [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Childress, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Copin, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Gangler, E. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Loken, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pain, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Pecontal, E. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Pereira, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Perlmutter, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rabinowitz, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rigaudier, G. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Ripoche, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Runge, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scalzo, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Smadja, G. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Tao, C. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, C. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France)

    2017-07-06

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  8. UBVRIz LIGHT CURVES OF 51 TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis; Hamuy, Mario; Jaeger, Thomas de; Moraga, Tania; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Claudia P. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 60, La Serena (Chile); Suntzeff, Nicholas B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Maza, José; González, Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Wishnjewski, Marina [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Krisciunas, Kevin [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Krzeminski, Wojtek [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); McCarthy, Patrick [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Anderson, Joseph P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark); Folatelli, Gastón, E-mail: lgalbany@das.uchile.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP, CONICET) (Argentina); and others

    2016-02-15

    We present a compilation of UBVRIz light curves of 51 type II supernovae discovered during the course of four different surveys during 1986–2003: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calán/Tololo Supernova Program (C and T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernova Survey (CATS). The photometry is based on template-subtracted images to eliminate any potential host galaxy light contamination, and calibrated from foreground stars. This work presents these photometric data, studies the color evolution using different bands, and explores the relation between the magnitude at maximum brightness and the brightness decline parameter (s) from maximum light through the end of the recombination phase. This parameter is found to be shallower for redder bands and appears to have the best correlation in the B band. In addition, it also correlates with the plateau duration, being shorter (longer) for larger (smaller) s values.

  9. Deflagration to detonation transition in thermonuclear supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charignon, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are an important tool to determine the expansion history of our Universe. Thus, considerable attention has been given to both observations and models of these events. The most popular explosion model is the central ignition of a deflagration in the dense C+O interior of a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf, followed by a transition to a detonation (TDD). We study in this thesis a new mechanism for this transition. The most robust and studied progenitor model and the postulated mechanism for the TDD, the so called 'Zel'dovich gradient mechanism', are presented. State of the art 3D simulations of such a delayed detonation, at the price of some adjustments, can indeed reproduce observables. But due to largely unresolved physical scales, such simulations cannot explain the TDD by themselves, and especially, the physical mechanism which triggers this transition - which is not yet understood, even on Earth, for unconfined media. It is then discussed why the current Zel'dovich mechanism might be too constraining for a SN Ia model, pointing to a new approach, which is the core result of this thesis.In the final part, our alternative model for DDT in supernovae, the acoustic heating of the pre-supernova envelope, is presented. A planar model first proves that small amplitude acoustic perturbations (generated by a turbulent flame) are actually amplified in a steep density gradient, up to a point where they turn into shocks able to trigger a detonation. Then, this mechanism is applied to more realistic models, taking into account, in spherical geometry, the expanding envelope. A parametric study demonstrates the validity of the model for a reasonable range of acoustic wave amplitudes and frequencies.To conclude, some exploratory 2D and 3D MHD simulations, seeking for realistic acoustic source compatible with our mechanism, are presented. (author) [fr

  10. Type Ia supernovae, standardizable candles, and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bill S.; Li, Baojiu

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally accepted to act as standardizable candles, and their use in cosmology led to the first confirmation of the as yet unexplained accelerated cosmic expansion. Many of the theoretical models to explain the cosmic acceleration assume modifications to Einsteinian general relativity which accelerate the expansion, but the question of whether such modifications also affect the ability of SNe Ia to be standardizable candles has rarely been addressed. This paper is an attempt to answer this question. For this we adopt a semianalytical model to calculate SNe Ia light curves in non-standard gravity. We use this model to show that the average rescaled intrinsic peak luminosity—a quantity that is assumed to be constant with redshift in standard analyses of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology data—depends on the strength of gravity in the supernova's local environment because the latter determines the Chandrasekhar mass—the mass of the SN Ia's white dwarf progenitor right before the explosion. This means that SNe Ia are no longer standardizable candles in scenarios where the strength of gravity evolves over time, and therefore the cosmology implied by the existing SN Ia data will be different when analysed in the context of such models. As an example, we show that the observational SN Ia cosmology data can be fitted with both a model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.62 ,0.38 ) and Newton's constant G varies as G (z )=G0(1 +z )-1/4 and the standard model where (ΩM,ΩΛ)=(0.3 ,0.7 ) and G is constant, when the Universe is assumed to be flat.

  11. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA CLASSIFICATION WITH MACHINE LEARNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochner, Michelle; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.; McEwen, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k -nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  12. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA CLASSIFICATION WITH MACHINE LEARNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochner, Michelle; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); McEwen, Jason D., E-mail: dr.michelle.lochner@gmail.com [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k -nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  13. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Turbulent Supernova Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P.

    In order to decode the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic core-collapse supernova and reveal the complicated inner workings of the explosion, we need a thorough understanding of the neutrino flavor evolution from the proto-neutron-star outwards. The flavor content of the signal evolves due to both neutrino collective effects and matter effects which can lead to a highly interesting interplay and distinctive spectral features. In this paper we investigate the supernova neutrino flavor evolution by including collective flavor effects, the evolution of the Mikheyev, Smirnov & Wolfenstein (MSW) matter conversions due to the shock wave passing through the star, and the impact of turbulence. The density profiles utilized in our calculations represent a 10.8 MG progenitor and comes from a 1D numerical simulation by Fischer et al.[1]. We find that small amplitude turbulence, up to 10% of the average potential, leads to a minimal modification of the signal, and the emerging neutrino spectra retain both collective and MSW features. However, when larger amounts of turbulence are added, 30% and 50%, the features of collective and shock wave effects in the high density resonance channel are almost completely obscured at late times. At the same time we find the other mixing channels - the low density resonance channel and the non-resonant channels - begin to develop turbulence signatures. Large amplitude turbulent motions in the outer layers of massive, iron core-collapse supernovae may obscure the most obvious fingerprints of collective and shock wave effects in the neutrino signal but cannot remove them completely, and additionally bring about new features in the signal. We illustrate how the progression of the shock wave is reflected in the changing survival probabilities over time, and we show preliminary results on how some of these collective and shock wave induced signatures appear in a detector signal.

  14. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the largest thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Their light output can be seen across great distances and has led to the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating. Despite the significance of SNe Ia, there are still a large number of uncertainties in current theoretical models. Computational modeling offers the promise to help answer the outstanding questions. However, even with today's supercomputers, such calculations are extremely challenging because of the wide range of length and timescales. In this paper, we discuss several new algorithms for simulations of SNe Ia and demonstrate some of their successes

  15. Neutral currents, supernovae neutrinos, and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The inelastic interactions of neutrinos during stellar collapse and neutron star cooling are discussed. The primary mechanism for dissipative neutrino reactions is nuclear excitation by neutral current scattering, a process not included in standard descriptions of supernovae. Charge-current and neutral current ''preheating'' of iron lying outside the shock front appears to be significant in the few milliseconds near shock breakout. This could help produce a more energetic shock. During the cooling phase, the neutral current interactions of muon and taon neutrinos appear to be responsible for some interesting nucleosynthesis. I discuss two examples the production of fluorine and neutrino-induced r-process nucleosynthesis. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Supernova Remnants with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragiulo M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Area Telescope (LAT, on-board the Fermi satellite, proved to be, after 8 years of data taking, an excellent instrument to detect and observe Supernova Remnants (SNRs in a range of energies running from few hundred MeV up to few hundred GeV. It provides essential information on physical processes that occur at the source, involving both accelerated leptons and hadrons, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the primary Cosmic Ray (CR acceleration. We show the latest results in the observation of Galactic SNRs by Fermi-LAT.

  17. Constraining inverse-curvature gravity with supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Olga; Santiago, José; Weller, Jochen

    2006-02-03

    We show that models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature, can explain the current accelerated expansion of the Universe without resorting to dark energy and without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedmann equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe and performed a detailed analysis of supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. If we further include constraints on the current expansion of the Universe and on its age, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07baryonic matter component.

  18. Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs

  19. Supernova neutrinos, giant resonances, and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    Almost all of the 3·10 53 ergs liberated in a core collapse supernova is radiated as neutrinos by the cooling neutron star. The neutrinos can excite nuclei in the mantle of the star by their neutral and charged current reactions. I argue that the resulting spallation reactions are an important nucleosynthesis mechanism that may be responsible for the galactic abundances of 7 Li, 11 B, 19 F, 138 La, 180 Ta, and approximately a dozen other light nuclei. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Sensitivity studies for supernovae type Ia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thien Tam; Goebel, Kathrin; Reifarth, Rene [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Calder, Alan [SUNY - Department of Physics and Astronomy, New York (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Townsley, Dean [The University of Alabama (United States); Travaglio, Claudia [INAF - Astrophysical Observatory, Turin (Italy); Collaboration: NuGrid collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The NuGrid research platform provides a simulation framework to study the nucleosynthesis in multi-dimensional Supernovae Type Ia models. We use a large network of over 5,000 isotopes and more than 60,000 reactions. The nucleosynthesis is investigated in post-processing simulations with temperature and density profiles, initial abundance distributions and a set of reaction rates as input. The sensitivity of the isotopic abundances to α-, proton-, and neutron-capture reaction, their inverse reactions, as well as fusion reactions were investigated. First results have been achieved for different mass coordinates of the exploding star.

  1. What stars become peculiar type I supernovae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uomoto, A.

    1986-01-01

    Hot hydrogen-deficient binaries such as Upsilon Sgr and KS Per are suggested as the stars most likely to become Type Ib supernovae. These systems satisfy the preexplosion constraints imposed by Type Ib observations by not having any hydrogen in their atmospheres (explaining their spectra), being truncated at the Roche lobe (explaining their light curves), and having large main-sequence masses (explaining their presence in extreme Population I locations). Although none of those known seems to be in danger of exploding, a system with a current primary mass of about solar masses may do so by core collapse. 36 references

  2. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  3. X-ray haloes around supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Aschenbach, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent observations of the Cas-A supernova remnant have shown X-ray emissions not only from the interior, but also from a fainter 'halo' extending beyond what is normally regarded as the outer boundary, or shock front. The authors suggest that this may be due to the diffusion of energetic, charged particles out of the remnant giving rise to precursor structure of the type predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. If this is the case we are seeing thermal emission from ambient gas heated by compression and wave dissipation. (author)

  4. X-ray haloes around supernova remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfill, G.E.; Aschenbach, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik); Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-09-27

    Recent observations of the Cas-A supernova remnant have shown X-ray emissions not only from the interior, but also from a fainter 'halo' extending beyond what is normally regarded as the outer boundary, or shock front. The authors suggest that this may be due to the diffusion of energetic charged particles out of the remnant giving rise to precursor structure of the type predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. If this is the case we are seeing thermal emission from ambient gas heated by compression and wave dissipation.

  5. X-rays from supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Sutherland, P.; Mccray, R.; Ross, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the development of the X-ray spectrum of 1987A are presented using more realistic models for the supernova composition and density structure provided by Woosley. It is shown how the emergence of the X-ray spectrum depends on the parameters of the model and the nature of its central energy source. It is shown that the soft X-ray spectrum should be dominated by a 6.4 keV Fe K(alpha) emission line that could be observed by a sensitive X-ray telescope. 28 references

  6. Effects of neutrino trapping on supernova explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Mariko; Sato, Katsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    Effects of neutrino trapping on the mass ejection from the stellar cores are investigated with the aid of a simplified equation of state under the assumption of adiabatic collapse. It is found that mass ejection becomes violent only if the ratio of the trapped leptons to baryons, Y sub(L), lies in an appropriate range. If the value of Y sub(L) lies out of this range, mass ejection is difficult. It is also shown that as the thermal stiffness of the shocked matter increases, the range necessary for the violent mass ejection becomes wider. Possibilities of supernova explosion are discussed on the basis of these results. (author)

  7. Type II supernovae modelisation: neutrinos transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, P.

    1988-10-01

    A modelisation of neutrino transport in type II supernovae is presented. The first part is a description of hydrodynamics and radiative processes responsible of supernovae explosions. Macroscopic aspects of these are displayed in part two. Neutrino transport theory and usual numerical methods are also developed. A new technic of coherent scattering of neutrinos on nuclei or free nucleons is proposed in the frame work of the Lorentz bifluid approximation. This method deals with all numerical artifices (flux limiting schemes, closure relationship of Eddington moments) and allows a complete and consistent determination of the time-dependent neutrino distribution function for any value of the opacity, gradient of opacity and for all (relativistic) velocity fields of the diffusive medium. Part three is dedicated to microscopic phenomena (electronic capture, chimical composition, etc) which rule neutrinos emission-absorption mechanisms. The numerical treatments of those are presented, and some applications are useful for their parametrization. Finally, an extension of the method to inelastic scattering on light particules (electrons) is described in view to study neutrinos thermalization mechanism [fr

  8. Type I supernova models vs observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.; Axelrod, T.S.; Woosley, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper explores tHe observational consequences of models for Type I supernovae based on the detonation (or deflagration) of the degenerate cores of white dwarfs or intermediate mass (approx. = 9 M/sub sun/) stars. Such nuclear burning can be initiated either at the center of the core or near its edge. The model examined in most detail is that of a 0.5M/sub sun/ C/O white dwarf which undergoes an edge-lit He/C/O detonation after accreting 0.62 M/sub sun/ of he at 10 -8 M/sub sun//yr. The light curve resulting from this model is found to be in excellent agreement with those observed for Type I supernovae, particularly those in the fast subclass. The physical processes involved in the detailed numerical calculations which lead to this conclusion are quantitatively elucidated by simple analytic models, and effects of uncertainties in the input physics are explored

  9. Supernovae, compact stars and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review the current understanding of supernova. We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 12 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to plausibly consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, cannot be a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation under appropriate conditions. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 39 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Radio emission from embryonic superluminous supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omand, Conor M. B.; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely argued that Type-I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) are driven by powerful central engines with a long-lasting energy injection after the core-collapse of massive progenitors. One of the popular hypotheses is that the hidden engines are fast-rotating pulsars with a magnetic field of B ˜ 1013-1015 G. Murase, Kashiyama & Mészáros proposed that quasi-steady radio/submm emission from non-thermal electron-positron pairs in nascent pulsar wind nebulae can be used as a relevant counterpart of such pulsar-driven supernovae (SNe). In this work, focusing on the nascent SLSN-I remnants, we examine constraints that can be placed by radio emission. We show that the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimetre Array can detect the radio nebula from SNe at DL ˜ 1 Gpc in a few years after the explosion, while the Jansky Very Large Array can also detect the counterpart in a few decades. The proposed radio follow-up observation could solve the parameter degeneracy in the pulsar-driven SN model for optical/UV light curves, and could also give us clues to young neutron star scenarios for SLSNe-I and fast radio bursts.

  11. Very-high-energy gamma-ray observations of the Type Ia Supernova SN 2014J with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.

    2017-06-01

    Context. In this work we present data from observations with the MAGIC telescopes of SN 2014J detected on January 21 2014, the closest Type Ia supernova since Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes started to operate. Aims: We aim to probe the possibility of very-high-energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) gamma rays produced in the early stages of Type Ia supernova explosions. Methods: We performed follow-up observations after this supernova (SN) explosion for five days, between January 27 and February 2 2014. We searched for gamma-ray signals in the energy range between 100 GeV and several TeV from the location of SN 2014J using data from a total of 5.5 h of observations. Prospects for observing gamma rays of hadronic origin from SN 2014J in the near future are also being addressed. Results: No significant excess was detected from the direction of SN 2014J. Upper limits at 95% confidence level on the integral flux, assuming a power-law spectrum, dF/dE ∝ E- Γ, with a spectral index of Γ = 2.6, for energies higher than 300 GeV and 700 GeV, are established at 1.3 × 10-12 and 4.1 × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1, respectively. Conclusions: For the first time, upper limits on the VHE emission of a Type Ia supernova are established. The energy fraction isotropically emitted into TeV gamma rays during the first 10 days after the supernova explosion for energies greater than 300 GeV is limited to 10-6 of the total available energy budget ( 1051 erg). Within the assumed theoretical scenario, the MAGIC upper limits on the VHE emission suggest that SN 2014J will not be detectable in the future by any current or planned generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes.

  12. Random searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    There are a wide variety of searching problems from molecules seeking receptor sites to predators seeking prey. The optimal search strategy can depend on constraints on time, energy, supplies or other variables. We discuss a number of cases and especially remark on the usefulness of Levy walk search patterns when the targets of the search are scarce.

  13. Could there be a hole in type Ia supernovae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, Lifan

    2004-01-01

    In the favored progenitor scenario, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) arise from a white dwarf accreting material from a non-degenerate companion star. Soon after the white dwarf explodes, the ejected supernova material engulfs the companion star; two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by Marietta et al. (2001) show that, in the interaction, the companion star carves out a conical hole of opening angle 30-40 degrees in the supernova ejecta. In this paper we use multi-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to explore the observable consequences of an ejecta-hole asymmetry. We calculate the variation of the spectrum, luminosity, and polarization with viewing angle for the aspherical supernova near maximum light. We find that the supernova looks normal from almost all viewing angles except when one looks almost directly down the hole. In the latter case, one sees into the deeper, hotter layers of ejecta. The supernova is relatively brighter and has a peculiar spectrum characterized by more highly ionized species, weaker absorption features, and lower absorption velocities. The spectrum viewed down the hole is comparable to the class of SN 1991T-like supernovae. We consider how the ejecta-hole asymmetry may explain the current spectropolarimetric observations of SNe Ia, and suggest a few observational signatures of the geometry. Finally, we discuss the variety currently seen in observed SNe Ia and how an ejecta-hole asymmetry may fit in as one of several possible sources of diversity

  14. THE VERY YOUNG TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2013dy: DISCOVERY, AND STRONG CARBON ABSORPTION IN EARLY-TIME SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nugent, Peter E.; Graham, Melissa; Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Li, Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howie Marion, G.; Kasen, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Valenti, Stefano; Howell, D. Andrew; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Cenko, S. Bradley; Balam, Dave; Hsiao, Eric; Sand, David

    2013-01-01

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2013dy in NGC 7250 (d ≈ 13.7 Mpc) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Combined with a prediscovery detection by the Italian Supernova Search Project, we are able to constrain the first-light time of SN 2013dy to be only 0.10 ± 0.05 days (2.4 ± 1.2 hr) before the first detection. This makes SN 2013dy the earliest known detection of an SN Ia. We infer an upper limit on the radius of the progenitor star of R 0 ≲ 0.25 R ☉ , consistent with that of a white dwarf. The light curve exhibits a broken power law with exponents of 0.88 and then 1.80. A spectrum taken 1.63 days after first light reveals a C II absorption line comparable in strength to Si II. This is the strongest C II feature ever detected in a normal SN Ia, suggesting that the progenitor star had significant unburned material. The C II line in SN 2013dy weakens rapidly and is undetected in a spectrum 7 days later, indicating that C II is detectable for only a very short time in some SNe Ia. SN 2013dy reached a B-band maximum of M B = –18.72 ± 0.03 mag ∼17.7 days after first light

  15. THE VERY YOUNG TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2013dy: DISCOVERY, AND STRONG CARBON ABSORPTION IN EARLY-TIME SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nugent, Peter E.; Graham, Melissa; Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howie Marion, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Valenti, Stefano; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ciabattari, Fabrizio [Monte Agliale Observatory, Borgo a Mozzano, Lucca, I-55023 Italy (Italy); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balam, Dave [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Hsiao, Eric [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Sand, David, E-mail: zwk@astro.berkeley.edu [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); and others

    2013-11-20

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2013dy in NGC 7250 (d ≈ 13.7 Mpc) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Combined with a prediscovery detection by the Italian Supernova Search Project, we are able to constrain the first-light time of SN 2013dy to be only 0.10 ± 0.05 days (2.4 ± 1.2 hr) before the first detection. This makes SN 2013dy the earliest known detection of an SN Ia. We infer an upper limit on the radius of the progenitor star of R {sub 0} ≲ 0.25 R {sub ☉}, consistent with that of a white dwarf. The light curve exhibits a broken power law with exponents of 0.88 and then 1.80. A spectrum taken 1.63 days after first light reveals a C II absorption line comparable in strength to Si II. This is the strongest C II feature ever detected in a normal SN Ia, suggesting that the progenitor star had significant unburned material. The C II line in SN 2013dy weakens rapidly and is undetected in a spectrum 7 days later, indicating that C II is detectable for only a very short time in some SNe Ia. SN 2013dy reached a B-band maximum of M{sub B} = –18.72 ± 0.03 mag ∼17.7 days after first light.

  16. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  17. VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF A SUPERNOVA-DRIVEN TURBULENT, MAGNETIZED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Alex S.; Matthew Haffner, L.; Ryan Joung, M.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Benjamin, Robert A.; Klingenberg, Christian; Waagan, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Stellar feedback drives the circulation of matter from the disk to the halo of galaxies. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a vertical column of the interstellar medium with initial conditions typical of the solar circle in which supernovae drive turbulence and determine the vertical stratification of the medium. The simulations were run using a stable, positivity-preserving scheme for ideal MHD implemented in the FLASH code. We find that the majority (≈90%) of the mass is contained in thermally stable temperature regimes of cold molecular and atomic gas at T 4.2 K, with strong peaks in probability distribution functions of temperature in both the cold and warm regimes. The 200-10 4.2 K gas fills 50%-60% of the volume near the plane, with hotter gas associated with supernova remnants (30%-40%) and cold clouds ( 5 K) gas accounts for most of the mass and volume, while hot gas dominates at |z| > 3 kpc. The magnetic field in our models has no significant impact on the scale heights of gas in each temperature regime; the magnetic tension force is approximately equal to and opposite the magnetic pressure, so the addition of the field does not significantly affect the vertical support of the gas. The addition of a magnetic field does reduce the fraction of gas in the cold ( 4 K) gas. However, our models lack rotational shear and thus have no large-scale dynamo, which reduces the role of the field in the models compared to reality. The supernovae drive oscillations in the vertical distribution of halo gas, with the period of the oscillations ranging from ≈30 Myr in the T 6 K gas, in line with predictions by Walters and Cox.

  18. The diversity of neutron stars: Nearby thermally emitting neutron stars and the compact central objects in supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David L.

    Neutron stars are invaluable tools for exploring stellar death, the physics of ultra-dense matter, and the effects of extremely strong magnetic fields. The observed population of neutron stars is dominated by the > 1000 radio pulsars, but there are distinct sub-populations that, while fewer in number, can have significant impact on our understanding of the issues mentioned above. These populations are the nearby isolated neutron stars discovered by ROSAT, and the central compact objects in supernova remnants. The studies of both of these populations have been greatly accelerated in recent years through observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton telescope. First, we discuss radio, optical, and X-ray observations of the nearby neutron stars aimed at determining their relation to the Galactic neutron star population and at unraveling their complex physical processes by determining the basic astronomical parameters that define the population -- instances, ages, and magnetic fields -- the uncertainties in which limit any attempt to derive basic physical parameters for these objects. We conclude that these sources are 10^6 year-old cooling neutron stars with magnetic fields above 10^13 G. Second, we describe the hollow supernova remnant problem: why many of the supernova remnants in the Galaxy have no indication central neutron stars. We have undertaken an X-ray census of neutron stars in a volume-limited sample of Galactic supernova remnants, and from it conclude that either many supernovae do not produce neutron stars contrary to expectation, or that neutron stars can have a wide range in cooling behavior that makes many sources disappear from the X-ray sky.

  19. Radio emission from supernovae. I. One to twelve year old supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, K.W.; Panagia, N.; Sramek, R.A.; Van Der Hulst, J.M.; Roberts, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    All recorded optical supernovae brighter than 14.0 mag from SN 1970A to SN 1981A were observed in May 1982 using VLA at 6 cm. Apart from the known radio supernovae (SN 1970G, SN 1979C, and SN 1980K), radio emissions were not detected from any of the objects to a limit of about 0.5 mJy. Limits on mass-loss rates from the presupernova systems are established. It is found that Type Ia Sns originate in systems which contain very little circumstellar material at the time of explosion. These systems are very different from those which originate Type Ib Sns. With some exceptions, Type II SNs originate with the high presupernova mass-loss rates expected from red supergiant progenitors with original main-sequence masses greater than about 8 solar masses. 16 references

  20. Chandra Maps Vital Elements From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    A team of astronomers led by Dr. John Hughes of Rutgers University in Piscataway, NJ has used observations from NASA's orbital Chandra X-ray Observatory to make an important new discovery that sheds light on how silicon, iron, and other elements were produced in supernova explosions. An X-ray image of Cassiopeia A (Cas A), the remnant of an exploded star, reveals gaseous clumps of silicon, sulfur, and iron expelled from deep in the interior of the star. The findings appear online in the Astrophysical Journal Letters at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ and are slated for print publication on Jan. 10, 2000. Authors of the paper, "Nucleosynthesis and Mixing in Cassiopeia A", are Hughes, Rutgers graduate student Cara Rakowski, Dr. David Burrows of the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA and Dr. Patrick Slane of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA. According to Hughes, one of the most profound accomplishments of twentieth century astronomy is the realization that nearly all of the elements other than hydrogen and helium were created in the interiors of stars. "During their lives, stars are factories that take the simplest element, hydrogen, and convert it into heavier ones," he said. "After consuming all the hydrogen in their cores, stars begin to evolve rapidly, until they finally run out of fuel and begin to collapse. In stars ten times or so more massive than our Sun, the central parts of the collapsing star may form a neutron star or a black hole, while the rest of the star is blown apart in a tremendous supernova explosion." Supernovae are rare, occurring only once every 50 years or so in a galaxy like our own. "When I first looked at the Chandra image of Cas A, I was amazed by the clarity and definition," said Hughes. "The image was much sharper than any previous one and I could immediately see lots of new details." Equal in significance to the image clarity is the potential the Chandra data held for measuring the

  1. Generation of Cosmic rays in Historical Supernova Remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of observations of two types of Galactic supernova remnants with the SHALON mirror Cherenkov telescope of Tien-Shan high-mountain Observatory: the shell-type supernova remnants Tycho, Cas A and IC 443; plerions Crab Nebula, 3c58(SN1181 and Geminga (probably plerion. The experimental data have confirmed the prediction of the theory about the hadronic generation mechanism of very high energy (800 GeV - 100 TeV gamma-rays in Tycho's supernova remnant. The data obtainedsuggest that the very high energy gamma-ray emission in the objects being discussedis different in origin.

  2. A cosmogonical analogy between the Big Bang and a supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Big Bang may be discussed most easily in analogy with an expanding spherical shell. An expanding spherical shell, in turn, is quite similar to an ejected supernova shell. In both the Big Bang and the supernova, fragmentation is postulated to occur, where each fragment of the universe becomes a galaxy, and each fragment of supernova shell becomes a solar system. By supporting the presence of shearing flow at the time of fragmentation, a model has been constructed to examine the results in both cases. It has been shown that the model produces a good description of reality on both the galactic and solar system scales. (Auth.)

  3. Supernova Neutrino-Process and Implication in Neutrino Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Fujiya, W.; Mathews, G. J.; Yoshida, T.; Shaku, K.; Nakamura, K.; Hayakawa, T.

    2012-08-01

    We studied the supernova nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and found that several isotopes of rare elements like 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and many others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process in core-collapse supernovae. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy simultaneously from the supernova neutrino-process, combined with the r-process for heavy-element synthsis and the Galactic chemical evolution on light nuclei.

  4. Weak Interaction processes in core-collapse supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the role that weak interaction processes play in supernova. This includes electron captures and inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (INNS). Electron captures during the collapse occur mainly in heavy nuclei, however the proton contribution is responsible for the convergence of different models to a 'norm' stellar trajectory. Neutrino-nucleus cross sections at supernova neutrino energies can be determined from precise data on the magnetic dipole strength. The results agree well with large-scale shell-model calculations. When incorporated in core-collapse simulations INNS increases the neutrino opacities noticeably and strongly reduces the high-energy part of the supernova spectrum

  5. The Importance of Electron Captures in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langanke, K.; Sampaio, J.M.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear physics plays an essential role in the dynamics of a type II supernova (a collapsing star). Recent advances in nuclear many-body theory allow now to reliably calculate the stellar weak-interaction processes involving nuclei. The most important process is the electron capture on finite nuclei with mass numbers A > 55. It is found that the respective capture rates, derived from modern many-body models, differ noticeably from previous, more phenomenological estimates. This leads to significant changes in the stellar trajectory during the supernova explosion, as has been found in state-of-the-art supernova simulations. (author)

  6. Radio Supernovae: Circum-Stellar Investigation (C.S.I.) of Supernova Progenitor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    years initiated by K. W. Weiler, N. Panagia, and R. A. Sramek. The VLA observing programs have detected dozens of new radio SNe. After discovery , the...analysis of the recent VLA data appears to support this discovery , reporting an inversion of the spectral index at higher 6 Figure 4 Left, the VLA light...formation of pulsar wind-nebula in other SN observations where VLBI measurements are not feasible. 3 The Future of Radio Supernovae Current observing

  7. Preparatory studies for the WFIRST supernova cosmology measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, Saul

    In the context of the WFIRST-AFTA Science Definition Team we developed a first version of a supernova program, described in the WFIRST-AFTA SDT report. This program uses the imager to discover supernova candidates and an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) to obtain spectrophotometric light curves and higher signal to noise spectra of the supernovae near peak to better characterize the supernovae and thus minimize systematic errors. While this program was judged a robust one, and the estimates of the sensitivity to the cosmological parameters were felt to be reliable, due to limitation of time the analysis was clearly limited in depth on a number of issues. The goal of this proposal is to further develop this program and refine the estimates of the sensitivities to the cosmological parameters using more sophisticated systematic uncertainty models and covariance error matrices that fold in more realistic data concerning observed populations of SNe Ia as well as more realistic instrument models. We propose to develop analysis algorithms and approaches that are needed to build, optimize, and refine the WFIRST instrument and program requirements to accomplish the best supernova cosmology measurements possible. We plan to address the following: a) Use realistic Supernova populations, subclasses and population drift. One bothersome uncertainty with the supernova technique is the possibility of population drift with redshift. We are in a unique position to characterize and mitigate such effects using the spectrophotometric time series of real Type Ia supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). Each supernova in this sample has global galaxy measurements as well as additional local environment information derived from the IFS spectroscopy. We plan to develop methods of coping with this issue, e.g., by selecting similar subsamples of supernovae and allowing additional model flexibility, in order to reduce systematic uncertainties. These studies will allow us to

  8. SUPERNOVA CONSTRAINTS AND SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES FROM THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, A.; Carlberg, R. G.; Perrett, K. M.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Howell, D. A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Pritchet, C. J.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.

    2011-01-01

    We combine high-redshift Type Ia supernovae from the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) with other supernova (SN) samples, primarily at lower redshifts, to form a high-quality joint sample of 472 SNe (123 low-z, 93 SDSS, 242 SNLS, and 14 Hubble Space Telescope). SN data alone require cosmic acceleration at >99.999% confidence, including systematic effects. For the dark energy equation of state parameter (assumed constant out to at least z = 1.4) in a flat universe, we find w = -0.91 +0.16 -0.20 (stat) +0.07 -0.14 (sys) from SNe only, consistent with a cosmological constant. Our fits include a correction for the recently discovered relationship between host-galaxy mass and SN absolute brightness. We pay particular attention to systematic uncertainties, characterizing them using a systematic covariance matrix that incorporates the redshift dependence of these effects, as well as the shape-luminosity and color-luminosity relationships. Unlike previous work, we include the effects of systematic terms on the empirical light-curve models. The total systematic uncertainty is dominated by calibration terms. We describe how the systematic uncertainties can be reduced with soon to be available improved nearby and intermediate-redshift samples, particularly those calibrated onto USNO/SDSS-like systems.

  9. A Python Calculator for Supernova Remnant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.; Williams, J. E.

    2017-05-01

    A freely available Python code for modeling supernova remnant (SNR) evolution has been created. This software is intended for two purposes: to understand SNR evolution and to use in modeling observations of SNR for obtaining good estimates of SNR properties. It includes all phases for the standard path of evolution for spherically symmetric SNRs. In addition, alternate evolutionary models are available, including evolution in a cloudy ISM, the fractional energy-loss model, and evolution in a hot low-density ISM. The graphical interface takes in various parameters and produces outputs such as shock radius and velocity versus time, as well as SNR surface brightness profile and spectrum. Some interesting properties of SNR evolution are demonstrated using the program.

  10. Supernova signatures of neutrino mass ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2018-01-01

    A suite of detectors around the world is poised to measure the flavor-energy-time evolution of the ten-second burst of neutrinos from a core-collapse supernova occurring in the Milky Way or nearby. Next-generation detectors to be built in the next decade will have enhanced flavor sensitivity and statistics. Not only will the observation of this burst allow us to peer inside the dense matter of the extreme event and learn about the collapse processes and the birth of the remnant, but the neutrinos will bring information about neutrino properties themselves. This review surveys some of the physical signatures that the currently-unknown neutrino mass pattern will imprint on the observed neutrino events at Earth, emphasizing the most robust and least model-dependent signatures of mass ordering.

  11. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Pignata, G.; Förster, F.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bufano, F.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; De Jaeger, T. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Folatelli, G. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Kavli IPMU, WPI) (Japan); Anderson, J. P., E-mail: sgonzale@das.uchile.cl [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  12. DARK MATTER ADMIXED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M DM : a larger M DM generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 M ⊙ as M DM increases from 0.01 to 0.03 M ⊙ . We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type Ia supernovae

  13. The evolution of red supergiants to supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasor, Emma R.; Davies, Ben

    2017-11-01

    With red supergiants (RSGs) predicted to end their lives as Type IIP core collapse supernova (CCSN), their behaviour before explosion needs to be fully understood. Mass loss rates govern RSG evolution towards SN and have strong implications on the appearance of the resulting explosion. To study how the mass-loss rates change with the evolution of the star, we have measured the amount of circumstellar material around 19 RSGs in a coeval cluster. Our study has shown that mass loss rates ramp up throughout the lifetime of an RSG, with more evolved stars having mass loss rates a factor of 40 higher than early stage RSGs. Interestingly, we have also found evidence for an increase in circumstellar extinction throughout the RSG lifetime, meaning the most evolved stars are most severely affected. We find that, were the most evolved RSGs in NGC2100 to go SN, this extra extinction would cause the progenitor's initial mass to be underestimated by up to 9M⊙.

  14. Light curve of type I supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.; Kriese, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the intermediate and late time luminosity of type I supernovae based on 100% efficiency for optical emission of energy deposited by the Ni 56 decay chain give good agreement with observations provided M/sub ej/ v -2 = (2.2 +- 0.5) x 10 17 M. s 2 cm -2 where M/sub ej/ is the ejected mass an v is the expansion velocity. Account must be taken of the escape of both gamma rays and positrons. These two escape processes as well as the early luminosity peak as calculated by Colgate and McKee are all consistent with the same value of M/sub ej//v 2

  15. Exosat observations of the Kepler supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Peacock, A.; Arnaud, M.; Ballet, J.; Rothenflug, R.

    1989-01-01

    The medium-energy experiment on board Exosat was used to measure the X-ray spectrum of the Kepler supernova remnant over the range 1.5-10 keV. An Fe emission line was clearly resolved with an energy of about 6.5 keV and equivalent width of about 1.8 keV. This was superposed on a continuum with a temperature of 5.0(+3.8, -1.9) keV. The medium-energy spectrum is shown to be consistent with a model in which the Kepler SNR is presently in a Sedov phase of evolution, the 5 keV continuum arises from the shocked interstellar/circumstellar medium, and thermal (but not ionization) equilibrium exists between electrons and ions behind the primary shock front. However, in this case, an overabundance of iron by more than 6 times cosmic is required. 28 refs

  16. Nuclear gamma ray lines from supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, J.O.D.

    1980-01-01

    From theoretical considerations of the behaviour of gamma ray line fluxes occurring after a supernova explosion, the 1.156 and 0.847 MeV lines are seen to be the most likely to be observed. The 1.156 MeV line has been previously observed by other investigators. Observations of the 0.847 MeV line, and 1.332, 1.173 and 0.059 MeV lines using a Ge(Li) telescope aboard a stratospheric balloon which was flown in Brazil in 1977 are reported. The observation using a NaI(Tl) detector of a line in the energy interval 1.5 - 1.6 MeV, which may be due to 0 18 (p,p') 0 18 sup (*) reaction is also reported. (Author) [pt

  17. Electron Acceleration in Supernovae and Millimeter Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Maeda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernovae launch a strong shock wave by the interaction of the expanding ejecta and surrounding circumstellar matter (CSM. At the shock, electrons are accelerated to relativistic speed, creating observed synchrotron emissions in radio wavelengths. In this paper, I suggest that SNe (i.e., < 1 year since the explosion provide a unique site to study the electron acceleration mechanism. I argue that the eciency of the acceleration at the young SN shock is much lower than conventionally assumed, and that the electrons emitting in the cm wavelengths are not fully in the Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA regime. Thus radio emissions from young SNe record information on the yet-unresolved 'injection' mechanism. I also present perspectives of millimeter (mm observations of SNe - this will provide opportunities to uniquely determine the shock physics and the acceleration efficiency, to test the non-linear DSA mechanism and provide a characteristic electron energy scale with which the DSA start dominating the electron acceleration.

  18. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Blondin, John; Borkowski, Kazik; Reynolds, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Kepler’s supernova remnant contains unusual features that strongly suggest an origin in a single-degenerate Type Ia explosion, including anisotropic circumstellar medium (CSM), a strong brightness gradient, and spatially varying expansion proper motions. We present 3Dhydrodynamic simulations to test a picture in which Kepler's progenitor binary emitted a strong asymmetric wind, densest in the orbital plane, while the system moved at high velocity through the ISM. We simulate the creation of the presupernova environment as well as the supernova blast wave, using the VH-1 grid-based hydrodynamics code. We first modeled an anisotropic wind to create an asymmetric bowshock around the progenitor, then the blast wave from thesupernova. The final simulation places both previous model pieces onto a single grid and allows the blast wave to expand into the bowshock. Models were completed on a Yin-Yang grids with matching angular resolutions. By manipulating parameters that control the asymmetry of the system, we attempted to find conditions that recreated the current state of Kepler. We analyzed these models by comparing images of Kepler from the Chandra X-ray Observatory to line-of-sight projections from the model results. We also present comparisons of simulated expansion velocities with recent observations of X-ray proper motions from Chandra images. We were able to produce models that contained similar features to those seen in Kepler. We find the greatest resemblance to Kepler images with a presupernova wind with an equator-to-pole density contrast of 3 and a moderately disk-like CSM at a 5° angle between equatorial plane and system motion.

  19. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a nearly universal agreement that type Ia supernovae are associated with the thermonuclear disruption of a CO white dwarf, the exact nature of their progenitors is still unknown. The single degenerate scenario envisages a white dwarf accreting matter from a non-degenerate companion in a binary system. Nuclear energy of the accreted matter is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gives rise to numerous classical nova explosions prior to the supernova event. We show that combined X-ray output of supernova progenitors and statistics of classical novae predicted in the single degenerate scenario are inconsistent with X-ray and optical observations of nearby early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. White dwarfs accreting from a donor star in a binary system and detonating at the Chandrasekhar mass limit can account for no more than ∼5% of type Ia supernovae observed in old stellar populations.

  20. An earlier explosion date for the Crab Nebula supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.; Fountain, John W.

    2018-04-01

    The Chinese first reported the Crab Nebula supernova on 1054 July 5. Ecclesiastical documents from the near east reported it in April and May of 1054. More than 33 petroglyphs made by Native Americans in the US and Mexico are consistent with sightings both before and after conjunction with the Sun on 1054 May 27. We found a petroglyph showing the new star close to Venus and the Moon, which occurred on 1054 April 12 and April 13, respectively. Collins et al., using the four historical dates, derived a light curve that is like that of a Type Ia supernova. The only remaining problem with this identification is that this supernova was near maximum light for 85 d, which is unlike the behavior of any known supernova.

  1. The ν process in the innermost supernova ejecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieverding Andre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis (ν process in supernova explosions of massive stars of solar metallicity with initial main sequence masses between 13 and 30 M⊙ has been studied with an analytic explosion model using a new extensive set of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections and spectral properties that agree with modern supernova simulations. The production factors for the nuclei 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La and 180Ta, are still significantly enhanced but do not reproduce the full solar abundances. We study the possible contribution of the innermost supernova eject to the production of the light elements 7Li and 11B with tracer particles based on a 2D supernova simulation of a 12 M⊙ progenitor and conclude, that a contribution exists but is negligible for the total yield for this explosion model.

  2. The ν process in the innermost supernova ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieverding, Andre [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany; Langanke, Karlheinz [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Harris, James Austin [ORNL; Hix, William Raphael [ORNL

    2017-12-01

    The neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis (ν process) in supernova explosions of massive stars of solar metallicity with initial main sequence masses between 13 and 30 M⊙ has been studied with an analytic explosion model using a new extensive set of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections and spectral properties that agree with modern supernova simulations. The production factors for the nuclei 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La and 180Ta, are still significantly enhanced but do not reproduce the full solar abundances. We study the possible contribution of the innermost supernova eject to the production of the light elements 7Li and 11B with tracer particles based on a 2D supernova simulation of a 12 M⊙ progenitor and conclude, that a contribution exists but is negligible for the total yield for this explosion model.

  3. Simulation turbulenter Konvektion in Supernova-Explosionen massereicher Sterne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.; Ruffert, M.

    Contents: 1. Das Projekt: Numerische Simulation von Typ-II-Supernovae. 2. Die numerischen Verfahren. 3. Die Visualisierung von dreidimensionalen Datensätzen. 4. Die Ergebnisse: Einblick in explodierende Sterne.

  4. Type Ia supernovae as speed sensors at intermediate redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengjie; Chen Xuelei

    2008-01-01

    Large scale peculiar velocity (LSPV) is a crucial probe of dark matter, dark energy, and gravity at cosmological scales. However, its application is severely limited by measurement obstacles. We show that fluctuations in type Ia supernovae fluxes induced by LSPV offer a promising approach to measure LSPV at intermediate redshifts. In the 3D Fourier space, gravitational lensing, the dominant systematical error, is well suppressed, localized, and can be further corrected effectively. Advances in supernova observations can further significantly reduce shot noise induced by supernova intrinsic fluctuations, which is the dominant statistical error. Robust mapping on the motion of the dark universe through type Ia supernovae is thus feasible to z∼0.5.

  5. Three-dimensional Modeling of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Alexei

    2001-06-01

    A deflagration explosion of a Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) is studied using three-dimensional, high-resolution, adaptive mesh refinement fluid dynamic calculations. Deflagration speed in an exploding Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD) grows exponentially, reaches approximately 30the speed of sound, and then declines due to a WD expansion. Outermost layers of the WD remain unburned. The explosion energy is comparable to that of a Type Ia supernova. The freezing of turbulent motions by expansion appears to be a crucial physical mechanism regulating the strength of a supernova explosion. In contrast to one-dimensional models, three-dimensional calculations predict the formation of Si-group elements and pockets of unburned CO in the middle and in central regions of a supernova ejecta. This, and the presence of unburned outer layer of carbon-oxygen may pose problems for SNIa spectra. Explosion sensitivity to initial conditions and its relation to a diversity of SNIa is discussed.

  6. A problem with the analysis of type Ia supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford David F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type Ia supernovae have light curves that have widths and magnitudes that can be used for testing cosmologies and they provide one of the few direct measurements of time dilation. It is shown that the standard analysis that calibrates the light curve against a rest-frame average (such as SALT2 removes all the cosmological information from the calibrated light curves. Consequently type Ia supernovae calibrated with these methods cannot be used to investigate cosmology. The major evidence that supports the hypothesis of a static universe is that the measurements of the widths of the rawlight curves of type Ia supernovae do not show any time dilation. The intrinsicwavelength dependence shown by the SALT2 calibration templates is also consistent with no time dilation. Using a static cosmological model the peak absolute magnitudes of raw type Ia supernovae observations are also independent of redshift. These results support the hypothesis of a static universe.

  7. The interaction of supernova ejecta with an ambient medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plausible environments for supernovae are the interstellar medium with constant density or a circumstellar medium built up by mass loss with rho proportional to r -2 . Self-similar solutions for the interaction region between the expanding supernova gas and the ambient gas exist provided that the expanding gas has rho proportional to rsup(-n) with n > 5. The circumstellar medium case is likely to be important for the early evolution of Type II supernovae because their progenitor stars are probably red supergiants. The radio and X-ray emission observed from extragalactic supernovae may be from this interaction region. The early self-similar solutions can also be applied to the young galactic remnants. (Auth.)

  8. A cosmological analogy between the big bang and a supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.

    1983-01-01

    The author presents an objection to Brown's (1981) analogy between a supernova and the Big Bang. According to Brown an expanding spherical shell is quite similar to an ejected supernova shell. However, the fragmented shell of a supernova moves outward in pre-existing space. The force of repulsion which makes the fragments of the shell drift apart can be regarded as equivalent to the force of attraction of the rest of the universe on the supernova. By definition, such a force of attraction is absent in the case of the Big Bang. Energy is supposed suddenly to appear simultaneously at all points throughout the universe at the time of the Big Bang. As the universe expands, space expands too. In the relativistic cosmology, the universe cannot expand in pre-existing space. (Auth.)

  9. Cosmological analogy between the big bang and a supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S. (Hamburg, Germany, F.R.)

    1983-10-01

    The author presents an objection to Brown's (1981) analogy between a supernova and the Big Bang. According to Brown an expanding spherical shell is quite similar to an ejected supernova shell. However, the fragmented shell of a supernova moves outward in pre-existing space. The force of repulsion which makes the fragments of the shell drift apart can be regarded as equivalent to the force of attraction of the rest of the universe on the supernova. By definition, such a force of attraction is absent in the case of the Big Bang. Energy is supposed suddenly to appear simultaneously at all points throughout the universe at the time of the Big Bang. As the universe expands, space expands too. In the relativistic cosmology, the universe cannot expand in pre-existing space.

  10. Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Annastasia

    2018-01-01

    Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.

  11. The past, present and future supernova threat to Earth's biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Martin

    2011-12-01

    A brief review of the threat posed to Earth's biosphere via near-by supernova detonations is presented. The expected radiation dosage, cosmic ray flux and expanding blast wave collision effects are considered, and it is argued that a typical supernova must be closer than ˜10-pc before any appreciable and potentially harmful atmosphere/biosphere effects are likely to occur. In contrast, the critical distance for Gamma-ray bursts is of order 1-kpc. In spite of the high energy effects potentially involved, the geological record provides no clear-cut evidence for any historic supernova induced mass extinctions and/or strong climate change episodes. This, however, is mostly a reflection of their being numerous possible (terrestrial and astronomical) forcing mechanisms acting upon the biosphere and the difficulty of distinguishing between competing scenarios. Key to resolving this situation, it is suggested, is the development of supernova specific extinction and climate change linked ecological models. Moving to the future, we estimate that over the remaining lifetime of the biosphere (˜2 Gyr) the Earth might experience 1 GRB and 20 supernova detonations within their respective harmful threat ranges. There are currently at least 12 potential pre-supernova systems within 1-kpc of the Sun. Of these systems IK Pegasi is the closest Type Ia pre-supernova candidate and Betelgeuse is the closest potential Type II supernova candidate. We review in some detail the past, present and future behavior of these two systems. Developing a detailed evolutionary model we find that IK Pegasi will likely not detonate until some 1.9 billion years hence, and that it affords absolutely no threat to Earth's biosphere. Betelgeuse is the closest, reasonably well understood, pre-supernova candidate to the Sun at the present epoch, and may undergo detonation any time within the next several million years. The stand-off distance of Betelgeuse at the time of its detonation is estimated to fall

  12. Pair production of helicity-flipped neutrinos in supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (USA) Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)); Gandhi, R. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA))

    1990-04-15

    We calculate the emissivity for the pair production of helicity-flipped neutrinos, in a way that can be used in supernova calculations. We also present some simple estimates which show that such a process can act as an efficient energy-loss mechanism in the shocked supernova core, and we use this fact to estimate neutrino mass limits from SN 1987A neutrino observations.

  13. Pair production of helicity-flipped neutrinos in supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; Gandhi, R.

    1989-07-03

    We calculate the emissivity for the pair production of helicity-flipped neutrinos, in a way that can be used in supernova calculations. We also present some simple estimates which show that such processes can act as an efficient energy-loss mechanism in the shocked supernova core, and we use this fact to extract neutrino mass limits from SN1987A neutrino observations. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  14. The 1974 Type I supernova in NGC 4414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patchett, B.; Wood, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra of Miss Burgat's supernova in NGC 4414 were taken with the Isaac Newton 2.5-m reflector during 1974 April and May. The spectra cover the period from just before maximum light to 20 days post-maximum, and show many features typical of Type I supernovae. In addition secondary features in the spectrum indicate the presence of thin shell or filamentary structure. A photographic light curve and direct plate are presented. (author)

  15. Core-Collapse Supernovae: Explosion dynamics, neutrinos and gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas; Hanke, Florian; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Müller, Ewald

    2011-01-01

    The quest for the supernova explosion mechanism has been one of the outstanding challenges in computational astrophysics for several decades. Simulations have now progressed to a stage at which the solution appears close and neutrino and gravitational wave signals from self-consistent explosion models are becoming available. Here we focus one of the recent advances in supernova modeling, the inclusion of general relativity in multi-dimensional neutrino hydrodynamics simulations, and present t...

  16. THE ENGINES BEHIND SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRYER, CHRISTOPHER LEE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-23

    The authors review the different engines behind supernova (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), focusing on those engines driving explosions in massive stars: core-collapse SNe and long-duration GRBs. Convection and rotation play important roles in the engines of both these explosions. They outline the basic physics and discuss the wide variety of ways scientists have proposed that this physics can affect the supernova explosion mechanism, concluding with a review of the current status in these fields.

  17. Monte Carlo study of neutrino acceleration in supernova shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Ellison, D.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1981-01-01

    The first order Fermi acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays in shocks may be at work for neutrinos in supernova shocks when the latter are at densities rho>10 13 g cm -3 at which the core material is opaque to neutrinos. A Monte Carlo approach to study this effect is employed and the emerging neutrino power law spectra are presented. The increased energy acquired by the neutrinos may facilitate their detection in supernova explosions and provide information about the physics of collapse

  18. Earth Effects and Mass Hierarchy with Supernova Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb

    2009-01-01

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations take place deep inside a supernova if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted, even for extremely small values of θ 13 . We show that the presence (or absence) of Earth matter effects in antineutrino signal is directly related to the absence (or presence) of these collective effects, when the mixing angle θ 13 is small. Thus a neutrino signal from a galactic supernova may enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies even for small values of θ 13 .

  19. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: huterer@umich.edu, E-mail: dlshafer@umich.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard ΛCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations—the frequently studied ''bulk velocity''—and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in ΛCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify the nature of the apparent bulk flow that is inferred when the velocity covariance is ignored. We show that a significant fraction of this quantity is expected to be noise bias due to uncertainties in supernova magnitudes and not any physical peculiar motion.

  20. Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Abbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collective neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.

  1. Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbar, Sajad; Duan, Huaiyu, E-mail: duan@unm.edu

    2015-12-17

    A dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial) spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional) axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collective neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.

  2. Nucleosynthesis and hydrodynamic instabilities in core collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kifonidis, K.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are of crucial importance for the explosion of massive stars as core collapse supernovae, for the synthesis of the heavy elements, and for their injection into the interstellar medium. The processes hereby involved are studied by means of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations which follow all phases from shock revival to shock breakout through the photosphere of a massive star. The computed distributions of radioactive elements are compared to observational data of SN 1987 A and other supernovae. While we find good agreement of our models with observations of Type Ib supernovae, the high velocities of iron group elements observed in SN 1987 A cannot be reproduced. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Hydrodynamic instabilities are of crucial importance for the explosion of massive stars as core collapse supernovae, for the synthesis of the heavy elements, and for their injection into the interstellar medium. The processes hereby involved are studied by means of two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations which follow all phases from shock revival to shock breakout through the photosphere of a massive star. The computed distributions of radioactive elements are compared to observational data of SN 1987 A and other supernovae. While we find good agreement of our models with observations of Type Ib supernovae, the high velocities of iron group elements observed in SN 1987 A cannot be reproduced. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed

  3. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, C.D. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); O' Connor, E.P. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States); Drasco, S. [Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa (United States); TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova.

  4. Core-Collapse Supernovae, Neutrinos, and Gravitational Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, C.D.; O'Connor, E.P.; Gossan, S.; Abdikamalov, E.; Gamma, U.C.T.; Drasco, S.

    2013-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most energetic cosmic cataclysms. They are prodigious emitters of neutrinos and quite likely strong galactic sources of gravitational waves. Observation of both neutrinos and gravitational waves from the next galactic or near extragalactic core-collapse supernova will yield a wealth of information on the explosion mechanism, but also on the structure and angular momentum of the progenitor star, and on aspects of fundamental physics such as the equation of state of nuclear matter at high densities and low entropies. In this contribution to the proceedings of the Neutrino 2012 conference, we summarize recent progress made in the theoretical understanding and modeling of core-collapse supernovae. In this, our emphasis is on multi-dimensional processes involved in the explosion mechanism such as neutrino-driven convection and the standing accretion shock instability. As an example of how supernova neutrinos can be used to probe fundamental physics, we discuss how the rise time of the electron antineutrino flux observed in detectors can be used to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we lay out aspects of the neutrino and gravitational-wave signature of core-collapse supernovae and discuss the power of combined analysis of neutrino and gravitational wave data from the next galactic core-collapse supernova

  5. HD271791: dynamical versus binary-supernova ejection scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    The atmosphere of the extremely high-velocity (530-920kms-1) early B-type star HD271791 is enriched in α-process elements, which suggests that this star is a former secondary component of a massive tight binary system and that its surface was polluted by the nucleosynthetic products after the primary star exploded in a supernova. It was proposed that the (asymmetric) supernova explosion unbind the system and that the secondary star (HD271791) was released at its orbital velocity in the direction of Galactic rotation. In this Letter, we show that to explain the Galactic rest-frame velocity of HD271791 within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario, the stellar remnant of the supernova explosion (a =750-1200kms-1. We therefore consider the binary-supernova scenario as highly unlikely and instead propose that HD271791 attained its peculiar velocity in the course of a strong dynamical three- or four-body encounter in the dense core of the parent star cluster. Our proposal implies that by the moment of encounter HD271791 was a member of a massive post-supernova binary.

  6. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L.; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard ΛCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations—the frequently studied ''bulk velocity''—and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in ΛCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify the nature of the apparent bulk flow that is inferred when the velocity covariance is ignored. We show that a significant fraction of this quantity is expected to be noise bias due to uncertainties in supernova magnitudes and not any physical peculiar motion

  7. Timescale stretch parameterization of Type Ia supernova B-band light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kim, M.; Knop, R.A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.; York, T.

    2001-01-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ''composite curve.'' The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with Z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z, and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi 2/DoF ∼ 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the data of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1 + z light-cure time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects

  8. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE WITH COMPACT PROGENITORS: APPLICATION TO SN2011fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chomiuk, L.; Milisavljevic, D.; Foley, R. J.; Slane, P.; Moe, M.; Chevalier, R.; Hurley, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Fransson, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Boynton, W.; Enos, H.; Fellows, C.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN 2011fe using Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), UVOT, and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN 2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a 'normal' SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass-loss rate M-dot -9 M ☉ yr -1 (3σ c.l.) for wind velocity v w = 100 km s –1 . Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN 2011fe and argues against Roche lobe overflowing subgiants and main-sequence secondary stars if ∼> 1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (n CSM –3 ) for 2 × 10 15 ∼ 16 cm around the progenitor site. This is either consistent with the bulk of material being confined within the binary system or with a significant delay between mass loss and supernova explosion. We furthermore combine X-ray and radio limits from Chomiuk et al. to constrain the post-shock energy density in magnetic fields. Finally, we searched for the shock breakout pulse using gamma-ray observations from the Interplanetary Network and find no compelling evidence for a supernova-associated burst. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor star we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was likely not detectable by current satellites.

  9. Cosmological constraints from supernova data set with corrected redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoli, A; Rillo, V; Grasso, M; Mancini, L

    2012-01-01

    Observations of distant type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), used as standard candles, support the notion that the Cosmos is filled with a mysterious form of energy, the dark energy. The constraints on cosmological parameters derived from data of SNe Ia and the measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies indicate that the dark energy amounts to≅ 70% of all the energy contained in the Universe. In the hypothesis of a flat Universe (Ω m + Ω Λ = 1), we investigate if the dark energy is really required in order to explain the SNe Ia experimental data, and, in this case, how much of such unknown energy is actually deduced from the analysis of these data and must be introduced in the ΛCDM model of cosmology. In particular we are interested in verifying if the Einstein-de Sitter model of the expanding Universe is really to be ruled out. By using a fitting procedure based on the Newton method search for a minimum, we reanalyzed the 'Union compilation' reported by Kowalski et al. (2008) formed by 307 SNe, obtaining a very different estimate of the dark energy, that is≅ 60%. Furthermore, in order to balance the correction of the apparent magnitude of SNe Ia, due to the dilation or stretching of the corresponding light curve width, we introduce a suitable modified redsfhit. Taking into account this correction, we refitted the Union compilation dataset after a selection cut. The main result that emerges from our analysis is that the values of Ω m and Ω Λ strongly depend on the fitting procedure and the selected sample. In particular, the constraint we obtain on the mass density, normalized by the critical mass density, is Ω m = 0.7 for a sample of 252, and Ω m = 1 for a sample of 242 SNe Ia respectively. The latter case does not imply the existence of any additional form of dark energy.

  10. A Hubble Diagram of Distant Type IA Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Aviles, R.; Maza, J.

    1993-12-01

    Due to their extreme luminosities at maximum light, type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have long been considered among the most attractive cosmological standard candles. Although nearly all work to date has been devoted to attempts to use these objects to determine the local rate of expansion of the universe (Ho), SNe Ia also provide one of the few direct techniques for measuring the deceleration parameter qo. However, in a recent study of nine well-observed events based largely on data obtained at CTIO, Phillips (1993, ApJ, 413, L105) found clear evidence for a significant intrinsic dispersion in SNe Ia absolute magnitudes amounting to ~ 0.8 mag in B, ~ 0.7 mag in V, and ~ 0.5 mag in I. Such a range in peak luminosity could introduce a subtantial Malmquist bias into searches for distant (z rate of the B light curve. Interestingly, the most luminous SNe in our sample all occurred in spiral galaxies, which is true for Phillips' sample of nearby SNe Ia as well. This is opposite to what one would expect if dust extinction were important. These findings are consistent with recent speculations that the progenitors of SNe Ia are white dwarfs covering a range of masses, and also suggest that the brightest events may be found in galaxies which are still actively forming stars. The implications for the use of SNe Ia to measure qo are briefly discussed. This research has been supported by Grant 92/0312 from Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología (FONDECYT-Chile).

  11. Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; González-Gaitan, Santiago; Galbany, Lluis; Dessart, Luc; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrell, Nidia; Folatelli, Gastón

    2017-11-01

    We present an analysis of observed trends and correlations between a large range of spectral and photometric parameters of more than 100 type II supernovae (SNe II), during the photospheric phase. We define a common epoch for all SNe of 50 days post-explosion, where the majority of the sample is likely to be under similar physical conditions. Several correlation matrices are produced to search for interesting trends between more than 30 distinct light-curve and spectral properties that characterize the diversity of SNe II. Overall, SNe with higher expansion velocities are brighter, have more rapidly declining light curves, shorter plateau durations, and higher 56Ni masses. Using a larger sample than previous studies, we argue that “Pd”—the plateau duration from the transition of the initial to “plateau” decline rates to the end of the “plateau”—is a better indicator of the hydrogen envelope mass than the traditionally used optically thick phase duration (OPTd: explosion epoch to end of plateau). This argument is supported by the fact that Pd also correlates with s 3, the light-curve decline rate at late times: lower Pd values correlate with larger s 3 decline rates. Large s 3 decline rates are likely related to lower envelope masses, which enables gamma-ray escape. We also find a significant anticorrelation between Pd and s 2 (the plateau decline rate), confirming the long standing hypothesis that faster declining SNe II (SNe IIL) are the result of explosions with lower hydrogen envelope masses and therefore have shorter Pd values. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS- 2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programs 076.A-0156, 078.D-0048, 080.A-0516, and 082.A-0526).

  12. A Spitzer Survey for Dust in Type IIn Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori D.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan; Steele, Thea N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (greater than 100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low SN IIn rate (less than 10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. The handful of isolated studies, however, show late-time IR emission from warm dust that, in some cases, extends for five or six years post-discovery. While previous Spitzer/IRAC surveys have searched for dust in SNe, none have targeted the Type IIn subclass. This article presents results from a warm Spitzer/IRAC survey of the positions of all 68 known SNe IIn within a distance of 250 Mpc between 1999 and 2008 that have remained unobserved by Spitzer more than 100 days postdiscovery. The detection of late-time emission from ten targets (approximately 15%) nearly doubles the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn. Although optical spectra show evidence for new dust formation in some cases, the data show that in most cases the likely origin of the mid-IR emission is pre-existing dust, which is continuously heated by optical emission generated by ongoing circumstellar interaction between the forward shock and circumstellar medium. Furthermore, an emerging trend suggests that these SNe decline at approximately 1000-2000 days post-discovery once the forward shock overruns the dust shell. The mass-loss rates associated with these dust shells are consistent with luminous blue variable (LBV) progenitors.

  13. A SPITZER SURVEY FOR DUST IN TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Ori D.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan; Steele, Thea N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (>100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low SN IIn rate (<10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. The handful of isolated studies, however, show late-time IR emission from warm dust that, in some cases, extends for five or six years post-discovery. While previous Spitzer/IRAC surveys have searched for dust in SNe, none have targeted the Type IIn subclass. This paper presents results from a warm Spitzer/IRAC survey of the positions of all 68 known SNe IIn within a distance of 250 Mpc between 1999 and 2008 that have remained unobserved by Spitzer more than 100 days post-discovery. The detection of late-time emission from 10 targets (∼15%) nearly doubles the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn. Although optical spectra show evidence for new dust formation in some cases, the data show that in most cases the likely origin of the mid-IR emission is pre-existing dust, which is continuously heated by optical emission generated by ongoing circumstellar interaction between the forward shock and circumstellar medium. Furthermore, an emerging trend suggests that these SNe decline at ∼1000-2000 days post-discovery once the forward shock overruns the dust shell. The mass-loss rates associated with these dust shells are consistent with luminous blue variable progenitors.

  14. Supernova ejecta with a relativistic wind from a central compact object: a unified picture for extraordinary supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Maeda, Keiichi

    2017-04-01

    The hydrodynamical interaction between freely expanding supernova ejecta and a relativistic wind injected from the central region is studied in analytic and numerical ways. As a result of the collision between the ejecta and the wind, a geometrically thin shell surrounding a hot bubble forms and expands in the ejecta. We use a self-similar solution to describe the early dynamical evolution of the shell and carry out a two-dimensional special relativistic hydrodynamic simulation to follow further evolution. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability inevitably develops at the contact surface separating the shocked wind and ejecta, leading to the complete destruction of the shell and the leakage of hot gas from the hot bubble. The leaking hot materials immediately catch up with the outermost layer of the supernova ejecta and thus different layers of the ejecta are mixed. We present the spatial profiles of hydrodynamical variables and the kinetic energy distributions of the ejecta. We stop the energy injection when a total energy of 1052 erg, which is 10 times larger than the initial kinetic energy of the supernova ejecta, is deposited into the ejecta and follow the subsequent evolution. From the results of our simulations, we consider expected emission from supernova ejecta powered by the energy injection at the centre and discuss the possibility that superluminous supernovae and broad-lined Ic supernovae could be produced by similar mechanisms.

  15. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Mattia

    2017-02-01

    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  16. SUPERNOVA 1987A: A TEMPLATE TO LINK SUPERNOVAE TO THEIR REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Bocchino, F., E-mail: orlando@astropa.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo “G.S. Vaiana”, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-09-10

    The emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) reflects the properties of both the progenitor supernovae (SNe) and the surrounding environment. The complex morphology of the remnants, however, hampers the disentanglement of the two contributions. Here, we aim at identifying the imprint of SN 1987A on the X-ray emission of its remnant and at constraining the structure of the environment surrounding the SN. We performed high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations describing SN 1987A soon after the core-collapse and the following three-dimensional expansion of its remnant between days 1 and 15,000 after the SN. We demonstrated that the physical model reproducing the main observables of SN 1987A during the first 250 days of evolution also reproduces the X-ray emission of the subsequent expanding remnant, thus bridging the gap between SNe and SNRs. By comparing model results with observations, we constrained the explosion energy in the range 1.2–1.4 × 10{sup 51} erg and the envelope mass in the range 15–17 M{sub ⊙}. We found that the shape of X-ray lightcurves and spectra at early epochs (<15 years) reflects the structure of outer ejecta: our model reproduces the observations if the outermost ejecta have a post-explosion radial profile of density approximated by a power law with index α = −8. At later epochs, the shapes of X-ray lightcurves and spectra reflect the density structure of the nebula around SN 1987A. This enabled us to ascertain the origin of the multi-thermal X-ray emission, disentangle the imprint of the SN on the remnant emission from the effects of the remnant interaction with the environment, and constrain the pre-supernova structure of the nebula.

  17. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möller, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Leloup, C.; Neveu, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J. [Irfu, SPP, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Pritchet, C., E-mail: anais.moller@anu.edu.au, E-mail: vanina.ruhlmann-kleider@cea.fr, E-mail: clement.leloup@cea.fr, E-mail: jneveu@lal.in2p3.fr, E-mail: nathalie.palanque-delabrouille@cea.fr, E-mail: james.rich@cea.fr, E-mail: raymond.carlberg@utoronto.ca, E-mail: chris.lidman@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pritchet@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts (0.2 < z < 1.1). Our method consists of two stages: feature extraction (obtaining the SN redshift from photometry and estimating light-curve shape parameters) and machine learning classification. We study the performance of different algorithms such as Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia samples. Using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric, where perfect classification is given by 1, we find that our best-performing classifier (Extreme Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) has an AUC of 0.98.We show that it is possible to obtain a large photometrically selected type Ia SN sample with an estimated contamination of less than 5%. When applied to data from the first three years of SNLS, we obtain 529 events. We investigate the differences between classifying simulated SNe, and real SN survey data. In particular, we find that applying a thorough set of selection cuts to the SN sample is essential for good classification. This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of machine learning classification in a high- z SN survey with application to real SN data.

  18. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möller, A.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Leloup, C.; Neveu, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Carlberg, R.; Lidman, C.; Pritchet, C.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts (0.2 < z < 1.1). Our method consists of two stages: feature extraction (obtaining the SN redshift from photometry and estimating light-curve shape parameters) and machine learning classification. We study the performance of different algorithms such as Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia samples. Using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric, where perfect classification is given by 1, we find that our best-performing classifier (Extreme Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) has an AUC of 0.98.We show that it is possible to obtain a large photometrically selected type Ia SN sample with an estimated contamination of less than 5%. When applied to data from the first three years of SNLS, we obtain 529 events. We investigate the differences between classifying simulated SNe, and real SN survey data. In particular, we find that applying a thorough set of selection cuts to the SN sample is essential for good classification. This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of machine learning classification in a high- z SN survey with application to real SN data.

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in Radio and Infrared Galaxies from the CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, M. L.; Pritchet, C. J.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Pain, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have combined the large SN Ia database of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and catalogs of galaxies with photometric redshifts, VLA 1.4 GHz radio sources, and Spitzer infrared sources. We present eight SNe Ia in early-type host galaxies which have counterparts in the radio and infrared source catalogs. We find the SN Ia rate in subsets of radio and infrared early-type galaxies is ~1-5 times the rate in all early-type galaxies, and that any enhancement is always

  20. THE LOCAL HOSTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, James D.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Wyder, Ted K.; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D. Andrew; Conley, Alex; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lee, Young-Wook; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We use multi-wavelength, matched aperture, integrated photometry from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the RC3 to estimate the physical properties of 166 nearby galaxies hosting 168 well-observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The ultraviolet (UV) imaging of local SN Ia hosts from GALEX allows a direct comparison with higher-redshift hosts measured at optical wavelengths that correspond to the rest-frame UV. Our data corroborate well-known features that have been seen in other SN Ia samples. Specifically, hosts with active star formation produce brighter and slower SNe Ia on average, and hosts with luminosity-weighted ages older than 1 Gyr produce on average more faint, fast, and fewer bright, slow SNe Ia than younger hosts. New results include that in our sample, the faintest and fastest SNe Ia occur only in galaxies exceeding a stellar mass threshold of ∼10 10 M sun , leading us to conclude that their progenitors must arise in populations that are older and/or more metal rich than the general SN Ia population. A low host extinction subsample hints at a residual trend in peak luminosity with host age, after correcting for light-curve shape, giving the appearance that older hosts produce less-extincted SNe Ia on average. This has implications for cosmological fitting of SNe Ia, and suggests that host age could be useful as a parameter in the fitting. Converting host mass to metallicity and computing 56 Ni mass from the supernova light curves, we find that our local sample is consistent with a model that predicts a shallow trend between stellar metallicity and the 56 Ni mass that powers the explosion, but we cannot rule out the absence of a trend. We measure a correlation between 56 Ni mass and host age in the local universe that is shallower and not as significant as that seen at higher redshifts. The details of the age- 56 Ni mass correlations at low and higher redshift imply a luminosity-weighted age threshold of ∼3 Gyr

  1. An updated Type II supernova Hubble diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Smith, K.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2018-03-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of nine Type II-P/L supernovae (SNe) with redshifts in the 0.045 ≲ z ≲ 0.335 range, with a view to re-examining their utility as distance indicators. Specifically, we apply the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standardized candle method (SCM) to each target, and find that both methods yield distances that are in reasonable agreement with each other. The current record-holder for the highest-redshift spectroscopically confirmed supernova (SN) II-P is PS1-13bni (z = 0.335-0.012+0.009), and illustrates the promise of Type II SNe as cosmological tools. We updated existing EPM and SCM Hubble diagrams by adding our sample to those previously published. Within the context of Type II SN distance measuring techniques, we investigated two related questions. First, we explored the possibility of utilising spectral lines other than the traditionally used Fe IIλ5169 to infer the photospheric velocity of SN ejecta. Using local well-observed objects, we derive an epoch-dependent relation between the strong Balmer line and Fe IIλ5169 velocities that is applicable 30 to 40 days post-explosion. Motivated in part by the continuum of key observables such as rise time and decline rates exhibited from II-P to II-L SNe, we assessed the possibility of using Hubble-flow Type II-L SNe as distance indicators. These yield similar distances as the Type II-P SNe. Although these initial results are encouraging, a significantly larger sample of SNe II-L would be required to draw definitive conclusions. Tables A.1, A.3, A.5, A.7, A.9, A.11, A.13, A.15 and A.17 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A25

  2. THE SPECTROSCOPIC DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, S.; Matheson, T.; Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Challis, P.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Garnavich, P. M.; Jha, S. W.; Modjaz, M.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II λ6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ∼0 to ∼400 km s −1 day −1 considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B – V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II λ6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at ∼4700 Å and Δm 15 (B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the peak luminosity is not strongly dependent

  3. Observational and theoretical spectra of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Swartz, Douglas A.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in nuclear astrophysics by means of quantitative supernova spectroscopy is discussed with special concentration on type Ia, Ib and Ic and on SN 1987A. Spectral calculations continue to support an exploding C/O white dwarf as the best model of a SN Ia. Deflagration model W7 produces good maximum light spectra of SN Ia and seems to have a better composition distribution compared to delayed detonation models, but proper treatment of opacity remains a problem and the physical basis of SN Ia explosions is still not completely understood. All models for SN Ia predict large quantities of 56Co in the ejecta, but it is not clear that observations confirm this. Although the evolutionary origin of SN Ia remains uncertain, there is recent evidence that transfer of hydrogen in a binary system may be involved, as long suspected. There has been progress in comparing dynamical models with the optical/IR spectra of SN 1987A. The evolution of the [OI] λλ6300, 6364 feature and the presence of strong persistent HeI λ10 830 indicate that both the envelope and core material contribute substantially to the formation of emission lines in the nebular phase and that neither the core nor the envelope can be neglected. Blending with nearby hydrogen lines may affect both of these spectral features, thereby complicating the analysis of the lines. The effects of continuum transfer and photoionization have been included and are under study. The discrepancies between theoretical and observed spectra are due primarily to the one-dimensional hydrodynamic models. The spectral data are not consistent with the high density ``spike'' (in radial coordinate) of the core material that is predicted by all such models. Analysis of the light curves of SN Ib and SN Ic supernovae implies that there are significant differences in their physical properties. Some SN Ib have considerably more ejecta mass than SN Ic events. SN Ib require He-rich atmospheres to produce the observed strong optical lines of

  4. SNaX: A Database of Supernova X-Ray Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Mathias; Dwarkadas, Vikram V., E-mail: Mathias_Ross@msn.com, E-mail: vikram@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, ERC 569, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We present the Supernova X-ray Database (SNaX), a compilation of the X-ray data from young supernovae (SNe). The database includes the X-ray fluxes and luminosities of young SNe, from days to years after outburst. The original goal and intent of this study was to present a database of Type IIn SNe (SNe IIn), which we have accomplished. Our ongoing goal is to expand the database to include all SNe for which published data are available. The database interface allows one to search for SNe using various criteria, plot all or selected data points, and download both the data and the plot. The plotting facility allows for significant customization. There is also a facility for the user to submit data that can be directly incorporated into the database. We include an option to fit the decay of any given SN light curve with a power-law. The database includes a conversion of most data points to a common 0.3–8 keV band so that SN light curves may be directly compared with each other. A mailing list has been set up to disseminate information about the database. We outline the structure and function of the database, describe its various features, and outline the plans for future expansion.

  5. Radio and x-ray observations of compact sources in or near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Gilmore, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    We present VLA multifrequency radio observations of six compact radio sources from the list of nine objects proposed by Ryle et al. [Nature 276, 571 (1978)] as a new class of radio star, possibly the stellar remnants of supernovae. We also present the results of a search for x-ray emission from four of these objects with the Einstein observatory. The radio observations provide information on spectra, polarization, time variability, angular structure, and positions for these sources. The bearing of these new data on the nature of the sources is discussed. One particularly interesting result is that the polarization and angular-size measurements are combined in an astrophysical argument to conclude that one of the sources (2013+370) is extragalactic. No x-ray emission was detected from any of the four objects observed, but an extended x-ray source was found coincident with the supernova remnant G 33.6+0.1 near 1849+005. Our measurements provide no compelling arguments to consider any of the six objects studied as radio stars

  6. New prospects for detecting high-energy neutrinos from nearby supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohta

    2018-04-01

    Neutrinos from supernovae (SNe) are crucial probes of explosive phenomena at the deaths of massive stars and neutrino physics. High-energy neutrinos are produced through hadronic processes by cosmic rays, which are accelerated during interaction between the supernova (SN) ejecta and circumstellar material (CSM). Recent observations of extragalactic SNe have revealed that a dense CSM is commonly expelled by the progenitor star. We provide new quantitative predictions of time-dependent high-energy neutrino emission from diverse types of SNe. We show that IceCube and KM3Net can detect ˜103 events from a SN II-P (and ˜3 ×105 events from a SN IIn) at a distance of 10 kpc. The new model also enables us to critically optimize the time window for dedicated searches for nearby SNe. A successful detection will give us a multienergy neutrino view of SN physics and new opportunities to study neutrino properties, as well as clues to the cosmic-ray origin. GeV-TeV neutrinos may also be seen by KM3Net, Hyper-Kamiokande, and PINGU.

  7. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of the Supernova Remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, W P; Shelton, R; Sembach, K R; Moos, H W; Raymond, J C; York, D G; Feldman, P D; Chayer, P; Murphy, E M; Sahnow, D J; Wilkinson, E; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Shelton, Robin; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Raymond, John C.; York, Donald G.; Feldman, Paul D.; Chayer, Pierre; Murphy, Edward M.; Sahnow, David J.; Wilkinson, Erik

    2001-01-01

    We report a Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite observation of the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, covering the 905 -- 1187 A spectral region. A 30'' square aperture was used, resulting in a velocity resolution of ~100 km/s. The purpose of the observation was to examine several bright emission lines expected from earlier work and to demonstrate diffuse source sensitivity by searching for faint lines never seen previously in extragalactic supernova remnant UV spectra. Both goals were accomplished. Strong emission lines of O VI 1031.9 A, 1037.6 A and C III 977.0 A were seen, Doppler broadened to +/- 225 km/s and with centroids red-shifted to 350 km/s, consistent with the LMC. Superimposed on the emission lines are absorptions by C III and O VI 1031.9 at +260 km/s, which are attributed to warm and hot gas (respectively) in the LMC. The O VI 1037.6 A line is more severely affected by overlying interstellar and H2 absorption from both the LMC and our galaxy. N III 989.8 A is not s...

  8. SNaX: A Database of Supernova X-Ray Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Mathias; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Supernova X-ray Database (SNaX), a compilation of the X-ray data from young supernovae (SNe). The database includes the X-ray fluxes and luminosities of young SNe, from days to years after outburst. The original goal and intent of this study was to present a database of Type IIn SNe (SNe IIn), which we have accomplished. Our ongoing goal is to expand the database to include all SNe for which published data are available. The database interface allows one to search for SNe using various criteria, plot all or selected data points, and download both the data and the plot. The plotting facility allows for significant customization. There is also a facility for the user to submit data that can be directly incorporated into the database. We include an option to fit the decay of any given SN light curve with a power-law. The database includes a conversion of most data points to a common 0.3–8 keV band so that SN light curves may be directly compared with each other. A mailing list has been set up to disseminate information about the database. We outline the structure and function of the database, describe its various features, and outline the plans for future expansion.

  9. EARLY EMISSION FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli; Livne, Eli

    2012-01-01

    A unique feature of deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) white dwarf explosion models of supernovae of type Ia is the presence of a strong shock wave propagating through the outer envelope. We consider the early emission expected in such models, which is produced by the expanding shock-heated outer part of the ejecta and precedes the emission driven by radioactive decay. We expand on earlier analyses by considering the modification of the pre-detonation density profile by the weak shocks generated during the deflagration phase, the time evolution of the opacity, and the deviation of the post-shock equation of state from that obtained for radiation pressure domination. A simple analytic model is presented and shown to provide an acceptable approximation to the results of one-dimensional numerical DDT simulations. Our analysis predicts a ∼10 3 s long UV/optical flash with a luminosity of ∼1 to ∼3 × 10 39 erg s –1 . Lower luminosity corresponds to faster (turbulent) deflagration velocity. The luminosity of the UV flash is predicted to be strongly suppressed at t > t drop ∼ 1 hr due to the deviation from pure radiation domination.

  10. Dark Matter Ignition of Type Ia Supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-10-02

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia progenitors. We show that 1-100 PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SN Ia. We combine data on SN Ia masses with data on the ages of SN Ia-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a 2.8σ inverse correlation between SN Ia masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 vs 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SN Ia in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SN Ia-igniting dark matter also resolve the missing pulsar problem by forming black holes in ≳10  Myr old pulsars at the center of the Milky Way.

  11. Constraining inverse curvature gravity with supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena, Olga; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab; Weller, Jochen; /University Coll., London /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    We show that the current accelerated expansion of the Universe can be explained without resorting to dark energy. Models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature can have late time accelerating attractors without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedman equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe. This allows us to perform a detailed analysis of Supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. Hence, inverse curvature gravity models represent an example of phenomenologically viable models in which the current acceleration of the Universe is driven by curvature instead of dark energy. If we further include constraints on the current expansion rate of the Universe from the Hubble Space Telescope and on the age of the Universe from globular clusters, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07 {le} {omega}{sub m} {le} 0.21 (95% Confidence). Hence the inverse curvature gravity models considered can not explain the dynamics of the Universe just with a baryonic matter component.

  12. Prompt mechanism of type II supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    We report in this Letter on an extensive set of hydrodynamical simulations of the stellar collapse of the cores of massive stars. A new hydro technique and a series of state-of-the art equations of state were employed. The purpose of this project was to understand in detail core implosion and immediate postbounce behavior (first 25 ms) and to investigate the viability of the hydrodynamic mechanism for Type II supernovae. We find that the bounce-shock always stalls upon encountering the massive infalling outer core for the calculated cores of stars between 8 and 25 M/sub sun/ and the standard input physics. In particular, it is found that Nomoto's 8l8 m/sub sun/ star and Woosley, Weaver, and Taam's 10 M/sub sun/ star do not explode via the prompt mechanism. Our conclusions appear to depend not on the details of the progenitor structure calculated by others but rather on the generic nature of these structures

  13. Supernova remnants in the GC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvarov, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    Along with the central Black hole the processes of active star formation play very important role in the energetics of the Galactic center region. The SNe and their remnants (SNRs) are the main ingredients of the processes of star formation. SNRs are also the sources of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths from the optical to hard gamma rays. In the presented work we consider the physics of supernova remnants evolving in extreme environmental conditions which are typical for the region of the Galactic center. Because of the high density and strong inhomogeneity of the surrounding medium these objects remain practically invisible at almost all wavelengths. We model evolution of SNR taking into account the pressure of the surrounding medium and the gravitational field of the matter (stars, compact clouds, dark matter) inside the remnant. As it is well established, considerable portion of the kinetic energy of the SNR can be converted into the cosmic ray particles by diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Therefore the effect of particle acceleration is also included in the model (with the effectiveness of acceleration as a free parameter). Using the observed radiation fluxes at different wavelengths we attempt to obtain limits on the parameters of the model of the Galactic Center, namely, the frequency of star birth, the average density of the matter and radiation field, etc.

  14. Asymmetric explosions of core collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of several hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena that could create an asymmetry in core collapse supernovae. In the first part giving the general context, we first describe the theoretical and observational indications suggesting an important asymmetry. We then present several instabilities that could break the initial spherical symmetry, insisting particularly on the role of the Stationary Accretion Shock Instability (SASI). The second part is dedicated to an hydrodynamic study of the Standing Accretion shock instability. We first give an argument using the frequency of unstable modes that enables us to distinguish between the two mechanisms proposed to explain the linear growth of SASI. As a second step, we study the non-linear dynamics of SASI and propose for the first time a mechanism responsible for its saturation. In this scenario, the saturation occurs when parasitic instabilities are able to grow fast enough on a SASI mode. The semi-analytical prediction of the saturation amplitude is successfully compared with published numerical simulations. The third part studies the effect of a moderate magnetic field. We find that such a magnetic field can have either a stabilizing or a destabilizing effect on SASI depending on its geometry. We then concentrate on the dynamics of the Alfven surface, where the Alfven and the advection speed coincide. We show that the amplification of Alfven waves near this surface creates a pressure feedback, which could affect significantly the dynamics of the shock if the magnetic energy is comparable to the kinetic energy. (author) [fr

  15. Neutrino nonstandard interactions in the supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, C. R.; Pulido, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino nonstandard interactions (NSI) were investigated earlier in the solar case and were shown to reduce the tensions between the data and the large mixing angle solution predictions. We extend the previous framework to the supernova and evaluate the appearance probabilities for neutrinos and antineutrinos as a function of their energy after leaving the collapsing star with and without NSI. For normal hierarchy the probability for electron neutrinos and antineutrinos at low energy (E < or approx. 0.8-0.9 MeV) is substantially increased with respect to the non-NSI case and joins its value for inverse hierarchy which is constant with energy. Also for inverse hierarchy the NSI and non-NSI probabilities are the same for each neutrino and antineutrino species. Although detection in such a low energy range remains at present an experimental challenge, it will become a visible trace of NSI with normal hierarchy if they exist. On the other hand, the neutrino decay probability into an antineutrino and a majoron, an effect previously shown to be induced by dense matter, is, as in the case of the sun, too small to be observed as a direct consequence of NSI.

  16. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  17. THE FIRST FERMI LAT SUPERNOVA REMNANT CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: francesco.depalma@ba.infn.it, E-mail: t.j.brandt@nasa.gov, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@unf.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2016-05-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidates falsely identified as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavelength (MW) data, including radio, X-ray, and TeV, we demonstrate the need for improvements to previously sufficient, simple models describing the GeV and radio emission from these objects. We model the GeV and MW emission from SNRs in aggregate to constrain their maximal contribution to observed Galactic cosmic rays.

  18. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William

    2016-11-08

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  19. Radio evolution of young supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkey, R.C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A one dimensional spherically symmetric magnetohydrodynamic code was developed to describe the evolution of the dynamical and radio properties of young supernova remnants. The code contains subroutines which treat the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities wherever they arise in the remnant. Under the assumption of quasi-stationary equilibrium (dynamical changes considered slow in comparison to the time it takes the instability to achieve equilibrium) determined that the velocity of the instability is W approximately (a lambda)/sup 1 / 2 /, where a is the Rayleigh-Taylor acceleration and lambda is the wavelength of the instability. Subsequent processing of the kinetic energy of expansion, through turbulence, resulted in an increase in temperature and magnetic field strength. The model was used to analyze instability effects of density inhomogeneities in the interstellar medium on magnetic field amplification. A model was constructed for Cassiopeia A which gave good agreement with the measured dynamics, radio structure, and secular flux density decrease for the remnant. In order to compare observation with theory a computer routine was written that convolves the surface brightness at the source. The resultant convolved surface brightness graph is in good agreement with Rosenberg's observed ''model profile;'' differences between the graphs can be attributed to the asymmetric expansion of Cassiopeia A

  20. TURBULENT OXYGEN FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared against three-dimensional simulations for a range of Damkoehler numbers (Da 16 ) at a fixed Karlovitz number. The simulations suggest that turbulence does not significantly affect the oxygen flame when Da 16 16 >1, turbulence enhances heat transfer and drives the propagation of a flame that is narrower than the corresponding inductive flame would be. Furthermore, burning under these conditions appears to occur as part of a combined carbon-oxygen turbulent flame with complex compound structure. The simulations do not appear to support the possibility of a transition to detonation in the oxygen flame, but do not preclude it either.

  1. HOST GALAXY IDENTIFICATION FOR SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, Richard; Scolnic, Daniel M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Goldstein, Daniel A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall #3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Andrea, Chris B.; Nichol, Robert C.; Papadopoulos, Andreas [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Sullivan, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, IEEC-CSIC, Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Finley, David A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fischer, John A.; Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kim, Alex G., E-mail: raviryan@gmail.com [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, and so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate “hostless” SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  2. Aspherical Supernovae: Effects on Early Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsariardchi, Niloufar; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2018-04-01

    Early light from core-collapse supernovae, now detectable in high-cadence surveys, holds clues to a star and its environment just before it explodes. However, effects that alter the early light have not been fully explored. We highlight the possibility of nonradial flows at the time of shock breakout. These develop in sufficiently nonspherical explosions if the progenitor is not too diffuse. When they do develop, nonradial flows limit ejecta speeds and cause ejecta–ejecta collisions. We explore these phenomena and their observational implications using global, axisymmetric, nonrelativistic FLASH simulations of simplified polytropic progenitors, which we scale to representative stars. We develop a method to track photon production within the ejecta, enabling us to estimate band-dependent light curves from adiabatic simulations. Immediate breakout emission becomes hidden as an oblique flow develops. Nonspherical effects lead the shock-heated ejecta to release a more constant luminosity at a higher, evolving color temperature at early times, effectively mixing breakout light with the early light curve. Collisions between nonradial ejecta thermalize a small fraction of the explosion energy; we will address emission from these collisions in a subsequent paper.

  3. Cataclysmic Variables as Supernova Ia Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Kafka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the identification of the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa remains controversial, it is generally accepted that they originate from binary star systems in which at least one component is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD; those systems are grouped under the wide umbrella of cataclysmic variables. Current theories for SNeIa progenitors hold that, either via Roche lobe overflow of the companion or via a wind, the WD accumulates hydrogen or helium rich material which is then burned to C and O onto the WD’s surface. However, the specifics of this scenario are far from being understood or defined, allowing for a wealth of theories fighting for attention and a dearth of observations to support them. I discuss the latest attempts to identify and study those controversial SNeIa progenitors. I also introduce the most promising progenitor in hand and I present observational diagnostics that can reveal more members of the category.

  4. EVOLUTION OF PROGENITORS FOR ELECTRON CAPTURE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We provide progenitor models for electron capture supernovae (ECSNe) with detailed evolutionary calculation. We include minor electron capture nuclei using a large nuclear reaction network with updated reaction rates. For electron capture, the Coulomb correction of rates is treated and the contribution from neutron-rich isotopes is taken into account in each nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) composition. We calculate the evolution of the most massive super asymptotic giant branch stars and show that these stars undergo off-center carbon burning and form ONe cores at the center. These cores become heavier up to the critical mass of 1.367 M ☉ and keep contracting even after the initiation of O+Ne deflagration. Inclusion of minor electron capture nuclei causes convective URCA cooling during the contraction phase, but the effect on the progenitor evolution is small. On the other hand, electron capture by neutron-rich isotopes in the NSE region has a more significant effect. We discuss the uniqueness of the critical core mass for ECSNe and the effect of wind mass loss on the plausibility of our models for ECSN progenitors.

  5. Nonthermal Radiation from Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyesung Kang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of high energy cosmic rays (CRs are thought to be produced by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA at supernova remnants (SNRs within the Galaxy. Fortunately, nonthermal emissions from CR protons and electrons can provide direct observational evidence for such a model and place strong constraints on the complex nonlinear plasma processes in DSA theory. In this study we calculate the energy spectra of CR protons and electrons in Type Ia SNRs, using time-dependent DSA simulations that incorporate phenomenological models for some wave-particle interactions. We demonstrate that the timedependent evolution of the self-amplified magnetic fields, Alfvénic drift, and escape of the highest energy particles affect the energy spectra of accelerated protons and electrons, and so resulting nonthermal radiation spectrum. Especially, the spectral cutoffs in X-ray and γ-ray emission spectra are regulated by the evolution of the highest energy particles, which are injected at the early phase of SNRs. Thus detailed understandings of nonlinear wave-particle interactions and time-dependent DSA simulations of SNRs are crucial in testing the SNR hypothesis for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  6. Search Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Cornière (de), Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Search engines enable advertisers to target consumers based on the query they have entered. In a framework with horizontal product differentiation, imperfect product information and in which consumers incur search costs, I study a game in which advertisers have to choose a price and a set of relevant keywords. The targeting mechanism brings about three kinds of efficiency gains, namely lower search costs, better matching, and more intense product market price-competition. A monopolistic searc...

  7. Faceted Search

    CERN Document Server

    Tunkelang, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We live in an information age that requires us, more than ever, to represent, access, and use information. Over the last several decades, we have developed a modern science and technology for information retrieval, relentlessly pursuing the vision of a "memex" that Vannevar Bush proposed in his seminal article, "As We May Think." Faceted search plays a key role in this program. Faceted search addresses weaknesses of conventional search approaches and has emerged as a foundation for interactive information retrieval. User studies demonstrate that faceted search provides more

  8. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: SECOND PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, Abdo; Morrell, Nidia; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Roth, Miguel; Boldt, Luis N.; Burns, Chris; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Persson, Sven E.; Contreras, Carlos; Gonzalez, Sergio; Folatelli, Gaston; Salgado, Francisco; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Hamuy, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) was a five-year observational survey conducted at Las Campanas Observatory that obtained, among other things, high-quality light curves of ∼100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Presented here is the second data release of nearby SN Ia photometry consisting of 50 objects, with a subset of 45 having near-infrared follow-up observations. Thirty-three objects have optical pre-maximum coverage with a subset of 15 beginning at least five days before maximum light. In the near-infrared, 27 objects have coverage beginning before the epoch of B-band maximum, with a subset of 13 beginning at least five days before maximum. In addition, we present results of a photometric calibration program to measure the CSP optical (uBgVri) bandpasses with an accuracy of ∼1%. Finally, we report the discovery of a second SN Ia, SN 2006ot, similar in its characteristics to the peculiar SN 2006bt.

  9. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: FIRST PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, Gaston; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Boldt, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Hamuy, Mario; Maureira, MarIa Jose; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Persson, S. E.; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Wyatt, Pamela; Li Weidong

    2010-01-01

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) is a five-year survey being carried out at the Las Campanas Observatory to obtain high-quality light curves of ∼100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in a well-defined photometric system. Here we present the first release of photometric data that contains the optical light curves of 35 SNe Ia, and near-infrared light curves for a subset of 25 events. The data comprise 5559 optical (ugriBV) and 1043 near-infrared (Y JHK s ) data points in the natural system of the Swope telescope. Twenty-eight SNe have pre-maximum data, and for 15 of these, the observations begin at least 5 days before B maximum. This is one of the most accurate data sets of low-redshift SNe Ia published to date. When completed, the CSP data set will constitute a fundamental reference for precise determinations of cosmological parameters, and serve as a rich resource for comparison with models of SNe Ia.

  10. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M * /M ☉ ) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  11. THE EXTENDED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SUPERNOVA SURVEY: THE RATE OF CORE COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE TO z {approx} 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Riess, Adam G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Mobasher, Bahram, E-mail: dahlen@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We use a sample of 45 core collapse supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope to derive the core collapse supernova rate in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.3. In redshift bins centered on (z) = 0.39, (z) = 0.73, and (z) = 1.11, we find rates of 3.00{sup +1.28}{sub -0.94} {sup +1.04}{sub -0.57}, 7.39{sup +1.86}{sub -1.52} {sup +3.20}{sub -1.60}, and 9.57{sup +3.76}{sub -2.80} {sup +4.96}{sub -2.80}, respectively, given in units of yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} 10{sup -4} h {sup 3}{sub 70}. The rates have been corrected for host galaxy extinction, including supernovae missed in highly dust-enshrouded environments in infrared bright galaxies. The first errors are statistical while the second ones are the estimated systematic errors. We perform a detailed discussion of possible sources of systematic errors and note that these start to dominate over statistical errors at z > 0.5, emphasizing the need to better control the systematic effects. For example, a better understanding of the amount of dust extinction in the host galaxies and knowledge of the supernova luminosity function, in particular the fraction of faint M {approx}> -15 supernovae, is needed to better constrain the rates. When comparing our results with the core collapse supernova rate based on the star formation rate, we find a good agreement, consistent with the supernova rate following the star formation rate, as expected.

  12. Three-dimensional simulations of supernovae dominated interstellar media in disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioffi, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Evolution of the interstellar media of spiral galaxies was studied, assuming that their dynamical and thermal properties are dominated by supernova remnants (SNRs). To do this, a computer simulation was developed that uses standard SNR evolutionary solutions (Sedov-Taylor, pressure-modified snowplow) to redistribute mass and energy throughout a rectangular, three-level grid which models the interstellar medium (ISM). This comprehensive treatment includes bremsstrahlung or metal cooling, the creation and evaporation of clouds, mass injection and return from a galactic halo, multiple SNRs, and internally determined SNR lifetimes. The importance of spatially correlating supernovae sites, which can increase the global evolution rate of the (ISM), is confirmed. The simulations of primeval (zero metal abundance) galaxies revealed that the enhancement ability of bremsstrahlung-cooled SNR to transport mass can continually agitate the ISM, preventing the establishment of long-lived tunnel networks (i.e., hot rarefied volumes). This demonstrated the inadequacy of porosity theory for predicting the topology of the ISM, because it does not account for mass transport

  13. A spatially resolved study of the synchrotron emission and titanium in Tycho's supernova remnant using NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Laura A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    that the hardest (>10 keV) X-rays are concentrated in the southwest of Tycho, where recent Chandra observations have revealed high emissivity “stripes” associated with particles accelerated to the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. We do not find evidence of 44Ti, and we set limits on its presence and distribution......We report results from deep observations (~750 ks) of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) with NuSTAR. Using these data, we produce narrow-band images over several energy bands to identify the regions producing the hardest X-rays and to search for radioactive decay line emission from 44Ti. We find...

  14. Time-resolved two million year old supernova activity discovered in the earth's microfossil record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Shawn; Ludwig, Peter; Chernenko, Valentina; Deveva, Boyana; Faestermann, Thomas; Famulok, Nicolai; Fimiani, Leticia; Gomez, Jose; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Egli, Ramon [Geomagnetism and Gravimetry, Central Institute for Metrology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Hanzlik, Marianne [Chemie Department, FG Elektronmikroskopie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Using accelerator mass spectrometry, we have conducted a search for live, supernova-produced, {sup 60}Fe atoms within biogenically produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) crystals contained in two Pacific Ocean sediment cores. We have found a time-resolved {sup 60}Fe signal in both sediment cores, above background, centered at approximately 2.1 Myr ago and spanning approximately 800 kyr duration (full width half maximum). The onset of this signal coincides with a known marine extinction event at the Pleiocene/Pleistocene boundary, and its shape will require eventual astrophysical interpretation to understand.

  15. The effect of weak lensing on distance estimates from supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mathew; Maartens, Roy [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Bacon, David J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; D' Andrea, Chris B. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Chris [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Bassett, Bruce A. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Cinabro, David [Wayne State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Finley, David A.; Frieman, Joshua A. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Galbany, Lluis [CENTRA Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Olmstead, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shapiro, Charles [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91109 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: matsmith2@gmail.com [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 608 Type Ia supernovae from the SDSS-II and BOSS surveys, combined with a sample of foreground galaxies from SDSS-II, we estimate the weak lensing convergence for each supernova line of sight. We find that the correlation between this measurement and the Hubble residuals is consistent with the prediction from lensing (at a significance of 1.7σ). Strong correlations are also found between the residuals and supernova nuisance parameters after a linear correction is applied. When these other correlations are taken into account, the lensing signal is detected at 1.4σ. We show, for the first time, that distance estimates from supernovae can be improved when lensing is incorporated, by including a new parameter in the SALT2 methodology for determining distance moduli. The recovered value of the new parameter is consistent with the lensing prediction. Using cosmic microwave background data from WMAP7, H {sub 0} data from Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, we find the best-fit value of the new lensing parameter and show that the central values and uncertainties on Ω {sub m} and w are unaffected. The lensing of supernovae, while only seen at marginal significance in this low-redshift sample, will be of vital importance for the next generation of surveys, such as DES and LSST, which will be systematics-dominated.

  16. Density profiles of supernova matter and determination of neutrino parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Hsuan

    2007-08-01

    The flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos can lead to observable signatures related to the unknown neutrino parameters. As one of the determinants in dictating the efficiency of resonant flavor conversion, the local density profile near the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance in a supernova environment is, however, not so well understood. In this analysis, variable power-law functions are adopted to represent the independent local density profiles near the locations of resonance. It is shown that the uncertain matter density profile in a supernova, the possible neutrino mass hierarchies, and the undetermined 1-3 mixing angle would result in six distinct scenarios in terms of the survival probabilities of νe and ν¯e. The feasibility of probing the undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy and the 1-3 mixing angle with the supernova neutrinos is then examined using several proposed experimental observables. Given the incomplete knowledge of the supernova matter profile, the analysis is further expanded to incorporate the Earth matter effect. The possible impact due to the choice of models, which differ in the average energy and in the luminosity of neutrinos, is also addressed in the analysis.

  17. Computational models of stellar collapse and core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Christian D; O'Connor, Evan; Schnetter, Erik; Loeffler, Frank; Burrows, Adam; Livne, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among Nature's most energetic events. They mark the end of massive star evolution and pollute the interstellar medium with the life-enabling ashes of thermonuclear burning. Despite their importance for the evolution of galaxies and life in the universe, the details of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism remain in the dark and pose a daunting computational challenge. We outline the multi-dimensional, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the core-collapse supernova problem and discuss computational strategies and requirements for its solution. Specifically, we highlight the axisymmetric (2D) radiation-MHD code VULCAN/2D and present results obtained from the first full-2D angle-dependent neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the post-core-bounce supernova evolution. We then go on to discuss the new code Zelmani which is based on the open-source HPC Cactus framework and provides a scalable AMR approach for 3D fully general-relativistic modeling of stellar collapse, core-collapse supernovae and black hole formation on current and future massively-parallel HPC systems. We show Zelmani's scaling properties to more than 16,000 compute cores and discuss first 3D general-relativistic core-collapse results.

  18. Computational models of stellar collapse and core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Christian D; O' Connor, Evan [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Schnetter, Erik; Loeffler, Frank [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Livne, Eli, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.ed [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2009-07-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among Nature's most energetic events. They mark the end of massive star evolution and pollute the interstellar medium with the life-enabling ashes of thermonuclear burning. Despite their importance for the evolution of galaxies and life in the universe, the details of the core-collapse supernova explosion mechanism remain in the dark and pose a daunting computational challenge. We outline the multi-dimensional, multi-scale, and multi-physics nature of the core-collapse supernova problem and discuss computational strategies and requirements for its solution. Specifically, we highlight the axisymmetric (2D) radiation-MHD code VULCAN/2D and present results obtained from the first full-2D angle-dependent neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the post-core-bounce supernova evolution. We then go on to discuss the new code Zelmani which is based on the open-source HPC Cactus framework and provides a scalable AMR approach for 3D fully general-relativistic modeling of stellar collapse, core-collapse supernovae and black hole formation on current and future massively-parallel HPC systems. We show Zelmani's scaling properties to more than 16,000 compute cores and discuss first 3D general-relativistic core-collapse results.

  19. Geological isotope anomalies as signatures of nearby supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Schramm, David N; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D; Schramm, David N

    1996-01-01

    Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material deposited terrestrially by these two mechanisms, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. A number of radioactive isotopes are identified as possible diagnostic tools, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-53, Fe-60, and Ni-59, as well as the longer-lived I-129, Sm-146, and Pu-244. We discuss whether the 35 and 60 kyr-old Be-10 anomalies observed in the Vostok antarctic ice cores could be due to supernova explosions. Combining our estimates for matter deposition with results of recent nucleosynthesis yields, we calculate the expected signal from nearby supernovae using ice cores back to \\sim 300 kyr ago, and we discuss using deep ocean sediments back to several hundred Myr. In particular, we examine the prospects for identifying isotope anomalies due to the Geminga supernova explosion, and signatures of the possibility...

  20. A surge of light at the birth of a supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersten, M. C.; Folatelli, G.; García, F.; van Dyk, S. D.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Orellana, M.; Buso, V.; Sánchez, J. L.; Tanaka, M.; Maeda, K.; Filippenko, A. V.; Zheng, W.; Brink, T. G.; Cenko, S. B.; de Jaeger, T.; Kumar, S.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Perley, D. A.; Shivvers, I.; Smith, N.

    2018-02-01

    It is difficult to establish the properties of massive stars that explode as supernovae. The electromagnetic emission during the first minutes to hours after the emergence of the shock from the stellar surface conveys important information about the final evolution and structure of the exploding star. However, the unpredictable nature of supernova events hinders the detection of this brief initial phase. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of a newly born, normal type IIb supernova (SN 2016gkg), which reveals a rapid brightening at optical wavelengths of about 40 magnitudes per day. The very frequent sampling of the observations allowed us to study in detail the outermost structure of the progenitor of the supernova and the physics of the emergence of the shock. We develop hydrodynamical models of the explosion that naturally account for the complete evolution of the supernova over distinct phases regulated by different physical processes. This result suggests that it is appropriate to decouple the treatment of the shock propagation from the unknown mechanism that triggers the explosion.