WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume scale factor

  1. Financial factor influence on scaling and memory of trading volume in stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-10-01

    We study the daily trading volume volatility of 17,197 stocks in the US stock markets during the period 1989-2008 and analyze the time return intervals τ between volume volatilities above a given threshold q. For different thresholds q, the probability density function P(q)(τ) scales with mean interval 〈τ〉 as P(q)(τ)=〈τ〉(-1)f(τ/〈τ〉), and the tails of the scaling function can be well approximated by a power law f(x)∼x(-γ). We also study the relation between the form of the distribution function P(q)(τ) and several financial factors: stock lifetime, market capitalization, volume, and trading value. We find a systematic tendency of P(q)(τ) associated with these factors, suggesting a multiscaling feature in the volume return intervals. We analyze the conditional probability P(q)(τ|τ(0)) for τ following a certain interval τ(0), and find that P(q)(τ|τ(0)) depends on τ(0) such that immediately following a short (long) return interval a second short (long) return interval tends to occur. We also find indications that there is a long-term correlation in the daily volume volatility. We compare our results to those found earlier for price volatility.

  2. Volcano morphometry and volume scaling on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A broad variety of volcanic edifices have been observed on Venus. They ranged in size from the limits of resolution of the Magellan SAR (i.e., hundreds of meters) to landforms over 500 km in basal diameter. One of the key questions pertaining to volcanism on Venus concerns the volume eruption rate or VER, which is linked to crustal productivity over time. While less than 3 percent of the surface area of Venus is manifested as discrete edifices larger than 50 km in diameter, a substantial component of the total crustal volume of the planet over the past 0.5 Ga is related to isolated volcanoes, which are certainly more easily studied than the relatively diffusely defined plains volcanic flow units. Thus, we have focused our efforts on constraining the volume productivity of major volcanic edifices larger than 100 km in basal diameter. Our approach takes advantage of the topographic data returned by Magellan, as well as our database of morphometric statistics for the 20 best known lava shields of Iceland, plus Mauna Loa of Hawaii. As part of this investigation, we have quantified the detailed morphometry of nearly 50 intermediate to large scale edifices, with particular attention to their shape systematics. We found that a set of venusian edifices which include Maat, Sapas, Tepev, Sif, Gula, a feature at 46 deg S, 215 deg E, as well as the shield-like structure at 10 deg N, 275 deg E are broadly representative of the approx. 400 volcanic landforms larger than 50 km. The cross-sectional shapes of these 7 representative edifices range from flattened cones (i.e., Sif) similar to classic terrestrial lava shields such as Mauna Loa and Skjaldbreidur, to rather dome-like structures which include Maat and Sapas. The majority of these larger volcanoes surveyed as part of our study displayed cross-sectional topographies with paraboloidal shaped, in sharp contrast with the cone-like appearance of most simple terrestrial lava shields. In order to more fully explore the

  3. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  4. Volume correction factor in time dose relationships in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Sasane, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Paterson's clinical data about the maximum tolerance doses for various volumes of interstitial implants with Ra-226 delivered in seven days was made use of in deriving volume correction factors for TDF and CRE concepts respectively for brachytherapy. The derived volume correction factors for TDF and for CRE differ fromthe one assumed for CRE by Kirk et al. and implied for TDF by Goitein. A normalising volume of 70 cc has been suggested for both CRE and TDF concepts for brachytherapy. A table showing the volume corrected TDF is presented for various volumes and dose rates for continuous irradiation. The use of this table is illustrated with examples. (orig.) [de

  5. Image scale measurement with correlation filters in a volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2013-08-01

    A search engine containing various target images or different part of a large scene area is of great use for many applications, including object detection, biometric recognition, and image registration. The input image captured in realtime is compared with all the template images in the search engine. A volume holographic correlator is one type of these search engines. It performs thousands of comparisons among the images at a super high speed, with the correlation task accomplishing mainly in optics. However, the inputted target image always contains scale variation to the filtering template images. At the time, the correlation values cannot properly reflect the similarity of the images. It is essential to estimate and eliminate the scale variation of the inputted target image. There are three domains for performing the scale measurement, as spatial, spectral and time domains. Most methods dealing with the scale factor are based on the spatial or the spectral domains. In this paper, a method with the time domain is proposed to measure the scale factor of the input image. It is called a time-sequential scaled method. The method utilizes the relationship between the scale variation and the correlation value of two images. It sends a few artificially scaled input images to compare with the template images. The correlation value increases and decreases with the increasing of the scale factor at the intervals of 0.8~1 and 1~1.2, respectively. The original scale of the input image can be measured by estimating the largest correlation value through correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images. The measurement range for the scale can be 0.8~4.8. Scale factor beyond 1.2 is measured by scaling the input image at the factor of 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4, correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images, and estimating the new corresponding scale factor inside 0.8~1.2.

  6. Finite volume form factors in the presence of integrable defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajnok, Z.; Buccheri, F.; Hollo, L.; Konczer, J.; Takacs, G.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the theory of finite volume form factors in the presence of integrable defects. These finite volume form factors are expressed in terms of the infinite volume form factors and the finite volume density of states and incorporate all polynomial corrections in the inverse of the volume. We tested our results, in the defect Lee–Yang model, against numerical data obtained by truncated conformal space approach (TCSA), which we improved by renormalization group methods adopted to the defect case. To perform these checks we determined the infinite volume defect form factors in the Lee–Yang model exactly, including their vacuum expectation values. We used these data to calculate the two point functions, which we compared, at short distance, to defect CFT. We also derived explicit expressions for the exact finite volume one point functions, which we checked numerically. In all of these comparisons excellent agreement was found

  7. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  8. Risk factors influencing the pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yajima, Kazuhito; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the factors influencing pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy and to determine criteria for the selection of patients who would benefit from the early removal of chest drains. Clinicopathological characteristics of 155 patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy were prospectively collected, and the daily drainage volume of each patient was retrospectively reviewed. Potential risk factors were compared between the high-output group (n = 39) and low-output group (n = 116), which were dichotomized using the 75th percentile of total pleural drainage volume of the total study population. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. The median duration of drainage was 10 days, with a median total drainage volume of 2258 ml. Of 27 potential risk factors influencing the drainage volume, creatinine clearance (P = 0.04), operative approach (P = 0.03) and thoracic duct removal (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the total pleural drainage volume. The removal of the thoracic duct (P = 0.02; odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.41) and lower creatinine clearance (P = 0.04; odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.04) was independent risk factors for increased pleural drainage volume after transthoracic oesophagectomy. The early removal of chest drains may be possible in patients without these risk factors.

  9. SCALE-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original fresh composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Each of the five volumes comprising this report provides an overview of the methodology applied. Subsequent volumes also describe in detail the approach taken in performing criticality calculations for these PWR configurations: Volume 2 describes criticality calculations for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Unit 2 reactor for Cycle 3; Volume 3 documents the analysis of Virginia Power's Surry Unit 1 reactor for the Cycle 2 core; Volume 4 documents the calculations performed based on GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5 core; and, lastly, Volume 5 describes the analysis of Virginia Power's North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5 core. Each of the reactor-specific volumes provides the details of calculations performed to determine the effective multiplication factor for each reactor core for one or more critical configurations using the SCALE-4 system; these results are summarized in this volume. Differences between the core designs and their possible impact on the criticality calculations are also discussed. Finally, results are presented for additional analyses performed to verify that solutions were sufficiently converged

  10. Regional Disparities in Online Map User Access Volume and Determining Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Yang, N.; Li, R.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The regional disparities of online map user access volume (use `user access volume' in this paper to indicate briefly) is a topic of growing interest with the increment of popularity in public users, which helps to target the construction of geographic information services for different areas. At first place we statistically analysed the online map user access logs and quantified these regional access disparities on different scales. The results show that the volume of user access is decreasing from east to the west in China as a whole, while East China produces the most access volume; these cities are also the crucial economic and transport centres. Then Principal Component Regression (PCR) is applied to explore the regional disparities of user access volume. A determining model for Online Map access volume is proposed afterwards, which indicates that area scale is the primary determining factor for regional disparities, followed by public transport development level and public service development level. Other factors like user quality index and financial index have very limited influence on the user access volume. According to the study of regional disparities in user access volume, map providers can reasonably dispatch and allocate the data resources and service resources in each area and improve the operational efficiency of the Online Map server cluster.

  11. Peripheral blood volume influenced by various external factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittner, A; Scheibe, J; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the peripheral blood volume upon various exogenous factors was studied in male sports students using /sup 113m/InCl. The results obtained revealed that whole-body exertions and local muscular activity produce an increase of the blood volume in the lower extremities associated with increased blood circulation. The passive measures applied caused also an increase of the blood volume, but not in all of the subjects examined. Isometric concentrations led to a highly significant reduction of the peripheral blood volume. The scintigraphic method for the visualization of the blood volume in peripheral regions of the body can be regarded as suitable for the study of hemodynamics and for the substantiation of the efficiency of measures promoting restoration.

  12. The peripheral blood volume influenced by various external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, A.; Scheibe, J.; Stoll, W.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of the peripheral blood volume upon various exogenous factors was studied in male sports students using /sup 113m/InCl. The results obtained revealed that whole-body exertions and local muscular activity produce an increase of the blood volume in the lower extremities associated with increased blood circulation. The passive measures applied caused also an increase of the blood volume, but not in all of the subjects examined. Isometric concentrations led to a highly significant reduction of the peripheral blood volume. The scintigraphic method for the visualization of the blood volume in peripheral regions of the body can be regarded as suitable for the study of hemodynamics and for the substantiation of the efficiency of measures promoting restoration. (author)

  13. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M. [Departamento de Física - CCE,Universidade Federal de Espirito Santo, 29075-900, Vitoria ES (Brazil)

    2016-11-16

    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  14. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  15. Topologically-based visualization of large-scale volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Y.; Tokunaga, M.; Fujishiro, I.; Takahashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the recent progress in the performance of computing/measurement environments and the advent of ITBL environments, volume datasets have become larger and more complicated. Although computer visualization is one of the tools to analyze such datasets effectively, it is almost impossible to adjust the visualization parameter value by trial and error without taking the feature of a given volume dataset into consideration. In this article, we introduce a scheme of topologically-based volume visualization, which is intended to choose appropriate visualization parameter values automatically through topological volume skeletonization. (author)

  16. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Reilly's Role Overload Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Palaniappan; Chakrabarty, Subhra; Taylor, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    In 1982, Reilly developed a 13-item scale to measure role overload. This scale has been widely used, but most studies did not assess the unidimensionality of the scale. Given the significance of unidimensionality in scale development, the current study reports a confirmatory factor analysis of the 13-item scale in two samples. Based on the…

  17. A SUB-GRID VOLUME-OF-FLUIDS (VOF) MODEL FOR MIXING IN RESOLVED SCALE AND IN UNRESOLVED SCALE COMPUTATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, Erik L.; Scannapieco, Tony J.

    2007-01-01

    A sub-grid mix model based on a volume-of-fluids (VOF) representation is described for computational simulations of the transient mixing between reactive fluids, in which the atomically mixed components enter into the reactivity. The multi-fluid model allows each fluid species to have independent values for density, energy, pressure and temperature, as well as independent velocities and volume fractions. Fluid volume fractions are further divided into mix components to represent their 'mixedness' for more accurate prediction of reactivity. Time dependent conversion from unmixed volume fractions (denoted cf) to atomically mixed (af) fluids by diffusive processes is represented in resolved scale simulations with the volume fractions (cf, af mix). In unresolved scale simulations, the transition to atomically mixed materials begins with a conversion from unmixed material to a sub-grid volume fraction (pf). This fraction represents the unresolved small scales in the fluids, heterogeneously mixed by turbulent or multi-phase mixing processes, and this fraction then proceeds in a second step to the atomically mixed fraction by diffusion (cf, pf, af mix). Species velocities are evaluated with a species drift flux, ρ i u di = ρ i (u i -u), used to describe the fluid mixing sources in several closure options. A simple example of mixing fluids during 'interfacial deceleration mixing with a small amount of diffusion illustrates the generation of atomically mixed fluids in two cases, for resolved scale simulations and for unresolved scale simulations. Application to reactive mixing, including Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), is planned for future work.

  18. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  19. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices

  20. Static allometry of unicellular green algae: scaling of cellular surface area and volume in the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustupa, J

    2016-02-01

    The surface area-to-volume ratio of cells is one of the key factors affecting fundamental biological processes and, thus, fitness of unicellular organisms. One of the general models for allometric increase in surface-to-volume scaling involves fractal-like elaboration of cellular surfaces. However, specific data illustrating this pattern in natural populations of the unicellular organisms have not previously been available. This study shows that unicellular green algae of the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales) have positive allometric surface-to-volume scaling caused by changes in morphology of individual species, especially in the degree of cell lobulation. This allometric pattern was also detected within most of the cultured and natural populations analysed. Values of the allometric S:V scaling within individual populations were closely correlated to the phylogenetic structure of the clade. In addition, they were related to species-specific cellular morphology. Individual populations differed in their allometric patterns, and their position in the allometric space was strongly correlated with the degree of allometric S:V scaling. This result illustrates that allometric shape patterns are an important correlate of the capacity of individual populations to compensate for increases in their cell volumes by increasing the surface area. However, variation in allometric patterns was not associated with phylogenetic structure. This indicates that the position of the populations in the allometric space was not evolutionarily conserved and might be influenced by environmental factors. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Proportional Reasoning Ability and Concepts of Scale: Surface Area to Volume Relationships in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy; Jones, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The "National Science Education Standards" emphasise teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale. Scale influences science processes and phenomena across the domains. One of the big ideas of scale is that of surface area to volume. This study explored whether or not there…

  2. Experimental determination of the drywell volume: 1/5 scale pressure suppression test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The BWR Mk 1 1/5 scale drywell volume, including space in all ports up to the first flange, was experimentally determined to be 10.01 m 3 with an uncertainty of +- 0.03 m 3 . The method of measurement used a 0.040879 m 3 calibrated volume that was initially filled with helium to 36.5 MPa. The calibrated volume was then connected to the drywell and the pressures equalized. The volumes of the vent pipes, instrumentation ports, and either the steam inlet or nitrogen inlet were subtracted from the measured drywell volume to obtain the net active drywell volume. The net active drywell volume is 9.87 m 3 for air tests and 9.85 m 3 for steam tests

  3. Factor Structure of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study utilized exercise self-efficacy ratings from undergraduate students to assess the factor structure of the Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Scale (Bandura, 1997, 2006). An exploratory factor analysis (n = 759) indicated a two-factor model solution and three separate confirmatory factor analyses (n = 1,798) supported this…

  4. Scaling Problems for Wave Propagation in Layered Systems. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    bore diameter. To avoid this type of damage to the barrel, a steel tubing made from an alloy steel such as 4140 or 4340 is recommended since these...Figure A-3. It is suggested that a different material be chosen for the barrel sections, if possible (such as 4140 or 4340 steel), to provide a heat...maximum pressure, and was found to have a factor of safety against shear in excess of 3. Eighteen high strength, SAE B-7, 3/4 inch-16 UNF threaded rods

  5. Adequacy of power-to-volume scaling philosophy to simulate natural circulation in Integral Test Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Venkat Raj, V.; Aritomi, Masanori

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out to study the adequacy of power-to-volume scaling philosophy for the simulation of natural circulation and to establish the scaling philosophy applicable for the design of the Integral Test Facility (ITF-AHWR) for the Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). The results indicate that a reduction in the flow channel diameter of the scaled facility as required by the power-to-volume scaling philosophy may affect the simulation of natural circulation behaviour of the prototype plants. This is caused by the distortions due to the inability to simulate the frictional resistance of the scaled facility. Hence, it is recommended that the flow channel diameter of the scaled facility should be as close as possible to the prototype. This was verified by comparing the natural circulation behaviour of a prototype 220 MWe Indian PHWR and its scaled facility (FISBE-1) designed based on power-to-volume scaling philosophy. It is suggested from examinations using a mathematical model and a computer code that the FISBE-1 simulates the steady state and the general trend of transient natural circulation behaviour of the prototype reactor adequately. Finally the proposed scaling method was applied for the design of the ITF-AHWR. (author)

  6. Dither Gyro Scale Factor Calibration: GOES-16 Flight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reth, Alan D.; Freesland, Douglas C.; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    This poster is a sequel to a paper presented at the 34th Annual AAS Guidance and Control Conference in 2011, which first introduced dither-based calibration of gyro scale factors. The dither approach uses very small excitations, avoiding the need to take instruments offline during gyro scale factor calibration. In 2017, the dither calibration technique was successfully used to estimate gyro scale factors on the GOES-16 satellite. On-orbit dither calibration results were compared to more traditional methods using large angle spacecraft slews about each gyro axis, requiring interruption of science. The results demonstrate that the dither technique can estimate gyro scale factors to better than 2000 ppm during normal science observations.

  7. Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, D; Hale, B

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders.

  8. Possible Factors that Affect Testis Volume in Varicocele Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozay Demiray

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Left varicocele degree is associated with decrease in testis volume. There was no relationship between testis volume and body mass index or smoking habit. Early varicocele diagnosis is important to protect testis volume. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 233-238

  9. FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BRIEF NEGATIVE SYMPTOM SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Hong, L. Elliot; Gold, James M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; McMahon, Robert P.; Keller, William R.; Fischer, Bernard A.; Catalano, Lauren T.; Culbreth, Adam J.; Carpenter, William T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation negative symptom rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH-sponsored Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms. Participants included 146 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Principal axis factoring indicated two distinct factors explaining 68.7% of the variance. Similar to previous findings, the factors reflected mot...

  10. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  11. Critical factors for assembling a high volume of DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; deWaard, Jeremy R; Ivanova, Natalia V; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Dooh, Robert T; Kirk, Stephanie L; Mackie, Paula M; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale DNA barcoding projects are now moving toward activation while the creation of a comprehensive barcode library for eukaryotes will ultimately require the acquisition of some 100 million barcodes. To satisfy this need, analytical facilities must adopt protocols that can support the rapid, cost-effective assembly of barcodes. In this paper we discuss the prospects for establishing high volume DNA barcoding facilities by evaluating key steps in the analytical chain from specimens to barcodes. Alliances with members of the taxonomic community represent the most effective strategy for provisioning the analytical chain with specimens. The optimal protocols for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification of the barcode region depend strongly on their condition, but production targets of 100K barcode records per year are now feasible for facilities working with compliant specimens. The analysis of museum collections is currently challenging, but PCR cocktails that combine polymerases with repair enzyme(s) promise future success. Barcode analysis is already a cost-effective option for species identification in some situations and this will increasingly be the case as reference libraries are assembled and analytical protocols are simplified. PMID:16214753

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Yockey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative fit of one- and two-factor models of the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis on an ethnically diverse sample of 345 participants. The results indicated that although the two-factor model provided better fit to the data than the one-factor model, neither model provided optimal fit. However, a two-factor model which accounted for common item theme pairs used by Solomon and Rothblum in the creation of the scale provided good fit to the data. In addition, a significant difference by ethnicity was also found on the fear of failure subscale of the PASS, with Whites having significantly lower scores than Asian Americans or Latino/as. Implications of the results are discussed and recommendations made for future work with the scale.

  13. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  14. Internal and external quasicrystal inflation center and their scaling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakova, Z.; Patera, J.; Pelantova, E.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of quasicrystals of the cut and project type - namely, self-similarities or so-called inflation properties - are studied. A complete description is given for centers of the scaling symmetry of a quasicrystal, and the relevant scaling factors are determined for each 'inflation center'. If the center is a quasicrystal point, it is called an 'internal inflation center'; otherwise, it is an 'external' one. It turns out that, for any quasicrystal point u, the set of appropriate scaling factors is a u-dependent one-dimensional quasicrystal. There are infinitely many scaling factors common to all internal inflation centers. The description of external inflation centers, which are plentiful in any quasicrystal, is a slight modification of a similar description for the interval ones

  15. Success Factors of Large Scale ERP Implementation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rotchanakitumnuai; Siriluck

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to examine the determinants of ERP implementation success factors of ERP implementation. The result indicates that large scale ERP implementation success consist of eight factors: project management competence, knowledge sharing, ERP system quality , understanding, user involvement, business process re-engineering, top management support, organization readiness.

  16. Predicting the cosmological constant with the scale-factor cutoff measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Guth, Alan H.; Salem, Michael P.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that anthropic selection from a landscape with a flat prior distribution of cosmological constant Λ gives a reasonable fit to observation. However, a realistic model of the multiverse has a physical volume that diverges with time, and the predicted distribution of Λ depends on how the spacetime volume is regulated. A very promising method of regulation uses a scale-factor cutoff, which avoids a number of serious problems that arise in other approaches. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff avoids the 'youngness problem' (high probability of living in a much younger universe) and the 'Q and G catastrophes' (high probability for the primordial density contrast Q and gravitational constant G to have extremely large or small values). We apply the scale-factor cutoff measure to the probability distribution of Λ, considering both positive and negative values. The results are in good agreement with observation. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff strongly suppresses the probability for values of Λ that are more than about 10 times the observed value. We also discuss qualitatively the prediction for the density parameter Ω, indicating that with this measure there is a possibility of detectable negative curvature.

  17. Factor structure of the Body Appreciation Scale among Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2008-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of a Malay version of the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), a recently developed scale for the assessment of positive body image that has been shown to have a unidimensional structure in Western settings. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses based on data from community sample of 591 women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, failed to support a unidimensional structure for the Malay BAS. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis suggested two stable factors, which were labelled 'General Body Appreciation' and 'Body Image Investment'. Multi-group analysis showed that the two-factor structure was invariant for both Malaysian Malay and Chinese women, and that there were no significant ethnic differences on either factor. Results also showed that General Body Appreciation was significant negatively correlated with participants' body mass index. These results are discussed in relation to possible cross-cultural differences in positive body image.

  18. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  19. Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Licastro, P.H.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large-scale testing of the permeability by brine of a salt/grout sample designed to simulate a borehole plug was conducted. The results of these tests showed that a quantity of fluid equivalent to a permeability of 3 microdarcys was collected during the course of the test. This flow rate was used to estimate the smooth bore aperture. Details of this test ware presented in Volume 1 of this report. This report, Volume 2, covers post-test characterization including a detailed study of the salt/grout interface, as well as determination of the physical/mechanical properties of grout samples molded at Terra Tek, Inc. at the time of the large-scale test. Additional studies include heat of hydration, radial stress, and longitudinal volume changes for an equivalent grout mixture

  20. Factor structure of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Hong, L Elliot; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W; McMahon, Robert P; Keller, William R; Fischer, Bernard A; Catalano, Lauren T; Culbreth, Adam J; Carpenter, William T; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation negative symptom rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH-sponsored Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms. Participants included 146 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Principal axis factoring indicated two distinct factors explaining 68.7% of the variance. Similar to previous findings, the factors reflected motivation and pleasure and emotional expressivity. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the BNSS, and for the existence of these two negative symptom factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The factor structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Thomas; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Schramm, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Stefan G; Stangier, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are two compendium measures that have become some of the most popular self-report scales of social anxiety. Despite their popularity, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to maintain two separate scales of social anxiety. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor analytic structure of both measures to determine the factorial validity of each scale. For this purpose, we administered both scales to 577 patients at the beginning of outpatient treatment. Analyzing both scales simultaneously, a CFA with two correlated factors showed a better fit to the data than a single factor model. An additional EFA with an oblique rotation on all 40 items using the WLSMV estimator further supported the two factor solution. These results suggest that the SIAS and SPS measure similar, but not identical facets of social anxiety. Thus, our findings provide support to retain the SIAS and SPS as two separate scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scale factor measure method without turntable for angular rate gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fangyi; Han, Xuefei; Yao, Yanqing; Xiong, Yuting; Huang, Yuqiong; Wang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a scale factor test method without turntable is originally designed for the angular rate gyroscope. A test system which consists of test device, data acquisition circuit and data processing software based on Labview platform is designed. Taking advantage of gyroscope's sensitivity of angular rate, a gyroscope with known scale factor, serves as a standard gyroscope. The standard gyroscope is installed on the test device together with a measured gyroscope. By shaking the test device around its edge which is parallel to the input axis of gyroscope, the scale factor of the measured gyroscope can be obtained in real time by the data processing software. This test method is fast. It helps test system miniaturized, easy to carry or move. Measure quarts MEMS gyroscope's scale factor multi-times by this method, the difference is less than 0.2%. Compare with testing by turntable, the scale factor difference is less than 1%. The accuracy and repeatability of the test system seems good.

  3. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Madewell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF” (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016 [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25, Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10, Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24, and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R. Keywords: Scale of Protective Factors, Resilience Scale, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Emerging adulthood, Confirmatory factor analysis

  4. INVESTIGATING THE FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE BLOG ATTITUDE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra SHAHSAVAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide application of advanced technology in education, many attitude scales have been developed to evaluate learners’ attitudes toward educational tools. However, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, using blogs as one of the Web 2.0 tools is still in its infancy and few blog attitude scales have been developed yet. In view of this need, a lot of researchers like to design a new scale based on their conceptual and theoretical framework of their own study rather than using available scales. The present study reports the design and development of a blog attitude scale (BAS. The researchers developed a pool of items to capture the complexity of the blog attitude trait, selected 29 items in the content analysis, and assigned the scale comprising 29 items to 216 undergraduate students to explore the underlying structure of the BAS. In exploratory factor analysis, three factors were discovered: blog anxiety, blog desirability, and blog self-efficacy; 14 items were excluded. The extracted items were subjected to a confirmatory factor analysis which lent further support to the BAS underpinning structure.

  5. Scaling of nuclear modification factors for hadrons and light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C.S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ma, Y.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2016-12-15

    The number of constituent quarks (NCQ) scaling for hadrons and the number of constituent nucleons (NCN) scaling for light nuclei are proposed for nuclear modification factors (R{sub cp}) of hadrons and light nuclei, respectively, according to the experimental investigations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Based on the coalescence mechanism the scalings are performed for pions and protons at the quark level, and for light nuclei d(anti d) and {sup 3}He at the nucleonic level, respectively, formed in Au+Au and Pb+Pb collisions, and a nice scaling behaviour emerges. The NCQ or NCN scaling law of R{sub cp} can be, respectively, taken as a probe for the quark or nucleon coalescence mechanism for the formation of hadron or light nuclei in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  6. Using the Karolinska Scales of Personality on male juvenile delinquents: relationships between scales and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, Anna M; Hellström, Ake; Wennberg, Peter; Törestad, Bertil

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationships between scales from the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) and the factor structure of the KSP in a sample of male juvenile delinquents. The KSP was administered to a group of male juvenile delinquents (n=55, mean age 17 years; standard deviation=1.2) from four Swedish national correctional institutions for serious offenders. As expected, the KSP showed appropriate correlations between the scales. Factor analysis (maximum likelihood) arrived at a four-factor solution in this sample, which is in line with previous research performed in a non-clinical sample of Swedish males. More research is needed in a somewhat larger sample of juvenile delinquents in order to confirm the present results regarding the factor solution.

  7. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell B.

    2015-11-25

    The resolutions of acquired image and volume data are ever increasing. However, the resolutions of commodity display devices remain limited. This leads to an increasing gap between data and display resolutions. To bridge this gap, the standard approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i.e., the output, and not the full size of the input. Multi-resolution representations, such as image mipmaps, and volume octrees, are crucial in providing these operations direct access to any subset of the data at any resolution corresponding to the output. Despite its widespread use, this standard approach has some shortcomings in three important application areas, namely non-linear image operations, multi-resolution volume rendering, and large-scale image exploration. This dissertation presents new multi-resolution representations for large-scale images and volumes that address these shortcomings. Standard multi-resolution representations require low-pass pre-filtering for anti- aliasing. However, linear pre-filters do not commute with non-linear operations. This becomes problematic when applying non-linear operations directly to any coarse resolution levels in standard representations. Particularly, this leads to inaccurate output when applying non-linear image operations, e.g., color mapping and detail-aware filters, to multi-resolution images. Similarly, in multi-resolution volume rendering, this leads to inconsistency artifacts which manifest as erroneous differences in rendering outputs across resolution levels. To address these issues, we introduce the sparse pdf maps and sparse pdf volumes representations for large-scale images and volumes, respectively. These representations sparsely encode continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of multi-resolution pixel

  8. Strategic Factor Markets Scale Free Resources and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes how scale free resources, which can be acquired by multiple firms simultaneously and deployed against one another in product market competition, will be priced in strategic factor markets, and what the consequences are for the acquiring firms' performance. Based on a game-theo...

  9. Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale: Two Factors or Method Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo

    1999-01-01

    Results of a study with 640 Spanish high school students suggest the existence of a global self-esteem factor underlying responses to Rosenberg's (M. Rosenberg, 1965) Self-Esteem Scale, although the inclusion of method effects is needed to achieve a good model fit. Method effects are associated with item wording. (SLD)

  10. Work related injuries and associated factors among small scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims to assess the magnitude of work related injury and associated factors among small scale industrial workers in Mizan-Aman town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to May, 2016. Data was collected using a structured face to ...

  11. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  12. Feelings about culture scales: development, factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel

    2015-04-01

    Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Scaling of Haversian canal surface area to secondary osteon bone volume in ribs and limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Clark, Gunnar C; Crowder, Christian M; Dominguez, Victoria M; Qiu, Shijing; Mulhern, Dawn M; Donahue, Seth W; Busse, Björn; Hulsey, Brannon I; Zedda, Marco; Sorenson, Scott M

    2013-06-01

    Studies of secondary osteons in ribs have provided a great deal of what is known about remodeling dynamics. Compared with limb bones, ribs are metabolically more active and sensitive to hormonal changes, and receive frequent low-strain loading. Optimization for calcium exchange in rib osteons might be achieved without incurring a significant reduction in safety factor by disproportionally increasing central canal size with increased osteon size (positive allometry). By contrast, greater mechanical loads on limb bones might favor reducing deleterious consequences of intracortical porosity by decreasing osteon canal size with increased osteon size (negative allometry). Evidence of this metabolic/mechanical dichotomy between ribs and limb bones was sought by examining relationships between Haversian canal surface area (BS, osteon Haversian canal perimeter, HC.Pm) and bone volume (BV, osteonal wall area, B.Ar) in a broad size range of mature (quiescent) osteons from adult human limb bones and ribs (modern and medieval) and various adult and subadult non-human limb bones and ribs. Reduced major axis (RMA) and least-squares (LS) regressions of HC.Pm/B.Ar data show that rib and limb osteons cannot be distinguished by dimensional allometry of these parameters. Although four of the five rib groups showed positive allometry in terms of the RMA slopes, nearly 50% of the adult limb bone groups also showed positive allometry when negative allometry was expected. Consequently, our results fail to provide clear evidence that BS/BV scaling reflects a rib versus limb bone dichotomy whereby calcium exchange might be preferentially enhanced in rib osteons. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of residue hematoma volume on inflammation factors in hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-san ZHANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  In this study, the relationships of residue hematoma volume to brain edema and inflammation factors were studied after intracerebral hematoma was evacuated with a frameless stereotactic aspiration. Methods  Eighty-nine patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH were treated by frameless stereotactic aspiration. According to residual volume of the hematoma, the patients were divided into gross-total removal of hematoma (GTRH (≤5ml and sub-total removal of hematoma (STRH (≥10ml groups after the operation. The pre-operative and postoperative data of the patients were compared between the two groups. The pre-operative data included age, sex, hematoma volume, time interval from the ictus to the operation, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores. The post-operative information included edema grade, level of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α(6-K-PGF1α, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α and endothelin (ET in hematoma cavity or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF. Results  There were 46 patients in GTRH group and 43 in STRH group respectively. There was no statistical difference in the pre-operative data between the two groups. The levels of TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α, TNF-αand ET were significantly lower in the GTRH group than in the STRH group at different post-operative time points. There was a significant difference between the two groups. The post-operative CT scan at different time points showed that the brain edema grades were better in the GTRH group than in the STRH group. Conclusions  GTRH is helpful for decreasing ICH-induced injury to brain tissue, which is related to decreased perihematomal edema formation and secondary injury by coagulation end products activated inflammatory cascade. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.12

  15. N2O emission hotspots at different spatial scales and governing factors for small scale hotspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R.N. van den; Hefting, M.M.; Tan, N.C.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronically nitrate-loaded riparian buffer zones show high N 2 O emissions. Often, a large part of the N 2 O is emitted from small surface areas, resulting in high spatial variability in these buffer zones. These small surface areas with high N 2 O emissions (hotspots) need to be investigated to generate knowledge on the factors governing N 2 O emissions. In this study the N 2 O emission variability was investigated at different spatial scales. Therefore N 2 O emissions from three 32 m 2 grids were determined in summer and winter. Spatial variation and total emission were determined on three different scales (0.3 m 2 , 0.018 m 2 and 0.0013 m 2 ) at plots with different levels of N 2 O emissions. Spatial variation was high at all scales determined and highest at the smallest scale. To test possible factors inducing small scale hotspots, soil samples were collected for slurry incubation to determine responses to increased electron donor/acceptor availability. Acetate addition did increase N 2 O production, but nitrate addition failed to increase total denitrification or net N 2 O production. N 2 O production was similar in all soil slurries, independent of their origin from high or low emission soils, indicating that environmental conditions (including physical factors like gas diffusion) rather than microbial community composition governed N 2 O emission rates

  16. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. \\'output-sensitive\\' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are \\'ray-guided\\', \\'visualization-driven\\' or \\'display-aware\\'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. 'output-sensitive' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are 'ray-guided', 'visualization-driven' or 'display-aware'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of ∼1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit

  19. Factor structure of the Japanese Interpersonal Competence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Tomomi; Fukuhara, Taihei; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2008-04-01

    Assessing social competence is important for clinical and preventive interventions of depression. The aim of the present paper was to examine the factor structure of the Japanese Interpersonal Competence Scale (JICS). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the survey responses of 730 participants. Simultaneous multigroup analyses were conducted to confirm factor stability across psychological health status and sex differences. Two factors, which represent Perceptive Ability and Self-Restraint, were confirmed to show a moderate correlation. Perceptive Ability involves a more cognitive aspect of social competence, while Self-Restraint involves a more behavioral aspect, both of which are considered to reflect the emotion-based relating style specific to the Japanese people: indulgent dependence (amae) and harmony (wa). In addition, Self-Restraint may be linked to social functioning. Both constructs may confound a respondent's perceived confidence. Despite its shortcomings, the JICS is a unique measure of social competence in the Japanese cultural context.

  20. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-08-28

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  1. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus; Al-Awami, Ali K.; Beyer, Johanna; Agus, Marco; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  2. Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep mountain channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes M.; Turowski, Jens M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hegglin, Ramon; Arrigo, Sabrina; Mao, Luca; Kirchner, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Bed load transport during storm events is both an agent of geomorphic change and a significant natural hazard in mountain regions. Thus, predicting bed load transport is a central challenge in fluvial geomorphology and natural hazard risk assessment. Bed load transport during storm events depends on the width and depth of bed scour, as well as the transport distances of individual sediment grains. We traced individual gravels in two steep mountain streams, the Erlenbach (Switzerland) and Rio Cordon (Italy), using magnetic and radio frequency identification tags, and measured their bed load transport rates using calibrated geophone bed load sensors in the Erlenbach and a bed load trap in the Rio Cordon. Tracer transport distances and bed load volumes exhibited approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual hydrologic events. Bed load volumes scaled much more steeply with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy than tracer transport distances did, and bed load volumes scaled as roughly the third power of transport distances. These observations imply that large bed load transport events become large primarily by scouring the bed deeper and wider, and only secondarily by transporting the mobilized sediment farther. Using the sediment continuity equation, we can estimate the mean effective thickness of the actively transported layer, averaged over the entire channel width and the duration of individual flow events. This active layer thickness also followed approximate power law scaling with peak stream power and cumulative stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurements.

  3. Validity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D; Hale, B

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (pbodybuilders scored significantly (pbodybuilders. However, there were no significant sex differences on any of the BDS subscales (p>0.05). The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence.

  4. Factor structure and concurrent validity of the world assumptions scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark; Solomon, Zahava; Dekel, Rachel

    2007-06-01

    The factor structure of the World Assumptions Scale (WAS) was assessed by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The sample was comprised of 1,710 participants who had been exposed to trauma that resulted in whiplash. Four alternative models were specified and estimated using LISREL 8.72. A correlated 8-factor solution was the best explanation of the sample data. The estimates of reliability of eight subscales of the WAS ranged from .48 to .82. Scores from five subscales correlated significantly with trauma severity as measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, although the magnitude of the correlations was low to modest, ranging from .08 to -.43. It is suggested that the WAS has adequate psychometric properties for use in both clinical and research settings.

  5. Factor Structure of the Conflict Tactics Scale 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Baba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Conflict Tactics Scale 1 (CTS1 is a widely used self-report measure of abusive attitudes of parents towards children. The factor structure of the CTS1 still remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Japanese version of the CTS1 for postpartum women in community settings. Method: The data in this study came from the Okayama and Kumamoto’s study. These were part of a larger survey using longitudinal questionnaire studies conducted in Japan from 2001 to 2002 and in 2011, respectively. In both study sites, the participant mothers were asked to fill in the CTS1 one month after delivery when they attended for check-up at the out-patient clinic. Results: A total of 1,150 questionnaires were collected, excluding the participants with missing values in the CTS1. Finally, 1,078 were included in the statistical analyses. Data of 1,078 women were divided into two parts. In the first halved sample (n=578, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the CTS1 items after exluding nine items with extremely low prevalence. It revealed 2-factor or 3-factor models. Then, we conducted a model comparison with the second halved sample (n=500, using confirmatory factor analysis. In terms of goodness-of-fit indeces, the 2-factor model was superior. Its subscales were Reasoning and Psycholosical Aggression. Conclusion: The 2-factor model of the CTS1 consisting of Reasoning and Psychological Aggression was superior to the 3-factor model. This is not inconsistent with the original authors’ theoretical model.

  6. Large-Scale Context-Aware Volume Navigation using Dynamic Insets

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Latest developments in electron microscopy (EM) technology produce high resolution images that enable neuro-scientists to identify and put together the complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, because of the massive size and underlying complexity of this kind of data, processing, navigation and analysis suffer drastically in terms of time and effort. In this work, we propose the use of state-of- the-art navigation techniques, such as dynamic insets, built on a peta-scale volume visualization framework to provide focus and context-awareness to help neuro-scientists in their mission to analyze, reconstruct, navigate and explore EM neuroscience data.

  7. Initial 12-h operative fluid volume is an independent risk factor for pleural effusion after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Wu, Jia-Wei; Sun, Ping; Song, Zi-Fang; Zheng, Qi-Chang

    2016-12-01

    Pleural effusion after hepatectomy is associated with significant morbidity and prolonged hospital stays. Several studies have addressed the risk factors for postoperative pleural effusion. However, there are no researches concerning the role of the initial 12-h operative fluid volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the initial 12-h operative fluid volume during liver resection is an independent risk factor for pleural effusion after hepatectomy. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 470 patients consecutively undergoing elective hepatectomy between January 2011 and December 2012. We prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed baseline and clinical data, including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify whether the initial 12-h operative fluid volume was an independent risk factor for pleural effusion after hepatectomy. The multivariate analysis identified 2 independent risk factors for pleural effusion: operative time [odds ratio (OR)=10.2] and initial 12-h operative fluid volume (OR=1.0003). Threshold effect analyses revealed that the initial 12 h operative fluid volume was positively correlated with the incidence of pleural effusion when the initial 12-h operative fluid volume exceeded 4636 mL. We conclude that the initial 12-h operative fluid volume during liver resection and operative time are independent risk factors for pleural effusion after hepatectomy. Perioperative intravenous fluids should be restricted properly.

  8. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  9. Volume-law scaling for the entanglement entropy in spin-1/2 chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitagliano, G; Riera, A; Latorre, J I

    2010-01-01

    Entanglement entropy obeys area law scaling for typical physical quantum systems. This may naively be argued to follow from the locality of interactions. We show that this is not the case by constructing an explicit simple spin chain Hamiltonian with nearest-neighbor interactions that presents an entanglement volume scaling law. This non-translational model is contrived to have couplings that force the accumulation of singlet bonds across the half-chain. This configuration of the couplings is suggested by real-space renormalization group arguments. Computation of the entanglement entropy is performed by mapping the system to free fermions and diagonalizing numerically its correlation matrix. An analytical relationship between the entanglement entropy and the Frobenius norm of the correlation matrix is also established. Our result is complementary to the known relationship between non-translational invariant, nearest-neighbor interacting Hamiltonians and quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA)-complete problems.

  10. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  11. Scaling relations between trabecular bone volume fraction and microstructure at different skeletal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, Christoph; Baum, Thomas; Monetti, Roberto; Sidorenko, Irina; Wolf, Petra; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K; Rummeny, Ernst J; Link, Thomas M; Bauer, Jan S

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the scaling relations between trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and parameters of the trabecular microstructure at different skeletal sites. Cylindrical bone samples with a diameter of 8mm were harvested from different skeletal sites of 154 human donors in vitro: 87 from the distal radius, 59/69 from the thoracic/lumbar spine, 51 from the femoral neck, and 83 from the greater trochanter. μCT images were obtained with an isotropic spatial resolution of 26μm. BV/TV and trabecular microstructure parameters (TbN, TbTh, TbSp, scaling indices ( and σ of α and αz), and Minkowski Functionals (Surface, Curvature, Euler)) were computed for each sample. The regression coefficient β was determined for each skeletal site as the slope of a linear fit in the double-logarithmic representations of the correlations of BV/TV versus the respective microstructure parameter. Statistically significant correlation coefficients ranging from r=0.36 to r=0.97 were observed for BV/TV versus microstructure parameters, except for Curvature and Euler. The regression coefficients β were 0.19 to 0.23 (TbN), 0.21 to 0.30 (TbTh), -0.28 to -0.24 (TbSp), 0.58 to 0.71 (Surface) and 0.12 to 0.16 (), 0.07 to 0.11 (), -0.44 to -0.30 (σ(α)), and -0.39 to -0.14 (σ(αz)) at the different skeletal sites. The 95% confidence intervals of β overlapped for almost all microstructure parameters at the different skeletal sites. The scaling relations were independent of vertebral fracture status and similar for subjects aged 60-69, 70-79, and >79years. In conclusion, the bone volume fraction-microstructure scaling relations showed a rather universal character. © 2013.

  12. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  13. A 100,000 Scale Factor Radar Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Neifeld, Mark; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2017-12-19

    The radar cross section of an object is an important electromagnetic property that is often measured in anechoic chambers. However, for very large and complex structures such as ships or sea and land clutters, this common approach is not practical. The use of computer simulations is also not viable since it would take many years of computational time to model and predict the radar characteristics of such large objects. We have now devised a new scaling technique to overcome these difficulties, and make accurate measurements of the radar cross section of large items. In this article we demonstrate that by reducing the scale of the model by a factor 100,000, and using near infrared wavelength, the radar cross section can be determined in a tabletop setup. The accuracy of the method is compared to simulations, and an example of measurement is provided on a 1 mm highly detailed model of a ship. The advantages of this scaling approach is its versatility, and the possibility to perform fast, convenient, and inexpensive measurements.

  14. Volume changes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy resins studied by PALS and PVT experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, A. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina) and CICPBA, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina)]. E-mail: asomoza@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Salgueiro, W. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPMPyMC, Depto. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, J. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain); Mondragon, I. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    A systematic study on changes in the volumes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy systems cured with selected aminic hardeners at different pre-cure temperatures is presented. Free- and macroscopic specific-volumes were measured by PALS and pressure-volume-temperature techniques, respectively. An analysis of the relation existing between macro- and nano-scales of the thermosetting networks developed by the different chemical structures is shown. The result obtained indicates that the structure of the hardeners governs the packing of the molecular chains of the epoxy network.

  15. Identification of flow paths and quantification of return flow volumes and timing at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, N.; Paige, G. B.; Parsekian, A.

    2017-12-01

    Flood irrigation, which constitutes a large part of agricultural water use, accounts for a significant amount of the water that is diverted from western streams. Return flow, the portion of the water applied to irrigated areas that returns to the stream, is important for maintaining base flows in streams and ecological function of riparian zones and wetlands hydrologically linked with streams. Prediction of timing and volumes of return flow during and after flood irrigation pose a challenge due to the heterogeneity of pedogenic and soil physical factors that influence vadose zone processes. In this study, we quantify volumes of return flow and potential pathways in the subsurface through a vadose zone flow model that is informed by both hydrological and geophysical observations in a Bayesian setting. We couple a two-dimensional vadose zone flow model through a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach with time lapse ERT, borehole NMR datasets that are collected during and after flood irrigation experiments, and soil physical lab analysis. The combination of both synthetic models and field observations leads to flow path identification and allows for quantification of volumes and timing and associated uncertainties of subsurface return that stems from flood irrigation. The quantification of the impact of soil heterogeneity enables us to translate these results to other sites and predict return flow under different soil physical settings. This is key when managing irrigation water resources and predictions of outcomes of different scenarios have to be evaluated.

  16. Prognostic Factors for Hormone Sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Impact of Disease Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanafy, Alshimaa Mahmoud; Zanaty, Fouad; Ibrahem, Reda; Omar, Suzan

    2018-04-27

    Background and Aim: The optimal management of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer has been controversial in recent years with introduction of upfront chemohormonal treatment based on results of several Western studies. This changing landscape has renewed interest in the concept “disease volume”, the focus of the present study is the Egyptian patients. Methods: Patients with hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer presenting at Menoufia University Hospital, Egypt, during the period from June 2013 to May 2016, were enrolled. All received hormonal treatment. Radiologic images were evaluated and patients were stratified according to their disease volume into high or low, other clinical and pathological data that could affect survival also being collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 128 patients were included, with a median age of 70 years (53.9% ≥70). About 46% had co-morbidities, 62% having high volume disease. During the median follow up period of 28 months about half of the patients progressed and one third received chemotherapy. On univariate analysis, disease volume, performance status (PS), prostate specific antigen level (PSA) and presence of pain at presentation were identified as factors influencing overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed the independent predictor factors for survival to be PS, PSA and disease volume. The median overall survival with 27 months was high volume versus 49 with low volume disease (hazard ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 - 4.4; P=0.02). Median progression free survival was 19 months in the high volume, as compared with 48 months in the low volume disease patients (hazard ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.42 – 7.4; P=0.009). Conclusions: Disease volume is a reliable predictor of survival which should be incorporated with other important factors as; patient performance status and comorbidities in treatment decision-making. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. The Relation between Cosmological Redshift and Scale Factor for Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuxun, E-mail: tshuxun@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-09-10

    The cosmological constant problem has become one of the most important ones in modern cosmology. In this paper, we try to construct a model that can avoid the cosmological constant problem and have the potential to explain the apparent late-time accelerating expansion of the universe in both luminosity distance and angular diameter distance measurement channels. In our model, the core is to modify the relation between cosmological redshift and scale factor for photons. We point out three ways to test our hypothesis: the supernova time dilation; the gravitational waves and its electromagnetic counterparts emitted by the binary neutron star systems; and the Sandage–Loeb effect. All of this method is feasible now or in the near future.

  18. An exponential universal scaling law for the volume pinning force of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampshire, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    The exponential magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c (B,T)) found in many high temperature superconductors, given by: J c (B,T) α(T)exp(-B/β(T)) where α(T) and β(T) are functions of temperature alone, necessarily implies a Universal Scaling Law for the volume pinning force (F p ) of the form: F p /F PMAX exp(+1).(B/β(T)).exp(-B/β(T)). If the Upper Critical Field is not explicitly measured but is artificially determined by smooth extrapolation of J c (B,T) to zero on a linear J c (B,T) vs B plot, this exponential scaling law can be closely approximated by the Kramer dependence given by: F p /F PMAX C.b p .(1-b) q where p = 0.5, q = 2, C ∼ 3.5 and b = B/B C2 (T). The implications for flux pinning studies are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Partial molar volume of n-alcohols at infinite dilution in water calculated by means of scaled particle theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2006-04-07

    The partial molar volume of n-alcohols at infinite dilution in water is smaller than the molar volume in the neat liquid phase. It is shown that the formula for the partial molar volume at infinite dilution obtained from the scaled particle theory equation of state for binary hard sphere mixtures is able to reproduce in a satisfactory manner the experimental data over a large temperature range. This finding implies that the packing effects play the fundamental role in determining the partial molar volume at infinite dilution in water also for solutes, such as n-alcohols, forming H bonds with water molecules. Since the packing effects in water are largely related to the small size of its molecules, the latter feature is the ultimate cause of the decrease in partial molar volume associated with the hydrophobic effect.

  20. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and gray matter volume in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, S; Aggio, V; Hoogenboezem, T A; Ambrée, O; de Wit, H; Wijkhuijs, A J M; Locatelli, C; Colombo, C; Arolt, V; Drexhage, H A; Benedetti, F

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric condition characterized by grey matter (GM) volumes reduction. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested to play a role in the neuroprogressive changes during the illness course. In particular peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in BD. The aim of our study was to investigate if serum levels of BDNF are associated with GM volumes in BD patients and healthy controls (HC). We studied 36 inpatients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD type I and 17 HC. Analysis of variance was performed to investigate the effect of diagnosis on GM volumes in the whole brain. Threshold for significance was PBDNF levels compared with HC. Reduced GM volumes in BD patients compared to HC were observed in several brain areas, encompassing the caudate head, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The interaction analysis between BDNF levels and diagnosis showed a significant effect in the middle frontal gyrus. HC reported higher BDNF levels associated with higher GM volumes, whereas no association between BDNF and GM volumes was observed in BD. Our study seems to suggest that although the production of BDNF is increased in BD possibly to prevent and repair neural damage, its effects could be hampered by underlying neuroinflammatory processes interfering with the neurodevelopmental role of BDNF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, N.; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance......Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we...... critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates...

  2. Factor solutions of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Tillfors, Maria; Furmark, Tomas; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2017-06-01

    Culturally validated rating scales for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are of significant importance when screening for the disorder, as well as for evaluating treatment efficacy. This study examined construct validity and additional psychometric properties of two commonly used scales, the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, in a clinical SAD population (n = 180) and in a normal population (n = 614) in Sweden. Confirmatory factor analyses of previously reported factor solutions were tested but did not reveal acceptable fit. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the joint structure of the scales in the total population yielded a two-factor model (performance anxiety and social interaction anxiety), whereas EFA in the clinical sample revealed a three-factor solution, a social interaction anxiety factor and two performance anxiety factors. The SPS and SIAS showed good to excellent internal consistency, and discriminated well between patients with SAD and a normal population sample. Both scales showed good convergent validity with an established measure of SAD, whereas the discriminant validity of symptoms of social anxiety and depression could not be confirmed. The optimal cut-off score for SPS and SIAS were 18 and 22 points, respectively. It is concluded that the factor structure and the additional psychometric properties of SPS and SIAS support the use of the scales for assessment in a Swedish population.

  3. Instantaneous equations for multiphase flow in porous media without length-scale restrictions using a non-local averaging volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework to obtain a new formulation for multiphase flow conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, based on the non-local form of the averaged volume conservation equations. The simplification of the local averaging volume of the conservation equations to obtain practical equations is subject to the following length-scale restrictions: d << l << L, where d is the characteristic length of the dispersed phases, l is the characteristic length of the averaging volume, and L is the characteristic length of the physical system. If the foregoing inequality does not hold, or if the scale of the problem of interest is of the order of l, the averaging technique and therefore, the macroscopic theories of multiphase flow should be modified in order to include appropriate considerations and terms in the corresponding equations. In these cases the local form of the averaged volume conservation equations are not appropriate to describe the multiphase system. As an example of the conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, the natural circulation boiling water reactor was consider to study the non-local effects on the thermal-hydraulic core performance during steady-state and transient behaviors, and the results were compared with the classic local averaging volume conservation equations.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low......-volume rural roads, including crash characteristics, driver attributes and behavior, vehicle type, road features, environmental conditions, distance from the nearest hospital, and zone rurality degree. The data consist of a set of crashes occurred on low-volume rural roads in Denmark between 2007 and 2011...... advantage in accommodating the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates and pseudoelasticities show that aggravated crash injury severity is significantly associated with (1) alcohol and failure to wear seatbelts, (2) involvement of vulnerable road...

  5. Distribution of Ωk from the scale-factor cutoff measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Salem, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Our Universe may be contained in one among a diverging number of bubbles that nucleate within an eternally inflating multiverse. A promising measure to regulate the diverging spacetime volume of such a multiverse is the scale-factor cutoff, one feature of which is bubbles are not rewarded for having a longer duration of slow-roll inflation. Thus, depending on the landscape distribution of the number of e-folds of inflation among bubbles like ours, we might hope to measure spatial curvature. We study a recently proposed cartoon model of inflation in the landscape and find a reasonable chance (about 10%) that the curvature in our Universe is well above the value expected from cosmic variance. Anthropic selection does not strongly select for curvature as small as is observed (relative somewhat larger values), meaning the observational bound on curvature can be used to rule out landscape models that typically give too little inflation.

  6. Smaller hippocampal volume as a vulnerability factor for the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, S J H; Kennis, M; Sjouwerman, R; van den Heuvel, M P; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E

    2015-10-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has often been observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is no consensus whether this is a result of stress/trauma exposure, or constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Second, it is unclear whether hippocampal volume normalizes with successful treatment of PTSD, or whether a smaller hippocampus is a risk factor for the persistence of PTSD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and clinical interviews were collected from 47 war veterans with PTSD, 25 healthy war veterans (combat controls) and 25 healthy non-military controls. All veterans were scanned a second time with a 6- to 8-month interval, during which PTSD patients received trauma-focused therapy. Based on post-treatment PTSD symptoms, patients were divided into a PTSD group who was in remission (n = 22) and a group in whom PTSD symptoms persisted (n = 22). MRI data were analysed with Freesurfer. Smaller left hippocampal volume was observed in PTSD patients compared with both control groups. Hippocampal volume of the combat controls did not differ from healthy controls. Second, pre- and post-treatment analyses of the PTSD patients and combat controls revealed reduced (left) hippocampal volume only in the persistent patients at both time points. Importantly, hippocampal volume did not change with treatment. Our findings suggest that a smaller (left) hippocampus is not the result of stress/trauma exposure. Furthermore, hippocampal volume does not increase with successful treatment. Instead, we demonstrate for the first time that a smaller (left) hippocampus constitutes a risk factor for the persistence of PTSD.

  7. A statistical study on scaling factors for radionuclide assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Myun

    1993-02-01

    To comply with the classification requirements listed in 10 CFR 61, operators of nuclear power plants are recommended to identify and quantify the concentration of several nuclids in low-level radioactive wastes(LLWs). Much of the specified radionuclides can not be easily measured in routine plant analyses. Many indirect methods has been suggested to determine the radionuclide concentrations upon which the waste classification is based. Such indirect methods include the use of scaling factors which infer the concentration of one radionuclide from another which can be measured easily. In this study, correlation analysis is performed to find out the important variables. Regression equations are attempted to provide a means of indirectly determining the concentration of the difficult-to-measure nuclides based on the result of the correlation analysis. Then residual analysis and the corresponding stepwise procedure are followed to check the regression model and select the best regression equation. The regression equation whose log mean dispersion is smaller than 10 is suggested as the appropriate correlation formula. Most of the quadratic regression equations are turned out to be able to use as a correlation formula. But, TRUs show log mean dispersions which are much larger than 10. It is concluded that the mechanisms of their formation and disappearance are much more complex. And it is also difficult to select the key nuclide. In the case of TRUs, further study is required to find out the relevant correlation formula

  8. Factors influencing the decommissioning of large-scale nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The decision-making process involving the decommissioning of the UK graphite moderated, gas-cooled nuclear power stations is complex. There are timing, engineering, waste disposal, cost and lost generation capacity factors to consider and the overall decision of when and how to proceed with decommissioning may include political and public tolerance dimensions. For the final stage of decommissioning the nuclear industry could either completely dismantle the reactor island leaving a green-field site or, alternatively, the reactor island could be maintained indefinitely with additional super- and substructure containment. At this time the first of these options, or deferred decommissioning, prevails and with this the nuclear industry has expressed considerable confidence that the technology required will become available with passing time, that acceptable radioactive waste disposal methods and facilities will be available and that the eventual costs of decommissioning will not escalate without restraint. If the deferred decommissioning strategy is wrong and it is not possible to completely dismantle the reactor islands a century into the future, then it may be too late to effect sufficient longer term containment to maintain the reactor hulks in a reliable condition. With respect to the final decommissioning of large-scale nuclear plant, it is concluded that the nuclear industry does not know quite how to do it, when it will be attempted and when it will be completed, and they do not know how much it will eventually cost. (author)

  9. The influences of the physical-chemical factors on the free-volume relations in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.; Sausa, O.; Bandzuch, P.

    1995-01-01

    The positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to the study of different physical-chemical factors on the free-volume microstructure of the model polymeric systems [amorphous 1,4-cis-poly(butadiene), amorphous a-tactic and semi-crystal iso-tactic poly(propylene), polycarbonate

  10. Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa-Ramiro, B; Illarramendi, M A; Aramburu, I; Fernandez, J; Balda, R; Al-Saleh, M

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the light propagation in some laser and nonlinear crystal powders. In particular, we study the dependence of the diffusive absorption lengths and the transport lengths on particle size and volume filling factor. The theoretical calculations have been made by assuming a diffusive propagation of light in these materials

  11. Smaller hippocampal volume as a vulnerability factor for the persistence of post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, S J H; Kennis, M; Sjouwerman, R; van den Heuvel, M P; Kahn, R S; Geuze, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smaller hippocampal volume has often been observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is no consensus whether this is a result of stress/trauma exposure, or constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Second, it is unclear whether

  12. On stability of exponential cosmological solutions with non-static volume factor in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchuk, V.D. [VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    A (n + 1)-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet term and a cosmological constant term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted, the solutions with an exponential dependence of the scale factors, a{sub i} ∝ exp(v{sup i}t), i = 1,.., n, are analyzed for n > 3. We study the stability of the solutions with non-static volume factor, i.e. K(v) = sum {sub k=1}{sup n} v{sup k} ≠ 0. We prove that under a certain restriction R imposed solutions with K(v) > 0 are stable, while solutions with K(v) < 0 are unstable. Certain examples of stable solutions are presented. We show that the solutions with v{sup 1} = v{sup 2} = v{sup 3} = H > 0 and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant are stable if the restriction R is obeyed. (orig.)

  13. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eDechesne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays nonrandom spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage, while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modelling and experimental systems that do not include soil’s full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil.

  14. Factor Structure of Child Behavior Scale Scores in Peruvian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Erin L.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Soto, Cesar Merino; Simmons, Crystal S.; Anguiano, Rebecca; Brett, Jeremy; Holman, Alea; Martin, Justin F.; Hata, Heidi K.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior rating scales aid in the identification of problem behaviors, as well as the development of interventions to reduce such behavior. Although scores on many behavior rating scales have been validated in the United States, there have been few such studies in other cultural contexts. In this study, the structural validity of scores on a…

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher o...

  16. On the necessary conditions of the regular minimum of the scale factor of the co-moving space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakov, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of homogeneous cosmologic model studied is the behaviour of the comoving space element volume filled with barotropous medium, deprived of energy fluxes. Presented are the necessary conditions at which a regular final minimum of the scale factor of the co-mowing space may take place. It is found that to carry out the above minimum at values of cosmological constant Λ <= 0 the presence of two from three anisotropy factors is necessary. Anisotropy of space deformation should be one of these factors. In case of Λ <= 0 the regular minimum is also possible if all three factors of anisotropy are equal to zero. However if none of the factors of Fsub(i), Asub(ik) anisotropy is equal to zero, the presence of deformation space anisotropy is necessary for final regular minimum appearance

  17. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  18. Long-term results of preventive embolization of renal angiomyolipomas: evaluation of predictive factors of volume decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocquelet, A.; Cornelis, F.; Le Bras, Y.; Meyer, M.; Tricaud, E.; Lasserre, A.S.; Grenier, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Urology and Vascular Imaging, Bordeaux (France); Ferriere, J.M.; Robert, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Urology Service, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective arterial embolization (SAE) of angiomyolipomas based on the percentage volume reduction after embolization and to identify predictive factors of volume decrease. Patients receiving prophylactic SAE of renal angiomyolipomas were included retrospectively over 3 years. The volume change after SAE and haemorrhagic or surgical events were recorded. Initial tumour volume, percentage tumour fat content, mean tumour density, embolic agent used, number of angiomyolipomas and tuberous sclerosis disease were evaluated as predictive factors of volume decrease. A total of 19 patients with 39 angiomyolipomas were included with median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range 21-37 months). All treatments were technically successful (92 % primary and 8 % secondary). No distal bleeding or any increase in size or surgical nephrectomy after SAE was recorded. Mean volume reduction was 72 % (±24 %). Volumes before SAE (R{sup 2} = 0.276; p = 0.001), percentage fat content (R{sup 2} = 0.612; p < 0.0001) and mean angiomyolipoma density (R{sup 2} = 0.536; p < 0.0001) were identified as predictive factors of volume decrease. In multivariate regression, only percentage fat content influenced volume decreases. SAE is an efficient treatment for angiomyolipoma devascularisation and volume reduction. A significant reduction of volume is modulated by the initial volume and tissue composition of the tumour. (orig.)

  19. A novel correction factor based on extended volume to complement the conformity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F; Wang, Y; Wu, Y-Z

    2012-08-01

    We propose a modified conformity index (MCI), based on extended volume, that improves on existing indices by correcting for the insensitivity of previous conformity indices to reference dose shape to assess the quality of high-precision radiation therapy and present an evaluation of its application. In this paper, the MCI is similar to the conformity index suggested by Paddick (CI(Paddick)), but with a different correction factor. It is shown for three cases: with an extended target volume, with an extended reference dose volume and without an extended volume. Extended volume is generated by expanding the original volume by 0.1-1.1 cm isotropically. Focusing on the simulation model, measurements of MCI employ a sphere target and three types of reference doses: a sphere, an ellipsoid and a cube. We can constrain the potential advantage of the new index by comparing MCI with CI(Paddick). The measurements of MCI in head-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy provide a window on its clinical practice. The results of MCI for a simulation model and clinical practice are presented and the measurements are corrected for limited spatial resolution. The three types of MCI agree with each other, and comparisons between the MCI and CI(Paddick) are also provided. The results from our analysis show that the proposed MCI can provide more objective and accurate conformity measurement for high-precision radiation therapy. In combination with a dose-volume histogram, it will be a more useful conformity index.

  20. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  1. Metastatic volume: an old oncologic concept and a new prognostic factor for stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiti, V; Curzio, M; Roberti, V; Lieto, P; Devirgiliis, V; Gobbi, S; Naspi, A; Coppola, R; Lopez, T; di Meo, N; Gatti, A; Trevisan, G; Londei, P; Calvieri, S

    2013-01-01

    The last melanoma staging system of the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer takes into account, for stage IV disease, the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the site of distant metastases. Our aim was to compare the significance of metastatic volume, as evaluated at the time of stage IV melanoma diagnosis, with other clinical predictors of prognosis. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study. To establish which variables were statistically correlated both with death and survival time, contingency tables were evaluated. The overall survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Metastatic volume and number of affected organs were statistically related to death. In detail, patients with a metastatic volume >15 cm(3) had a worse prognosis than those with a volume lower than this value (survival probability at 60 months: 6.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier method confirmed that survival time was significantly related to the site(s) of metastases, to elevated LDH serum levels and to melanoma stage according to the latest system. Our results suggest that metastatic volume may be considered as a useful prognostic factor for survival among melanoma patients.

  2. Magnitude of Myocutaneous Flaps and Factors Associated With Loss of Volume in Oral Cancer Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Yanamoto, Souichi; Ota, Yoshihide; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Myocutaneous flaps are often used to repair oral and maxillofacial defects after surgery for oral cancer; however, their volume decreases during the postoperative period. To facilitate treatment planning, the authors measured the extent of such postoperative flap volume loss and identified associated factors in patients who underwent oral reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps. The authors designed and performed a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent reconstructive procedures involving rectus abdominal myocutaneous (RAM) or pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps at Tokai University Hospital, Kobe University Hospital, or Nagasaki University Hospital from April 2009 through March 2013. Flap type and other clinical variables were examined as potential predictors of flap loss. The primary outcome was flap loss at 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between each potential predictor and the primary outcome were examined using multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 75 patients whose oral defects were reconstructed with RAM flaps (n = 57) or PMMC flaps (n = 18). RAM flaps exhibited a mean volume shrinkage of 22% at 6 months postoperatively, which was less than the 27.5% displayed by the PMMC flaps, but the difference was not important. Renal failure, previous surgery of the oral region, postoperative radiotherapy, and postoperative serum albumin level were found to be meaningful risk factors for postoperative flap volume loss. The results of this study suggest that larger flaps should be used in patients who possess these risk factors or are scheduled to undergo postoperative radiotherapy. Future studies should examine the utility of postoperative nutritional management for preventing flap volume loss. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraoperative ventilation: incidence and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Bustamante Ana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing concern of the potential injurious role of ventilatory over-distention in patients without lung injury. No formal guidelines exist for intraoperative ventilation settings, but the use of tidal volumes (VT under 10 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW has been recommended in healthy patients. We explored the incidence and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes (VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of our prospectively collected perioperative electronic database for current intraoperative ventilation practices and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes (VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. We included all adults undergoing prolonged (≥ 4 h elective abdominal surgery and collected demographic, preoperative (comorbidities, intraoperative (i.e. ventilatory settings, fluid administration and postoperative (outcomes information. We compared patients receiving exhaled tidal volumes > 10 mL/kg PBW with those that received 8-10 or Results Ventilatory settings were non-uniform in the 429 adults included in the analysis. 17.5% of all patients received VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. 34.0% of all obese patients (body mass index, BMI, ≥ 30, 51% of all patients with a height T > 10 mL/kg PBW. Conclusions Ventilation with VT > 10 mL/kg PBW is still common, although poor correlation with PBW suggests it may be unintentional. BMI ≥ 30, female gender and height

  4. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Miscellaneous -- Volume 3, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, L.M.; Jordon, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Edwards, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice; (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System developments has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3--for the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  5. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Control modules -- Volume 1, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Knight, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3 for the documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  6. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Miscellaneous -- Volume 3, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Jordon, W.C.; Edwards, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice; (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System developments has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3--for the data libraries and subroutine libraries

  7. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Control modules -- Volume 1, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, N.F.; Petrie, L.M.; Knight, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. This manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for the functional module documentation, and Volume 3 for the documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries

  8. Fuzzy Regression Prediction and Application Based on Multi-Dimensional Factors of Freight Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengting; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the reality of the development of air cargo, the multi-dimensional fuzzy regression method is used to determine the influencing factors, and the three most important influencing factors of GDP, total fixed assets investment and regular flight route mileage are determined. The system’s viewpoints and analogy methods, the use of fuzzy numbers and multiple regression methods to predict the civil aviation cargo volume. In comparison with the 13th Five-Year Plan for China’s Civil Aviation Development (2016-2020), it is proved that this method can effectively improve the accuracy of forecasting and reduce the risk of forecasting. It is proved that this model predicts civil aviation freight volume of the feasibility, has a high practical significance and practical operation.

  9. Considerations of anthropometric, tissue volume, and tissue mass scaling for improved patient specificity of skeletal S values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, W.E.; Patton, P.W.; Shah, A.P.; Rajon, D.A.; Jokisch, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that reference man (70 kg in mass and 170 cm in height) does not adequately represent the stature and physical dimensions of many patients undergoing radionuclide therapy, and thus scaling of radionuclide S values is required for patient specificity. For electron and beta sources uniformly distributed within internal organs, the mean dose from self-irradiation is noted to scale inversely with organ mass, provided no escape of electron energy occurs at the organ boundaries. In the skeleton, this same scaling approach is further assumed to be correct for marrow dosimetry; nevertheless, difficulties in quantitative assessments of marrow mass in specific skeletal regions of the patient make this approach difficult to implement clinically. Instead, scaling of marrow dose is achieved using various anthropometric parameters that presumably scale in the same proportion. In this study, recently developed three-dimensional macrostructural transport models of the femoral head and humeral epiphysis in three individuals (51-year male, 82-year female, and 86-year female) are used to test the abilities of different anthropometric parameters (total body mass, body surface area, etc.) to properly scale radionuclide S values from reference man models. The radionuclides considered are 33 P, 177 Lu, 153 Sm, 186 Re, 89 Sr, 166 Ho, 32 P, 188 Re, and 90 Y localized in either the active marrow or endosteal tissues of the bone trabeculae. S value scaling is additionally conducted in which the 51-year male subject is assigned as the reference individual; scaling parameters are then expanded to include tissue volumes and masses for both active marrow and skeletal spongiosa. The study concludes that, while no single anthropometric parameter emerges as a consistent scaler of reference man S values, lean body mass is indicated as an optimal scaler when the reference S values are based on 3D transport techniques. Furthermore, very exact patient-specific scaling of

  10. Factor Structure of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Turkish Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Although the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) is most often validated with the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on undergraduate students, exploratory factor analysis and multiple factor retention decision criteria necessitate the analysis of underlying factor structure to prevent over and under factoring as well as to reveal…

  11. Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Huang, Lijie; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self-esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self-esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self-report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed. PMID:28210232

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants ( N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed.

  14. An inter-battery factor analysis of the comrey personality scales and the 16 personality factor questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon P. de Bruin

    2000-01-01

    The scores of 700 Afrikaans-speaking university students on the Comrey Personality Scales and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire were subjected to an inter-battery factor analysis. This technique uses only the correlations between two sets of variables and reveals only the factors that they have in common. Three of the Big Five personality factors were revealed, namely Extroversion, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. However, the Conscientiousness factor contained a relatively strong uns...

  15. Uncertainties in scaling factors for ab initio vibrational zero-point energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irikura, Karl K.; Johnson, Russell D.; Kacker, Raghu N.; Kessel, Rüdiger

    2009-03-01

    Vibrational zero-point energies (ZPEs) determined from ab initio calculations are often scaled by empirical factors. An empirical scaling factor partially compensates for the effects arising from vibrational anharmonicity and incomplete treatment of electron correlation. These effects are not random but are systematic. We report scaling factors for 32 combinations of theory and basis set, intended for predicting ZPEs from computed harmonic frequencies. An empirical scaling factor carries uncertainty. We quantify and report, for the first time, the uncertainties associated with scaling factors for ZPE. The uncertainties are larger than generally acknowledged; the scaling factors have only two significant digits. For example, the scaling factor for B3LYP/6-31G(d) is 0.9757±0.0224 (standard uncertainty). The uncertainties in the scaling factors lead to corresponding uncertainties in predicted ZPEs. The proposed method for quantifying the uncertainties associated with scaling factors is based upon the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, published by the International Organization for Standardization. We also present a new reference set of 60 diatomic and 15 polyatomic "experimental" ZPEs that includes estimated uncertainties.

  16. Factors Affecting Canagliflozin-Induced Transient Urine Volume Increase in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takano, Kazuhiko; Iijima, Hiroaki; Kubo, Hajime; Maruyama, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Arakawa, Kenji; Togo, Masanori; Inagaki, Nobuya; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exhibit diuretic activity, which is a possible mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefit of these inhibitors. However, the osmotic diuresis-induced increase in urine volume, and the risk of dehydration have been of concern with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin-induced diuresis in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirteen T2DM patients received a daily oral dose of 100 mg canagliflozin before breakfast for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at predetermined time points. The primary endpoint was evaluation of correlations between changes from baseline in urine volume and factors that are known to affect urine volume and between actual urine volume and these factors. Canagliflozin transiently increased urine volume and urinary sodium excretion on Day 1 with a return to baseline levels thereafter. Canagliflozin administration increased urinary glucose excretion, which was sustained during repeated-dose administration. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels decreased, while plasma renin activity increased. On Day 1 of treatment, changes in sodium and potassium excretion were closely correlated with changes in urine output. A post hoc multiple regression analysis showed changes in sodium excretion and water intake as factors that affected urine volume change at Day 1. Furthermore, relative to that at baseline, canagliflozin decreased blood glucose throughout the day and increased plasma total GLP-1 after breakfast. Canagliflozin induced transient sodium excretion and did not induce water intake at Day 1; hence, natriuresis rather than glucose-induced osmotic diuresis may be a major factor involved in the canagliflozin-induced transient increase in urine output. In addition, canagliflozin decreased plasma ANP and NT-proBNP levels and

  17. Factors Influencing Uptake of a Large Scale Curriculum Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adey, Philip S.

    Educational research has all too often failed to be implemented on a large-scale basis. This paper describes the multiplier effect of a professional development program for teachers and for trainers in the United Kingdom, and how that program was developed, monitored, and evaluated. Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) is a…

  18. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun R. Levick

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Results Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m3 ha−1 ~14.13 Mg C ha−1 when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50. Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100 plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha plots were inferior (R2 = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha−1. Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R2 and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Conclusions Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We

  19. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Shaun R; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, E-Detlef

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R 2  = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m 3 ha -1  ~14.13 Mg C ha -1 ) when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50). Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100) plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha) plots were inferior (R 2  = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha -1 ). Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R 2 and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We are moving into a forest management era where

  20. Hunger and thirst numeric rating scales are not valid estimates for gastric content volumes: a prospective investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Sabin; Hanke, Ursula; Klaghofer, Richard; Fruehauf, Melanie; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim

    2014-03-01

    A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Transfer factor, lung volumes, resistance and ventilation distribution in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, Sylvia; Van Muylem, Alain; Schuermans, Daniel; Bautmans, Ivan; Thompson, Bruce; Vincken, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic lung disease requires reference values of lung function indices, including putative markers of small airway function, spanning a wide age range.We measured spirometry, transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), static lung volume, resistance and ventilation distribution in a healthy population, studying at least 20 subjects per sex and per decade between the ages of 20 and 80 years.With respect to the Global Lung Function Initiative reference data, our subjects had average z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC of -0.12, 0.04 and -0.32, respectively. Reference equations were obtained which could account for a potential dependence of index variability on age and height. This was done for (but not limited to) indices that are pertinent to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studies: forced expired volume in 6 s, forced expiratory flow, TLCO, specific airway conductance, residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC), and ventilation heterogeneity in acinar and conductive lung zones.Deterioration in acinar ventilation heterogeneity and lung clearance index with age were more marked beyond 60 years, and conductive ventilation heterogeneity showed the greatest increase in variability with age. The most clinically relevant deviation from published reference values concerned RV/TLC values, which were considerably smaller than American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-endorsed reference values. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  2. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Suto, T.

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k eff of 1. 0040±0.0005

  3. Coupled numerical approach combining finite volume and lattice Boltzmann methods for multi-scale multi-physicochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li; He, Ya-Ling [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of MOE, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Kang, Qinjun [Computational Earth Science Group (EES-16), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tao, Wen-Quan, E-mail: wqtao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering of MOE, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-12-15

    A coupled (hybrid) simulation strategy spatially combining the finite volume method (FVM) and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), called CFVLBM, is developed to simulate coupled multi-scale multi-physicochemical processes. In the CFVLBM, computational domain of multi-scale problems is divided into two sub-domains, i.e., an open, free fluid region and a region filled with porous materials. The FVM and LBM are used for these two regions, respectively, with information exchanged at the interface between the two sub-domains. A general reconstruction operator (RO) is proposed to derive the distribution functions in the LBM from the corresponding macro scalar, the governing equation of which obeys the convection–diffusion equation. The CFVLBM and the RO are validated in several typical physicochemical problems and then are applied to simulate complex multi-scale coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transport, and chemical reaction in a wall-coated micro reactor. The maximum ratio of the grid size between the FVM and LBM regions is explored and discussed. -- Highlights: •A coupled simulation strategy for simulating multi-scale phenomena is developed. •Finite volume method and lattice Boltzmann method are coupled. •A reconstruction operator is derived to transfer information at the sub-domains interface. •Coupled multi-scale multiple physicochemical processes in micro reactor are simulated. •Techniques to save computational resources and improve the efficiency are discussed.

  4. T3 glottic cancer: an analysis of dose time-volume factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, A.R.; Beale, F.A.; Cummings, B.J.; Hawkins, N.V.; Keane, T.J.; Rider, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    This report analyzes dose-time-volume factors in 112 patients with T3N0M0 glottic cancer who were treated with radical radiotherapy with surgery for salvage between 1963 and 1977. 55% of the patients are alive and well 5 years following treatment; 26% died of glottic cancer and 19% died of intercurrent disease. In the 1965 to 1969 time period, 31% died of tumor as compared to 16% in the 1975 to 1977 time period. Overall local control by radiotherapy was 51%; 2/3 of the failures were surgically salvaged. 44% were locally controlled by radiotherapy in the 1965 to 1969 time period and 57% in the 1975 to 1977 time period. Analysis of dose-time-volume factors reveals that the optimal dose is greater than 1700 ret and a minimal volume of 6 x 8 cm should be used. A dose-cure curve for T3 glottic cancer is constructed and compared with the dose complication curve for the larynx and the dose-cure curve for T1N0M0 glottic cancer. A comparison of cure rates between 112 patients treated with radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage versus 28 patients treated with combined pre-operative irradiation and surgery reveals no difference in the proportion of patients who died of glottic cancer or in the number of patients alive at 5 years following treatment

  5. The factor structure of the self-directed learning readiness scale | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factor structure of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) was investigated for Afrikaans and English-speaking first-year university students. Five factors were extracted and rotated to oblique simple structure for both groups. Four of the five factors were satisfactorily replicated. The fifth factor appeared to ...

  6. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known....... The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify...

  7. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  8. Factor Stability of Primary Scales of the General Organization Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    leadership , climate , and processes function optimally. The Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness Work Unit re- searches personal, small-group...the Litwin and Stringer (1968) Organizational Climate Questionnaire found a factor structure that was dif- ferent from the a priori structure...number) General Organization Questionnaire (GOQ) Organizational climate Organizational effectiveness 20. ATRACT (Cnm N eriwem7 d Iderntify by block numbst

  9. Strategic Factor Markets Scale Free Resources and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    -theoretic model, it shows how the impact of strategic factor markets on economic profits is influenced by product market rivalry, preexisting competitive (dis)advantages, and the interaction of acquired resources with those preexisting asymmetries. New insights include the result that resource suppliers will aim...

  10. Integral emission factors for methane determined using urban flux measurements and local-scale inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andreas; Johnson, Mark; Molodovskaya, Marina; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran; Crawford, Ben; Giometto, Marco; van der Laan, Mike

    2013-04-01

    The most important long-lived greenhouse gas (LLGHG) emitted during combustion of fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2), however also traces of the LLGHGs methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are released, the quantities of which depend largely on the conditions of the combustion process. Emission factors determine the mass of LLGHGs emitted per energy used (or kilometre driven for cars) and are key inputs for bottom-up emission modelling. Emission factors for CH4 are typically determined in the laboratory or on a test stand for a given combustion system using a small number of samples (vehicles, furnaces), yet associated with larger uncertainties when scaled to entire fleets. We propose an alternative, different approach - Can integrated emission factors be independently determined using direct micrometeorological flux measurements over an urban surface? If so, do emission factors determined from flux measurements (top-down) agree with up-scaled emission factors of relevant combustion systems (heating, vehicles) in the source area of the flux measurement? Direct flux measurements of CH4 were carried out between February and May, 2012 over a relatively densely populated, urban surface in Vancouver, Canada by means of eddy covariance (EC). The EC-system consisted of an ultrasonic anemometer (CSAT-3, Campbell Scientific Inc.) and two open-path infrared gas analyzers (Li7500 and Li7700, Licor Inc.) on a tower at 30m above the surface. The source area of the EC system is characterised by a relative homogeneous morphometry (5.3m average building height), but spatially and temporally varying emission sources, including two major intersecting arterial roads (70.000 cars drive through the 50% source area per day) and seasonal heating in predominantly single-family houses (natural gas). An inverse dispersion model (turbulent source area model), validated against large eddy simulations (LES) of the urban roughness sublayer, allows the determination of the spatial area that

  11. Examination of factor structure for the consumers' responses to the Value Consciousness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, C A; Williams, J R

    2000-12-01

    The psychometric properties of the Value Consciousness Scale developed by Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton in 1990 were examined in a retail grocery study (N = 497). Original assessment of scale properties was undertaken using two convenience samples in a nonretail setting and additional scale performance has been documented by the scale authors. This study furthers previous research by (1) examining performance on the items in the retail grocery setting and (2) utilizing an appropriately rigorous sampling procedure. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the Value Consciousness Scale does not exhibit unidimensional properties, and one must be cautious if this scale is used in applications of market segmentation until further clarification can be provided.

  12. Factor validation of the portuguese version of the social skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Seabra-Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of preschoolers’ social skills represents a topic of growing importance in research recently developed in the field. The purpose of this article is to present confirmatory factor analyses studies for the Social Skills scale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales – Second Edition (PKBS-2, a behavior rating scale that evaluates social skills and problem behaviors, adapted and validated for Portuguese preschool children. The 34 items of the Social Skills scale, distributed on three subscales (Social Cooperation/Adjustment, Social Interaction/Empathy and Social Independence/Assertiveness, were grouped into item-parcels. Model adjustment was analyzed for the total sample (N = 2000 and the analyses were replicated for the subsamples collected in the home (n = 1000 and school settings (n = 1000. The factor structure was very stable for the three samples, with high internal consistency levels and correlations between parcels/scales. The results highlight the utility/validity of the Social Skills scale of the PKBS-2 (Portuguese version.

  13. Boltzmann brains and the scale-factor cutoff measure of the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Guth, Alan H.; Linde, Andrei; Noorbala, Mahdiyar; Salem, Michael P.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    To make predictions for an eternally inflating 'multiverse', one must adopt a procedure for regulating its divergent spacetime volume. Recently, a new test of such spacetime measures has emerged: normal observers - who evolve in pocket universes cooling from hot big bang conditions - must not be vastly outnumbered by 'Boltzmann brains' - freak observers that pop in and out of existence as a result of rare quantum fluctuations. If the Boltzmann brains prevail, then a randomly chosen observer would be overwhelmingly likely to be surrounded by an empty world, where all but vacuum energy has redshifted away, rather than the rich structure that we observe. Using the scale-factor cutoff measure, we calculate the ratio of Boltzmann brains to normal observers. We find the ratio to be finite, and give an expression for it in terms of Boltzmann brain nucleation rates and vacuum decay rates. We discuss the conditions that these rates must obey for the ratio to be acceptable, and we discuss estimates of the rates under a variety of assumptions.

  14. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Moss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24 is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale.Methods. A large (n = 1,265 sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24.Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker’s Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979 and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC, was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC. The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body.Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale.

  15. A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qijing; Chen, Daru; Wu, Genzhu; Peng, Baojin; Xu, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity which is composed of a silver nanoring and a silica toroidal microcavity. The hybrid mode of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity due to the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the dielectric mode is demonstrated with a high quality factor (>1000) and an ultrasmall mode volume (∼0.8 μm 3 ). This microcavity shows great potential in fundamental studies of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) and applications in low-threshold plasmonic microlasers. (paper)

  16. Modified stress intensity factor as a crack growth parameter applicable under large scale yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature water stress corrosion cracking has high tensile stress sensitivity, and its growth rate has been evaluated using the stress intensity factor, which is a linear fracture mechanics parameter. Stress corrosion cracking mainly occurs and propagates around welded metals or heat-affected zones. These regions have complex residual stress distributions and yield strength distributions because of input heat effects. The authors previously reported that the stress intensity factor becomes inapplicable when steep residual stress distributions or yield strength distributions occur along the crack propagation path, because small-scale yielding conditions deviate around those distributions. Here, when the stress intensity factor is modified by considering these distributions, the modified stress intensity factor may be used for crack growth evaluation for large-scale yielding. The authors previously proposed a modified stress intensity factor incorporating the stress distribution or yield strength distribution in front of the crack using the rate of change of stress intensity factor and yield strength. However, the applicable range of modified stress intensity factor for large-scale yielding was not clarified. In this study, the range was analytically investigated by comparison with the J-integral solution. A three-point bending specimen with parallel surface crack was adopted as the analytical model and the stress intensity factor, modified stress intensity factor and equivalent stress intensity factor derived from the J-integral were calculated and compared under large-scale yielding conditions. The modified stress intensity was closer to the equivalent stress intensity factor when compared with the stress intensity factor. If deviation from the J-integral solution is acceptable up to 2%, the modified stress intensity factor is applicable up to 30% of the J-integral limit, while the stress intensity factor is applicable up to 10%. These results showed that

  17. Ecological factors affect the level and scaling of avian BMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian Keith

    2009-01-01

    The basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 533 species of birds, when examined with ANCOVA, principally correlates with body mass, most of the residual variation correlating with food habits, climate, habitat, a volant or flightless condition, use or not of torpor, and a highland or lowland distribution. Avian BMR also correlates with migratory habits, if climate and a montane distribution is excluded from the analysis, and with an occurrence on small islands if a flightless condition and migration are excluded. Residual variation correlates with membership in avian orders and families principally because these groups are behaviorally and ecologically distinctive. However, the distinction between passerines and other birds remains a significant correlate of avian BMR, even after six ecological factors are included, with other birds having BMRs that averaged 74% of the passerine mean. This combination of factors accounts for 97.7% of the variation in avian BMR. Yet, migratory species that belong to Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Procellariiformes and breed in temperate or polar environments have mass-independent basal rates equal to those found in passerines. In contrast, penguins belong to an order of polar, aquatic birds that have basal rates lower than passerines because their flightless condition depresses basal rate. Passerines dominate temperate, terrestrial environments and the four orders of aquatic birds dominate temperate and polar aquatic environments because their high BMRs facilitate reproduction and migration. The low BMRs of tropical passerines may reflect a sedentary lifestyle as much as a life in a tropical climate. Birds have BMRs that are 30-40% greater than mammals because of the commitment of birds to an expensive and expansive form of flight.

  18. Spinal level of myelomeningocele lesion as a contributing factor in posterior fossa volume, intracranial cerebellar volume, and cerebellar ectopia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Kieron J

    2013-02-01

    McLone and Knepper\\'s unified theory of Chiari malformation Type II (CM-II) describes how the loss of CSF via the open posterior neuropore fails to create adequate distending pressure for the developing rhomboencephalic vesicle. The authors of the present article describe the relationship between the posterior fossa volume and intracranial cerebellar volume as being related to the distance from the obex of the fourth ventricle to the myelomeningocele lesion using a common mathematical model, the Hagen-Poiseuille law.

  19. Causal inference between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors in a large-scale region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Huanyun; Liu, Jianfeng; Tian, Yu; Chang, Chunying; Lei, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights. In this study, a general approach framework, Intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent (IDA) combined with the backdoor criterion (BC), was introduced to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and the potential environmental factors across large-scale regions. We take the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China as a case study. The causal structures and effects were identified based on the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, As, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in soil (0–20 cm depth) and vegetable (lettuce) and 40 environmental factors (soil properties, extractable heavy metals and weathering indices) in 94 samples across the PRD. Results show that the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and As) was causally influenced by soil properties and soil weathering factors, whereas no causal factor impacted the bioavailability of Cu, Hg and Pb. No latent factor was found between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors. The causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors at field experiments is consistent with that on a large scale. The IDA combined with the BC provides a powerful tool to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions. Causal inference in a large system with the dynamic changes has great implications for system-based risk management. - Causation between the

  20. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 μm could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  1. Personality Assessment Inventory scale characteristics and factor structure in the assessment of alcohol dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A

    1995-02-01

    Individual scale characteristics and the inventory structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) were examined by conducting internal consistency and factor analyses of item and scale score data from a large group (N = 301) of alcohol-dependent patients. Alpha coefficients, mean inter-item correlations, and corrected item-total scale correlations for the sample paralleled values reported by Morey for a large clinical sample. Minor differences in the scale factor structure of the inventory from Morey's clinical sample were found. Overall, the findings support the use of the PAI in the assessment of personality and psychopathology of alcohol-dependent patients.

  2. The Columbia Impairment Scale: Factor Analysis Using a Community Mental Health Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to test the factor structure of the parent version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) in a sample of mothers who brought their children for community mental health (CMH) services (n = 280). Method: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the fit of the hypothesized four-factor structure…

  3. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Academic Motivation Scale with Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.

  4. Factors affecting volume calculation with single photon emission tomography (SPECT) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T.H.; Lee, K.H.; Chen, D.C.P.; Ballard, S.; Siegel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Several factors may influence the calculation of absolute volumes (VL) from SPECT images. The effect of these factors must be established to optimize the technique. The authors investigated the following on the VL calculations: % of background (BG) subtraction, reconstruction filters, sample activity, angular sampling and edge detection methods. Transaxial images of a liver-trunk phantom filled with Tc-99m from 1 to 3 μCi/cc were obtained in 64x64 matrix with a Siemens Rota Camera and MDS computer. Different reconstruction filters including Hanning 20,32, 64 and Butterworth 20, 32 were used. Angular samplings were performed in 3 and 6 degree increments. ROI's were drawn manually and with an automatic edge detection program around the image after BG subtraction. VL's were calculated by multiplying the number of pixels within the ROI by the slice thickness and the x- and y- calibrations of each pixel. One or 2 pixel per slice thickness was applied in the calculation. An inverse correlation was found between the calculated VL and the % of BG subtraction (r=0.99 for 1,2,3 μCi/cc activity). Based on the authors' linear regression analysis, the correct liver VL was measured with about 53% BG subtraction. The reconstruction filters, slice thickness and angular sampling had only minor effects on the calculated phantom volumes. Detection of the ROI automatically by the computer was not as accurate as the manual method. The authors conclude that the % of BG subtraction appears to be the most important factor affecting the VL calculation. With good quality control and appropriate reconstruction factors, correct VL calculations can be achieved with SPECT

  5. Three-Dimensional Characterization and Modeling of Permeability in a Field-Scale Control Volume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrash, Warren

    2003-01-01

    ...) hydrogeologic information. The BHRS consists of 18 wells emplaced in 2O-m-thick coarse fluvial deposits that may be divided into five stratigraphic units with layered and patchy heterogeneity at three scales...

  6. Iranian Version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoo, Mozhgan; Allahyari, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Ali Reza; Payandeh, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Mental adjustment to cancer is known as a psychological, physical, and psychological health variable among cancer patients. The present study examines the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale (Mini-MAC) in a sample of Iranian adults who suffer from cancer. The sample consists of 320 cancer patients selected through non-random convenient sampling procedure from the hospitals and clinics in the cities of Kermanshah and Shiraz in Iran, using the Mini-MAC scale. One hundred of these patients also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Statistical methods used to analyze the data included confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, discriminate validity, and Cronbach alpha coefficients for internal consistency. Factor analysis confirms five factors in the Mini-MAC. The values of fit indices are within the acceptable range. Significant correlations between the Mini-MAC and other measures also show that this scale has discriminate validity. Alpha coefficients for the subscales are Helplessness/Hopelessness,.94; Cognitive Avoidance.76; Anxious Preoccupation,.90; Fatalism,.77; Fighting Spirit.80; and total scale.84, respectively. The results confirm the five-factor structure of the Persian Mini-MAC scale and also prove that it is a reliable and valid scale. They show that this scale has sufficient power to measure different aspects of mental adjustment in patients with cancer.

  7. Detection of atomic scale changes in the free volume void size of three-dimensional colorectal cancer cell culture using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axpe, Eneko; Lopez-Euba, Tamara; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Merida, David; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Plazaola, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provides a direct measurement of the free volume void sizes in polymers and biological systems. This free volume is critical in explaining and understanding physical and mechanical properties of polymers. Moreover, PALS has been recently proposed as a potential tool in detecting cancer at early stages, probing the differences in the subnanometer scale free volume voids between cancerous/healthy skin samples of the same patient. Despite several investigations on free volume in complex cancerous tissues, no positron annihilation studies of living cancer cell cultures have been reported. We demonstrate that PALS can be applied to the study in human living 3D cell cultures. The technique is also capable to detect atomic scale changes in the size of the free volume voids due to the biological responses to TGF-β. PALS may be developed to characterize the effect of different culture conditions in the free volume voids of cells grown in vitro.

  8. Disentangling Wording and Substantive Factors in the Spiritual Well-Being Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Johnson, Wendy; Gow, Alan J; Deary, Ian J

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the extent to which the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) may help to meet the need for multidimensional, psychometrically sophisticated measures of spiritual and religious traits. Although the various forms of validity of the scale have, for the most part, been supported by psychometric studies, conflicting evidence surrounding its dimensionality has called into question its structural validity. Specifically, numerous authors have suggested that a more appropriate factor structure for the SWBS includes further substantive factors in addition to the 2 factors that the scale was originally intended to measure. In the current study, we attempted to resolve these debates using a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis based investigations in the Lothian Birth Cohort, 1921 study. Our analyses suggested that the additional factors suggested in previous studies may not have reflected substantive constructs; but rather, common variance due to methodological factors.

  9. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale in Iranian infertile people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufizadeh, Saman; Omani Samani, Reza; Amini, Payam; Navid, Behnaz

    2016-09-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale among Iranian infertile patients. In all, 312 infertile patients completed the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the original three-factor model of Levenson's Locus of Control Scale was adequate ( χ 2 / df = 2.139; goodness-of-fit index = 0.88; root mean square error of approximation = 0.061; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.076). The Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from 0.56 to 0.67. The Levenson's Locus of Control Scale subscales significantly correlated with anxiety and depression, showing an acceptable convergent validity. In conclusion, the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale has adequate reliability and validity and can be used to measure locus of control orientation in Iranian infertile patients.

  10. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Jin, Yi

    2017-02-01

    Educational institutions play an important role in encouraging students' engagement with course work. Educators are finding instruments to measure students' engagement in order to develop strategies to improve it. Little is known about the factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students among Chinese nursing students. The aim of this research was to examine the factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students via confirmatory factor analysis. The study used a cross-sectional design. A sample of 480 students from a nursing school in one Chinese university completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. Factor analysis was used to analyze the resulting data. The overall results of internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting the reliability and three-factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. The total internal consistency reliability coefficients were 0.91. Model comparison tests indicated that an oblique factors model that permitted correlations between pairs of error terms fitted the data better than other first-order models. In addition, due to the three strongly intercorrelated factors, a second-order model was found to fit the data well, providing support for the factorial structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students. The findings of confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting the reliability and three-factor structure of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students when evaluated with a Chinese nursing student sample in this study. Thus, it is appropriate to use The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students in for assessing the engagement among Chinese nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Causal inference between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors in a large-scale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Huanyun; Liu, Jianfeng; Tian, Yu; Chang, Chunying; Lei, Jing

    2017-07-01

    The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights. In this study, a general approach framework, Intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent (IDA) combined with the backdoor criterion (BC), was introduced to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and the potential environmental factors across large-scale regions. We take the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China as a case study. The causal structures and effects were identified based on the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, As, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in soil (0-20 cm depth) and vegetable (lettuce) and 40 environmental factors (soil properties, extractable heavy metals and weathering indices) in 94 samples across the PRD. Results show that the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and As) was causally influenced by soil properties and soil weathering factors, whereas no causal factor impacted the bioavailability of Cu, Hg and Pb. No latent factor was found between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors. The causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors at field experiments is consistent with that on a large scale. The IDA combined with the BC provides a powerful tool to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions. Causal inference in a large system with the dynamic changes has great implications for system-based risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Volume Visualization and Compositing on Large-Scale Displays Using Handheld Touchscreen Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Gastelum, Cristhopper Jacobo Armenta

    2011-07-27

    Advances in the physical sciences have progressively delivered ever increasing, already extremely large data sets to be analyzed. High performance volume rendering has become critical to the scientists for a better understanding of the massive amounts of data to be visualized. Cluster based rendering systems have become the base line to achieve the power and flexibility required to perform such task. Furthermore, display arrays have become the most suitable solution to display these data sets at their natural size and resolution which can be critical for human perception and evaluation. The work in this thesis aims at improving the scalability and usability of volume rendering systems that target visualization on display arrays. The first part deals with improving the performance by introducing the implementations of two parallel compositing algorithms for volume rendering: direct send and binary swap. The High quality Volume Rendering (HVR) framework has been extended to accommodate parallel compositing where previously only serial compositing was possible. The preliminary results show improvements in the compositing times for direct send even for a small number of processors. Unfortunately, the results of binary swap exhibit a negative behavior. This is due to the naive use of the graphics hardware blending mechanism. The expensive transfers account for the lengthy compositing times. The second part targets the development of scalable and intuitive interaction mechanisms. It introduces the development of a new client application for multitouch tablet devices, like the Apple iPad. The main goal is to provide the HVR framework, that has been extended to use tiled displays, a more intuitive and portable interaction mechanism that can get advantage of the new environment. The previous client is a PC application for the typical desktop settings that use a mouse and keyboard as sources of interaction. The current implementation of the client lets the user steer and

  13. Macroecological factors explain large-scale spatial population patterns of ancient agriculturalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Chen, B.; Abades, S.; Reino, L.; Teng, S.; Ljungqvist, F.C.; Huang, Z.Y.X.; Liu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: It has been well demonstrated that the large-scale distribution patterns of numerous species are driven by similar macroecological factors. However, understanding of this topic remains limited when applied to our own species. Here we take a large-scale look at ancient agriculturalist

  14. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  15. Determination of vibration amplitudes and neutron-mechanical scale factors in the PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.; Heidemann, P.; Runkel, J.

    1997-01-01

    Displacements of vibrating reactor components which can not be measured by other means during normal reactor operation can be determined through the scale factors from the neutron spectra of signals measured by the standard in-core neutron instrumentation. Neutron-mechanical scale factors are determined for the vibrations of fuel assemblies and reactor pressure vessel/core barrel system using the signals of in-core neutron detectors and accelerometers. (author)

  16. The Euler anomaly and scale factors in Liouville/Toda CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, Aswin [Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin,2515 Speedway Stop C1608, Austin, TX 78712-1197 (United States)

    2014-04-22

    The role played by the Euler anomaly in the dictionary relating sphere partition functions of four dimensional theories of class S and two dimensional non rational CFTs is clarified. On the two dimensional side, this involves a careful treatment of scale factors in Liouville/Toda correlators. Using ideas from tinkertoy constructions for Gaiotto duality, a framework is proposed for evaluating these scale factors. The representation theory of Weyl groups plays a critical role in this framework.

  17. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  18. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  19. Identification of risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in a high volume center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Phillip

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Several patients´ or procedure related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP have been suggested. The aim of this study was to validate the risk factors for PEP in a high-volume center.All patients undergoing first time ERCP at a tertiary referral center between December 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively included. PEP was defined according to the Atlanta Classification.344 patients were included in the final analysis. The risk to develop PEP was increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio 3.7 and after inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct (odds ratio 2.2, which occurred in 26.5% of the patients. Inadvertent cannulation occurred significantly more frequently in patients with difficult cannulation of the papilla duodeni major (odds ratio 12.7; p<0.001. ERCP on call was associated with an increased risk for difficult cannulation (odds ratio 3.0.Inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct is a procedure related risk factor for PEP. Measurements on preventing inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct should be established and studies on prophylactic measurements should focus particularly on patients with inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct.

  20. Identification of risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in a high volume center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Veit; Schwab, Miriam; Haf, David; Algül, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Several patients´ or procedure related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) have been suggested. The aim of this study was to validate the risk factors for PEP in a high-volume center. All patients undergoing first time ERCP at a tertiary referral center between December 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively included. PEP was defined according to the Atlanta Classification. 344 patients were included in the final analysis. The risk to develop PEP was increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio 3.7) and after inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct (odds ratio 2.2), which occurred in 26.5% of the patients. Inadvertent cannulation occurred significantly more frequently in patients with difficult cannulation of the papilla duodeni major (odds ratio 12.7; passociated with an increased risk for difficult cannulation (odds ratio 3.0). Inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct is a procedure related risk factor for PEP. Measurements on preventing inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct should be established and studies on prophylactic measurements should focus particularly on patients with inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct.

  1. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  2. Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

  3. A Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Shafipour, Vida; Allen, Kelly-Ann; Heidari, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid; Zareiyan, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Moral distress is a growing problem for healthcare professionals that may lead to dissatisfaction, resignation, or occupational burnout if left unattended, and nurses experience different levels of this phenomenon. This study aims to investigate the factor structure of the Persian version of the Moral Distress Scale-Revised in intensive care and general nurses. This methodological research was conducted with 771 nurses from eight hospitals in the Mazandaran Province of Iran in 2017. Participants completed the Moral Distress Scale-Revised, data collected, and factor structure assessed using the construct, convergent, and divergent validity methods. The reliability of the scale was assessed using internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, Theta, and McDonald's omega coefficients) and construct reliability. Ethical considerations: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The exploratory factor analysis ( N = 380) showed that the Moral Distress Scale-Revised has five factors: lack of professional competence at work, ignoring ethical issues and patient conditions, futile care, carrying out the physician's orders without question and unsafe care, and providing care under personal and organizational pressures, which explained 56.62% of the overall variance. The confirmatory factor analysis ( N = 391) supported the five-factor solution and the second-order latent factor model. The first-order model did not show a favorable convergent and divergent validity. Ultimately, the Moral Distress Scale-Revised was found to have a favorable internal consistency and construct reliability. The Moral Distress Scale-Revised was found to be a multidimensional construct. The data obtained confirmed the hypothesis of the factor structure model with a latent second-order variable. Since the convergent and divergent validity of the scale were not confirmed in this study, further assessment is necessary in future studies.

  4. Self-Compassion Scale: IRT Psychometric Analysis, Validation, and Factor Structure – Slovak Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Halamová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study verifies the psychometric properties of the Slovak version of the Self-Compassion Scale through item response theory, factor-analysis, validity analyses and norm development. The surveyed sample consisted of 1,181 participants (34% men and 66% women with a mean age of 30.30 years (SD = 12.40. Two general factors (Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding were identified, whereas there was no support for a single general factor of the scale and six subscales. The results of the factor analysis were supported by an independent sample of 676 participants. Therefore, the use of total score for the whole scale would be inappropriate. In Slovak language the Self-Compassion Scale should be used in the form of two general subscales (Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding. In line with our theoretical assumptions, we obtained relatively high Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the Self-Compassion Scale and related external variables, demonstrating construct validity for the scale. To sum up, the Slovak translation of The Self-Compassion Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that measures Self-compassionate responding and Self-uncompassionate responding.

  5. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome and related medical costs by the scale of enterprise in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Eun-Shil; Lee, Seon-Young; Cho, Hyun-Young; Lee, Bin Na; Park, Jee Young

    2013-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to analyze the relationship between the risk factors of MS and medical cost of major diseases related to MS in Korean workers, according to the scale of the enterprise. Data was obtained from annual physical examinations, health insurance qualification and premiums, and health insurance benefits of 4,094,217 male and female workers who underwent medical examinations provided by the National Health Insurance Corporation in 2009. Logistic regression analyses were used to the identify risk factors of MS and multiple regression was used to find factors associated with medical expenditures due to major diseases related to MS. The study found that low-income workers were more likely to work in small-scale enterprises. The prevalence rate of MS in males and females, respectively, was 17.2% and 9.4% in small-scale enterprises, 15.9% and 8.9% in medium-scale enterprises, and 15.9% and 5.5% in large-scale enterprises. The risks of MS increased with age, lower income status, and smoking in small-scale enterprise workers. The medical costs increased in workers with old age and past smoking history. There was also a gender difference in the pattern of medical expenditures related to MS. Health promotion programs to manage metabolic syndrome should be developed to focus on workers who smoke, drink, and do little exercise in small scale enterprises.

  6. Zooming in and out: Scale dependence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting salt marsh erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; van der Wal, Daphne; Li, Xiangyu; van Belzen, Jim; Herman, Peter M. J.; Hu, Zhan; Ge, Zhenming; Zhang, Liquan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2017-07-01

    Salt marshes are valuable ecosystems that provide important ecosystem services. Given the global scale of marsh loss due to climate change and coastal squeeze, there is a pressing need to identify the critical extrinsic (wind exposure and foreshore morphology) and intrinsic factors (soil and vegetation properties) affecting the erosion of salt marsh edges. In this study, we quantified rates of cliff lateral retreat (i.e., the eroding edge of a salt marsh plateau) using a time series of aerial photographs taken over four salt marsh sites in the Westerschelde estuary, the Netherlands. In addition, we experimentally quantified the erodibility of sediment cores collected from the marsh edge of these four marshes using wave tanks. Our results revealed the following: (i) at the large scale, wind exposure and the presence of pioneer vegetation in front of the cliff were the key factors governing cliff retreat rates; (ii) at the intermediate scale, foreshore morphology was partially related to cliff retreat; (iii) at the local scale, the erodibility of the sediment itself at the marsh edge played a large role in determining the cliff retreat rate; and (iv) at the mesocosm scale, cliff erodibility was determined by soil properties and belowground root biomass. Thus, both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determined the fate of the salt marsh but at different scales. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the scale dependence of the factors driving the evolution of salt marsh landscapes.

  7. The molar hydrodynamic volume changes of factor VIIa due to GlycoPEGylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Hvidt, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effects of GlycoPEGylation on the molar hydrodynamic volume of recombinant human rFVIIa were investigated using rFVIIa and two GlycoPEGylated recombinant human FVIIa derivatives, a linear 10 kDa PEG and a branched 40 kDa PEG, respectively. Molar hydrodynamic volumes were determined by capillary......, that the molar hydrodynamic volume of the conjugated protein is not just an addition of the molar hydrodynamic volume of the PEG and the protein. The molar hydrodynamic volume of the GlycoPEGylated protein is larger than the volume of its composites. These results suggest that both the linear and the branched...

  8. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Attitude Scale of Constructivist Approach for Science Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Evrekli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Underlining the importance of teachers for the constructivist approach, the present study attempts to develop “Attitude Scale of Construc¬tivist Approach for Science Teachers (ASCAST”. The pre-applications of the scale were administered to a total of 210 science teachers; however, the data obtained from 5 teachers were excluded from the analysis. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained from the pre-applications, it was found that the scale could have a single factor structure, which was tested using the confir¬matory factor analysis. As a result of the initial confirmatory factor analysis, the values of fit were examined and found to be low. Subsequently, by exam¬ining the modification indices, error covariance was added between items 23 and 24 and the model was tested once again. The added error covariance led to a significant improvement in the model, producing values of fit suitable for limit values. Thus, it was concluded that the scale could be employed with a single factor. The explained variance value for the scale developed with a sin¬gle factor structure was calculated to be 50.43% and its reliability was found to be .93. The results obtained suggest that the scale possesses reliable-valid characteristics and could be used in further studies.

  9. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  10. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  11. Structure of Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale: Three-factor solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Urbánek, Tomáš; Osecká, Terezie

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2006), s. 371-378 ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Rosenberg Self - Esteem Scale * confirmatory factor analysis * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2006

  12. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: Factor, Convergent, and Divergent Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor,…

  13. Confirming the Three-Factor Structure of the Disgust Scale-Revised in Eight Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Moretz, Melanie W.; Mckay, Dean; Bjorklund, Fredrik; de Jong, Peter J.; Haidt, Jonathan; Hursti, Timo J.; Imada, Sumio; Koller, Silvia; Mancini, Francesco; Page, Andrew C.; Schienle, Anne

    The current study evaluates the factor structure of the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R) in eight countries: Australia, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States (N = 2,606). Confirmatory factor analysis is used to compare two different models of the DS-R and to

  14. Comparison of cadmium and chromium bioconcentration factors between scaled and scale less fish species: common carp and sutchi (striped catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideh Zainab Abedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne, indissoluble heavy metals are bioaccumulated in fish (human food source. In this research, chromium (Cr and cadmium (Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs in the skin, gills, scales, livers and muscles of two widely-consumed fish species, scaled common carp Cyprinus carpio and scaleless catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus were compared. Material and Methods: Lethal concentrations of Cd and Cr (64.89 & 7.46, and 84.8 & 17.05 mg/L for the catfish and carp, respectively were determined during 96 hrs (96 h LC50, and the fishes were exposed for 15 days. Then the tissue samples were chemically digested and the contents of Cd and Cr were determined using atomic absorption. Results: Total contents of Cr and Cd in the catfish's tissues were 2286.11 & 360.73, and those of Cr & Cd in carp were 734.71 & 725.67 μg/g.dw (excluding the scales, respectively. Metal concentrations in the water residues (day 15 revealed lower Cr and Cd (0.059 & 0.0036 mg/L in the catfish than those in the carp media (0.1 & 0.0412 mg/L, respectively. In common carp, BCF of Cd was as liver > skin > gills > muscle > scales, and those in the catfish marked as liver>muscle >gills >skin. The BCF of Cr in common carp ranked as gills>liver>skin>scales>muscle, and the catfish showing a BCF pattern of Cr as liver> muscle>skin>gills. Conclusion: This study signifies that small amounts of cadmium and chromium with high BCFs especially in the muscles of scale less fish (catfish threat consumers’ health.

  15. GENDER DIFFERENTIALS IN FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Olabisi Sherifat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of empirical data segregation on factors affecting gender as the variable of interest. However, previous research had indicated several factors that affect business performances among small-scale enterprise owners. Using feminist theory and a descriptive survey research design, data were collected from fifty (50 small-scale enterprise owners that were purposively chosen across the study area. The findings show that the factors that were significant for female were significantly different from male. For female small scale enterprise owners, marital status (64% Age of Children (68%, Role Model/ advisors (58% were significant factors that affect their business performance. For male small-scale enterprise owners, Friends (70%, a lack of Government support (80%, inability to display innovativeness (78% and Risk-Taking (84% were significant for male. Lack of availability of capital and finances were significant for the two. Other factors that affect performance include friends, inadequate training and business location. Adequate knowledge of factors that affect gender enterprise performance will go a long way in alleviating these problems. Small-scale enterprises should be supported for poverty alleviation, especially among women and for the nation’s economic development

  16. Characterization of Soil Heterogeneity Across Scales in an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Nemes, Attila; Dathe, Annette; French, Helen; Bloem, Esther; Koestel, John; Jarvis, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous water flow in undisturbed soils is a natural occurrence that is complex to model due to potential changes in hydraulic properties in soils over changes in space. The use of geophysical methods, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), can provide a minimally-invasive approximation of the spatial heterogeneity of the soil. This spatial distribution can then be combined with measured hydraulic properties to inform a model. An experiment was conducted on an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume (IISV), with dimensions of 2m x 1m x 0.8m, located in an agricultural field that is part of the Gryteland catchment in Ås, Norway. The location of the IISV was determined through surface ERT runs at two sequential resolutions. The first run was used to find an area of higher apparent electrical resistivity in a 23.5 x 11.5 m area with 0.5 m spacing. The second run measured apparent electrical resistivity in a 4.7 x 1 m area with 0.1 m spacing, from which the final IISV volume was derived. Distinct features found in the higher resolution run of the IISV, including a recent tire track from a harvester, were used as a spatial reference point for the installation of 20 pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers. The instruments measured water content, temperature and pressure potential at 10 minute intervals and ran continuously for a period of two weeks. After completion of the data collection the IISV was intensively sampled, with 30 samples taken for bulk density, 62 for hydraulic property measurements, and 20 to be used for both CT scanning and hydraulic property measurements. The measurement of hydraulic properties is ongoing and retention will be measured in the 0 - 100 cm range on a sand table, and from 100 - approx. 900 cm with an automated evaporation method. The formation of spatial clusters to represent the soil heterogeneity as relatively homogeneous units based on mesoscale properties like apparent electrical resistivity, bulk density, texture, in

  17. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuehr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer factors for the root uptake of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn were compared using outdoor lysimeters, Kick-Brauckmann experimental pots under greenhouse conditions and Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The uptake was studied in barley, potatoes, sugar beet and salad vegetables grown on either podsolic or loess soil. The transfer factors for these radionuclides under the specific conditions of the small scale Neubauer cup experiments differed greatly from those obtained from the outdoor lysimeter. In the pot experiments, the transfer factors for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 54 Mn showed less deviation from the lysimeter results especially in crops grown on podsolic soil. For 60 Co, the transfer factors varied for the different crops grown. Transfer factors obtained in pot experiments can only be applicable to a limited extent to field conditions; factors influencing the transfer factors in pot experiments include soil volume, root density, root/shoot ratio, water supply and fertilizer application rate. (UK)

  18. Testing the Scale Dependence of the Scale Factor $\\sigma_{eff}$ in Double Dijet Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Domdey, Svend; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2010-01-01

    The scale factor σ eff is the effective cross section used to characterize the measured rate of inclusive double dijet production in high energy hadron collisions. It is sensitive to the two-parton distributions in the hadronic projectile. In principle, the scale factor depends on the center of mass energy and on the minimal transverse energy of the jets contributing to the double dijet cross section. Here, we point out that proton-proton collisions at the LHC will provide for the first time experimental access to these scale dependences in a logarithmically wide, nominally perturbative kinematic range of minimal transverse energy between 10 GeV and 100 GeV. This constrains the dependence of two-parton distribution functions on parton momentum fractions and parton localization in impact parameter space. Novel information is to be expected about the transverse growth of hadronic distribution functions in the range of semi-hard Bjorken x (0.001 < x < 0.1) and high resolution Q^2. We discuss to what exten...

  19. Development of radionuclide inventory estimation method using scaling factor for the Korean NPPs: scope and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ki Ha; Lee, Sang Chul; Kang, Sang Hee; Lee, Kun Jai; Jeong, Chan Woo; Ahn, Sang Myeon; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Kyoung Doek; Herr, Y. H.

    2003-01-01

    Regulations and guidelines for radionuclide waste disposal require detailed information about the characteristics of radioactive waste drums prior to the transport to the disposal sites. Therefore, it is important to know the accurate radionuclide inventory of radioactive waste. However, estimation of radionuclide concentrations on drummed radioactive waste is difficult and unreliable. In order to overcome these difficulties, scaling factors have been used to assess the activities of radionuclides which could not be directly analyzed. A radionuclides assay system has been operated at Korean nuclear power plant (KORI site) since 1996 and consolidated scaling factor concept has played a dominant role in determination of radionuclides concentrations. For corrosion product radionuclides, generic scaling factors were used due to the similar trend and better-characterized properties of Korean analyzed data compared to the worldwide database. It is not easy to use the generic scaling factors for fission product and TRU radionuclides. Thus simple model reflecting the history of the operation of power plant and nuclear fuel condition is applied. However, some problems are still remained. For examples, disparity between the actual and ideal correlation pairs, inaccuracy of analyzed sample values, uncertainty in representative of derived scaling factor values and so on. As a result, the correlation ratios are somewhat dispersive. So it is planned to establish an assay system using more improved scaling factors. In this study, the scope of research is expanded and planned such as following. 1) Considering more assay target nuclides, 2) Considering more target NPPs, 3) More reliable sampling and measurement techniques, 4) Improvement of accuracy and representativeness of derived scaling factor values and 5) Conformation of correlation pairs based on Korean analyzed data. As this study progresses, it is possible to get more accurate and reliable prediction for the information of

  20. Factor analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in developmentally disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuovo, Santo F; Buono, Serafino

    2006-12-01

    The results of previous studies on the factorial structure of Wechsler Intelligence Scales are somewhat inconsistent across normal and pathological samples. To study specific clinical groups, such as developmentally disabled persons, it is useful to examine the factor structure in appropriate samples. A factor analysis was carried out using the principal component method and the Varimax orthogonal rotation on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) in a sample of 203 developmentally disabled persons, with a mean age of 25 years 4 months. Developmental disability ranged from mild to moderate. Partially contrasting with previous studies on normal samples, results found a two-factor solution. Wechsler's traditional Verbal and Performance scales seems to be more appropriate for this sample than the alternative three-factor solution.

  1. Large-scale hydrogen combustion experiments: Volume 2, Data plots: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.T.; Torok, R.C.; Randall, D.S.; Sullivan, J.S.; Thompson, L.B.; Haugh, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    Forty large-scale experiments to investigate the combustion behavior of hydrogen during postulated degraded core accidents were conducted in a 16 m (52 ft) diameter sphere. The performance of safety related equipment and cable also was examined. Combustion was initiated by thermal igniters in both premixed hydrogen air-steam atmospheres and during the continuous injection of hydrogen and steam. The effects of steam, igniter location, water sprays, fans and injection rates were studied. Measurements were made of gas concentrations, combustion pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Burn fractions and flame speeds also were determined. Near-infrared seeing cameras permitted direct observation of the hydrogen burns. Combustion pressures and temperatures in premixed atmospheres with hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol% (steam saturated) were less than the theoretical maximum values. Multiple deflagrations were not encountered during continuous hydrogen injection with pre-activated igniters. Moderate pressure rises resulted from diffusion flames. These flames generally were found above the source. Combustion results have been compared to smaller scale experiments. Several safety related equipment items exhibited degraded performance after a number of tests. Most cable samples passed their electrical checks at the end of the test series. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the deliberate ignition approach to controlling hydrogen. They also provide data for validating computer codes used to predict hydrogen combustion during degraded core accidents, and for assessing the performance of safety related equipment in such environments

  2. Factors influencing the recycling rate under the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen

    2018-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has maintained its top-rank status for its municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate among OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member countries. The volume-based waste fee system (VWF) has been considered to be the major factor contributing to the high recycling performance, and extant research has verified the positive relationship between VWF adoption and the MSW recycling rate. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the literature, as past research has focused more on testing the positive effects of VWF rather than on investigating the determinants of recycling rates after the adoption of VWF. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the various factors that affect recycling rates under the VWF system. More specifically, using data from 16 regions in South Korea over a period of 11 years, this study empirically tests the effects of VWF pricing, the citizen cost burden ratio for the VWF system, and pro-environmental behavior related to VWF on the recycling rate. The findings indicate that economic incentives such as cost savings on VWF plastic bag purchases and reduced burden from paying VWF expenses result in higher recycling rates. The findings also demonstrate that pro-environmental behavior in the VWF context positively affects the recycling rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Natascha C J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Holme, Pal Andre; van Kraaij, Marian G J; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta A P; Peyvandi, Flora; van Heerde, Waander L

    2013-08-01

    Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. Ten factor VII deficient patients were treated with either recombinant activated (20 μg/kg) or plasma-derived (25 IU/kg) factor VII in a cross-over design. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed through activated factor VII activity, factor VII clotting activity, and factor VII antigen levels on depicted time points. Factor VII activity half-lifes, determined by non-compartmental and one-compartmental analysis (results in brackets), were shorter for recombinant activated (1.4h; 0.7h) than for plasma-derived factor VII (6.8h; 3.2h); both recombinant activated (5.1h; 2.1h and plasma-derived factor VII (5.8h; 3.2h) resulted in longer half-lives of factor VII antigen. Activated factor VII half-lives (based on activated factor VII activity levels) were significantly higher compared to factor VII clotting activity (1.6h; 0.9h). Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for activated factor VII (236 ml/kg; 175 ml/kg, measured by activated factor VII) as compared to plasma-derived factor VII (206 ml/kg; 64 ml/kg, measured by factor FVII activity), suggesting a plasma- and extracellular fluid distribution for recombinant activated factor VII. Recombinant activated factor VII showed significantly shorter half-lifes than plasma-derived factor VII. Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for treatment with recombinant activated factor VII. The longer half-life for plasma-derived factor VII, compared to recombinant activated factor VII, and the increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII, compared to plasma-derived factor VII may further elucidate the beneficial effect of prophylactic treatment of both products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution to the structural vulnerability quantification: from the representative volume element to the member scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This work is the synthesis of research activities I have conducted over the past decade aiming at improving the numerical description of some dissipative mechanisms at the material scale and quantifying the vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures. The main objectives of the research presented in this dissertation are: (i) to improve both the predictive capabilities and the numerical robustness of the time integration strategies of the continuous constitutive model when dealing with the cyclic behavior of quasi-brittle materials subjected to either long-term or short-term loadings, (ii) to improve numerical techniques capable of describing the discontinuous nature of cracking and related local dissipative phenomena, and (iii) to contribute to the definition of large-scale experimental campaigns and to organize international workshops aiming to better understand the complex behavior of reinforced concrete structures when subjected to extreme loadings, such as earthquakes. In the first part, we focus on the development and validation of a continuous constitutive model to describe the mechanical behavior of quasi-brittle materials subjected to cyclic loadings. Simplified strategies are also derived from full three-dimensional approaches to serve probabilistic techniques aiming at taking into account uncertainties and updating mechanical models. In the second part, some light is shed on some developments aiming at better quantifying the cracking features. Then, the results of experiments designed to assess the dynamic response of strongly asymmetric reinforced concrete structures are presented. The experimental data have led to numerical studies shared with the international scientific community. The lessons learned from this research is then employed to design research projects we plan to work on over the next few years. (author) [fr

  5. Maximal oxygen consumption, respiratory volume and some related factors in fire-fighting personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Khazraee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters for difficult activities and rescue of damaged people must be in appropriate physical ability. Maximal oxygen capacity is an indicator for diagnosis of physical ability of workers. This study aimed to assess the cardiorespiratory system and its related factors in firefighters. Methods: This study was conducted on 110 firefighters from various stations. An self-administered questionnaire (respiratory disorders questionnaire, Tuxworth-Shahnavaz step test, and pulmonary function test was used to collection of required data. Average of humidity and temperature was 52% and 17°C, respectively. Background average noise levels were between 55 and 65 dB. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 32 ± 6.2 years. The means of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were 92% ±9.4%, 87% ±9.2%, and 80% ±6.1%, respectively. The participants' mean VO2-max was 2.79 ± 0.29 L/min or 37.34 ± 4.27 ml/kg body weight per minute. The results revealed that weight has a direct association with vital capacity (VC, FVC, and peak expiratory flow. In addition, height was directly associated with VC, FVC, and VO2-max (P < 0.05. However, there was an inverse and significant association between height and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.23,P< 0.05. Height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were directly associated with VO2-max. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the amount of maximum oxygen consumption is close with the proposed range of this parameter among firefighters in other studies. Furthermore, the results of the study revealed that individuals had normal amounts of lung volume index. This issue can be attributed to the appropriate usage of respiratory masks.

  6. Beyond factor analysis: Multidimensionality and the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-Revised.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Pushpanathan

    Full Text Available Many studies have sought to describe the relationship between sleep disturbance and cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD. The Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS and its variants (the Parkinson's disease Sleep Scale-Revised; PDSS-R, and the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2; PDSS-2 quantify a range of symptoms impacting sleep in only 15 items. However, data from these scales may be problematic as included items have considerable conceptual breadth, and there may be overlap in the constructs assessed. Multidimensional measurement models, accounting for the tendency for items to measure multiple constructs, may be useful more accurately to model variance than traditional confirmatory factor analysis. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a multidimensional model (a bifactor model is more appropriate than traditional factor analysis for data generated by these types of scales, using data collected using the PDSS-R as an exemplar. 166 participants diagnosed with idiopathic PD participated in this study. Using PDSS-R data, we compared three models: a unidimensional model; a 3-factor model consisting of sub-factors measuring insomnia, motor symptoms and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD symptoms; and, a confirmatory bifactor model with both a general factor and the same three sub-factors. Only the confirmatory bifactor model achieved satisfactory model fit, suggesting that PDSS-R data are multidimensional. There were differential associations between factor scores and patient characteristics, suggesting that some PDSS-R items, but not others, are influenced by mood and personality in addition to sleep symptoms. Multidimensional measurement models may also be a helpful tool in the PDSS and the PDSS-2 scales and may improve the sensitivity of these instruments.

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  8. Factor analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, M P G; Moonen, A J H; Kuijf, M L; Dujardin, K; Marsh, L; Richard, I H; Starkstein, S E; Martinez-Martin, P; Leentjens, A F G

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have validated the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and reported adequate reliability and construct validity. However, the factorial validity of the HAMD has not yet been investigated. The aim of our analysis was to explore the factor structure of the HAMD in a large sample of PD patients. A principal component analysis of the 17-item HAMD was performed on data of 341 PD patients, available from a previous cross sectional study on anxiety. An eigenvalue ≥1 was used to determine the number of factors. Factor loadings ≥0.4 in combination with oblique rotations were used to identify which variables made up the factors. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO), Cronbach's alpha, Bartlett's test, communality, percentage of non-redundant residuals and the component correlation matrix were computed to assess factor validity. KMO verified the sample's adequacy for factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha indicated a good internal consistency of the total scale. Six factors had eigenvalues ≥1 and together explained 59.19% of the variance. The number of items per factor varied from 1 to 6. Inter-item correlations within each component were low. There was a high percentage of non-redundant residuals and low communality. This analysis demonstrates that the factorial validity of the HAMD in PD is unsatisfactory. This implies that the scale is not appropriate for studying specific symptom domains of depression based on factorial structure in a PD population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A numerical model of two-phase flow at the micro-scale using the volume-of-fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mosayeb; Raeini, Ali Q.; Blunt, Martin J.; Bijeljic, Branko

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a simple and robust numerical scheme to model two-phase flow in porous media where capillary forces dominate over viscous effects. The volume-of-fluid method is employed to capture the fluid-fluid interface whose dynamics is explicitly described based on a finite volume discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. Interfacial forces are calculated directly on reconstructed interface elements such that the total curvature is preserved. The computed interfacial forces are explicitly added to the Navier-Stokes equations using a sharp formulation which effectively eliminates spurious currents. The stability and accuracy of the implemented scheme is validated on several two- and three-dimensional test cases, which indicate the capability of the method to model two-phase flow processes at the micro-scale. In particular we show how the co-current flow of two viscous fluids leads to greatly enhanced flow conductance for the wetting phase in corners of the pore space, compared to a case where the non-wetting phase is an inviscid gas.

  10. The factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberger, Michael; Ponsford, Jennie

    2010-10-30

    There is a lack of validated scales for screening for anxiety and depression in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with TBI. A total of 294 individuals with TBI (72.1% male; mean age 37.1 years, S.D. 17.5, median post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) duration 17 days) completed the HADS 1 year post-injury. A series of confirmatory factor analyses was conducted to examine the fit of a one-, two- and three-factor solution, with and without controlling for item wording effects (Multi-Trait Multi-Method approach). The one-, two- or three-factor model fit the data only when controlling for negative item wording. The results are in support of the validity of the original anxiety and depression subscales of the HADS and demonstrate the importance of evaluating item wording effects when examining the factor structure of a questionnaire. The results would also justify the use of the HADS as a single scale of emotional distress. However, even though the three-factor solution fit the data, alternative scales should be used if the purpose of the assessment is to measure stress symptoms separately from anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scale-Free Relationships between Social and Landscape Factors in Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhu Wei

    2017-01-01

    anthropogenic and natural factors. Moreover, this scale-free behavior of landscape–social relationships challenges the traditional modifiable area unit problem, and provides mechanistic insight into the conflicts and compatibilities between human activities and human-induced land use change.

  12. Scaling behavior of free-volume holes in polymers probed by positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. L.; Wang, S. J.

    1995-04-01

    Positron lifetimes in polybutadiene (PB) and polypropylene (PP) are measured as functions of temperature in the range 95-305 K and 95-370 K, respectively. From the variations of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime τ3, we have determined the glass transition temperatures Tg in PB and PP and the excluding temperature Te in PB, beyond which the o-Ps lifetime τ3 in PB is saturated. From the analogy of the temperature-dependent o-Ps intensity I3 in PB and PP, high- and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE), we propose that above the glass transition temperature Tg the o-Ps intensity I3 exhibits the scaling relation I3~(T-Tg)β in these polymers. The data also indicate the existence of a crossover temperature Tc, located above Tg, where the β value changes greatly. When TgHDPE and LDPE [D. Lin and S. J. Wang, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 4, 3331 (1992)]. The β values in the region of TcHDPE and branched LDPE, respectively. These results reveal a common picture of hole creation above Tg in polymers, however, the concrete value of β may be associated with the branching structure of macromolecules.

  13. Radionuclide analysis and scaling factors verification for LLRW of Taipower Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.-Y.; Liu, K.-T.; Chen, S.-C.; Chang, T.-M.; Pung, T.-C.; Men, L.-C.; Wang, S.-J.

    2004-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Council of the Republic of China (CAEC) final disposal policy for Low Level Radwaste (LLRW) will be carried on in 1996. Institute of Nuclear Energy Research has the contract to develop the Radionuclide analysis method and to establish the scaling factors for LLRW of Taipower reactors. The radionuclides analyzed including: Co-60, Cs-137, Ce-144, γ-nuclides; H-3, C-14, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, Tc-99, I-129, Pu-238, Pu-239/240, Pu-241, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244 α, β and low energy γ nuclides. 120 samples taken from 21 waste streams were analyzed and the database was collected within 2 years. The scaling factors for different kind of waste streams were computed with weighted log-mean average method. In 1993, the scaling factors for each waste stream has been verified through actual station samples. (author)

  14. SWEET CORN FARMING: THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION FACTOR, EFFICIENCY AND RETURN TO SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijatenaya I.B.M.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of production factors on the sweet corn production, the efficiency of sweet corn farming, and the return to scale of sweet corn production. The sampling technique was taken by proportionate stratified random sampling method with the sample number of 57 people while the analyzer used was the program of Frointer 4.1c. The results show that the production factors of the land farm, seed, and fertilizer have a positive and significant effect on sweet corn production. On the other hand, labor production factors have a positive but not significant effect on sweet corn production. It also found that technical efficiency, price efficiency, and economic efficiency of sweet corn farming in Muara Wis Sub-district of Kutai Kartanegara Regency are not efficient yet. The return to scale of sweet corn yield has an increasing return to scale condition.

  15. Dimensions of assertiveness: factors underlying the college self-expression scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A; Jaffe, Y

    1978-02-01

    A total of 447 Israeli students, both males and females, from four educational institutions were administered the College Self-expression Scale, a measure of assertiveness. The obtained responses were factor analyzed using the principal axis solution and the varimax rotation method. The results showed four main factors which included 43 of the 50 items of the original scale. These factors were identified as the willingness to take risks in interpersonal interactions, the ability to communicate feelings, setting rules and rectifying injustices, and the presence or absence of a tendency to invoke a self-punitive attitude. The findings were interpreted as adding support to the validity of the scale as a measure of assertiveness.

  16. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF A SOCIAL SKILLS SCALE FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Lin, C-K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a social skills scale for high school students in Taiwan. This study adopted stratified random sampling. A total of 1,729 high school students were included. The students ranged in age from 16 to 18 years. A Social Skills Scale was developed for this study and was designed for classroom teachers to fill out. The test-retest reliability of this scale was tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine construct validity. The Social Skills Scale had good overall test-retest reliability of .92, and the internal consistency of the five subscales was above .90. The results of the factor analysis showed that the Social Skills Scale covered the five domains of classroom learning skills, communication skills, individual initiative skills, interaction skills, and job-related social skills, and the five factors explained 68.34% of the variance. Thus, the Social Skills Scale had good reliability and validity and would be applicable to and could be promoted for use in schools.

  17. Periodic Verification of the Scaling Factor for Radwastes in Korean NPPs - 13294

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Joon; Ahn, Hong Joo; Song, Byoung Chul; Song, Kyuseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    According to the acceptance criteria for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) listed in Notice No. 2012-53 of the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), specific concentrations of radionuclides inside a drum has to be identified and quantified. In 5 years of effort, scaling factors were derived through destructive radiochemical analysis, and the dry active waste, spent resin, concentration bottom, spent filter, and sludge drums generated during 2004 ∼ 2008 were evaluated to identify radionuclide inventories. Eventually, only dry active waste among LILWs generated from Korean NPPs were first shipped to a permanent disposal facility on December 2010. For the LILWs generated after 2009, the radionuclides are being radiochemically quantified because the Notice clarifies that the certifications of the scaling factors should be verified biennially. During the operation of NPP, the radionuclides designated in the Notice are formed by neutron activation of primary coolant, reactor structural materials, corrosion products, and fission products released into primary coolant through defects or failures in fuel cladding. Eventually, since the radionuclides released into primary coolant are transported into the numerous auxiliary and support systems connected to primary system, the LILWs can be contaminated, and the radionuclides can have various concentration distributions. Thus, radioactive wastes, such as spent resin and dry active waste generated at various Korean NPP sites, were sampled at each site, and the activities of the regulated radionuclides present in the sample were determined using radiochemical methods. The scaling factors were driven on the basis of the activity ratios between a or β-emitting nuclides and γ-emitting nuclides. The resulting concentrations were directly compared with the established scaling factors' data using statistical methods. In conclusions, the established scaling factors were verified with a reliability

  18. Reliability of the factor structure of the Multidimensional Scale of Interpersonal Reactivity (EMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton S. Formiga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to check the internal consistency and factor structure evaluative of the empathy scale in a high school and college sample in the state of Minas Gerais. The instruments that measure empathy can be easily found, however, of the existing, just multidimensional scale of interpersonal reactivity (Emri is the theoretical framework that has far more and better organized, and the scale that is most commonly used to assess this construct. Participated 488 subjects, male and female, with ages from 14-54 years old, distributed in primary and college levels in Patrocínio-MG composed this study sample. The subjects answered the Multidimensional Scale of Interpersonal Reactivity and socio-demographic data. From an equation analysis and structural modeling were observed psychometric indicators that assured the structural consistency of the scale, promoting in the security of the measure theoretical construct of empathy.

  19. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factor “Gender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  20. Projective synchronization of time-varying delayed neural network with adaptive scaling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Santo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Projective synchronization in coupled delayed neural chaotic systems with modulated delay time is introduced. • An adaptive rule for the scaling factors is introduced. • This scheme is highly applicable in secure communication. -- Abstract: In this work, the projective synchronization between two continuous time delayed neural systems with time varying delay is investigated. A sufficient condition for synchronization for the coupled systems with modulated delay is presented analytically with the help of the Krasovskii–Lyapunov approach. The effect of adaptive scaling factors on synchronization are also studied in details. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the analytic results

  1. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediyama, Cristina Y. N.; Moura, Ricardo; Garcia, Marina S.; da Silva, Antonio G.; Soraggi, Carolina; Neves, Fernando S.; Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Whiteside, Setephen P.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a) urgency, (b) lack of premeditation; (c) lack of perseverance; (d) sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men), who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis. Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years) scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach’s alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory. Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS. PMID:28484414

  2. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a urgency, (b lack of premeditation; (c lack of perseverance; (d sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men, who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis.Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach’s alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory.Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS.

  3. Factor Analysis of the Brazilian Version of UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediyama, Cristina Y N; Moura, Ricardo; Garcia, Marina S; da Silva, Antonio G; Soraggi, Carolina; Neves, Fernando S; Albuquerque, Maicon R; Whiteside, Setephen P; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a) urgency, (b) lack of premeditation; (c) lack of perseverance; (d) sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men), who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis. Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years) scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach's alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory. Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS.

  4. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Function and task analysis. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    As a treatment methodology, teletherapy selectively destroys cancerous and other tissue by exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. Sources of radiation are either a radioactive isotope, typically Cobalt-60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator. Records maintained by the NRC have identified instances of teletherapy misadministration where the delivered radiation dose has differed from the radiation prescription (e.g., instances where fractions were delivered to the wrong patient, to the wrong body part, or were too great or too little with respect to the defined treatment volume). Both human error and machine malfunction have led to misadministrations. Effective and safe treatment requires a concern for precision and consistency of human-human and human-machine interactions throughout the course of therapy. The present study is the first part of a series of human factors evaluations for identifying the root causes that lead to human error in the teletherapy environment. The human factors evaluations included: (1) a function and task analysis of teletherapy activities, (2) an evaluation of the human-system interfaces, (3) an evaluation of procedures used by teletherapy staff, (4) an evaluation of the training and qualifications of treatment staff (excluding the oncologists), (5) an evaluation of organizational practices and policies, and (6) an identification of problems and alternative approaches for NRC and industry attention. The present report addresses the function and task analysis of teletherapy activities and provides the foundation for the conduct of the subsequent evaluations. The report includes sections on background, methodology, a description of the function and task analysis, and use of the task analysis findings for the subsequent tasks. The function and task analysis data base also is included.

  5. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Function and task analysis. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    As a treatment methodology, teletherapy selectively destroys cancerous and other tissue by exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. Sources of radiation are either a radioactive isotope, typically Cobalt-60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator. Records maintained by the NRC have identified instances of teletherapy misadministration where the delivered radiation dose has differed from the radiation prescription (e.g., instances where fractions were delivered to the wrong patient, to the wrong body part, or were too great or too little with respect to the defined treatment volume). Both human error and machine malfunction have led to misadministrations. Effective and safe treatment requires a concern for precision and consistency of human-human and human-machine interactions throughout the course of therapy. The present study is the first part of a series of human factors evaluations for identifying the root causes that lead to human error in the teletherapy environment. The human factors evaluations included: (1) a function and task analysis of teletherapy activities, (2) an evaluation of the human-system interfaces, (3) an evaluation of procedures used by teletherapy staff, (4) an evaluation of the training and qualifications of treatment staff (excluding the oncologists), (5) an evaluation of organizational practices and policies, and (6) an identification of problems and alternative approaches for NRC and industry attention. The present report addresses the function and task analysis of teletherapy activities and provides the foundation for the conduct of the subsequent evaluations. The report includes sections on background, methodology, a description of the function and task analysis, and use of the task analysis findings for the subsequent tasks. The function and task analysis data base also is included

  6. Vibrational frequency scaling factors for correlation consistent basis sets and the methods CC2 and MP2 and their spin-scaled SCS and SOS variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry CTCC, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Törk, Lisa; Hättig, Christof, E-mail: christof.haettig@rub.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-11-21

    We present scaling factors for vibrational frequencies calculated within the harmonic approximation and the correlated wave-function methods coupled cluster singles and doubles model (CC2) and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with and without a spin-component scaling (SCS or spin-opposite scaling (SOS)). Frequency scaling factors and the remaining deviations from the reference data are evaluated for several non-augmented basis sets of the cc-pVXZ family of generally contracted correlation-consistent basis sets as well as for the segmented contracted TZVPP basis. We find that the SCS and SOS variants of CC2 and MP2 lead to a slightly better accuracy for the scaled vibrational frequencies. The determined frequency scaling factors can also be used for vibrational frequencies calculated for excited states through response theory with CC2 and the algebraic diagrammatic construction through second order and their spin-component scaled variants.

  7. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  8. Factor analysis and Mokken scaling of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yami, M; Galdas, P; Watson, R

    2018-03-22

    To generate an Arabic version of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire that would be easily understood by Arabic speakers and would be sensitive to Arabic culture. The nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia is undergoing a process of Saudization but there is a need to understand the factors that will help to retain this workforce. No organizational commitment tools exist in Arabic that are specifically designed for health organizations. An Arabic version of the organizational commitment tool could aid Arabic speaking employers to understand their employees' perceptions of their organizations. Translation and back-translation followed by factor analysis (principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis) to test the factorial validity and item response theory (Mokken scaling). A two-factor structure was obtained for the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire comprising Factor 1: Value commitment; and Factor 2: Commitment to stay with acceptable reliability measured by internal consistency. A Mokken scale was obtained including items from both factors showing a hierarchy of items running from commitment to the organization and commitment to self. This study shows that the Arabic version of the OCQ retained the established two-factor structure of the original English-language version. Although the two factors - 'value commitment' and 'commitment to stay' - repudiate the original developers' single factor claim. A useful insight into the structure of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire has been obtained with the novel addition of a hierarchical scale. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire is now ready to be used with nurses in the Arab speaking world and could be used a tool to measure the contemporary commitment of nursing employees and in future interventions aimed at increasing commitment and retention of valuable nursing staff. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Fourth Edition in Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Barchard, Kimberly A; Parke, Elyse; Jones, W Paul; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is better explained by a five-factor model rather than the four-factor model in the standardization sample. The current study examined the WISC-IV's factor structure in a sample of children with ADHD. Participants included 314 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the 10 core subtests of the WISC-IV, and three models were examined including two based on Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory. A five-factor model consisting of Gc, Gf, Gv, Gsm, and Gs factors provided the best fit for the data. The Perceptual Reasoning factor identified in the original four-factor model split into the two CHC factors, Gf and Gv, and cross-loaded the Symbol Search subtest onto the Gv factor. A five-factor model based on CHC theory provided superior fit for the WISC-IV in children with ADHD, as has been found with the standardization sample. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. On the dimensionality of the stress-related growth scale: one, three, or seven factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C; Rowley, Anthony A; Vaughn, Allison A

    2004-06-01

    We examined the factorial validity and dimensionality of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS; Park, Cohen, & Murch, 1996) using a large multiethnic sample (n = 1,070). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a multidimensional representation of the SRGS fit better than a unidimensional representation. Specifically, we cross-validated both a 3-factor model and a 7-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis and were shown to be invariant across gender and ethnic groups. The 3-factor model was represented by global dimensions of growth that included rational/mature thinking, affective/emotional growth, and religious/spiritual growth. We replicated the 7-factor model of Armeli, Gunthert, and Cohen (2001) and it represented more specific components of growth such as Self-Understanding and Treatment of Others. However, some factors of the 7-factor model had questionable internal consistency and were strongly intercorrelated, suggesting redundancy. The findings support the notion that the factor structure of both the original 1-factor and revised 7-factor models are unstable and that the 3-factor model developed in this research has more reliable psychometric properties and structure.

  11. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  12. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm

  13. Study of factors affecting thyroid volume determination by SPECT and preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan

    1992-01-01

    Volumes of 7 thyroid phantoms (12-113.4 ml) and 25 thyroids of hyperthyroid patients were determined using TOSHIBA GCA-901A SPECT scanner. Accuracy of calculated volumes was strongly affected by the spatial resolution, total counts of acquisition and the threshold of background subtraction which depended on the thyroid size and the type of collimator used

  14. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Modified Practice Attitudes Scale: Initial Factor Analysis and a New Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heehoon; Ebesutani, Chad K; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Stanick, Cameo

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create the Korean version of the Modified Practice Attitudes Scale (K-MPAS) to measure clinicians' attitudes toward evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in the Korean mental health system. Using 189 U.S. therapists and 283 members from the Korean mental health system, we examined the reliability and validity of the MPAS scores. We also conducted the first exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis on the MPAS and compared EBT attitudes across U.S. and Korean therapists. Results revealed that the inclusion of both "reversed-worded" and "non-reversed-worded" items introduced significant method effects that compromised the integrity of the one-factor MPAS model. Problems with the one-factor structure were resolved by eliminating the "non-reversed-worded" items. Reliability and validity were adequate among both Korean and U.S. therapists. Korean therapists also reported significantly more negative attitudes toward EBTs on the MPAS than U.S. therapists. The K-MPAS is the first questionnaire designed to measure Korean service providers' attitudes toward EBTs to help advance the dissemination of EBTs in Korea. The current study also demonstrated the negative impacts that can be introduced by incorporating oppositely worded items into a scale, particularly with respect to factor structure and detecting significant group differences.

  15. The self-transcendence scale: an investigation of the factor structure among nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, Gørill; Rannestad, Toril; Garåsen, Helge; Hammervold, Randi; Espnes, Geir Arild

    2012-09-01

    Self-transcendence, the ability to expand personal boundaries in multiple ways, has been found to provide well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality of the Norwegian version of the Self-Transcendence Scale, which comprises 15 items. Reed's empirical nursing theory of self-transcendence provided the theoretical framework; self-transcendence includes an interpersonal, intrapersonal, transpersonal, and temporal dimension. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a sample of 202 cognitively intact elderly patients in 44 Norwegian nursing homes. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two and four internally consistent dimensions of self-transcendence, explaining 35.3% (two factors) and 50.7% (four factors) of the variance, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the hypothesized two- and four-factor models fitted better than the one-factor model (cx (2), root mean square error of approximation, standardized root mean square residual, normed fit index, nonnormed fit index, comparative fit index, goodness-of-fit index, and adjusted goodness-of-fit index). The findings indicate self-transcendence as a multifactorial construct; at present, we conclude that the two-factor model might be the most accurate and reasonable measure of self-transcendence. This research generates insights in the application of the widely used Self-Transcendence Scale by investigating its psychometric properties by applying a confirmatory factor analysis. It also generates new research-questions on the associations between self-transcendence and well-being.

  16. General Factor Loadings and Specific Effects of the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Jennifer L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Acklie, Teresa J.; Houston, Lawrence, III

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the "g" loadings and specific effects of the core and diagnostic composite scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a). Scores from a subset of the DAS-II standardization sample for ages 3:6 to 17:11 were submitted to principal factor analysis. Four…

  17. Multi-Scale Factor Analysis of High-Dimensional Brain Signals

    KAUST Repository

    Ting, Chee-Ming; Ombao, Hernando; Salleh, Sh-Hussain

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to modeling high-dimensional networks with a large number of nodes arranged in a hierarchical and modular structure. We propose a novel multi-scale factor analysis (MSFA) model which partitions the massive

  18. The Factor Structure of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in Veterans Experienced Chemical Weapon Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Boyle, Christopher; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Tahmasbi, Bahram; Rassool, G Hussein; Taebei, Mozhgan; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the factor structure of the spiritual well-being among a sample of the Iranian veterans. In this methodological research, 211 male veterans of Iran-Iraq warfare completed the Paloutzian and Ellison spiritual well-being scale. Maximum likelihood (ML) with oblique rotation was used to assess domain structure of the spiritual well-being. The construct validity of the scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha, Theta (θ), and McDonald Omega (Ω) coefficients, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and construct reliability (CR). Results of ML and CFA suggested three factors which were labeled "relationship with God," "belief in fate and destiny," and "life optimism." The ICC, coefficients of the internal consistency, and CR were >.7 for the factors of the scale. Convergent validity and discriminant validity did not fulfill the requirements. The Persian version of spiritual well-being scale demonstrated suitable validity and reliability among the veterans of Iran-Iraq warfare.

  19. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale: Examining the Variable of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shainna; Lambie, Glenn; Bloom, Zachary D.

    2017-01-01

    The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS), developed by Bidell in 2005, measures counselors' levels of skills, awareness, and knowledge in assisting lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) clients. In an effort to gain an increased understanding of the construct validity of the SOCCS, researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis on…

  20. The Factor Structure of Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores in Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kathryn R.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Merino, Cesar; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of the Escala de Conductas de Aprendizaje Preescolar (ECAP), a Spanish translation of the Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS), was examined in this study. Children aged 2 to 6 years (N = 328) enrolled in public and private preschools in the Republic of Peru were rated by classroom teachers on the frequency of observable,…

  1. An Evaluation of the Factor Structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Bronwyn; Pallant, Julie; Harvey, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the six-factor structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale could be replicated in a community-based sample. A sample of 255 adult participants (55.7% female, 44.3% male) ranging in age from 18 to 78 (mean = 37.0) completed the questionnaire. Based on the screen test and parallel…

  2. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa

    2007-01-01

    The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior of the struct...

  3. Factor Analytic Study of Lecturer's Teaching Assessment Scale in Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Olu Philip; Faleye, Bamidele Abiodun; Adeyemo, Emily Oluseyi

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a validation report of the Lecturer's Teaching Assessment Scale (LTAS) developed for the assessment of lecturer's teaching effectiveness in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. It also examined the factor structure of the LTAS, its construct validity, and internal consistency reliability coefficients. The study adopted…

  4. Scale for positive aspects of caregiving experience: development, reliability, and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, N; Grover, S; Kulhara, P; Nehra, R

    2012-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To develop an instrument (Scale for Positive Aspects of Caregiving Experience [SPACE]) that evaluates positive caregiving experience and assess its psychometric properties. METHODS. Available scales which assess some aspects of positive caregiving experience were reviewed and a 50-item questionnaire with a 5-point rating was constructed. In all, 203 primary caregivers of patients with severe mental disorders were asked to complete the questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, cross-language reliability, split-half reliability, and face validity were evaluated. Principal component factor analysis was run to assess the factorial validity of the scale. RESULTS. The scale developed as part of the study was found to have good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, cross-language reliability, split-half reliability, and face validity. Principal component factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure, which also had good test-retest reliability and cross-language reliability. There was a strong correlation between the 4 factors obtained. CONCLUSION. The SPACE developed as part of this study has good psychometric properties.

  5. Factor analysis of the scale of prodromal symptoms: differentiating between negative and depression symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Velthorst, Eva; Nieman, Dorien H.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; van de Fliert, J. Reinaud; van der Gaag, Mark; Linszen, Don H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ability of the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) to differentiate between negative and depression symptoms in a young help-seeking ultrahigh risk (UHR) group. SOPS data of 77 help-seeking patients at UHR for psychosis were analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis. The

  6. Factor Structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale: Implications for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, Sherif; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Schwartz, George; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Background: To study the factor structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS), a psychometric tool used to assess behavior in children with ADHD, 117 boys and 21 girls meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") criteria for ADHD and aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited. Assessments were…

  7. The Factor Structure and Screening Utility of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Schneier, Franklin R.

    2006-01-01

    The widely used Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clarke, 1998) possesses favorable psychometric properties, but questions remain concerning its factor structure and item properties. Analyses included 445 people with social anxiety disorder and 1,689 undergraduates. Simple unifactorial models fit poorly, and models that…

  8. Factor Analytic Validation of the Ford, Wolvin, and Chung Listening Competence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, William T.; Welch, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    This research begins to independently and quantitatively validate the Ford, Wolvin, and Chung (2000) Listening Competency Scale. Reliability and Confirmatory Factor analyses were conducted on two independent samples. The reliability estimates were found to be below those reported by Ford, Wolvin, and Chung (2000) and below acceptable levels for…

  9. Factor analysis of the hospital anxiety and depression scale among a Huntington's disease population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Martucci, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression and anxiety are common in Huntington's disease, a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. There is a need for measurement tools of mood to be validated within a Huntington's disease population. The current study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale in Huntington's disease. METHODS: Data from the European Huntington's Disease Network study REGISTRY 3 were used to undertake a factor analysis of the scale among a sample of 492 Huntington's disease mutation carriers. The sample was randomly divided into two equal subsamples...... support for an eight-item version of the scale to be used as a measure of general distress within Huntington's disease populations. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society....

  10. Pore-scale simulations of drainage in granular materials: Finite size effects and the representative elementary volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Chareyre, Bruno; Darve, Félix

    2016-09-01

    A pore-scale model is introduced for two-phase flow in dense packings of polydisperse spheres. The model is developed as a component of a more general hydromechanical coupling framework based on the discrete element method, which will be elaborated in future papers and will apply to various processes of interest in soil science, in geomechanics and in oil and gas production. Here the emphasis is on the generation of a network of pores mapping the void space between spherical grains, and the definition of local criteria governing the primary drainage process. The pore space is decomposed by Regular Triangulation, from which a set of pores connected by throats are identified. A local entry capillary pressure is evaluated for each throat, based on the balance of capillary pressure and surface tension at equilibrium. The model reflects the possible entrapment of disconnected patches of the receding wetting phase. It is validated by a comparison with drainage experiments. In the last part of the paper, a series of simulations are reported to illustrate size and boundary effects, key questions when studying small samples made of spherical particles be it in simulations or experiments. Repeated tests on samples of different sizes give evolution of water content which are not only scattered but also strongly biased for small sample sizes. More than 20,000 spheres are needed to reduce the bias on saturation below 0.02. Additional statistics are generated by subsampling a large sample of 64,000 spheres. They suggest that the minimal sampling volume for evaluating saturation is one hundred times greater that the sampling volume needed for measuring porosity with the same accuracy. This requirement in terms of sample size induces a need for efficient computer codes. The method described herein has a low algorithmic complexity in order to satisfy this requirement. It will be well suited to further developments toward coupled flow-deformation problems in which evolution of the

  11. Exploratory factor structure of the neurological evaluation scale in black africans with first episode schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While the organization of neurological soft signs (NSS in schizophrenia into Sensory integration, Motor coordination, and Motor sequencing, is functionally ‘meaningful’, it has not been confirmed by empirical methods such as factor analysis. Data on the exploratory factor analysis of the Neurological Evaluation scale in Black Africans with first episode schizophrenia are presented in this report. Data on the confirmatory factor structure of NSS in this population as well as their interpretation can be found in the work by Ojagbemi et al. (2015 [7].

  12. Examining the Effect of Reverse Worded Items on the Factor Structure of the Need for Cognition Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Reverse worded (RW items are often used to reduce or eliminate acquiescence bias, but there is a rising concern about their harmful effects on the covariance structure of the scale. Therefore, results obtained via traditional covariance analyses may be distorted. This study examined the effect of the RW items on the factor structure of the abbreviated 18-item Need for Cognition (NFC scale using confirmatory factor analysis. We modified the scale to create three revised versions, varying from no RW items to all RW items. We also manipulated the type of the RW items (polar opposite vs. negated. To each of the four scales, we fit four previously developed models. The four models included a 1-factor model, a 2-factor model distinguishing between positively worded (PW items and RW items, and two 2-factor models, each with one substantive factor and one method factor. Results showed that the number and type of the RW items affected the factor structure of the NFC scale. Consistent with previous research findings, for the original NFC scale, which contains both PW and RW items, the 1-factor model did not have good fit. In contrast, for the revised scales that had no RW items or all RW items, the 1-factor model had reasonably good fit. In addition, for the scale with polar opposite and negated RW items, the factor model with a method factor among the polar opposite items had considerably better fit than the 1-factor model.

  13. Factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.S. Crippa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure of Bech's version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, translated into Portuguese. The BPRS was administered to a heterogeneous group of psychiatric inpatients (N = 98 and outpatients (N = 62 in a University Hospital. Each patient was evaluated from one to eight times. The interval between consecutive interviews was one week for the inpatients and one month for the outpatients. The results were submitted to factorial analysis. The internal consistency of the total scale and of each factor was also estimated. Factorial analysis followed by normalized orthogonal rotation (Varimax yielded four factors: Withdrawal-Retardation, Thinking Disorder, Anxious-Depression and Activation. Internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.766 to 0.879. The data show that the factor structure of the present instrument is similar to that of the American version of the BPRS which contains 18 items, except for the absence of the fifth factor of the latter scale, Hostile-Suspiciousness.

  14. Analysis of influence factors on the volume of pelvic bowel irradiated for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuxiang; Cai Yong; Zhu Xianggao; Han Shukui; Xu Bo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate influence of prone/ supine position, gender, operation, bladder distension on bowel irradiated for patients with rectal cancer during pelvic radiotherapy. Methods: 36 patients with rectal cancer were investigated. Treatment plans were created with three dimensional treatment planning system. The dose and volume of bowel irradiated were analyzed according to dose-volume histograms (DVH) for every patient. The prescribed dose was 50 Gy. Results: The extent of bladder distension significantly influenced the mean doses and the V 45 high dose volumes of bowel irradiated. The treatment position and gender significantly influenced the V 15 low dose volume of bowel irradiated, the operation significantly influenced the mean doses of bowel. Either prone and supine position, or preoperative and postoperative, the doses of bowel irradiated for good bladder distension were lower and the volumes were smaller than that for bad bladder distension. The V 45 high dose volume of bowel irradiated for bad and good bladder distension at prone position were 15.3% and 7.4% (P=0.023), respectively, and at postoperative 14.1% and 7.2% (P=0.014), respectively. Conclusions: The doses and volumes of pelvic bowel irradiated were significantly influenced by the extent of bladder distension, and partly influenced by the prone/supine position, gender and operation. (authors)

  15. Asymptotic energy scale factors for pseudoscalar meson scattering and charmed meson couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thews, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Energy scale factors ν 0 for PP → PP scattering amplitudes are related via absence of exotic resonances of ratios of tensor to vector coupling strengths. These same ratios are extracted from FESR's for non-exotic reactions. The scale factors obtained are all of the order of 1.0 GeV 2 or less, indepedent of quantum numbers. This contradicts the expectations of dual amplitudes in which ν 0 =1/α', and trajectory slopes are smaller for charmed mesons. Decay widths for tensor mesons are predicted. An observed SU(3) violation for the ratio A 2 → KantiK/K** → Kπ is shown to be consistent with the FESR results. Charmed meson decays are predicted to be factors of 2 to 3 larger than those predicted by SU(4). (author)

  16. Investigation of the factor structure of the mental, physical and spiritual well-being scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Green

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of mental, physical and spirituality in coping with violence is becoming increasingly recognized. As such, scales measuring these constructs are instrumental in assessment of clients from a holistic and strengths perspective, the foundation of social work. This article examines the factor structure of the Mental, Physical and Spiritual Well-being scale. The MPS is a 30 item, easy to administer, self report measure. The MPS was administered to 175 crime victims to assess whether or not the three factor structure fits the data from the sample. Exploratory statistical procedures were used to reduce data through principle component analysis identified three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 and a cumulative variance of 57%. Recommendations are made for utilizing this brief self-report instrument in assessing victims of crime and training social workers and other practitioners.

  17. Modified projective synchronization with complex scaling factors of uncertain real chaos and complex chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang-Fang; Liu Shu-Tang; Yu Wei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    To increase the variety and security of communication, we present the definitions of modified projective synchronization with complex scaling factors (CMPS) of real chaotic systems and complex chaotic systems, where complex scaling factors establish a link between real chaos and complex chaos. Considering all situations of unknown parameters and pseudo-gradient condition, we design adaptive CMPS schemes based on the speed-gradient method for the real drive chaotic system and complex response chaotic system and for the complex drive chaotic system and the real response chaotic system, respectively. The convergence factors and dynamical control strength are added to regulate the convergence speed and increase robustness. Numerical simulations verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the presented schemes. (general)

  18. Analysis on the restriction factors of the green building scale promotion based on DEMATEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenxia, Hong; Zhenyao, Jiang; Zhao, Yang

    2017-03-01

    In order to promote the large-scale development of the green building in our country, DEMATEL method was used to classify influence factors of green building development into three parts, including green building market, green technology and macro economy. Through the DEMATEL model, the interaction mechanism of each part was analyzed. The mutual influence degree of each barrier factor that affects the green building promotion was quantitatively analysed and key factors for the development of green building in China were also finally determined. In addition, some implementation strategies of promoting green building scale development in our country were put forward. This research will show important reference value and practical value for making policies of the green building promotion.

  19. Volume corrections factors in the measurement of 99mTc and 123I activities in radionuclide calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Amanda Ribeiro; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Iwahara, Akira; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Tauhata, Luiz; Chaves, Taina Olivieri

    2012-01-01

    To determine correction factors for the variation in volume of radiopharmaceuticals in containers of different geometries, comparing the influence of such factors on the determination of 99m Tc and 123 I activity with two types of calibrators - one with ionization chamber and another with Geiger-Mueller (G-M) detector -; and to evaluate calibrators performance in the measurement of 99m Tc and 1 '2 3 I activities. Materials and Methods: Eight calibrators, 10R glass vials, 3 and 5 mL plastic syringes and 99m Tc and 123 I solutions were utilized. The correction factors were determined with basis on practical measurements of the variation in the calibrators' response according to the volume of radionuclide solution in the glass vials. The performance was evaluated according to the acceptance criterion of +- 10% accuracy required by the Brazilian standard. Results: The variation of the calibrators' response according to the variation in radionuclide volume was reasonably greater in the calibrator with G-M detector. It was also greater for 123 I than for 99m Tc. Conclusion: The results confirm that the calibrators' response depends on the radionuclide volume contained in the vials. Such dependence is more critical for the calibrators equipped with G-M detector and for 123 I as compared with 99m Tc. (author)

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Version of the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joséphine Chaix

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS, a measure specifically designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, was used to evaluate the presence of social anhedonia in patients as well as the general population. The first goal of this study was to validate the structure of the French version of the ACIPS. The second objective was to verify whether a one, two or three factor solution is most appropriate for the ACIPS scale. The French version of the ACIPS was tested on 263 French-speaking pre-graduate students or professional volunteers. For the confirmatory factor analysis, data were treated as categorical ordinal and all the models were estimated using a robust weighted least squares estimator with adjustments for the mean and variance. Three models were estimated. A one-factor model representing a general undifferentiated “pleasure” latent construct was first tested on the 17 ACIPS items. A two-factor model distinguishing anticipatory-pleasure and consummatory-pleasure was tested next. Finally, a three-factor model including subdomains of intimate social interactions, group social interactions, and social bonding was tested. The one and two-factor models showed a somewhat poor fit to the data. However, the goodness of fit of the three factor model was adequate. These results suggest that individuals who enjoyed interaction in one of these three subdomains were more likely to enjoy doing so in the two other domains. However, on the basis of the comparison between the one and three factor models, these three types of interactions may not be considered as indistinguishable. Rather, they represent distinct and theoretically meaningful dimensions. These results show the French version of the ACIPS is a useful and valid scale to measure the capacity of savoring different kinds of social relationships.

  1. Factor structure and internal reliability of an exercise health belief model scale in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Armando Esparza-Del Villar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico is one of the countries with the highest rates of overweight and obesity around the world, with 68.8% of men and 73% of women reporting both. This is a public health problem since there are several health related consequences of not exercising, like having cardiovascular diseases or some types of cancers. All of these problems can be prevented by promoting exercise, so it is important to evaluate models of health behaviors to achieve this goal. Among several models the Health Belief Model is one of the most studied models to promote health related behaviors. This study validates the first exercise scale based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in Mexicans with the objective of studying and analyzing this model in Mexico. Methods Items for the scale called the Exercise Health Belief Model Scale (EHBMS were developed by a health research team, then the items were applied to a sample of 746 participants, male and female, from five cities in Mexico. The factor structure of the items was analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis and the internal reliability with Cronbach’s alpha. Results The exploratory factor analysis reported the expected factor structure based in the HBM. The KMO index (0.92 and the Barlett’s sphericity test (p < 0.01 indicated an adequate and normally distributed sample. Items had adequate factor loadings, ranging from 0.31 to 0.92, and the internal consistencies of the factors were also acceptable, with alpha values ranging from 0.67 to 0.91. Conclusions The EHBMS is a validated scale that can be used to measure exercise based on the HBM in Mexican populations.

  2. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Work-Family Balance Scale in an Urban Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S. F.; Chi, Peilian; Chan, Kinsun; Cheung, Yee Tak; Zhang, Xiulan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the Work-Family Balance Scale (WFBS) and examine its reliability and validity in use in the urban Chinese population. The scale was validated using a sample of 605 urban Chinese residents from 7 cities. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors: work-family conflict and…

  3. Age and prostate volume are risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Yosuke; Kato, Yuji; Fujita, Kiichiro

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 584 patients who underwent transurethral enucleation with bipolar between December 2011 and September 2016 operated by a single surgeon. Urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar was defined as involuntary leakage of urine that required the use of pads. It was evaluated at 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We defined transient urinary incontinence as urinary incontinence persisting up to 1 month after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. Based on independent risk factors identified by a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, a nomogram to predict transient urinary incontinence was developed. Of the 584 patients, 17.3%, 13.5%, 3.1%, 0.41%, and 0% patients had urinary incontinence at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar, respectively. The mean (±standard error) age was 69.6 ± 0.26 years, estimated prostate volume was 54.7 ± 0.91 cm 3 , operative time was 58.0 ± 1.1 min and the prostate specimen weight was 30.6 ± 0.69 g. On univariate analysis, age, prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography, prostate-specific antigen, prostate specimen weight, operative time, prostate specimen weight/prostate volume and prostate specimen weight/operative time were significant predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio 1.07, P-value = 0.0034) and prostate volume (hazard ratio 1.03, P-value bipolar. Age and prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography seem to represent significant independent risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. This should be well discussed with the patient before surgery. © 2017 The Japanese

  4. Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Need-Supportive Teaching Style Scale for Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Dong; Chung, Pak-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure and measurement invariance of a scale measuring students' perceptions of need-supportive teaching (Need-Supportive Teaching Style Scale in Physical Education; NSTSSPE). We sampled 615 secondary school students in Hong Kong, 200 of whom also completed a follow-up assessment two months later. Factor structure of the scale was examined through exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Further, nomological validity of the NSTSSPE was evaluated by examining the relationships between need-supportive teaching style and student satisfaction of psychological needs. Finally, four measurement models-configural, metric invariance, scalar invariance, and item uniqueness invariance-were assessed using multiple group ESEM to test the measurement invariance of the scale across gender, grade, and time. ESEM results suggested a three-factor structure of the NSTSSPE. Nomological validity was supported, and weak, strong, and strict measurement invariance of the NSTSSPE was evidenced across gender, grade, and time. The current study provides initial psychometric support for the NSTSSPE to assess student perceptions of teachers' need-supportive teaching style in physical education classes.

  5. Macroecological factors shape local-scale spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tingting; Abades, Sebastián; Teng, Shuqing; Huang, Zheng Y X; Reino, Luís; Chen, Bin J W; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-11-15

    Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images. We used spatial point pattern analysis to show that settlement spatial patterns are characterized by over-dispersion at fine spatial scales (0.05-1.4 km), consistent with territory segregation, and clumping at coarser spatial scales beyond the over-dispersion signals, indicating territorial clustering. Statistical modelling shows that, at macroscales, potential evapotranspiration and topographic heterogeneity have negative effects on territory size, but positive effects on territorial clustering. These relationships are in line with predictions from territory theory for hunter-gatherers as well as for many animal species. Our results help to disentangle the complex interactions between intrinsic spatial processes in agriculturalist societies and external forcing by macroecological factors. While one may speculate that humans can escape ecological constraints because of unique abilities for environmental modification and globalized resource transportation, our work highlights that universal macroecological principles still shape the geography of current human agricultural societies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. A Study on the Estimation of the Scale Factor for Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Bahattin; Kayacik, Orhan

    2017-04-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is one of the most important subject in Geomatic Engineering. PPP technique needs only one GNSS receiver and users have preferred it instead of traditional relative positioning technique for several applications. Scientific software has been used for PPP solutions and the software may underestimate the formal errors of the estimated coordinates. The formal errors have major effects on statistical interpretation. Variance-Covariance (VCV) matrix derived from GNSS processing software plays important role for deformation analysis and scientists sometimes need to scale VCV matrix. In this study, 10 continuously operating reference stations have been considered for 11 days dated 2014. All points have been analyzed by Gipsy-OASIS v6.4 scientific software. The solutions were derived for different session durations as 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours to obtain repeatability of the coordinates and analyses were carried out in order to estimate scale factor for Gipsy-OASIS v6.4 PPP results. According to the first results scale factors slightly increase depending on the raises in respect of session duration. Keywords: Precise Point Positioning, Gipsy-OASIS v6.4, Variance-Covariance Matrix, Scale Factor

  7. Calibration sets and the accuracy of vibrational scaling factors: A case study with the X3LYP hybrid functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Filipe; Melo, André; Cordeiro, M. Natália D. S.

    2010-09-01

    A linear least-squares methodology was used to determine the vibrational scaling factors for the X3LYP density functional. Uncertainties for these scaling factors were calculated according to the method devised by Irikura et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 8430 (2005)]. The calibration set was systematically partitioned according to several of its descriptors and the scaling factors for X3LYP were recalculated for each subset. The results show that the scaling factors are only significant up to the second digit, irrespective of the calibration set used. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to conclude that the scaling factors and the associated uncertainties are independent of the size of the calibration set and strongly suggest the practical impossibility of obtaining vibrational scaling factors with more than two significant digits.

  8. Experimental verification of the statistical theories of scaling factor effect in fatigue fracture of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svistun, R.P.; Babej, Yu.I.; Tkachenko, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    Statistical theories of the scale effect in the fatigue failure of 40KH18N9T, 10 and 20 steels have been verified. The theories are shown to be not invariably suitable for a satisfactory exlanation of the fatigue strength of the samples with respect to their dimensions. One of the main reasons for displaying the scale effect in the process of steel fatigue is the sample self-heating, i.e. a temperature factor which in many cases overlaps a statistical one

  9. Experimental verification of the statistical theories of scaling factor effect in fatigue fracture of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svistun, R P; Babei, Yu I; Tkachenko, N N [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Lvov. Fiziko-Mekhanicheskij Inst.; L' vovskij Lesotekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1976-01-01

    Statistical theories of the scale effect in the fatigue failure of 40KH18N9T, 10 and 20 steels have been verified. The theories are shown to be not invariably suitable for a satisfactory exlanation of the fatigue strength of the samples with respect to their dimensions. One of the main reasons for displaying the scale effect in the process of steel fatigue is the sample self-heating, i.e. a temperature factor which in many cases overlaps a statistical one.

  10. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F9--F16 -- Volume 2, Part 2, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.T.; Hoffman, T.J.; Emmett, M.B.; Childs, K.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bryan, C.B.; Giles, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries. This volume discusses the following functional modules: MORSE-SGC; HEATING 7.2; KENO V.a; JUNEBUG-II; HEATPLOT-S; REGPLOT 6; PLORIGEN; and OCULAR.

  11. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F9--F16 -- Volume 2, Part 2, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.T.; Hoffman, T.J.; Emmett, M.B.; Childs, K.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bryan, C.B.; Giles, G.E.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation, Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries. This volume discusses the following functional modules: MORSE-SGC; HEATING 7.2; KENO V.a; JUNEBUG-II; HEATPLOT-S; REGPLOT 6; PLORIGEN; and OCULAR

  12. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahman Farrokhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. "nMethod: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. "nResults: As expected, the two-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than a single factor. Moreover, multi-group analyses showed that this two-factor structure was invariant across sex. Hence, AMAS provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. "nConclusions:  Brief AMAS demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The AMAS scores can be used to compare symptoms of math anxiety between male and female students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.

  13. Factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D; Fisher, Paige H; Pincus, Donna B; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the social interaction and performance subscales for the anxiety and avoidance ratings yielded poor fit indices. Exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution with a higher order factor for the LSAS-CA anxiety and avoidance ratings. Based on item content, factors were named Social and School Performance. The internal consistency of the factors was high and the convergent and divergent validity was supported vis-à-vis correlations with measures of depression and social anxiety, and clinician ratings of impairment and functioning. Findings suggest that the anxiety and avoidance ratings are best explained by a two-factor solution that measures social anxiety and avoidance in social and school performance interactions. This factor structure appears to be a reliable and valid framework for assessing childhood social phobia.

  14. Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children with Epilepsy: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Tutar Güven

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the past few years, the concept of self-efficacy in children with epilepsy has become increasingly important. This study aimed to analyze the psychometric aspects of the Turkish version of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey. The study data were collected using the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Child Introduction Form. The study sample included 166 children who were between 9 and 17 years of age. The authors assessed the reliability and construct validity of the study data using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. Results: The original model was not confirmed by the CFA. The analysis tool included 15 items in two factors. Reliability analysis showed that the two factors were acceptable and valid. The tool was valid and reliable for measuring the self-efficacy of epileptic children. The factor structure was derived from and confirmed by the original tool. It was found that the Turkish version of the modified Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children had excellent satisfactory psychometric aspects for a Turkish population. Conclusion: Health professionals can present a more effective drug process and nursing care by identifying and assessing seizure self-efficacy levels in children with epilepsy, and they can make a positive contribution to disease management and the way the child deals with the disease.

  15. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. Women (N = 410) completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (psattractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (psrelationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  16. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents.To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women.Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors.Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05.Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  17. Risk Factors for Chronic Subdural Hematoma Recurrence Identified Using Quantitative Computed Tomography Analysis of Hematoma Volume and Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinou, Pantelis; Katsigiannis, Sotirios; Lee, Jong Hun; Hamisch, Christina; Krischek, Boris; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Timmer, Marco; Goldbrunner, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), a common condition in elderly patients, presents a therapeutic challenge with recurrence rates of 33%. We aimed to identify specific prognostic factors for recurrence using quantitative analysis of hematoma volume and density. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic and clinical data of 227 CSDHs in 195 consecutive patients who underwent evacuation of the hematoma through a single burr hole, 2 burr holes, or a mini-craniotomy. To examine the relationship between hematoma recurrence and various clinical, radiologic, and surgical factors, we used quantitative image-based analysis to measure the hematoma and trapped air volumes and the hematoma densities. Recurrence of CSDH occurred in 35 patients (17.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the percentage of hematoma drained and postoperative CSDH density were independent risk factors for recurrence. All 3 evacuation methods were equally effective in draining the hematoma (71.7% vs. 73.7% vs. 71.9%) without observable differences in postoperative air volume captured in the subdural space. Quantitative image analysis provided evidence that percentage of hematoma drained and postoperative CSDH density are independent prognostic factors for subdural hematoma recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  19. Statistical Analysis of Instantaneous Frequency Scaling Factor as Derived From Optical Disdrometer Measurements At KQ Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Houts, Jacquelynne; Luini, Lorenzo; Riva, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The rain rate data and statistics of a location are often used in conjunction with models to predict rain attenuation. However, the true attenuation is a function not only of rain rate, but also of the drop size distribution (DSD). Generally, models utilize an average drop size distribution (Laws and Parsons or Marshall and Palmer. However, individual rain events may deviate from these models significantly if their DSD is not well approximated by the average. Therefore, characterizing the relationship between the DSD and attenuation is valuable in improving modeled predictions of rain attenuation statistics. The DSD may also be used to derive the instantaneous frequency scaling factor and thus validate frequency scaling models. Since June of 2014, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have jointly conducted a propagation study in Milan, Italy utilizing the 20 and 40 GHz beacon signals of the Alphasat TDP#5 Aldo Paraboni payload. The Ka- and Q-band beacon receivers provide a direct measurement of the signal attenuation while concurrent weather instrumentation provides measurements of the atmospheric conditions at the receiver. Among these instruments is a Thies Clima Laser Precipitation Monitor (optical disdrometer) which yields droplet size distributions (DSD); this DSD information can be used to derive a scaling factor that scales the measured 20 GHz data to expected 40 GHz attenuation. Given the capability to both predict and directly observe 40 GHz attenuation, this site is uniquely situated to assess and characterize such predictions. Previous work using this data has examined the relationship between the measured drop-size distribution and the measured attenuation of the link]. The focus of this paper now turns to a deeper analysis of the scaling factor, including the prediction error as a function of attenuation level, correlation between the scaling factor and the rain rate, and the temporal variability of the drop size

  20. Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, Naief; Burney, Nadeem A.

    2002-01-01

    The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the pattern of scale effect is labour saving, but capital and material using. The evidence also supports the presence of an induced exogenous technical change, which is non-neutral (labour and capital using, and material saving). The elasticity of substitution between capital and labour is positive, implying that the two inputs are substitute. The results also indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the production of crude oil, but no economies or diseconomies of utilisation

  1. Factor structure of the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chika; Okada, Takashi; Aleksic, Branko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kunimoto, Shohko; Morikawa, Mako; Shiino, Tomoko; Tamaji, Ai; Ohoka, Harue; Banno, Naomi; Morita, Tokiko; Murase, Satomi; Goto, Setsuko; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Ando, Masahiko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 345) was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n = 345) for confirmatory factor analysis. The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. We examined EPDS scores. As a result, "anxiety" and "anhedonia" exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research.

  2. Factor structure of the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the postpartum period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Kubota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD. Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated yet. METHODS: 690 Japanese mothers completed all items of the EPDS at 1 month postpartum. We divided them randomly into two sample sets. The first sample set (n = 345 was used for exploratory factor analysis, and the second sample set was used (n = 345 for confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: The result of exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor model consisting of anxiety, depression and anhedonia. The results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the anxiety and anhedonia factors existed for EPDS in a sample of Japanese women at 1 month postpartum. The depression factor varies by the models of acceptable fit. CONCLUSIONS: We examined EPDS scores. As a result, "anxiety" and "anhedonia" exist for EPDS among postpartum women in Japan as already reported in Western countries. Cross-cultural research is needed for future research.

  3. Experimental control of calculation model of scale factor during fracture of circular samples with cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnyp, I.P.; Ganulich, B.K.; Pokhmurskij, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    Reliable methods of estimation of cracking resistance of low-strength plastic materials using the notched samples acceptable for laboratory tests are analysed. Experimental data on the fracture of round notched samples for a number of steels are given. A perfect comparability of calculational and experimental data confirms the legitimacy of the proposed scheme of estimation of the scale factor effect. The necessity of taking into account the strain hardening coefficient at the choice of a sample size for determining the stress intensity factor is pointed out

  4. The reasons for betel-quid chewing scale: assessment of factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A; Pokhrel, Pallav; Murphy, Kelle L; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Suguitan, Gil S; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-03

    Despite the fact that betel-quid is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances worldwide and a major risk-factor for head-and-neck cancer incidence and mortality globally, currently no standardized instrument is available to assess the reasons why individuals chew betel-quid. A measure to assess reasons for chewing betel-quid could help researchers and clinicians develop prevention and treatment strategies. In the current study, we sought to develop and evaluate a self-report instrument for assessing the reasons for chewing betel quid which contributes toward the goal of developing effective interventions to reduce betel quid chewing in vulnerable populations. The current study assessed the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity of the Reasons for Betel-quid Chewing Scale (RBCS), a newly developed 10 item measure adapted from several existing "reasons for smoking" scales. The measure was administered to 351 adult betel-quid chewers in Guam. Confirmatory factor analysis of this measure revealed a three factor structure: reinforcement, social/cultural, and stimulation. Further tests revealed strong support for the internal consistency and convergent validity of this three factor measure. The goal of designing an intervention to reduce betel-quid chewing necessitates an understanding of why chewers chew; the current study makes considerable contributions towards that objective.

  5. Multi-Scale Factor Analysis of High-Dimensional Brain Signals

    KAUST Repository

    Ting, Chee-Ming

    2017-05-18

    In this paper, we develop an approach to modeling high-dimensional networks with a large number of nodes arranged in a hierarchical and modular structure. We propose a novel multi-scale factor analysis (MSFA) model which partitions the massive spatio-temporal data defined over the complex networks into a finite set of regional clusters. To achieve further dimension reduction, we represent the signals in each cluster by a small number of latent factors. The correlation matrix for all nodes in the network are approximated by lower-dimensional sub-structures derived from the cluster-specific factors. To estimate regional connectivity between numerous nodes (within each cluster), we apply principal components analysis (PCA) to produce factors which are derived as the optimal reconstruction of the observed signals under the squared loss. Then, we estimate global connectivity (between clusters or sub-networks) based on the factors across regions using the RV-coefficient as the cross-dependence measure. This gives a reliable and computationally efficient multi-scale analysis of both regional and global dependencies of the large networks. The proposed novel approach is applied to estimate brain connectivity networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Results on resting-state fMRI reveal interesting modular and hierarchical organization of human brain networks during rest.

  6. Enabling and challenging factors in institutional reform: The case of SCALE-UP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kathleen; Knaub, Alexis; Henderson, Charles; Dancy, Melissa; Beichner, Robert J.

    2016-06-01

    While many innovative teaching strategies exist, integration into undergraduate science teaching has been frustratingly slow. This study aims to understand the low uptake of research-based instructional innovations by studying 21 successful implementations of the Student Centered Active Learning with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) instructional reform. SCALE-UP significantly restructures the classroom environment and pedagogy to promote highly active and interactive instruction. Although originally designed for university introductory physics courses, SCALE-UP has spread to many other disciplines at hundreds of departments around the world. This study reports findings from in-depth, open-ended interviews with 21 key contact people involved with successful secondary implementations of SCALE-UP throughout the United States. We defined successful implementations as those who restructured their pedagogy and classroom and sustained and/or spread the change. Interviews were coded to identify the most common enabling and challenging factors during reform implementation and compared to the theoretical framework of Kotter's 8-step Change Model. The most common enabling influences that emerged are documenting and leveraging evidence of local success, administrative support, interaction with outside SCALE-UP user(s), and funding. Many challenges are linked to the lack of these enabling factors including difficulty finding funding, space, and administrative and/or faculty support for reform. Our focus on successful secondary implementations meant that most interviewees were able to overcome challenges. Presentation of results is illuminated with case studies, quotes, and examples that can help secondary implementers with SCALE-UP reform efforts specifically. We also discuss the implications for policy makers, researchers, and the higher education community concerned with initiating structural change.

  7. Spatial Variation of Magnitude Scaling Factors During the 2010 Darfield and 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand, Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William Lake

    2016-01-01

    Magnitude Scaling Factors (MSF) account for the durational effects of strong ground shaking on the inducement of liquefaction within the simplified liquefaction evaluation procedure which is the most commonly used approach for assessing liquefaction potential worldwide. Within the context of the simplified procedure, the spatial variation in the seismic demand imposed on the soil traditionally has been assumed to be solely a function of the spatial variation of the peak amplitude of the groun...

  8. FACTOR-ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF EXPRESSED EMOTION SCALE, A QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED TO MEASURE PERCEIVED EXPRESSED EMOTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; VANDERLUBBE, PM; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, C

    When the factor structure and psychometric qualities of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale, an instrument intended to assess patient's perceptions of expressed emotion, were evaluated, three moderately intercorrelated factors emerged, with good internal consistency; these were lack of emotional

  9. The molar hydrodynamic volume changes of factor VIIa due to GlycoPEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesner, Bitten; Westh, Peter; Hvidt, Søren; Nielsen, Anders D

    2011-06-01

    The effects of GlycoPEGylation on the molar hydrodynamic volume of recombinant human rFVIIa were investigated using rFVIIa and two GlycoPEGylated recombinant human FVIIa derivatives, a linear 10kDa PEG and a branched 40kDa PEG, respectively. Molar hydrodynamic volumes were determined by capillary viscometry and mass spectrometry. The intrinsic viscosities of rFVIIa, its two GlycoPEGylated compounds, and of linear 8kDa, 10kDa, 20kDa and branched 40kDa PEG polymers were determined. The measured intrinsic viscosity of rFVIIa is 6.0mL/g, while the intrinsic viscosities of 10kDa PEG-rFVIIa and 40kDa PEG-rFVIIa are 29.5mL/g and 79.0mL/g, respectively. The intrinsic viscosities of the linear PEG polymers are 20, 22.6 and 41.4mL/g for 8, 10, and 20kDa, respectively, and 61.1mL/g for the branched 40kDa PEG. From the results of the intrinsic viscosity and MALDI-TOF measurements it is evident, that the molar hydrodynamic volume of the conjugated protein is not just an addition of the molar hydrodynamic volume of the PEG and the protein. The molar hydrodynamic volume of the GlycoPEGylated protein is larger than the volume of its composites. These results suggest that both the linear and the branched PEG are not wrapped around the surface of rFVIIa but are chains that are significantly stretched out when attached to the protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A New Scale Factor Adjustment Method for Magnetic Force Feedback Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqing Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple method to adjust the scale factor of a magnetic force feedback accelerometer is presented, which could be used in developing a rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument (GGI. Adjusting and matching the acceleration-to-current transfer function of the four accelerometers automatically is one of the basic and necessary technologies for rejecting the common mode accelerations in the development of GGI. In order to adjust the scale factor of the magnetic force rebalance accelerometer, an external current is injected and combined with the normal feedback current; they are then applied together to the torque coil of the magnetic actuator. The injected current could be varied proportionally according to the external adjustment needs, and the change in the acceleration-to-current transfer function then realized dynamically. The new adjustment method has the advantages of no extra assembly and ease of operation. Changes in the scale factors range from 33% smaller to 100% larger are verified experimentally by adjusting the different external coefficients. The static noise of the used accelerometer is compared under conditions with and without the injecting current, and the experimental results find no change at the current noise level, which further confirms the validity of the presented method.

  11. A New Scale Factor Adjustment Method for Magnetic Force Feedback Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangqing; Deng, Zhongguang; Xie, Yafei; Li, Zhu; Fan, Ji; Tu, Liangcheng

    2017-10-27

    A new and simple method to adjust the scale factor of a magnetic force feedback accelerometer is presented, which could be used in developing a rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument (GGI). Adjusting and matching the acceleration-to-current transfer function of the four accelerometers automatically is one of the basic and necessary technologies for rejecting the common mode accelerations in the development of GGI. In order to adjust the scale factor of the magnetic force rebalance accelerometer, an external current is injected and combined with the normal feedback current; they are then applied together to the torque coil of the magnetic actuator. The injected current could be varied proportionally according to the external adjustment needs, and the change in the acceleration-to-current transfer function then realized dynamically. The new adjustment method has the advantages of no extra assembly and ease of operation. Changes in the scale factors range from 33% smaller to 100% larger are verified experimentally by adjusting the different external coefficients. The static noise of the used accelerometer is compared under conditions with and without the injecting current, and the experimental results find no change at the current noise level, which further confirms the validity of the presented method.

  12. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Produced in Cardiomyocytes Mediates a Predominant Myocardial Inflammatory Response to Stretch in Early Volume Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuanwen; Pat, Betty; Zheng, Junying; Cain, Laura; Powell, Pamela; Shi, Ke; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Husain, Ahsan; Dell’Italia, Louis J

    2010-01-01

    Acute stretch caused by volume overload (VO) of aorto-caval fistula (ACF) induces a variety of myocardial responses including mast cell accumulation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and collagen degradation, all of which are critical in dictating long term left ventricle (LV) outcome to VO. Meanwhile, these responses can be part of myocardial inflammation dictated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which is elevated after acute ACF. However, it is unknown whether TNF-α mediates a ma...

  14. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  15. Factor Structure, Validity and Reliability of the Revised Version of Skin Picking Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rabiei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, validity and reliability of the Skin Picking Scale-Revised Version. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and validation study, participants were 550 (250 male and 300 female of the University of Isfahan were selected randomly from 15000 students. In order to examine the factor structure of the SPS-R we conducted both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha. Results: Convergent validity of SPS-R with YBOCS-BDD, OCI-R and DASS 21-item were r=0.45, r=0.51 and r=0.70 (p<0.001. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed two factors, one assessing impairment and the other symptom severity (4 items each. These factors could determine 58.1% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha for the two factors were above 0.88. Also, results were shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as discriminant validity and classification accuracy, in both clinical and community populations. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this instrument is a useful measure for assess skin-picking disorder symptoms in clinical assessment.

  16. Defining distinct negative beliefs about uncertainty: validating the factor structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Kathryn A; Dugas, Michel J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the English version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS; French version: M. H. Freeston, J. Rhéaume, H. Letarte, M. J. Dugas, & R. Ladouceur, 1994; English version: K. Buhr & M. J. Dugas, 2002) using a substantially larger sample than has been used in previous studies. Nonclinical undergraduate students and adults from the community (M age = 23.74 years, SD = 6.36; 73.0% female and 27.0% male) who participated in 16 studies in the Anxiety Disorders Laboratory at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada were randomly assigned to 2 datasets. Exploratory factor analysis with the 1st sample (n = 1,230) identified 2 factors: the beliefs that "uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications" and that "uncertainty is unfair and spoils everything." This 2-factor structure provided a good fit to the data (Bentler-Bonett normed fit index = .96, comparative fit index = .97, standardized root-mean residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .07) upon confirmatory factor analysis with the 2nd sample (n = 1,221). Both factors showed similarly high correlations with pathological worry, and Factor 1 showed stronger correlations with generalized anxiety disorder analogue status, trait anxiety, somatic anxiety, and depressive symptomatology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Evaluating the Factor Validity of the Children's Organizational Skills Scale in Youth with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe R; Oddo, Lauren E

    2017-06-01

    Children and adolescents with ADHD often have difficulties with organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) skills, and these skills are a common target of intervention. A limited array of tools for measuring these abilities in youth is available, and one of the most prominent measures is the Children's Organizational Skills Scale (COSS). Although the COSS fills an important need, a replication of the COSS factor structure outside of initial measure development has not been conducted in any population. Given that the COSS is frequently used in ADHD research, the current study evaluated the factor structure of the parent-rated COSS in a sample ( N = 619) of adolescents with ADHD. Results indicated that the original factor structure could be replicated, although the use of item parcels appeared to affect model fit statistics. An alternative bi-factor model was also tested that did not require the use of parcels, with results suggesting similar model fit in comparison to the original factor structure. Exploratory validity tests indicated that the domain-general factor of the bi-factor model appears related to broad executive functioning abilities.

  18. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  19. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S −1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T gt (s) via growth rate v (m s −1 ): V×S −1  = v gr ×T r . The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m 3 ), minimum and maximum doubling time T dt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S −1  = 4.46⋅10 −11 ×T dt was found, where v gr  = 4.46×10 −11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v gr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v gr >h/2π and T dt ×M×v gr 2 >h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10 −34 J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  20. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S-1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time Tgt(s) via growth rate v (m s-1): V×S-1 = vgr×Tr. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m3), minimum and maximum doubling time Tdt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program `Statistics' is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S-1 = 4.46ṡ10-11×Tdt was found, where vgr = 4.46×10-11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate vgr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×vgr>h/2π and Tdt×M×vgr2>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10-34 Jṡs is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  1. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  2. Design of optimal input–output scaling factors based fuzzy PSS using bat algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Sambariya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a fuzzy logic based power system stabilizer (FPSS is designed by tuning its input–output scaling factors. Two input signals to FPSS are considered as change of speed and change in power, and the output signal is considered as a correcting voltage signal. The normalizing factors of these signals are considered as the optimization problem with minimization of integral of square error in single-machine and multi-machine power systems. These factors are optimally determined with bat algorithm (BA and considered as scaling factors of FPSS. The performance of power system with such a designed BA based FPSS (BA-FPSS is compared to that of response with FPSS, Harmony Search Algorithm based FPSS (HSA-FPSS and Particle Swarm Optimization based FPSS (PSO-FPSS. The systems considered are single-machine connected to infinite-bus, two-area 4-machine 10-bus and IEEE New England 10-machine 39-bus power systems for evaluating the performance of BA-FPSS. The comparison is carried out in terms of the integral of time-weighted absolute error (ITAE, integral of absolute error (IAE and integral of square error (ISE of speed response for systems with FPSS, HSA-FPSS and BA-FPSS. The superior performance of systems with BA-FPSS is established considering eight plant conditions of each system, which represents the wide range of operating conditions.

  3. Regional-scale calculation of the LS factor using parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Guoan; Jiang, Ling; Zhu, A.-Xing; Yang, Jianyi; Song, Xiaodong

    2015-05-01

    With the increase of data resolution and the increasing application of USLE over large areas, the existing serial implementation of algorithms for computing the LS factor is becoming a bottleneck. In this paper, a parallel processing model based on message passing interface (MPI) is presented for the calculation of the LS factor, so that massive datasets at a regional scale can be processed efficiently. The parallel model contains algorithms for calculating flow direction, flow accumulation, drainage network, slope, slope length and the LS factor. According to the existence of data dependence, the algorithms are divided into local algorithms and global algorithms. Parallel strategy are designed according to the algorithm characters including the decomposition method for maintaining the integrity of the results, optimized workflow for reducing the time taken for exporting the unnecessary intermediate data and a buffer-communication-computation strategy for improving the communication efficiency. Experiments on a multi-node system show that the proposed parallel model allows efficient calculation of the LS factor at a regional scale with a massive dataset.

  4. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F1--F8 -- Volume 2, Part 1, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Bucholz, J.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Fraley, S.K.

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation; Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries

  5. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation. Functional modules F1--F8 -- Volume 2, Part 1, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, N.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Bucholz, J.A.; Hermann, O.W.; Fraley, S.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    SCALE--a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses Licensing Evaluation--has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SCALE system utilizes well-established computer codes and methods within standard analysis sequences that (1) allow an input format designed for the occasional user and/or novice, (2) automate the data processing and coupling between modules, and (3) provide accurate and reliable results. System development has been directed at problem-dependent cross-section processing and analysis of criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer, and depletion/decay problems. Since the initial release of SCALE in 1980, the code system has been heavily used for evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. This revision documents Version 4.2 of the system. The manual is divided into three volumes: Volume 1--for the control module documentation; Volume 2--for functional module documentation; and Volume 3--for documentation of the data libraries and subroutine libraries.

  6. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  7. Item-level factor analysis of the Self-Efficacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunketorp Käll, Lina

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the internal structure of the Self-Efficacy Scale (SES) using item response analysis. The SES was previously translated into Swedish and modified to encompass all types of pain, not exclusively back pain. Data on perceived self-efficacy in 47 patients with subacute whiplash-associated disorders were derived from a previously conducted randomized-controlled trial. The item-level factor analysis was carried out using a six-step procedure. To further study the item inter-relationships and to determine the underlying structure empirically, the 20 items of the SES were also subjected to principal component analysis with varimax rotation. The analyses showed two underlying factors, named 'social activities' and 'physical activities', with seven items loading on each factor. The remaining six items of the SES appeared to measure somewhat different constructs and need to be analysed further.

  8. Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation degradation in semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone considering spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Fan, Min

    2017-11-01

    When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

  9. Formation factor in Bentheimer and Fontainebleau sandstones: Theory compared with pore-scale numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Berg, Carl F.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate quantification of formation resistivity factor F (also called formation factor) provides useful insight into connectivity and pore space topology in fully saturated porous media. In particular the formation factor has been extensively used to estimate permeability in reservoir rocks. One of the widely applied models to estimate F is Archie's law (F = ϕ- m in which ϕ is total porosity and m is cementation exponent) that is known to be valid in rocks with negligible clay content, such as clean sandstones. In this study we compare formation factors determined by percolation and effective-medium theories as well as Archie's law with numerical simulations of electrical resistivity on digital rock models. These digital models represent Bentheimer and Fontainebleau sandstones and are derived either by reconstruction or directly from micro-tomographic images. Results show that the universal quadratic power law from percolation theory accurately estimates the calculated formation factor values in network models over the entire range of porosity. However, it crosses over to the linear scaling from the effective-medium approximation at the porosity of 0.75 in grid models. We also show that the effect of critical porosity, disregarded in Archie's law, is nontrivial, and the Archie model inaccurately estimates the formation factor in low-porosity homogeneous sandstones.

  10. The validation of the Polish version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and its factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Ł. Dragan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS is a self-descriptive measure developed to provide information regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity. Objectives: The aim of this article is to report on the validation of the Polish version of PDS and to test its factor structure with reference to two models: an original three-factor model (Reexperiencing, Avoidance, and Arousal and alternative five-factor model (Reexperiencing, Avoidance, Numbing, Dysphoric Arousal, and Anxious Arousal. Method: The validation procedure included three studies conducted on samples of separate populations: university-level students (n=507, individuals who had experienced various traumas (n=320, and treatment-seeking survivors of motor vehicle accidents (MVA (n=302. Various other measures of trauma-related psychopathology were administered to participants, as well as the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID in the case of MVA patients. Results: PDS showed high internal consistency and test–retest reliability, good diagnostic agreement with SCID, good sensitivity but relatively low specificity. The satisfactory convergent validity was supported by a large number of significant correlations with other measures of trauma-related psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA generally confirmed both the three-factor structure and the alternative five-factor structure of the questionnaire. Conclusions: The results show generally good psychometric properties of the Polish version of PDS.

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Drive for Muscularity Scale-S (DMS-S) and Male Body Attitudes Scale-S (MBAS-S) among male university students in Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compte, Emilio J; Sepúlveda, Ana R; de Pellegrin, Yolanda; Blanco, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that men express body dissatisfaction differently than women. Although specific instruments that address body dissatisfaction in men have been developed, only a few have been validated in Latin-American male populations. The aim of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the Spanish versions of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS-S) and the Male Body Attitudes Scale (MBAS-S) in an Argentinian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 male students to examine: the factorial structure (confirmatory factor analysis), the internal consistency reliability, and the concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity of both scales. Results replicated the two factor structures for the DMS-S and MBAS-S. Both scales showed excellent levels of internal consistency, and various measures of construct validity indicated that the DMS-S and MBAS-S were acceptable and valid instruments to assess body dissatisfaction in Argentinian males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Demo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the strategic relevance of Human Resources Management (HRM in organizations and the lack of scientific instruments to measure employees’ perceptions about policies and practices of HRM, this study aimed to validate the Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method. The study has a quantitative design, but also included qualitative analysis required for the development of a scale. Employees from various organizations composed a sample of 632 people. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Jöreskog’s rho. A sixfactor model was generated showing high-reliability and good fit. Construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The factors were consistent with the literature review and explained about 58% of the construct’s total variance. This study contributes to the scientific production in the area of Human Resources Management since HRMPPS can be used not only in relational studies but also as an evaluation instrument by managers who wish to improve their employees’ well-being as well as organizational outcomes.

  13. [Perceived Autonomy in Old Age scale: Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Sense of autonomy - the possibility to choose and decide - is one of the markers of positive and active aging. The goal of this study was to examine the Polish adaptation of the Perceived Autonomy in Old Age (PAA) scale and to determine its internal structure and psychometric properties: reliability, as well as construct and discriminant validity. 277 seniors (female=187; male=90), without cognitive function disorders aged 60 to 100 (M=77.4; SD=9.2) took part in the study. Apart from the PAA, the ADL and IADL scales (self-reliance assessment) were used, as well as the Emotional State Questionnaire (a measure for positive and negative emotions) and the WHOQoL-Brief (a measure for health-related quality of life). As a result of an exploratory and confirmation factor analysis a one-factor tool with five items was built. Reliability coefficients of the scale measured with the internal consistency method and test-retest were ≥ 0.80. Positive correlations were found with indicators in the ADL, IADL, as well as in the somatic and psychological domain of life quality, and positive emotions. Negative correlations were found for negative emotions. The obtained results indicated very high reliability and accuracy for the Polish adaptation of the SPA. The tool can be used as a predictor and/or indicator of successful aging and life quality of seniors.

  14. Galaxy as fundamental calibrator of the extragalactic distance scale. I. The basic scale factors of the galaxy and two kinematic tests of the long and short distance scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.

    1983-01-01

    A new version of the oldest approach to estimating the distances of galaxies (direct comparison with our Galaxy) is proposed to relate the extragalactic distance scale to the basic metric, photometric, and kinematic scale factors of the Galaxy. These include the galactocentric distance of the Sun, R/sub sun/, the total magnitude of the Galaxy, M 0 /sub T/, and its spheroidal component, M 0 /sub I/, the galactic rotation velocity of the local standard of rest, V(R/sub sun/), the central velocity dispersion sigma/sub ν/(0) of the spheroidal component, and related parameters. The following ''most probable'' values and their mean errors are adopted from a variety of recent determinations: morphological type of galaxy, SABX(rXs)bc(T = 4 +- 0.5), R/sub sun/ = 8.5 +- 0.5 kpc, M 0 /sub T/(B) = -20.2 +- 0.15, (B-V) 0 /sub T/ = 0.53 +- 0.04, M 0 /sub I/(B) = -18.2 +- 0.3, (B-V) 0 /sub I/ = 0.65 +- 0.05, V(R/sub sun/) = 220 +- 15 km s -1 , sigma/sub ν/(0) = 130 +- 7 km s -1 . 1. The zero points of the Tully-Fisher (T-F) relations, -M 0 /sub T/(B) = a(B)+5(log V/sub M/ -2.2), in the B/sub T/ system, and -M/sup c/(H) = a(H)+10(log W 20 -2.5), in the H/sub -0.5/ system, are determined in terms of the galactocentric distance of the Sun R/sub sun/, and the galactic rotation velocity of the local standard of rest, V(R/sub sun/)equivalentV 0 roughly-equalV/sub M/, or the corresponding line width W 20 . The galactic zero point a(B) agrees within 0.1 mag with that (19.4 +- 0.15) previously derived on the short scale from 11 nearby calibrating galaxies

  15. How to ask about patient satisfaction? The visual analogue scale is less vulnerable to confounding factors and ceiling effect than a symmetric Likert scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Ari; Pitkäaho, Taina; Kvist, Tarja; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of scale type (visual analogue scale vs. Likert), item order (systematic vs. random), item non-response and patient-related characteristics (age, gender, subjective health, need for assistance with filling out the questionnaire and length of stay) on the results of patient satisfaction surveys. Although patient satisfaction is one of the most intensely studied issues in the health sciences, research information about the effects of possible instrument-related confounding factors on patient satisfaction surveys is scant. A quasi-experimental design was employed. A non-randomized sample of 150 surgical patients was gathered to minimize possible alterations in care quality. Data were collected in May-September 2014 from one tertiary hospital in Finland using the Revised Humane Caring Scale instrument. New versions of the instrument were created for the present purposes. In these versions, items were either in a visual analogue format or Likert-scaled, in systematic or random order. The data were analysed using an analysis of covariance and a paired samples t-test. The visual analogue scale items were less vulnerable to bias from confounding factors than were the Likert-scaled items. The visual analogue scale also avoided the ceiling effect better than Likert and the time needed to complete the visual analogue scale questionnaire was 28% shorter than that needed to complete the Likert-scaled questionnaire. The present results supported the use of visual analogue scale rather than Likert scaling in patient satisfaction surveys and stressed the need to account for as many potential confounding factors as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Overweight Is an Independent Risk Factor for Reduced Lung Volumes in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte G W Seijger

    Full Text Available In this large observational study population of 105 myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 patients, we investigate whether bodyweight is a contributor of total lung capacity (TLC independent of the impaired inspiratory muscle strength.Body composition was assessed using the combination of body mass index (BMI and fat-free mass index. Pulmonary function tests and respiratory muscle strength measurements were performed on the same day. Patients were stratified into normal (BMI < 25 kg/m(2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2 groups. Multiple linear regression was used to find significant contributors for TLC.Overweight was present in 59% of patients, and body composition was abnormal in almost all patients. In overweight patients, TLC was significantly (p = 2.40×10(-3 decreased, compared with normal-weight patients, while inspiratory muscle strength was similar in both groups. The decrease in TLC in overweight patients was mainly due to a decrease in expiratory reserve volume (ERV further illustrated by a highly significant (p = 1.33×10(-10 correlation between BMI and ERV. Multiple linear regression showed that TLC can be predicted using only BMI and the forced inspiratory volume in 1 second, as these were the only significant contributors.This study shows that, in DM1 patients, overweight further reduces lung volumes, as does impaired inspiratory muscle strength. Additionally, body composition is abnormal in almost all DM1 patients.

  17. Factor structure and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Swedish translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, S; Wallin, E; Maathz, P

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a widely used measurement for psychological symptoms and distress. Some previous studies have shown that the DASS-21 can accurately measure symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, while other studies have indicated that the DASS-21 mainly measures overall distress. The factor structure of the DASS-21 is important and debated since if affects interpretations of findings. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In this study, the DASS-21 was translated into Swedish and evaluated in three diverse samples. The DASS-21 subscales of Depression and Anxiety correlated significantly with corresponding criteria instruments. The DASS-21 Stress subscale showed more diverse associations with psychological distress. The analyses supported a bifactor model of the DASS-21 with three specific factors of depression, anxiety and stress as well as a general distress factor. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The results show that the DASS-21 may be used to measure unique symptoms of depression, anxiety and, with some caveat, stress as well as overall psychological distress. This study confirms that the DASS-21 is theoretically sound instrument that is feasible for both research and clinical practice. The DASS-21 can be an accessible tool for screening and evaluation in first-line mental health services. Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS

  18. Factor structure of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale as per DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Joungmin

    2016-02-01

    The DSM-5 recently proposed new diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although many new or updated tools have been developed since the DSM-IV was published in 1994, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) has been used consistently in ASD diagnosis and research due to its technical adequacy, cost-effectiveness, and practicality. Additionally, items in the CARS did not alter following the release of the revised DSM-IV because the CARS factor structure was found to be consistent with the revised criteria after factor analysis. For that reason, in this study confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the CARS. Participants (n = 150) consisted of children with an ASD diagnosis or who met the criteria for broader autism or emotional/behavior disorder with comorbid disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, intellectual or developmental disabilities. Previous studies used one-, two-, and four-factor models, all of which we examined to confirm the best-fit model on confirmatory factor analysis. Appropriate comparative fit indices and root mean square errors were obtained for all four models. The two-factor model, based on DSM-5 criteria, was the most valid and reliable. The inter-item consistency of the CARS was 0.926 and demonstrated adequate reliability, thereby supporting the validity and reliability of the two-factor model of CARS. Although CARS was developed prior to the introduction of DSM-5, its psychometric properties, conceptual relevance, and flexible administration procedures support its continued role as a screening device in the diagnostic decision-making process. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Depersonalization: An exploratory factor analysis of the Italian version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, F; Telesforo, L; Dell'Erba, A; Consolazione, M; Migliorini, V; Patanè, M; Boldrini, T; Graziani, R; Nicoletti, F; Fiori-Nastro, P

    2015-07-01

    "Depersonalization" (DP) is a common symptom in the general population and psychiatric patients (Michal et al., 2011 [1]). DP is characterized by an alteration in the experience of the self, so that one feels detached from his or her own mental processes or body (or from the world), feeling as being an outside observer of his or her own self, and loosing the experience of unity and identity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 [2]). We performed an exploratory factor analysis of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale Italian version (CDS-IV). We enrolled 149 inpatients and outpatients of psychiatric services located in two Italian regions, Lazio and Campania. Patients were aged between 15 and 65 and diagnosed with schizophrenic, depressive or anxiety disorders. Four factors accounted for 97.4% of the variance. Factor 1 (10, 24, 26, 1, 13, 23, 9, 2, 5, and 11), called "Detachment from the Self", captures experiences of detachment from actions and thoughts. Factor 2 (19, 20, 27, 3, 12, 23, 22, and 11), called "Anomalous bodily experiences", refers to unusual bodily experiences. Factor 3 (7, 28, 25, 6, 9, and 2), named "Numbing", describes the dampening of affects. Factor 4 (14, 17, and 16), named "Temporal blunting", refers to the subjective experience of time. We did not find any specific factor that refers to derealization; this suggests that the constructs of depersonalization/derealization (DP/DR) were strongly related to each other. Our results show that the constructs of DP/DR subsume several psychopathological dimensions; moreover, the above mentioned factors were broadly consistent with prior literature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: a bifactor answer to a two-factor question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Boduszek, Daniel; Harvey, Séamus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite its long-standing and widespread use, disagreement remains regarding the structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). In particular, concern remains regarding the degree to which the scale assesses self-esteem as a unidimensional or multidimensional (positive and negative self-esteem) construct. Using a sample of 3,862 high school students in the United Kingdom, 4 models were tested: (a) a unidimensional model, (b) a correlated 2-factor model in which the 2 latent variables are represented by positive and negative self-esteem, (c) a hierarchical model, and (d) a bifactor model. The totality of results including item loadings, goodness-of-fit indexes, reliability estimates, and correlations with self-efficacy measures all supported the bifactor model, suggesting that the 2 hypothesized factors are better understood as "grouping" factors rather than as representative of latent constructs. Accordingly, this study supports the unidimensionality of the RSES and the scoring of all 10 items to produce a global self-esteem score.

  1. Renormalization and factorization scale analysis of b-barb production in antiproton-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    There is a sizable and systematic discrepancy between experimental data on the b-barb production in , p-barp, γp and γγ collisions and existing theoretical calculations within perturbative QCD. Before interpreting this discrepancy as a signal of new physics, it is important to understand quantitatively the ambiguities of conventional calculations. In this paper the uncertainty coming from renormalization and factorization scale dependence of finite order perturbation calculations of the total cross section of b-barb production in p-barp collisions is discussed in detail. It is shown that the mentioned discrepancy is reduced significantly if these scales are fixed via the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity. (author)

  2. [Development of a scale for work motivation of home care workers and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yasuhisa; Sugiura, Keiko; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop a scale for home care workers focusing on work motivation and to determine influential underlying factors. This study was an anonymous mailed survey of home care workers who provided home help services in July 2007. We collected information in the following areas: demographics of home care workers and care-recipients, burnout, stress, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and self-esteem (SE). Hierarchical regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors related to work motivation. Construct validity was analyzed by factor analysis. Two subscales were obtained by the analysis and designated as "positive appraisal of the current state" (9 items) and "uplift of morale" (3 items). Content validity was analyzed by good-poor and item-total, and all correlations were strongly positive. Reliability was analyzed by internal consistency. Cronbach's ? values were 0.94 and 0.77, respectively. Concurrent validity was analyzed by correlation coefficient and a significant negative correlation was seen between the two subscales and burnout (r = -0.23--0.50), while positive correlations were noted for job or life satisfaction (r= 0.24-0.49). The positive influential factors on "positive appraisal of the current state" were satisfaction in 1) relation to care-recipients, 2) work environment for skill improvement and 3) the wages. The positive influential factors on "uplift of morale" were satisfaction with relation to care-recipients and their own life. This scale has sufficient reliability and validity. "Positive appraisal of the current state" and "uplift of morale" were confirmed as appropriate work motivation subscales for home care workers. Thus, support to augment job satisfaction with the work environment and wages appears to enhance "positive appraisal of the current state" and support to augment life satisfaction appears to enhance "uplift of morale".

  3. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericksen Mielle Borba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]. Methods: Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. Results: MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. Discussion: The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.

  4. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Serum Levels and Hippocampal Volume in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia due to Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, Ericksen Mielle; Duarte, Juliana Avila; Bristot, Giovana; Scotton, Ellen; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is a recognized biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduction has been associated with neurodegeneration. We aimed to evaluate BDNF serum levels and hippocampal volume in clinical AD (dementia and mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Participants were 10 patients with MCI and 13 with dementia due to AD as well as 10 healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were determined by ELISA and volumetric measures with NeuroQuant®. MCI and dementia patients presented lower BDNF serum levels than healthy participants; dementia patients presented a smaller hippocampal volume than MCI patients and healthy participants. The findings support that the decrease in BDNF might start before the establishment of neuronal injury expressed by the hippocampal reduction.

  5. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Diane; Thomas, Matt; Whiting, Diane; McGrath, Andrew

    To confirm the construct validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) by investigating the fit of published factor structures in a sample of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (posttraumatic amnesia > 24 hours). Archival data from 504 patient records at the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit at Liverpool Hospital, Australia. Participants were aged between 16 and 71 years and were engaged in a specialist rehabilitation program. The DASS-21. Two of the 6 models had adequate fit using structural equation modeling. The data best fit Henry and Crawford's quadripartite model, which comprised a Depression, Anxiety and Stress factor, as well as a General Distress factor. The data also adequately fit Lovibond and Lovibond's original 3-factor model, and the internal consistencies of each factor were very good (α = 0.82-0.90). This study confirms the structure and construct validity of the DASS-21 and provides support for its use as a screening tool in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

  6. Factor Structure of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Malaysian patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satpal; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Low, Wah Yun; Ramasamy, Ravindran; Sidhu, Jaideep Singh

    2015-05-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument used to determine the levels of anxiety and depression experienced by a patient and has been extensively used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to establish the factor structure of HADS in a Malaysian sample of 189 patients with CAD. Factor analysis of HADS using principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded 3 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the use of HADS in assessing 3 distinct dimensions of psychological distress--namely, anxiety, anhedonia, and psychomotor retardation. The HADS showed good internal consistency and was found to be a valid measure of psychological distress among Malaysian patients with CAD. However, low mean scores on the original 2 factors--that is, anxiety and depression--and also on the 2 depression subscales--anhedonia and psychomotor retardation--suggests that the recommended cutoff score to screen for psychological distress among CAD patients be reevaluated. Further research to determine the generalizability and consistency for the tridimensional structure of the HADS in Malaysia is recommended. © 2014 APJPH.

  7. Quantitative grain-scale ferroic domain volume fractions and domain switching strains from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Majkut, Marta; Caosyd, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    A method for the extension of the three-dimensional X-ray diffraction technique to allow the extraction of domain volume fractions in polycrystalline ferroic materials is presented. This method gives access to quantitative domain volume fractions of hundreds of independent embedded grains within...... are applied to tetragonal coarse-grained Ba0.88Ca0.12Zr0.06Ti0.94O3 and rhombohedral fine-grained (0.82)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–(0.18)Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 electroceramic materials. The fitted volume fraction information is used to calculate grain-scale non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strains. The absolute errors...

  8. Development of new geomagnetic storm ground response scaling factors for utilization in hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bernabeu, E.; Weigel, R. S.; Kelbert, A.; Rigler, E. J.; Bedrosian, P.; Love, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Development of realistic storm scenarios that can be played through the exposed systems is one of the key requirements for carrying out quantitative space weather hazards assessments. In the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) and power grids context, these scenarios have to quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of the geoelectric field that drives the potentially hazardous currents in the system. In response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) order 779, a team of scientists and engineers that worked under the auspices of North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), has developed extreme geomagnetic storm and geoelectric field benchmark(s) that use various scaling factors that account for geomagnetic latitude and ground structure of the locations of interest. These benchmarks, together with the information generated in the National Space Weather Action Plan, are the foundation for the hazards assessments that the industry will be carrying out in response to the FERC order and under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council. While the scaling factors developed in the past work were based on the best available information, there is now significant new information available for parts of the U.S. pertaining to the ground response to external geomagnetic field excitation. The significant new information includes the results magnetotelluric surveys that have been conducted over the past few years across the contiguous US and results from previous surveys that have been made available in a combined online database. In this paper, we distill this new information in the framework of the NERC benchmark and in terms of updated ground response scaling factors thereby allowing straightforward utilization in the hazard assessments. We also outline the path forward for improving the overall extreme event benchmark scenario(s) including generalization of the storm waveforms and geoelectric field spatial patterns.

  9. Outcomes of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy: Analysis of dose-volume histograms and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Azusa; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Mizota, Atsushi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the tolerance dose for retention of visual acuity in patients with head-and-neck tumors treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From June 1994 to March 2000, 163 patients with tumors in the head and neck or skull base region were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Analysis was performed on 54 optic nerves (ONs) corresponding to 30 patients whose ONs had been included in the irradiated volume. These patients showed no evidence of visual impairment due to other factors and had a follow-up period of >4 years. All patients had been informed of the possibility of visual impairment before treatment. We evaluated the dose-complication probability and the prognostic factors for the retention of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy, using dose-volume histograms and multivariate analysis. Results: The median age of 30 patients (14 men, 16 women) was 57.2 years. Median prescribed total dose was 56.0 gray equivalents (GyE) at 3.0-4.0 GyE per fraction per day (range, 48-64 GyE; 16-18 fractions; 4-6 weeks). Of 54 ONs that were analyzed, 35 had been irradiated with max ]) resulting in no visual loss. Conversely, 11 of the 19 ONs (58%) irradiated with >57 GyE (D max ) suffered a decrease of visual acuity. In all of these cases, the ONs had been involved in the tumor before carbon ion radiotherapy. In the multivariate analysis, a dose of 20% of the volume of the ON (D 2 ) was significantly associated with visual loss. Conclusions: The occurrence of visual loss seems to be correlated with a delivery of >60 GyE to 20% of the volume of the ON

  10. Cosmological models with a hybrid scale factor in an extended gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tarai, Sankarsan

    2018-03-01

    A general formalism to investigate Bianchi type V Ih universes is developed in an extended theory of gravity. A minimally coupled geometry and matter field is considered with a rescaled function of f(R,T) substituted in place of the Ricci scalar R in the geometrical action. Dynamical aspects of the models are discussed by using a hybrid scale factor (HSF) that behaves as power law in an initial epoch and as an exponential form at late epoch. The power law behavior and the exponential behavior appear as two extreme cases of the present model.

  11. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  12. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids

  13. Determinants of vegetation distribution at continental scale. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Svenning, J.-C.; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated what determines distribution of vegetation types, though this has rarely been tested at continental scale. We thus aimed to determine which vegetation types are most accurately predicted by natural environmental factors, and which of these factors best predict current veg...... was also assessed, and found to be of some importance for most vegetation types. We conclude that, in addition to including environmental variables in predicting vegetation distribution, it is essential that human impact be considered, also in future climate change scenarios....... vegetation distribution across Africa. Vegetation types were extracted from the Global Land Cover Map for the year 2000, and the distribution of vegetation types modelled in terms of climate, soil and topography. Annual precipitation was the best predictor of the distribution of all vegetation types...

  14. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 6. Appendix VI-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 6, Appendix VI - X. These appendices cover the following areas: chain of custody, miscellaneous process calculations (residence time and orifice plate calculations), waste management (mercury and radiation confirmatory testing before and after final verification run), health and safety (training, respirator fit test and radiation work permits), and transportation (soil receipt documentation)

  15. Dependence of twinned volume fraction on loading mode and Schmid factor in randomly textured magnesium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Jan; Máthis, K.; Clausen, B.; Barnett, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, MAY (2017), s. 319-328 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : twinning * magnesium * neutron diffraction * Schmid factor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  16. Modeling the Travel Behavior Impacts of Micro-Scale Land Use and Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.

  17. Subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale differentially relate to the Big Five factors of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Wagner, Adina; Müller, Astrid; Eggert, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113). Selective positive correlations emerged between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion and between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism. This pattern of results was replicated in Study 2 (N = 132) using a 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory. In Study 3, we analyzed BIS and NEO-FFI data obtained from a sample of patients with pathological buying (N = 68). In these patients, the relationship between motor impulsiveness and Extraversion was significantly weakened when compared to the non-clinical samples. At the same time, the relationship between attentional impulsiveness and Neuroticism was substantially stronger in the clinical sample. Our studies highlight the utility of the BIS subscales for clarifying the relationship between impulsiveness and the Big Five personality factors. We conclude that impulsiveness might occupy multiple places in multidimensional personality frameworks, which need to be specified to improve the interpretability of impulsiveness scales. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Training and organizational analysis. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of system-user interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present work focuses solely on training and qualifications of personnel (e.g., training received before and during employment), and the potential impact of organizational factors on the performance of teletherapy. Organizational factors include such topics as adequacy of staffing, performance evaluations, commonly occurring errors, implementation of quality assurance programs, and organizational climate.

  19. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Training and organizational analysis. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of system-user interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present work focuses solely on training and qualifications of personnel (e.g., training received before and during employment), and the potential impact of organizational factors on the performance of teletherapy. Organizational factors include such topics as adequacy of staffing, performance evaluations, commonly occurring errors, implementation of quality assurance programs, and organizational climate

  20. Factor Analysis of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Judit; Krowchuk, Natasha M; Goldsmith, Charles H; Hunt, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    The clinical assessment of balance is an important first step in characterizing the risk of falls. The Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) is a test of balance and mobility that was designed to assess performance on advanced tasks necessary for independence in the community. However, other factors that can affect balancing ability may also be present during performance of the real-world tasks on the CB&M. It is important for clinicians to understand fully what other modifiable factors the CB&M may encompass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underlying constructs in the CB&M in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was an observational study, with a single testing session. Participants with knee OA aged 50 years and older completed the CB&M, a clinical test of balance and mobility. Confirmatory factor analysis was then used to examine whether the tasks on the CB&M measure distinct factors. Three a priori theory-driven models with three (strength, balance, mobility), four (range of motion added) and six (pain and fear added) constructs were evaluated using multiple fit indices. A total of 131 participants (mean [SD] age 66.3 [8.5] years, BMI 27.3 [5.2] kg m -2 ) participated. A three-factor model in which all tasks loaded on these three factors explained 65% of the variance and yielded the most optimal model, as determined using scree plots, chi-squared values and explained variance. The first factor accounted for 49% of the variance and was interpreted as lower limb muscle strength. The second and third factors were interpreted as mobility and balance, respectively. The CB&M demonstrated the measurement of three distinct factors, interpreted as lower limb strength, balance and mobility, supporting the use of the CB&M with people with knee OA for evaluation of these important factors in falls risk and functional mobility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Factor structure and gender stability in the multidimensional condom attitudes scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosta, Amy J; Berghoff, Christopher R; Earleywine, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections continue to trouble the United States and can be attenuated through increased condom use. Attitudes about condoms are an important multidimensional factor that can affect sexual health choices and have been successfully measured using the Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale (MCAS). Such attitudes have the potential to vary between men and women, yet little work has been undertaken to identify if the MCAS accurately captures attitudes without being influenced by underlying gender biases. We examined the factor structure and gender invariance on the MCAS using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, within-subscale differential item functioning analyses. More than 770 participants provided data via the Internet. Results of differential item functioning analyses identified three items as differentially functioning between the genders, and removal of these items is recommended. Findings confirmed the previously hypothesized multidimensional nature of condom attitudes and the five-factor structure of the MCAS even after the removal of the three problematic items. In general, comparisons across genders using the MCAS seem reasonable from a methodological standpoint. Results are discussed in terms of improving sexual health research and interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Attitude Toward Ambiguity: Empirically Robust Factors in Self-Report Personality Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Foschi, Renato; Mosca, Oriana; Weller, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of attitude toward ambiguity, a broad personality construct that refers to personal reactions to perceived ambiguous stimuli in a variety of context and situations. Using samples from two countries, Study 1 mapped the hierarchical structure of 133 items from seven tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity scales (N = 360, Italy; N = 306, United States). Three major factors-Discomfort with Ambiguity, Moral Absolutism/Splitting, and Need for Complexity and Novelty-were recovered in each country with high replicability coefficients across samples. In Study 2 (N = 405, Italian community sample; N =366, English native speakers sample), we carried out a confirmatory analysis on selected factor markers. A bifactor model had an acceptable fit for each sample and reached the construct-level invariance for general and group factors. Convergent validity with related traits was assessed in both studies. We conclude that attitude toward ambiguity can be best represented a multidimensional construct involving affective (Discomfort with Ambiguity), cognitive (Moral Absolutism/Splitting), and epistemic (Need for Complexity and Novelty) components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Factor structure and psychometric properties of a Romanian translation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tudorel, Otilia; Goian, Cosmin; Barron, David; Vintila, Mona

    2017-12-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of a Romanian translation of the 10-item Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2). A total of 453 university students from Romania completed the BAS-2, along with measures of disordered eating, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness. In addition, a separate sample of university students (N=109) completed only the BAS-2 at two time-points three weeks apart. Principal-axis factor analysis indicated that BAS-2 scores had a one-dimensional factor structure in both women and men. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that this factor structure had adequate fit, but invariance across sex was not supported. Further analyses indicated that BAS-2 scores evidenced internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability in both women and men. These results suggest that BAS-2 scores reduce to one dimension in Romanian adults, but the lack of sex invariance may indicate that the same latent construct is not being measured in women and men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: factor, convergent, and divergent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2011-09-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS in two samples of undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 323), the authors tested the factor structure, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS with measures of the Big Five personality traits, negative affect, fear of negative evaluation, and social interaction anxiety. In Study 2 (N = 118), participants completed a body evaluation that included measurements of height, weight, and body fat content. The SAAS exhibited excellent convergent and divergent validity with self-report measures (i.e., self-esteem, trait anxiety, ethnic identity, and sympathy), predicted state anxiety experienced during the body evaluation, and predicted body fat content. In both studies, results confirmed a single-factor structure as the best fit to the data. These results lend additional support for the use of the SAAS as a valid measure of social appearance anxiety.

  5. Factors affecting distribution patterns of organic carbon in sediments at regional and national scales in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yiran; Lal, Rattan; Wang, Renqing; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2017-07-14

    Wetlands are an important carbon reservoir pool in terrestrial ecosystems. Light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were fractionated in sediment samples from the four wetlands (ZR: Zhaoniu River; ZRCW: Zhaoniu River Constructed Wetland; XR: Xinxue River; XRCW: Xinxue River Constructed Wetland). Organic carbon (OC) from rivers and coasts of China were retrieved and statistically analyzed. At regional scale, HFOC stably dominates the deposition of OC (95.4%), whereas DOC and LFOC in ZR is significantly higher than in ZRCW. Concentration of DOC is significantly higher in XRCW (30.37 mg/l) than that in XR (13.59 mg/l). DOC and HFOC notably distinguish between two sampling campaigns, and the deposition of carbon fractions are limited by low nitrogen input. At the national scale, OC attains the maximum of 2.29% at precipitation of 800 mm. OC has no significant difference among the three climate zones but significantly higher in river sediments than in coasts. Coastal OC increases from Bohai Sea (0.52%) to South Sea (0.70%) with a decrease in latitude. This study summarizes the factors affecting organic carbon storage in regional and national scale, and have constructive implications for carbon assessment, modelling, and management.

  6. Modelling the effect of support practices (P-factor) on the reduction of soil erosion by water at European Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagos, P.; Borrelli, P.; Meusburger, K.; van der Zanden, E.H.; Poesen, J.; Alewell, C.

    2015-01-01

    The USLE/RUSLE support practice factor (P-factor) is rarely taken into account in soil erosion risk modelling at sub-continental scale, as it is difficult to estimate for large areas. This study attempts to model the P-factor in the European Union. For this, it considers the latest policy

  7. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…

  8. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Volume II. A compendium of human factors design data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-04-01

    This document is a compilation of human factors engineering design recommendations and data, selected and organized to assist in the design of a nuclear waste retrieval system. Design guidelines from a variety of sources have been evaluated, edited, and expanded for inclusion in this document, and, where appropriate, portions of text from selected sources have been included in their entirety. A number of human factors engineering guidelines for equipment designers have been written over the past three decades, each tailored to the needs of the specific system being designed. In the case of this particular document, a review of the preliminary human operator functions involved in each phase of the retrieval process was performed, resulting in the identification of areas of design emphasis upon which this document should be based. Documents containing information and design data on each of these areas were acquired, and data and design guidelines related to the previously identified areas of emphasis were extracted and reorganized. For each system function, actions were first assigned to operator and/or machine, and the operator functions were then described. Separate lists of operator functions were developed for each of the areas of retrieval activities - survey and mapping, remining, floor flange emplacement, plug and canister overcoring, plug and canister removal and transport, and CWSRS activity. These functions and the associated man-machine interface were grouped into categories based on task similarity, and the principal topics of human factors design emphasis were extracted. These topic areas are reflected in the contents of the 12 sections of this document

  9. Micro-scale Spatial Clustering of Cholera Risk Factors in Urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qifang; Azman, Andrew S; Satter, Syed Moinuddin; Khan, Azharul Islam; Ahmed, Dilruba; Riaj, Altaf Ahmed; Gurley, Emily S; Lessler, Justin

    2016-02-01

    Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets) near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98), type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00), and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00) exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a cholera endemic

  10. Micro-scale Spatial Clustering of Cholera Risk Factors in Urban Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifang Bi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Close interpersonal contact likely drives spatial clustering of cases of cholera and diarrhea, but spatial clustering of risk factors may also drive this pattern. Few studies have focused specifically on how exposures for disease cluster at small spatial scales. Improving our understanding of the micro-scale clustering of risk factors for cholera may help to target interventions and power studies with cluster designs. We selected sets of spatially matched households (matched-sets near cholera case households between April and October 2013 in a cholera endemic urban neighborhood of Tongi Township in Bangladesh. We collected data on exposures to suspected cholera risk factors at the household and individual level. We used intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs to characterize clustering of exposures within matched-sets and households, and assessed if clustering depended on the geographical extent of the matched-sets. Clustering over larger spatial scales was explored by assessing the relationship between matched-sets. We also explored whether different exposures tended to appear together in individuals, households, and matched-sets. Household level exposures, including: drinking municipal supplied water (ICC = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.96, 0.98, type of latrine (ICC = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.71, 1.00, and intermittent access to drinking water (ICC = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.87, 1.00 exhibited strong clustering within matched-sets. As the geographic extent of matched-sets increased, the concordance of exposures within matched-sets decreased. Concordance between matched-sets of exposures related to water supply was elevated at distances of up to approximately 400 meters. Household level hygiene practices were correlated with infrastructure shown to increase cholera risk. Co-occurrence of different individual level exposures appeared to mostly reflect the differing domestic roles of study participants. Strong spatial clustering of exposures at a small spatial scale in a

  11. CT- and MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen: Comparison to intraoperative volume and weight measurements and calculation of conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlo, C.; Reiner, C.S.; Stolzmann, P.; Breitenstein, S.; Marincek, B.; Weishaupt, D.; Frauenfelder, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare virtual volume to intraoperative volume and weight measurements of resected liver specimen and calculate appropriate conversion factors to reach better correlation. Methods: Preoperative (CT-group, n = 30; MRI-group, n = 30) and postoperative MRI (n = 60) imaging was performed in 60 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Intraoperative volume and weight of the resected liver specimen was measured. Virtual volume measurements were performed by two readers (R1,R2) using dedicated software. Conversion factors were calculated. Results: Mean intraoperative resection weight/volume: CT: 855 g/852 mL; MRI: 872 g/860 mL. Virtual resection volume: CT: 960 mL(R1), 982 mL(R2); MRI: 1112 mL(R1), 1115 mL(R2). Strong positive correlation for both readers between intraoperative and virtual measurements, mean of both readers: CT: R = 0.88(volume), R = 0.89(weight); MRI: R = 0.95(volume), R = 0.92(weight). Conversion factors: 0.85(CT), 0.78(MRI). Conclusion: CT- or MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen is accurate and recommended for preoperative planning. A conversion of the result is necessary to improve intraoperative and virtual measurement correlation. We found 0.85 for CT- and 0.78 for MRI-based volumetry the most appropriate conversion factors.

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; DiFranza, Joseph R; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS), a 12-item self-administered questionnaire, was designed to measure autonomy in three correlated lower-order symptom domains: withdrawal, psychological dependence, and cue-induced craving. The factor structure of the AUTOS remains an open question; confirmatory analyses in adolescents supported the hierarchical structure, while exploratory analyses in adolescents and adults yield single-factor solutions. Here we seek to determine whether the hypothesized hierarchical structure is valid in adult smokers. The AUTOS was administered to two independent convenience samples of adult current smokers: a calibration sample recruited in the US for online studies, and a confirmation sample drawn from the prospective Nicotine Dependence in Teens study in Montreal. We tested competing hierarchical and single-factor models using the robust weighted least-squares (WLSMV) estimation method. A single-factor model that allowed correlated error variances between theoretically related items fit well in the calibration sample (n = 434), χ(2)SB(52) = 165.71; χ(2)/df = 3.19; SRMR = 0.03; CFI = 0.96; NNFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was high (ωB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate. In the confirmation sample (n = 335), a similar model fit well:χ(2)SB(53) = 126.94; χ(2)/df = 2.44; SRMR = 0.04; CFI = 0.95; NNFI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was again high (ωB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate. The AUTOS is unidimensional in adult smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coastal erosion risk assessment using natural and human factors in different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, including sea-level rise and increasing storms, raise the threats of coastal erosion. Mitigating and adapting to coastal erosion risks in areas of human interest, like urban areas, culture heritage sites, and areas of economic interest, present a major challenge for society. In this context, decision making needs to be based in reliable risk assessment that includes environmental, social and economic factors. By integrating coastal hazard and risk assessments maps into coastal management plans, risks in areas of interest can be reduced. To address this, the vulnerability of the coast to sea level rise and associated erosion, in terms of expected land loss and socioeconomic importance need to be identified. A holistic risk assessment based in environmental, socioeconomic and economics approach can provide managers information how to mitigate the impact of coastal erosion and plan protection measures. Such an approach needs to consider social, economic and environmental factors, which interactions can be better assessed when distributed and analysed along the geographical space. In this work, estimations of climate change impact to coastline are based on a combination of environmental and economic data analysed in a GIS database. The risk assessment is implemented through the estimation of the vulnerability and exposure variables of the coast in two scales. The larger scale estimates the vulnerability in a regional level, with the use environmental factors with the use of CVI. The exposure variable is estimated by the use of socioeconomic factors. Subsequently, a smaller scale focuses on highly vulnerable beaches with high social and economic value. The vulnerability assessment of the natural processes to the environmental characteristics of the beach is estimated with the use of the Beach Vulnerability Index. As exposure variable, the value of beach width that is capitalized in revenues is implemented through a hedonic pricing model. In this

  14. Area of hock hair loss in dairy cows: risk factors and correlation with a categorical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P Y; Huxley, J N; Green, M J; Othman, A R; Potterton, S L; Brignell, C J; Kaler, J

    2015-02-01

    Data from 3691 dairy cows from 76 farms were used to investigate the risk factors associated with the area of hair loss over the lateral aspect of the hock and the correlation between the area of hair loss (as calculated using a hock map) and hock lesion scores determined using a pre-existing categorical scale. Six factors were associated with a greater area of hair loss, including cows with locomotion score 3, a cleanliness score (10/28 to 18/28), high daily milk yield (25.1-58.1 kg), poor body condition score (1-1.5), duration of winter housing (≥41 days) and some combinations of cubicle base and bedding materials. Compared with cows housed in cubicles with a concrete base and whole straw or rape straw bedding, cows housed in cubicles with concrete bases with sand or chopped straw bedding had smaller areas of hair loss and cows housed on a mattress base with whole straw or rape straw bedding had larger areas of hair loss. Area of hair loss, as measured on hock maps, was not significantly different between cows with score 1 (median 23.6 cm(2)) and score 2 (median 20.3 cm(2)) on the categorical scale for hock lesions. This suggests that the categorical scale was not reflecting the extent of hair loss and that hock maps are a good alternative for studying the dynamics of hock lesions over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation between Peripheral Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Hippocampal Volume in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lauxen Peruzzolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a serious mental disorder that affects the development and emotional growth of affected patients. The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is recognized as one of the possible markers of the framework and its evolution. Abnormalities in BDNF signaling in the hippocampus could explain the cognitive decline seen in patients with TB. Our aim with this study was to evaluate possible changes in hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with BD and associate them to serum BDNF. Subjects included 30 patients aged seven to seventeen years from the ProCAB (Program for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder. We observed mean right and left hippocampal volumes of 41910.55 and 41747.96 mm3, respectively. No statistically significant correlations between peripheral BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes were found. We believe that the lack of correlation observed in this study is due to the short time of evolution of BD in children and adolescents. Besides studies with larger sample sizes to confirm the present findings and longitudinal assessments, addressing brain development versus a control group and including drug-naive patients in different mood states may help clarify the role of BDNF in the brain changes consequent upon BD.

  16. East African Journal of Sciences (2010) Volume 4 (1) 41-47 Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahdi

    Factors Influencing the Adoption of Improved Sorghum Varieties in Awbere District of. Somali Regional ... Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were ... and have access to market information can be greater technology adopters.

  17. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  18. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  19. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  20. Thermal properties at Aespoe HRL. Analysis of distribution and scale factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    A thermal model for the Aespoe HRL as well as a general strategy for thermal modelling is under development. As a part of that work, thermal conductivities have been modelled from reference values of thermal conductivity of different minerals and from the mineral composition of all Aespoe samples in the Sicada database. The produced thermal conductivity database has been analysed in terms of frequency, type of distribution, spatial distribution, variogram etc. A correction factor has been estimated to compensate for discrepancies between measured and calculated values. The calculated values have been corrected according to measured values. The data has been analysed according to different rock types. However, there are uncertainties in the base material of rock classification, mainly due to problem to distinguish between Aespoe diorite and Aevroe granite, but also because of different classification systems. There is a relationship between thermal conductivity and density for the rock types at Aespoe. Equations of the relationship have been developed based on all thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density measurements. The equations have been tested on two bore holes at Aespoe with promising results. It may be possible to evaluate the spatial distribution of the thermal properties from density loggings. However, more work is needed to develop a complete model including the handling of high and low density zones. There is an insufficient knowledge in the variation of thermal properties at different scales. If the whole variation within a rock type is in the cm-m scale the thermal influence on the canister is small. This is due to the fact that the small-scale variation in thermal properties is mainly averaged out in the 5-10 m scale. If the main variation within rock types is in the 5-10 m scale there is probably a significant effect on the canister temperature. However, it is likely that the observed variation occurs in both these scales. Simulation has been

  1. Prostate specific cancer volume: a significant prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients at intermediate risk of failing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, S.P.; Pollack, A.; Zagars, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Although the pretreatment serum prostate specific antigen level (PSAL) is the single most significant predictor of local and biochemical control in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, it is relatively insensitive for patients with a PSAL in the intermediate range (4-20 ng/ml). PSA density (PSAD) has been shown to be slightly more predictive of outcome than PSAL for this intermediate risk group; however, this improvement is small and of little use clinically. PSA cancer volume (PSACV) is an estimate of cancer volume based on PSA that was recently described by D'Amico and Propert (IJROBP 32:232, 1995) as providing significant and independent prognostic information in addition to PSAL. We report here a detailed comparison between this new prognostic factor, PSAL, and PSAD. Methods and Materials: The records of 356 patients treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy for regionally localized (T1-4, Nx, M0) adenocarcinoma of the prostate were reviewed. Each patient had a PSAL, biopsy Gleason score, and pretreatment prostate volume by transrectal ultrasonography. The median PSAL was 9.3 ng/ml and 66% had Gleason scores in the 2-6 range. The median radiation dose was 66.0 Gy and the median follow-up for those living was 27 months. PSACV is a calculated parameter that takes into account PSAL (total PSA), ultrasonographic prostate volume (estimate of PSA from benign epithelium), and Gleason grade (estimate of PSA per tumor volume). The median PSACV was 1.43 cc. Biochemical failure was defined as increases in two consecutive follow-up PSA levels, one increase by a factor > 1.5, or an absolute increase of > 1 ng/ml. Local failure was defined as a cancer-positive prostate biopsy, usually undertaken because of evidence of biochemical failure. Results: The distributions of PSACV and PSAL were similar and, when normalized by log-transformation, were highly correlated (p 4 cc, as compared to those with a PSACV ≤ 0.5 cc, was over 30%. Conclusion

  2. Microinvasion of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: predictive factors and application for determining clinical target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yang; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Ji, Yuan; Xiao, Yin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the microscopic characteristics of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (LMCRC) invasion and provides a reference for expansion from gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical targeting volume (CTV). Data from 129 LMCRC patients treated by surgical resection at our hospital between January 2008 and September 2009 were collected for study. Tissue sections used for pathology and clinical data were reviewed. Patient information used for the study included gender, age, original tumor site, number of tumors, tumor size, levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, and whether patients received chemotherapy. The distance of liver microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured microscopically by two senior pathologists. Of 129 patients evaluated, 81 (62.8 %) presented microinvasion distances from the tumor boundary ranging between 1.0 − 7.0 mm. A GTV-to-CTV expansion of 5, 6.7, or 7.0 mm was required to provide a 95, 99, or 100 % probability, respectively, of obtaining clear resection margins by microscopic observation. The extent of invasion was not related to gender, age, synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, tumor size, CA199 level, or chemotherapy. The extent of invasion was related to original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. A scoring system was established based on the latter three positive predictors. Using this system, an invasion distance less than 3 mm was measured in 93.4 % of patients with a score of ≤1 point, but in only 85.7 % of patients with a score of ≤2 points. The extent of tumor invasion in our LMCRC patient cohort correlated with original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. These positive predictors may potentially be used as a scoring system for determining GTV-to-CTV expansion

  3. Spectral damping scaling factors for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Campbell, Kenneth; Abrahamson, Norman; Silva, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra, including the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models, are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and non-structural systems can have damping ratios other than 5%, depending on various factors such as structural types, construction materials, level of ground motion excitations, among others. This report provides the findings of a comprehensive study to develop a new model for a Damping Scaling Factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE to spectral ordinates with damping ratios between 0.5 to 30%. Using the updated, 2011 version of the NGA database of ground motions recorded in worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions (i.e., the NGA-West2 database), dependencies of the DSF on variables including damping ratio, spectral period, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, duration, and local site conditions are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions are found to have less significant influence on DSF and are not included in the model. The proposed model for DSF provides functional forms for the median value and the logarithmic standard deviation of DSF. This model is heteroscedastic, where the variance is a function of the damping ratio. Damping Scaling Factor models are developed for the “average” horizontal ground motion components, i.e., RotD50 and GMRotI50, as well as the vertical component of ground motion.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacciarini, Thaís Santos Guerra; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-01-30

    to analyze the factor structure of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), adapted for Brazil. methodological study conducted with 150 individuals with diabetes mellitus cared for by the Family Health Strategy, most of whom are elderly with low educational levels. The test of the hypothesis concerning the confirmatory factor composition of the ASAS-R was performed using latent variables structural equations. the model's goodness-of-fit indexes were satisfactory (χ2 = 259.19; χ2/g.l = 2.97, p Estrategia Salud de la Familia. El test de hipótesis de la composición factorial confirmatoria de la escala ASAS-R fue realizado por medio del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para variables latentes. los valores de los índices de ajuste del modelo fueron satisfactorios (χ2 de 259,19; χ2/g.l de 2,97, p < 0,001; GFI = 0,85; RMR = 0,07; RMSEA = 0,09), las cargas factoriales fueron superiores a 0,40, la mayoría de las correlaciones ítem y factor varió de moderada a fuerte magnitud (0,34 la 0,58); valores de alfa total de 0,74 y de los tres factores de 0,69, 0,38 y 0,69, respectivamente. la estructura factorial de la escala obtuvo resultados satisfactorios de validez y de confiabilidad, excepto uno de sus factores. Es deseable que esa escala sea aplicada en muestras de la población general, para fortalecer los análisis de consistencia interna y de dimensionalidad de la estructura factorial; y se espera que este estudio pueda contribuir para avanzar en nuevas investigaciones que vengan a trabajar con el constructo de capacidad de autocuidado y con el desarrollo de la escala ASAS-R.

  5. Factors Influencing the Reliability of the Glasgow Coma Scale: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Florence Cm; Synnot, Anneliese; van den Brande, Ruben; Gruen, Russell L; Maas, Andrew Ir

    2017-06-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) characterizes patients with diminished consciousness. In a recent systematic review, we found overall adequate reliability across different clinical settings, but reliability estimates varied considerably between studies, and methodological quality of studies was overall poor. Identifying and understanding factors that can affect its reliability is important, in order to promote high standards for clinical use of the GCS. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that influence reliability and to provide an evidence base for promoting consistent and reliable application of the GCS. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from 1974 to July 2016. Studies assessing the reliability of the GCS in adults or describing any factor that influences reliability were included. Two reviewers independently screened citations, selected full texts, and undertook data extraction and critical appraisal. Methodological quality of studies was evaluated with the consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments checklist. Data were synthesized narratively and presented in tables. Forty-one studies were included for analysis. Factors identified that may influence reliability are education and training, the level of consciousness, and type of stimuli used. Conflicting results were found for experience of the observer, the pathology causing the reduced consciousness, and intubation/sedation. No clear influence was found for the professional background of observers. Reliability of the GCS is influenced by multiple factors and as such is context dependent. This review points to the potential for improvement from training and education and standardization of assessment methods, for which recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  6. Radiation-Induced Rib Fractures After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Risk Factors and Dose-Volume Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Kaori [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohnishi, Kayoko [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirata, Hideki [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence, the clinical risk factors, and the dose-volume relationship of radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen patients treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic lung cancer at our institution, with at least 6 months of follow-up and no previous overlapping radiation exposure, were included in this study. To determine the clinical risk factors associated with RIRF, correlations between the incidence of RIRF and the variables, including age, sex, diagnosis, gross tumor volume diameter, rib-tumor distance, and use of steroid administration, were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was also conducted. Regarding the maximum dose, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the rib, and the incidences of RIRF were compared between the two groups divided by the cutoff value determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: One hundred sixteen patients and 374 ribs met the inclusion criteria. Among the 116 patients, 28 patients (46 ribs) experienced RIRF. The estimated incidence of rib fracture was 37.7% at 3 years. Limited distance from the rib to the tumor (<2.0 cm) was the only significant risk factor for RIRF (p = 0.0001). Among the dosimetric parameters used for receiver operating characteristic analysis, the maximum dose showed the highest area under the curve. The 3-year estimated risk of RIRF and the determined cutoff value were 45.8% vs. 1.4% (maximum dose, {>=}42.4 Gy or less), 51.6% vs. 2.0% (V40, {>=}0.29 cm{sup 3} or less), 45.8% vs. 2.2% (V30, {>=}1.35 cm{sup 3} or less), 42.0% vs. 8.5% (V20, {>=}3.62 cm{sup 3} or less), or 25.9% vs. 10.5% (V10, {>=}5.03 cm{sup 3} or less). Conclusions: The incidence of RIRF after hypofractionated SBRT is relatively high. The maximum dose and high-dose volume are strongly correlated with RIRF.

  7. Prostate-specific antigen cancer volume: a significant prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients at intermediate risk of failing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, Scott P.; Pollack, Alan; Zagars, Gunar K.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen level (PSAL) is the single-most significant predictor of local and biochemical control in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, it is relatively insensitive for patients with a PSAL in the intermediate range (4-20 ng/ml). PSA density (PSAD) has been shown to be slightly more predictive of outcome than PSAL for this intermediate risk group; however, this improvement is small and of little use clinically. PSA cancer volume (PSACV), an estimate of cancer volume based on PSA, has recently been described and has been purported to be more significant t than PSAL in predicting early biochemical failure after radiotherapy. We report a detailed comparison between this new prognostic factor, PSAL, and PSAD. Methods and Materials: The records of 356 patients treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy for regionally localized (T1-4,Nx,M0) adenocarcinoma of the prostate were reviewed. Each patient had a PSAL, biopsy Gleason score, and pretreatment prostate volume by transrectal ultrasonography. The median PSAL was 9.3 ng/ml and 66% had Gleason scores in the 2-6 range. The median radiation dose was 66.0 Gy and the median follow-up for those living was 27 months. PSACV was calculated using a formula which takes into account PSAL, pretreatment prostate ultrasound volume, and Gleason score. The median PSACV was 1.43 cc. Biochemical failure was defined as increases in two consecutive follow-up PSA levels, one increase by a factor > 1.5, or an absolute increase of > 1 ng/ml. Local failure was defined as a cancer-positive prostate biopsy, obtained for evidence of tumor progression. Results: The distributions of PSACV and PSAL were similar and, when normalized by log transformation, were highly correlated (p < 0.0001, linear regression). There was a statistically significant relationship between PSACV and several potential prognostic factors including PSAL, PSAD, stage, Gleason score, and

  8. A Two-Factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model's fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model's adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  9. Training volume and body composition as risk factors for developing jumper's knee among young elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnes, H; Bahr, R

    2013-10-01

    Training volume and body composition have been suggested as risk factors for jumper's knee among athletic youth, but research is lacking. The aim of this 4-year prospective cohort study was to examine the relationship between training and competition load, body composition, and risk for developing jumper's knee. Participants are elite volleyball players, aged 16-18 years. Training and competition load was recorded continuously and body composition semiannually. Jumper's knee was diagnosed on a standardized clinical examination. We recruited 141 healthy students (69 males and 72 females), and 28 developed jumper's knee (22 boys and six girls). In a multivariate analyses, boys had three to four times higher risk compared with girls. Volleyball training had an odds ratio (OR) 1.72 (1.18-2.53) for every extra hour trained, and match exposure was the strongest sports-related predictor for developing jumper's knee with an OR of 3.88 (1.80-8.40) for every extra set played per week. We did not detect any significant differences between the groups in body composition at the time of inclusion or in the change of body composition during the study period. Conclusion, male gender, a high volume of volleyball training and match exposure were risk factors for developing jumper's knee. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Effects of Smoking on Platelet Count, Mean Platelet Volume and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhuşen Kutlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smoking and cholesterol levels are two important components of atherosclerosis. Mean platelet volume (MPV is an indicator of platelet function and activation and a potential marker of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of cigarette-smoking on platelet count, MPV and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: This research was planned as a case-control study. Patients who attended our family medicine outpatient clinic were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, hematological and biochemical parameters of the patients were recorded. Results: The mean age of 880 patients who participated in the study was 35.85±11.6 years (17-77. 54.5% (n=480 of participants were smokers and 45.5% (n=400 were non-smokers. The number of smokers among working individuals was higher than in non-workers. The white blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume and MPV values in the smokers were higher than in the non-smokers, while platelet count was higher in non-smokers (p<0.001. There was a statistically significant relationship between MPV levels and the number of daily cigarette smoking among smokers (p=0.014. Conclusion: MPV levels in smokers were significantly higher than in non-smokers. Platelet count and MPV levels should be investigated in larger patient groups in terms of atherosclerosis and other defined cardiovascular risk factors. It is therefore should take its rightful place in clinical practice.

  11. Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) in ethnically diverse college women: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoury, Liya M; Rozalski, Vincent; Barchard, Kimberly A; Warren, Cortney S

    2018-03-01

    Extant research suggests that disordered eating is common in college women and is associated with decreased quality of life. The Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) examines impairment to disordered eating-related quality of life, but has not been validated in college women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the EDQLS in a diverse sample of 971 college women. Students from a large United States university completed questionnaires examining disordered eating and the EDQLS online. The EDQLS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good convergent validity with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ). Contrary to the original 12-domain design of the EDQLS, principal component analyses suggested five factors that mapped onto the following constructs: (1) Positive Emotionality; (2) Body/Weight Dissatisfaction; (3) Disordered Eating Behaviors; (4) Negative Emotionality; and (5) Social Engagement. However, 15 of the 40 items loaded onto multiple factors. Total scores on the EDQLS are reliable and valid when used with diverse samples of college women, but some revisions are needed to create subscales than can justifiably be used in clinical practice.

  12. Preliminary factor analysis of the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale in a US sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Heman Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy framework, the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale (O’Kelly, in press was originally constructed in Australia to measure sex-role beliefs women may develop through sex-role stereotyping. Factor analysis of the 92 original items showed that 64 items loaded into a single component that accounted for 18.2% of the variance in a sample of 974 Australian women. The present exploratory study examined the psychometric properties of the OWBS in a sample of 202 women born and living in the US. A varimax rotation with cutoff eigenvalues of 3, showed that 37 items loaded into 3 components which accounted for 58.48% of the variance. The items were subsequently grouped into two factors: Ir- rationality, with a total of 27 items was created by merging component 1 and 3 (Pearson’s r = 0.8 between them, and Rationality, with the 10 items from component 2. Analyses indicated a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91 for Fac- tor 1, and a Cronbach’s alpha 0.74 for Factor 2. Results indicate that this version of the instrument may be used to evaluate both the rational and irrational content of sex-role beliefs of women born in the US.

  13. Strategic Decision-Making: Research Mapping from Exploratory Factor Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Ribeiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the connection between authors, concepts and theories that address strategic decision-making, in this article the citations and co-citations of works published up to 2014 were analyzed. The sample consists of 489 articles published in international periodicals included in the Web of Science-ISI Web of Knowledge database. The search was conducted using key words that enabled the identification of the highest possible number of articles on the subject in question. Through Multidimensional Scaling (MDS and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA, the conceptual and theoretical relationships involved in these studies were identified. The results show that from 1980 to 2014 three different factors are highlighted: the first has to do with studies on conflict; the second factor is the Top Management Team (TMT and decision-making; and the third is related to processes. More recently (2013-2014, studies on strategic decision-making are converging towards analysis of conflict and process, composition and control, with Upper Echelon Theory being maintained as the central theory in these studies. This finding is the main contribution of this article.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Heart Disease Knowledge Scale: Evidence from Item and Confirmatory Factor Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Chiu; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Arifin, Wan Nor; Ng, Kok Huan

    2016-07-01

    Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context. A cross-sectional, survey design was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the adapted English version of the Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (HDKQ). Using proportionate cluster sampling, 788 undergraduate students at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited and completed the HDKQ. Item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for the psychometric evaluation. Construct validity of the measurement model was included. Most of the students were Malay (48%), female (71%), and from the field of science (51%). An acceptable range was obtained with respect to both the difficulty and discrimination indices in the item analysis results. The difficulty index ranged from 0.12-0.91 and a discrimination index of ≥ 0.20 were reported for the final retained 23 items. The final CFA model showed an adequate fit to the data, yielding a 23-item, one-factor model [weighted least squares mean and variance adjusted scaled chi-square difference = 1.22, degrees of freedom = 2, P-value = 0.544, the root mean square error of approximation = 0.03 (90% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.04); close-fit P-value = > 0.950]. Adequate psychometric values were obtained for Malaysian undergraduate university students using the 23-item, one-factor model of the adapted HDKQ.

  15. The Factor Structure of the Polish-Language Version of the Romantic Beliefs Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Adamczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of Romantic Beliefs Scale (RBS; Sprecher & Metts, 1989. In a sample of 414 Polish university students aged 19-25 (227 females and 187 males, the factor structure of the original English version was confirmed for the four subscales: Love Finds a Way, One and Only, Idealization, and Love at First Sight. The present study provides evidence that the 15-item version of the Polish adaptation of the (RBS possesses a factor structure and psychometric properties comparable to the English-language version of RBS. It was shown to be a reliable self-report measure for romantic beliefs within a sample of the Polish population. The development of a new Polish measure of romantic beliefs has provided further validation for the RBS, and provided evidence in support of the ideology of romanticism in various populations, and indicated the importance of differentiating between the different types of romantic beliefs.

  16. On the factor structure of the Rosenberg (1965) General Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Eisenberg, Nancy; Łaguna, Mariola

    2015-06-01

    Since its introduction, the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale (RGSE, Rosenberg, 1965) has been 1 of the most widely used measures of global self-esteem. We conducted 4 studies to investigate (a) the goodness-of-fit of a bifactor model positing a general self-esteem (GSE) factor and 2 specific factors grouping positive (MFP) and negative items (MFN) and (b) different kinds of validity of the GSE, MFN, and MFP factors of the RSGE. In the first study (n = 11,028), the fit of the bifactor model was compared with those of 9 alternative models proposed in literature for the RGSE. In Study 2 (n = 357), the external validities of GSE, MFP, and MFN were evaluated using objective grade point average data and multimethod measures of prosociality, aggression, and depression. In Study 3 (n = 565), the across-rater robustness of the bifactor model was evaluated. In Study 4, measurement invariance of the RGSE was further supported across samples in 3 European countries, Serbia (n = 1,010), Poland (n = 699), and Italy (n = 707), and in the United States (n = 1,192). All in all, psychometric findings corroborate the value and the robustness of the bifactor structure and its substantive interpretation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry—scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2018-04-01

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  18. Individualized adjustments to reference phantom internal organ dosimetry-scaling factors given knowledge of patient external anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Michael B; Bolch, Wesley E

    2018-04-13

    Internal radiation dose estimates for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures are typically calculated for a reference individual. Resultantly, there is uncertainty when determining the organ doses to patients who are not at 50th percentile on either height or weight. This study aims to better personalize internal radiation dose estimates for individual patients by modifying the dose estimates calculated for reference individuals based on easily obtainable morphometric characteristics of the patient. Phantoms of different sitting heights and waist circumferences were constructed based on computational reference phantoms for the newborn, 10 year-old, and adult. Monoenergetic photons and electrons were then simulated separately at 15 energies. Photon and electron specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were computed for the newly constructed non-reference phantoms and compared to SAFs previously generated for the age-matched reference phantoms. Differences in SAFs were correlated to changes in sitting height and waist circumference to develop scaling factors that could be applied to reference SAFs as morphometry corrections. A further set of arbitrary non-reference phantoms were then constructed and used in validation studies for the SAF scaling factors. Both photon and electron dose scaling methods were found to increase average accuracy when sitting height was used as the scaling parameter (~11%). Photon waist circumference-based scaling factors showed modest increases in average accuracy (~7%) for underweight individuals, but not for overweight individuals. Electron waist circumference-based scaling factors did not show increases in average accuracy. When sitting height and waist circumference scaling factors were combined, modest average gains in accuracy were observed for photons (~6%), but not for electrons. Both photon and electron absorbed doses are more reliably scaled using scaling factors computed in this study. They can be effectively scaled using sitting

  19. More Thoughts on AG-SG Comparisons and SG Scale Factor Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Calvo, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Hinderer, Jacques

    2018-03-01

    We revisit a number of details that arise when doing joint AG-SG (absolute gravimeter-superconducting gravimeter) calibrations, focusing on the scale factor determination and the AG mean value that derives from the offset. When fitting SG data to AG data, the choice of which time span to use for the SG data can make a difference, as well as the inclusion of a trend that might be present in the fitting. The SG time delay has only a small effect. We review a number of options discussed recently in the literature on whether drops or sets provide the most accurate scale factor, and how to reject drops and sets to get the most consistent result. Two effects are clearly indicated by our tests, one being to smooth the raw SG 1 s (or similar sampling interval) data for times that coincide with AG drops, the other being a second pass in processing to reject residual outliers after the initial fit. Although drops can usefully provide smaller SG calibration errors compared to using set data, set values are more robust to data problems but one has to use the standard error to avoid large uncertainties. When combining scale factor determinations for the same SG at the same station, the expected gradual reduction of the error with each new experiment is consistent with the method of conflation. This is valid even when the SG data acquisition system is changed, or different AG's are used. We also find a relationship between the AG mean values obtained from SG to AG fits with the traditional short-term AG (`site') measurements usually done with shorter datasets. This involves different zero levels and corrections in the AG versus SG processing. Without using the Micro-g FG5 software it is possible to use the SG-derived corrections for tides, barometric pressure, and polar motion to convert an AG-SG calibration experiment into a site measurement (and vice versa). Finally, we provide a simple method for AG users who do not have the FG5-software to find an internal FG5 parameter that

  20. More Thoughts on AG-SG Comparisons and SG Scale Factor Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Calvo, Marta; Rosat, Severine; Hinderer, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    We revisit a number of details that arise when doing joint AG-SG (absolute gravimeter-superconducting gravimeter) calibrations, focusing on the scale factor determination and the AG mean value that derives from the offset. When fitting SG data to AG data, the choice of which time span to use for the SG data can make a difference, as well as the inclusion of a trend that might be present in the fitting. The SG time delay has only a small effect. We review a number of options discussed recently in the literature on whether drops or sets provide the most accurate scale factor, and how to reject drops and sets to get the most consistent result. Two effects are clearly indicated by our tests, one being to smooth the raw SG 1 s (or similar sampling interval) data for times that coincide with AG drops, the other being a second pass in processing to reject residual outliers after the initial fit. Although drops can usefully provide smaller SG calibration errors compared to using set data, set values are more robust to data problems but one has to use the standard error to avoid large uncertainties. When combining scale factor determinations for the same SG at the same station, the expected gradual reduction of the error with each new experiment is consistent with the method of conflation. This is valid even when the SG data acquisition system is changed, or different AG's are used. We also find a relationship between the AG mean values obtained from SG to AG fits with the traditional short-term AG (`site') measurements usually done with shorter datasets. This involves different zero levels and corrections in the AG versus SG processing. Without using the Micro-g FG5 software it is possible to use the SG-derived corrections for tides, barometric pressure, and polar motion to convert an AG-SG calibration experiment into a site measurement (and vice versa). Finally, we provide a simple method for AG users who do not have the FG5-software to find an internal FG5 parameter that

  1. The Factor Structure and Composite Reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among Ex-Prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Boduszek, Daniel; Hyland, Philip; Dhingra, Katie; Mallett, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure and composite reliability of the\\ud Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) using a sample of 669 ex-prisoners identified in the National Survey of American Life. Six distinct factor models, with uncorrelated measurement error terms, were specified and tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results indicated that the two-factor model consisting of positive and negative latent variables provided a better fit to the data than the al...

  2. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  3. Developments in international solid biofuel trade - an analysis of volumes, policies and market factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.; Junginger, H.M.; Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses international solid biofuel trade and concludes upon interactions with bioenergy policies and market factors. It shows that trade has grown from about 56 to 300 PJ between 2000 and 2010. Wood pellets grew strongest, i.e. from 8.5 to 120 PJ. Other relevant streams by

  4. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.

  5. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase

  6. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the School-Based Assessment Evaluation Scale Among Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hasnida Che Md. Ghazali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The school-based assessment (SBA system is a holistic assessment system that is conducted in schools by subject teachers in assessing the students cognitive (intellect, affective (emotional and spiritual and psychomotor (physical aspects. It is in line with the National Philosophy of Education and the Standards-based School Curriculum in Malaysia. In order to evaluate the implementation of SBA, a measurement scale was validated. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection. 776 primary and secondary school teachers were selected as respondents using stratified random sampling. The data was analyzed with SPSS and AMOS version 18. The aim of this paper was to explore different factor structures of the SBA evaluation scale by using the second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results indicated that the SBA evaluation model was a valid and reliable scale. The input measurement model was validated with two factors (personnel qualifications and physical infrastructure, process measurement model was validated with six factors (‘attitude’, ‘understanding’, ‘skills’, ‘challenges’, ‘moderation’ and ‘monitoring’ and product measurement model was validated with two factors (‘students’ attitude’ and ‘students’ motivation’. This study provides support for using a valid instrument in evaluating the implementation of SBA in schools. Furthermore, the CFA procedures used supported the conceptual framework set out earlier. Thus, it presents clearly the importance of the evaluation process of any education system to follow all the dimensions outlined in the evaluation model proposed by Daniel Stufflebeam.       Sistem Penilaian Berbasis Sekolah (SBA adalah sistem penilaian holistik yang dilakukan di sekolah-sekolah oleh guru mata pelajaran dalam menilai kognitif (kecerdasan, afektif (emosional dan spiritual dan psikomotorik (fisik siswa. Hal ini sejalan dengan Filsafat Pendidikan Nasional dan Kurikulum

  8. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  9. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  10. Probing the two-scale-factor universality hypothesis by exact rotation symmetry-breaking mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, J.F.S.; Lima, K.A.L.; Carvalho, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Fisica, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Sena-Junior, M.I. [Universidade de Pernambuco, Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We probe the two-scale-factor universality hypothesis by evaluating, firstly explicitly and analytically at the one-loop order, the loop quantum corrections to the amplitude ratios for O(N)λφ{sup 4} scalar field theories with rotation symmetry breaking in three distinct and independent methods in which the rotation symmetry-breaking mechanism is treated exactly. We show that the rotation symmetry-breaking amplitude ratios turn out to be identical in the three methods and equal to their respective rotation symmetry-breaking ones, although the amplitudes themselves, in general, depend on the method employed and on the rotation symmetry-breaking parameter. At the end, we show that all these results can be generalized, through an inductive process based on a general theorem emerging from the exact calculation, to any loop level and physically interpreted based on symmetry ideas. (orig.)

  11. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, I.J. E-mail: i.graham@gns.cri.nz; Barry, B.J.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Whitehead, N.E

    2000-10-01

    {sup 7}Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  12. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, I J; Ditchburn, R G; Whitehead, N E

    2000-01-01

    sup 7 Be produced in water targets by nuclear interactions of cosmic rays has been measured to determine cosmogenic nuclide production rates as a function of altitude (sea level to 2 km) and geomagnetic latitude (20-79 deg. S). Relative intensities of low energy cosmic ray neutrons have at the same time been measured using neutron monitors based on IGY/NM-64 designed to efficiently thermalise ca. 2-30 MeV neutrons. The research is on-going and we present here preliminary data from the past two years. Water target and neutron flux results are in general agreement, and are consistent with the altitude-dependent scaling factors of Lal [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 4241]. Significant differences between the sea level, latitude-dependent neutron flux data and Lal's predictions are possibly related to the response function of the detector.

  13. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Olckers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Empathy is a core competency in aiding individuals to address the challenges of social living. An indicator of emotional intelligence, it is useful in a globalising and cosmopolitan world. Moreover, managing staff, stakeholders and conflict in many social settings relies on communicative skills, of which empathy forms a large part. Empathy plays a pivotal role in negotiating, persuading and influencing behaviour. The skill of being able to empathise thus enables the possessor to attune to the needs of clients and employees and provides opportunities to become responsive to these needs. Research purpose: This study attempted to determine the construct validity of the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale within the South African context. Motivation for the study: In South Africa, a large number of psychometrical instruments have been adopted directly from abroad. Studies determining the construct validity of several of these imported instruments, however, have shown that these instruments are not suited for use in the South African context. Research design, approach and method: The study was based on a quantitative research method with a survey design. A convenience sample of 212 respondents completed the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale. The constructs explored were Suffering, Positive Sharing, Responsive Crying, Emotional Attention, a Feel for Others and Emotional Contagion. The statistical procedure used was a confirmatory factor analysis. Main findings: The study showed that, from a South African perspective, the Multi-dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale lacks sufficient construct validity. Practical/managerial implications: Further refinement of the model would provide valuable information that would aid people to be more appreciative of individual contributions, to meet client needs and to understand the motivations of others. Contribution/value-add: From a South African perspective, the findings of this study are

  14. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  15. Scale factor management in the studies of affine models of shockproof garment elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisov Oleg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New samples of protective garment for performing construction work at height require numerous tests in conditions close to real conditions of extreme vital activity. The article presents some results of shockproof garment element studies and a description of a patented prototype. The tests were carried out on a model which geometric dimensions were convenient for manufacturing it in a limited batch. In addition, the used laboratory equipment (for example, a unique power pendulum, blanks made of a titanium-nickel alloy with a shape memory effect also imposed their limitations. The problem of the adequacy of the obtained experimental results transfer to mass-produced products was solved using tools of the classical similarity theory. Scale factor management influence in the affine modeling of the shockproof element, studied on the basis of the equiatomic titanium-nickel alloy with the shape memory effect, allowed us to assume, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the technical possibility of extrapolating the results of experimental studies to full-scale objects for the formation of the initial data of the mathematical model of shockproof garment dynamics elastoplastic deformation (while observing the similarity of the features of external loading.

  16. Scale factor management in the studies of affine models of shockproof garment elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Oleg; Pleshko, Mikhail; Ponomareva, Irina; Merenyashev, Vitaliy

    2018-03-01

    New samples of protective garment for performing construction work at height require numerous tests in conditions close to real conditions of extreme vital activity. The article presents some results of shockproof garment element studies and a description of a patented prototype. The tests were carried out on a model which geometric dimensions were convenient for manufacturing it in a limited batch. In addition, the used laboratory equipment (for example, a unique power pendulum), blanks made of a titanium-nickel alloy with a shape memory effect also imposed their limitations. The problem of the adequacy of the obtained experimental results transfer to mass-produced products was solved using tools of the classical similarity theory. Scale factor management influence in the affine modeling of the shockproof element, studied on the basis of the equiatomic titanium-nickel alloy with the shape memory effect, allowed us to assume, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the technical possibility of extrapolating the results of experimental studies to full-scale objects for the formation of the initial data of the mathematical model of shockproof garment dynamics elastoplastic deformation (while observing the similarity of the features of external loading).

  17. A study on improvement of scaling factor prediction using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Hwang, Ki Ha; Kang, Sang Hee; Lee, Kun Jai

    2003-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste generated from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) requires the detailed knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in waste package. Many of these radionuclides are difficult to measure and expensive to assay. Thus it is suggested to the indirect method by which the concentrations of DTM (Difficult-to Measure) nuclide is decided using the relation of concentrations (Scaling Factor) between Key (Easy-to-Measure) nuclide and DTM nuclide with measured concentrations of Key nuclide. In general, scaling factor is determined by using of log mean average (LMA) and regression. These methods are adequate to apply most corrosion product nuclides. But in case of fission product nuclides and some corrosion product nuclides, the predicted values aren't well matched with the original values. In this study, the models using artificial neural network (ANN) for C-14 and Sr-90 are compared with those using LMA and regression. The assessment of models is executed in the two parts divided by a training part and a validation part. For all of two nuclides in the training part, the predicted values using ANN are well matched with the measured values compared with those using LMA and regression. In the validation part, the accuracy of the predicted values using ANN is better than that using LMA and is similar to or better than that using regression. It is concluded that the predicted values using ANN model are better than those using conventional model in some nuclides and ANN model can be used as the complement of LMA and regression model

  18. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 3. Volume 2. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    race-role identities are usually attributed to one of three factors: innate biological differences, cognitive-developmental parameters, or social...Improve facilities to be more gender fair 111 Chapter Four 4.7 REFERENCES Aburdene, P., & Naisbitt, J. (1992). Megatrends for women. New York... biological basis of personality. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas. Eysenck, S. B. G. & Eysenck, H. J. (1963). On the dual nature of extraversion. British

  19. 241-SY-101 strain concentration factor development via nonlinear analysis. Volume 1 of 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 waste storage tank at the Hanford-Site has been known to accumulate and release significant quantities of hydrogen gas. An analysis was performed to assess the tank's structural integrity when subjected to postulated hydrogen deflagration loads. The analysis addressed many nonlinearities and appealed to a strain-based failure criteria. The model used to predict the global response of the tank was not refined enough to confidently predict local peak strains. Strain concentration factors were applied at structural discontinuities that were based on steel-lined reinforced-concrete containment studies. The discontinuities included large penetrations, small penetrations, springline geometries, stud/liner connections, and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness transition. The only tank specific strain concentration factor applied in the evaluation was for the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch liner thickness change in the dome. Review of the tank drawings reveals the possibility that a 4 inches Sch. 40 pipe penetrates the dome thickness transition region. It is not obvious how to combine the strain concentration factors for a small penetration with that of a thickness transition to arrive at a composite strain concentration factor. It is the goal of this effort to make an approximate determination of the relative significance of the 4 inch penetration and the 1/2 inch to 3/8 inch thickness transition in the 241-SY-101 dome geometry. This is accomplished by performing a parametric study with three general finite-element models. The first represents the thickness transition only, the second represents a 4 inch penetration only, and the third combines the thickness transition with a penetration model

  20. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable

  1. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Human-system interfaces and procedures. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.D.; Henriksen, K.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. In addition, a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists served as subject matter experts. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present report focuses on an evaluation of the human-system interfaces in relation to the treatment machines and supporting equipment (e.g., simulators, treatment planning computers, control consoles, patient charts) found in the teletherapy environment. The report also evaluates operating, maintenance and emergency procedures and practices involved in teletherapy. The evaluations are based on the function and task analysis and established human engineering guidelines, where applicable.

  2. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilo, Clara, E-mail: clarabentesgrilo@gmail.com [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Ecologia de Estradas, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus Universitário, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  3. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  4. Residual Tumor After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Outside the Radiation Therapy Target Volume: A New Prognostic Factor for Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muijs, Christina; Smit, Justin; Karrenbeld, Arend; Beukema, Jannet; Mul, Veronique; Dam, Go van; Hospers, Geke; Kluin, Phillip; Langendijk, Johannes; Plukker, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation and clinical target volume (CTV) margins for neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) in esophageal carcinoma at pathologic examination and to determine the impact on survival. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 63 esophageal cancer patients treated with neo-CRT. GTV and CTV borders were demarcated in situ during surgery on the esophagus, using anatomical reference points to provide accurate information regarding tumor location at pathologic evaluation. To identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), a Cox regression analysis was performed. Results: After resection, macroscopic residual tumor was found outside the GTV in 7 patients (11%). Microscopic residual tumor was located outside the CTV in 9 patients (14%). The median follow-up was 15.6 months. With multivariate analysis, only microscopic tumor outside the CTV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-15.36), and perineural growth (HR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.27-26.13) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. The 1-year OS was 20% for patients with tumor outside the CTV and 86% for those without (P<.01). For DFS, microscopic tumor outside the CTV (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.89-18.54) and ypN+ (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.33-8.48) were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 1-year DFS was 23% versus 77% for patients with or without tumor outside the CTV (P<.01). Conclusions: Microscopic tumor outside the CTV is associated with markedly worse OS after neo-CRT. This may either stress the importance of accurate tumor delineation or reflect aggressive tumor behavior requiring new adjuvant treatment modalities

  5. Diffusion effects on volume-selective NMR at small length scales; Diffusionseffekte in volumenselektiver NMR auf kleinen Laengenskalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaedke, Achim

    2009-01-21

    In this thesis, the interplay between diffusion and relaxation effects in spatially selective NMR experiments at short length scales is explored. This is especially relevant in the context of both conventional and mechanically detected MRI at (sub)micron resolution in biological specimens. Recent results on selectively excited very thin slices showed an in-slice-magnetization recovery orders of magnitude faster than the longitudinal relaxation time T1. However, those experiments were run on fully relaxed samples while MRI and especially mechanically detected NMR experiments are typically run in a periodic fashion with repetition times far below T1. The main purpose of this work therefore was to extend the study of the interplay between diffusion and longitudinal relaxation to periodic excitations. In some way, this is inverse phenomenon to the DESIRE (Diffusive Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) approach, proposed 1992 by Lauterbur. Experiments on periodically excited thin slices were carried out at a dedicated static field gradient cryomagnet with magnetic field gradients up to 180 T/m. In order to obtain plane slices, an appropriate isosurface of the gradient magnet had to be identified. It was found at a field of 3.8 T with a gradient of 73 T/m. In this field, slices down to a thickness of 3.2 {mu}m could be excited. The detection of the NMR signal was done using FIDs instead of echoes as the excitation bandwidth of those thin slices is sufficiently small to observe FIDs which are usually considered to be elusive to detection in such strong static field gradients. A simulation toolbox based on the full Bloch-Torrey-equation was developed to describe the excitation and the formation of NMR signals under those unusual conditions as well as the interplay of diffusion and magnetization recovery. Both the experiments and the simulations indicate that diffusion effects lead to a strongly enhanced magnetization modulation signal also under periodic excitation

  6. Passion: Does one scale fit all? Construct validity of two-factor passion scale and psychometric invariance over different activities and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Parker, Philip; Morin, Alexandre J S; Carbonneau, Noémie; Jowett, Sophia; Bureau, Julien S; Fernet, Claude; Guay, Frédéric; Salah Abduljabbar, Adel; Paquet, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    The passion scale, based on the dualistic model of passion, measures 2 distinct types of passion: Harmonious and obsessive passions are predictive of adaptive and less adaptive outcomes, respectively. In a substantive-methodological synergy, we evaluate the construct validity (factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity) of Passion Scale responses (N = 3,571). The exploratory structural equation model fit to the data was substantially better than the confirmatory factor analysis solution, and resulted in better differentiated (less correlated) factors. Results from a 13-model taxonomy of measurement invariance supported complete invariance (factor loadings, factor correlations, item uniquenesses, item intercepts, and latent means) over language (French vs. English; the instrument was originally devised in French, then translated into English) and gender. Strong measurement partial invariance over 5 passion activity groups (leisure, sport, social, work, education) indicates that the same set of items is appropriate for assessing passion across a wide variety of activities--a previously untested, implicit assumption that greatly enhances practical utility. Support was found for the convergent and discriminant validity of the harmonious and obsessive passion scales, based on a set of validity correlates: life satisfaction, rumination, conflict, time investment, activity liking and valuation, and perceiving the activity as a passion.

  7. Factor structure and correlates of the Mandarin version of the Managing the Emotions of Others (MEOS) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saklofske, Donald H; Austin, Elizabeth J; Yan, Gonggu; Smith, Martin M

    2016-02-01

    The English-language version of the Managing the Emotions of Others (MEOS) scale has been found to have a six-factor structure. This includes two pairs (Enhance, Divert and Worsen, Inauthentic) that respectively describe prosocial and non-prosocial interpersonal emotion management, together with an emotional concealment factor (Conceal) and a factor assessing poor self-rated emotional skills. A Mandarin translation of the MEOS was completed by 277 Chinese student participants. Factor analysis indicated a four-factor structure comprising a merged Enhance/Divert factor, together with Worsen, Inauthentic and Conceal factors. The emergence of a different factor structure compared to Western samples may be related to culture-dependent attitudes to emotional expression. The associations of the MEOS factors with Five-Factor model personality, the Dark Triad and trait emotional intelligence (EI) were examined; these were similar to but generally weaker than those found for the English-language version. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S.; Univ. of Bonn

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak trademark) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume ( 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator

  9. Planck/SDSS Cluster Mass and Gas Scaling Relations for a Volume-Complete redMaPPer Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno, Pablo; Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, Tom; De Martino, I.; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    Using Planck satellite data, we construct Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) gas pressure profiles for a large, volume-complete sample of optically selected clusters. We have defined a sample of over 8,000 redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), within the volume-complete redshift region 0.100 trend towards larger break radius with increasing cluster mass. Our SZ-based masses fall ˜16% below the mass-richness relations from weak lensing, in a similar fashion as the "hydrostatic bias" related with X-ray derived masses. Finally, we derive a tight Y500-M500 relation over a wide range of cluster mass, with a power law slope equal to 1.70 ± 0.07, that agrees well with the independent slope obtained by the Planck team with an SZ-selected cluster sample, but extends to lower masses with higher precision.

  10. Correlation between psychological factors and the cerebellar volume of normal young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Soon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la relación entre el volumen del cerebelo de adultos normales en la tercera década de la vida (20-29 años y varios factores psicológicos. El volumen del cerebelo de 118 sujetos (media de edad 23 ± 2,6 años, incluyendo 58 varones (media de edad 24 ± 2,8 años y 60 mujeres (media de edad, 21,9 ± 2,1 años, fue medido utilizando la imagen por resonancia magnética (IRM. Todos los participantes completaron los siguientes tests: Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas (SCL-90-R, Cuestionario de Personalidad de Tipo A, El cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado Korean YZ, El Cuestionario de 16 Factores de la Personalidad (16PF, y la Escala Autoadministrada de Depresión (EAD. Utilizando regresión linear, se analizó la relación entre el volumen del cerebelo y factores psicológicos. Sin considerar las diferencias entre géneros, en cuanto crecía la tendencia hacia la personalidad tipo A y se incrementaba el estado de ansiedad y la fuerza del superego, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo. Cuando se incrementaba la fuerza del ego, se incrementaba el volumen del cerebelo. Cuando se consideraban las diferencias de género, cuando incrementaba la ansiedad fóbica y ambición en varones, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo. En mujeres, cuando incrementaba la hostilidad, tensión y la ansiedad estado, disminuía el volumen del cerebelo.

  11. Internalized Homophobia Scale for Gay Chinese Men: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengjia; Hood, Ralph W

    2018-04-01

    This study reports the development of an inventory to assess the perceived internalized homophobia of gay men in a collectivistic Chinese cultural context. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using two samples suggested the viability and stability of a three-factor model: internalized heteronormativity (IHN), family-oriented identity (FOI), and socially oriented identity (SOI). The 11-item internalized homophobia inventory demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Internalized homophobia was related positively to the extent of a sense of loneliness and negatively to self-evaluation and the discrepancy in self-identification as a gay man. In addition, the participants' internalized SOI consistently predicted their coming out choices in their social surroundings, while their FOI predicted their decisions to enter into heterosexual marriages. The findings suggest that sexual self-prejudice was correlated with IHN, family values, and social norms. The present research demonstrates that a culturally sensitive scale is necessary to understand the cultural and family-oriented values that influence gay Chinese men's everyday lives, self-constructs, and behavioral choices.

  12. Identifying practice-related factors for high-volume prescribers of antibiotics in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    practice-related factors driving high antibiotic prescribing rates. Results: We included 98% of general practices in Denmark (n = 1962) and identified a 10% group of high prescribers who accounted for 15% of total antibiotic prescriptions and 18% of critically important antibiotic prescriptions. Once case...... prescriptions issued over the phone compared with all antibiotic prescriptions; and a high number of consultations per 1000 patients. We also found that a low number of consultations per 1000 patients was associated with a reduced likelihood of being a high prescriber of antibiotics. Conclusions: An apparent...

  13. Feasibility of developing a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research: Technical tasks. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Spelt, P.F.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase, multi-year research program entitled ``development of a portable driver performance data acquisition system for human factors research`` was recently completed. The primary objective of the project was to develop a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) that will allow drive performance data to be collected using a large variety of vehicle types and that would be capable of being installed on a given vehicle type within a relatively short-time frame. During phase 1 a feasibility study for designing and fabricating DASCAR was conducted. In phase 2 of the research DASCAR was actually developed and validated. This technical memorandum documents the results from the feasibility study. It is subdivided into three volumes. Volume one (this report) addresses the last five items in the phase 1 research and the first issue in the second phase of the project. Volumes two and three present the related appendices, and the design specifications developed for DASCAR respectively. The six tasks were oriented toward: identifying parameters and measures; identifying analysis tools and methods; identifying measurement techniques and state-of-the-art hardware and software; developing design requirements and specifications; determining the cost of one or more copies of the proposed data acquisition system; and designing a development plan and constructing DASCAR. This report also covers: the background to the program; the requirements for the project; micro camera testing; heat load calculations for the DASCAR instrumentation package in automobile trunks; phase 2 of the research; the DASCAR hardware and software delivered to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; and crash avoidance problems that can be addressed by DASCAR.

  14. Baseline metabolic tumour volume is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, Salim; Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Dygai-Cochet, Inna; Cochet, Alexandre; Humbert, Olivier; Toubeau, Michel; Brunotte, Francois [Centre G.F. Leclerc, Medecine nucleaire, Dijon (France); Rossi, Cedric; Ferrant, Emmanuelle [Hopital Le Bocage - CHU Dijon, Hematologie Clinique, Dijon Cedex (France); Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Hopital Le Bocage - CHU Dijon, Hematologie Clinique, Dijon Cedex (France); Universite de Bourgogne, Inserm U866, Labex team, Faculte de medecine, Dijon (France)

    2014-09-15

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a predictor of a poor outcome. The total metabolic tumour volume at baseline (TMTV0) computed on PET may improve the evaluation of tumour burden. To explore the clinical usefulness of TMTV0, we compared the prognostic value of TMTV0, tumour bulk and interim PET response in a retrospective single-centre study. From 2007 to 2010, 59 consecutive patients with a first diagnosis of HL were treated in our institution. PET was done at baseline (PET0) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (PET2), and treatment was not modified according to the PET2 result. TMTV0 was measured with a semiautomatic method using a 41 % SUVmax threshold. SUVmax reduction between PET0 and PET2 (ΔSUVmaxPET0-2) was also computed. Based on ROC analysis, patients with a ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 >71 % were considered good responders and a TMTV0 >225 ml was considered to represent hypermetabolic bulky disease. Median TMTV0 was 117 ml and 17 patients (29 %) had a TMTV0 >225 ml. TMTV0 (>225 ml vs. ≤225 ml) and tumour bulk (<10 cm vs. ≥10 cm) were predictive of 4-year PFS: 42 % vs. 85 % (p = 0.001) and 44 % vs. 79 % (p < 0.03), respectively. In multivariate analysis, using ΔSUVmaxPET0-2, TMTV0 and bulky tumour as covariates, only ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 (p = 0.0005, RR 6.3) and TMTV0 (p < 0.006, RR 4.4) remained independent predictors of PFS. Three prognosis groups were thus identified: ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 >71 % and TMTV0 ≤225 ml (n = 37, 63 %), ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 = <71 % or TMTV0 >225 ml (n = 17, 29 %), and ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 = <71 % and TMTV0 >225 ml (n = 5, 8 %). In these three groups the 4-year PFS rates were 92 %, 49 %, and 20 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. TMTV0 is more relevant than tumour bulk for predicting the outcome in patients with HL, and adds a significant prognostic insight to interim PET response assessment. The combination of TMTV0 and ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 made it possible to identify three subsets of HL patients with different outcomes. This may

  15. Dementia knowledge assessment scale (DKAS): confirmatory factor analysis and comparative subscale scores among an international cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annear, Michael J; Toye, Chris; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; McInerney, Frances; Eccleston, Claire; Robinson, Andrew

    2017-07-31

    Dementia is a life-limiting condition that is increasing in global prevalence in line with population ageing. In this context, it is necessary to accurately measure dementia knowledge across a spectrum of health professional and lay populations with the aim of informing targeted educational interventions and improving literacy, care, and support. Building on prior exploratory analysis, which informed the development of the preliminarily valid and reliable version of the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKAS), a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to affirm construct validity and proposed subscales to further increase the measure's utility for academics and educators. A large, de novo sample of 3649 volunteer respondents to a dementia-related online course was recruited to evaluate the performance of the DKAS and its proposed subscales. Respondents represented diverse cohorts, including health professionals, students, and members of the general public. Analyses included CFA (using structural equation modelling), measures of internal consistency (α), and non-parametric tests of subscale correlation (Spearman Correlation) and score differences between cohorts (Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance). Findings of the CFA supported a 25-item, four-factor model for the DKAS with two items removed due to poor performance and one item moved between factors. The resultant model exhibited good reliability (α = .85; ω h  = .87; overall scale), with acceptable subscale internal consistency (α ≥ .65; subscales). Subscales showed acceptable correlation without any indication of redundancy. Finally, total and DKAS subscale scores showed good discrimination between cohorts of respondents who would be anticipated to hold different levels of knowledge on the basis of education or experience related to dementia. The DKAS has been confirmed as a reliable and valid measure of dementia knowledge for diverse populations that is capable of elucidating

  16. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Volume 2, Function and task analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Gwynne, J.W. III; Kelly, T.T.; Muckler, F.A. [Pacific Science and Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States); Saunders, W.M.; Lepage, R.P.; Chin, E. [University of California San Diego Medical Center, CA (United States). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Schoenfeld, I.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-05-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the first phase of the project, which involved an extensive function and task analysis of RAB. This analysis identified the functions and tasks in RAB, made preliminary estimates of the likelihood of human error in each task, and determined the skills needed to perform each RAB task. The findings of the function and task analysis served as the foundation for the remainder of the project, which evaluated four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training and qualifications of RAB staff; and organizational practices and policies. At its completion, the project identified and prioritized areas for recommended NRC and industry attention based on all of the evaluations and analyses.

  17. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy. Volume 2, Function and task analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.R.; Gwynne, J.W. III; Kelly, T.T.; Muckler, F.A.; Saunders, W.M.; Lepage, R.P.; Chin, E.; Schoenfeld, I.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-05-01

    A human factors project on the use of nuclear by-product material to treat cancer using remotely operated afterloaders was undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of the project was to identify factors that contribute to human error in the system for remote afterloading brachytherapy (RAB). This report documents the findings from the first phase of the project, which involved an extensive function and task analysis of RAB. This analysis identified the functions and tasks in RAB, made preliminary estimates of the likelihood of human error in each task, and determined the skills needed to perform each RAB task. The findings of the function and task analysis served as the foundation for the remainder of the project, which evaluated four major aspects of the RAB system linked to human error: human-system interfaces; procedures and practices; training and qualifications of RAB staff; and organizational practices and policies. At its completion, the project identified and prioritized areas for recommended NRC and industry attention based on all of the evaluations and analyses

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Dutch Version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.; Kerkmeer, M.C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The latent factor structure of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) was examined with a series of confirmatory factor analyses. As part of the Dutch standardization, 1,188 healthy participants completed the WMS-IV-NL. Four models were tested for the Adult Battery

  19. Factor structure and correlates of the acceptance of cosmetic surgery scale among South Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hwang, Choon-Sup; Jung, Jaehee

    2012-02-01

    Research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery has focused on relatively affluent Western samples, to the exclusion of non-Western samples and any potential cross-cultural differences. While rates of cosmetic surgery in South Korea have risen sharply in the past decade, mirroring rates in other East Asian nations, little is known about attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in the Korean population. To examine the factor structure and correlates of a Korean adaptation of the previously-published Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS). South Korean university students (N = 267) completed the ACSS, as well as included Korean translations of measures for actual vs. ideal body weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, and demographics. The Korean ACSS reduced to a two-factor solution, mirroring results among other non-Western samples, although a one-factor solution was deemed more plausible. Compared to men, women had significantly higher total scores, suggesting that they were more accepting of cosmetic surgery. A multiple regression showed that, after controlling for the effects of participant sex, the only significant predictor of acceptance of cosmetic surgery was general body appreciation, suggesting that some may view cosmetic surgery as a means of enhancing their body image. The results reveal important global information for plastic surgeons-not only on the treatment of non-Western patients but on the South Korean market, in which the cosmetic surgery industry remains unregulated. Given the popularity and acceptance of cosmetic surgery in South Korea, there is an urgent need for regulatory intervention to ensure patient safety and satisfaction.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale: A factor analysis and item-response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Switzer, Fred S; Munc, Alec; Donnelly, Janet; Jellen, Julia C; Lamm, Claus

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) in two languages, German and English. Students from a university in Austria (N = 292; 55 males; mean age = 18.71 ± 1.71 years; 237 females; mean age = 18.24 ± 0.88 years) and a university in the US (N = 329; 128 males; mean age = 18.71 ± 0.88 years; 201 females; mean age = 21.59 ± 2.27 years) completed the ESS. An exploratory-factor analysis was completed to examine dimensionality of the ESS. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to provide information about the response rates on the items on the ESS and provide differential item functioning (DIF) analyses to examine whether the items were interpreted differently between the two languages. The factor analyses suggest that the ESS measures two distinct sleepiness constructs. These constructs indicate that the ESS is probing sleepiness in settings requiring active versus passive responding. The IRT analyses found that overall, the items on the ESS perform well as a measure of sleepiness. However, Item 8 and to a lesser extent Item 6 were being interpreted differently by respondents in comparison to the other items. In addition, the DIF analyses showed that the responses between German and English were very similar indicating that there are only minor measurement differences between the two language versions of the ESS. These findings suggest that the ESS provides a reliable measure of propensity to sleepiness; however, it does convey a two-factor approach to sleepiness. Researchers and clinicians can use the German and English versions of the ESS but may wish to exclude Item 8 when calculating a total sleepiness score.

  1. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 3. Operator information needs summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents a summary of operator information needs, identifying the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  2. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  3. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  4. Ischemic Volume and Neurological Deficit: Correlation of Computed Tomography Perfusion with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanis, Giovanni; Ajčević, Miloš; Stragapede, Lara; Lugnan, Carlo; Ridolfi, Mariana; Caruso, Paola; Naccarato, Marcello; Ukmar, Maja; Manganotti, Paolo

    2018-04-30

    The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is the most adopted stroke patients' evaluation tool in emergency settings to assess the severity of stroke and to determine the patients' eligibility for specific treatments. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is crucial to identify salvageable tissue that can benefit from the reperfusion treatment. The aim of this study is to identify the relation between the NIHSS scores and the hypoperfused volumes evaluated by CTP in patients with hyperacute ischemic stroke. This retrospective study was conducted on 105 patients with ischemic stroke who underwent NIHSS assessment and CTP in the hyperacute phase. Hypoperfused volume was evaluated by CTP maps processed with semi-automatic algorithm. An analysis was conducted to determine the degree of correlation between the NIHSS scores and the ischemic lesion volumes and to investigate the relation between the anterior and the posterior circulation strokes, as well as between the right and the left hemispheric strokes. A significant correlation was found between ischemic volume and NIHSS score at baseline (r = .82; P correlation was identified in the anterior circulation stroke (r = .76; P correlated for the left and the right hemispheric strokes (r = .83 and .81; P correlation between the baseline NIHSS score and the ischemic volume estimated by CTP. We confirmed that NIHSS is a reliable predictor of perfusion deficits in acute ischemic stroke. CTP allows fast imaging assessment in the hyperacute phase. The results highlight the importance of these diagnostic tools in the assessment of stroke severity and in acute decision-making. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  6. Body Appreciation Scale: Evaluation of the Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties among Male and Female Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkide BAKALIM

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS was developed by Avalos, Tylka & Wood-Barcalow (2005 to determine body appreciation. The present study examined the factor structure of the BAS among Turkish women and men university students. For this purpose, confirmatory factor analysis (competing model analysis was conducted to evaluate the factor structure the BAS. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis on 741 university student (431 women; 310 men suggested that a two-factor model with four items deleted represents an adequate description of the data, and best of the factor model proposed. In terms of convergent validity of the scale a negative and significant correlation was found between body appreciation and social appearance anxiety for women and men samples. The Turkish version of the BAS demonstrated adequate internal consistency and composite reliability. Finally, findings from t-test analysis showed that the BAS scores did not differ according to gender.

  7. Analysis of the forced vibration test of the Hualien large scale soil-structure interaction model using a flexible volume substructuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Nakamura, N.

    1995-01-01

    A 1/4-scale cylindrical reactor containment model was constructed in Hualien, Taiwan for foil-structure interaction (SSI) effect evaluation and SSI analysis procedure verification. Forced vibration tests were executed before backfill (FVT-1) and after backfill (FVT-2) to characterize soil-structure system characteristics under low excitations. A number of organizations participated in the pre-test blind prediction and post-test correlation analyses of the forced vibration test using various industry familiar methods. In the current study, correlation analyses were performed using a three-dimensional flexible volume substructuring method. The results are reported and soil property sensitivities are evaluated in the paper. (J.P.N.)

  8. [A photographic scale for evaluating facial pores and analysis of factors associated with pore widening in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Cheng-xia; Meng, Hui-min; Wang, Xi; Li, Li

    2010-09-01

    To develop a photographic scale for grading widening of pores, and to identify the factors associated with pore widening. People with widened pores were recruited, with photographs taken on their nasal tips, nasal alas and cheeks. A questionnaire survey was undertaken by dermatologists to assess the severity of pore widening. A Cumulative Logit Model was established to identify factors that were associated with pore widening. A total of 115 people participated in the study and 562 photographs were taken. The photographic scale was highly consistent with the clinical judgment. Another 1011 residents aged from 18 to 70 years old in Chengdu were surveyed. The logit model revealed that facial pore widening were associated with gender, age, oily skin, sun protection and anti-aging cosmetic. The photographic scale is reliable and easy to use. Gender, age and oily skin are risk factors, and sun protection and anti-aging cosmetic are protective factors with related to pore widening.

  9. Effects of current density and electrolyte temperature on the volume expansion factor of anodic alumina formed in oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F.; Baron-Wiecheć, A.; Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Curioni, M.; Habazaki, H.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic alumina in 0.4 M oxalic acid is investigated over a range of current density and electrolyte temperature using sputtering-deposited substrates containing tungsten tracer layers. The findings reveal volume expansion factors and efficiencies of film growth that increase with the increase of the current density and decrease of the temperature. Pore generation by the flow of the anodic alumina in the barrier layer toward the pore walls is proposed to dominate at relatively high current densities (above ∼2 mA cm −2 ), with tungsten tracer species being retained within films. Conversely, losses of tungsten species occur at lower current densities, possibly due to increased field-assisted ejection of Al 3+ ions and/or field-assisted dissolution of the anodic alumina.

  10. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  11. SAFETY FACTOR SCALING OF ENERGY TRANSPORT IN L-MODE PLASMAS ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETTY, C.C.; KINSEY, J.E.; LUCE, T.C.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The scaling of energy transport with safety factor (q) at fixed magnetic shear has been measured on the DIII-D tokamak [Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] for low confinement (L) mode discharges. At constant density, temperature, and toroidal magnetic field strength, such that the toroidal dimensionless parameters other than q are held fixed, the one-fluid thermal diffusivity is found to scale like χ ∝ q 0.84±0.15 , with the ion channel having a stronger q dependence than the electron channel in the outer half of the plasma. The measured q scaling is in good agreement with the predicted scaling by the GLF23 transport model for the ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes, but it is significantly weaker than the inferred scaling from empirically-derived confinement scaling relations

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis and sample invariance of the Chinese version of Somatosensory Amplification Scale (ChSAS) among Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, B. K.; Wong, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Chinese version of Somatosensory Amplification Scale (ChSAS) in a sample of Chinese adolescents across different grade levels using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods: A total of 1991 Chinese adolescents completed the ChSAS. CFA assessed the fit of the one-factor model to the entire sample. Factorial invariance of the ChSAS was also examined across grade levels using multigroup CFA. Results: Results of CFA confirmed ...

  13. Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and Clinical Factors Associated With Pleural Effusion After Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Katsuyuki; Tamaki, Yoshio; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Murata, Kazutoshi; Satoh, Yumi; Higuchi, Keiko; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical factors as predictors of pleural effusion in esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-three esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive CRT from January 2001 to March 2007 were reviewed retrospectively on the basis of the following criteria: pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer, available computed tomography scan for treatment planning, 6-month follow-up after CRT, and radiation dose ≥50 Gy. Exclusion criteria were lung metastasis, malignant pleural effusion, and surgery. Mean heart dose, mean total lung dose, and percentages of heart or total lung volume receiving ≥10-60 Gy (Heart-V 10 to V 60 and Lung-V 10 to V 60 , respectively) were analyzed in relation to pleural effusion. Results: The median follow-up time was 26.9 months (range, 6.7-70.2) after CRT. Of the 43 patients, 15 (35%) developed pleural effusion. By univariate analysis, mean heart dose, Heart-V 10 to V 60 , and Lung-V 50 to V 60 were significantly associated with pleural effusion. Poor performance status, primary tumor of the distal esophagus, and age ≥65 years were significantly related with pleural effusion. Multivariate analysis identified Heart-V 50 as the strongest predictive factor for pleural effusion (p = 0.01). Patients with Heart-V 50 50 50 ≥40% had 6%, 44%, and 64% of pleural effusion, respectively (p 50 is a useful parameter for assessing the risk of pleural effusion and should be reduced to avoid pleural effusion.

  14. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm 2 . For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm 2 , yielding good statistic results. (paper)

  15. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm2. For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm2, yielding good statistic results.

  16. Determination of correlation and scaling factors of radionuclides in the contaminated soils from experimental lysimetric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulanska, S.

    2009-04-01

    contaminated soils of the experimental lysimeter has been found by the classical least-square method. The pair correlation coefficient R suggests the statistical significance of the y i =b 0 + b 1 a( 241 Am) regression model in which yi is the activity of examined radionuclides 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu. The statistical significance of the scaling regression models has been confirmed with the Fisher-Snedecor test and also with high values of pair-correlation coefficients R and D for all contaminated soil samples. Given results confirm theoretical assumptions of a possible correlation between investigated alpha radionuclides ( 238 Pu, 239 , 240 Pu, 241 Am) but do not confirm correlations with strontium ( 90 Sr) in such a complicated matrix like the experimental lysimeter soil. It appears that a combined approach using sufficient amount of experimental data and adequate statistical treatment is necessary for the hypothetic model verification. Based on this, a costly and lengthy radiochemical analysis of one of the investigated alpha radionuclides can be consequently replaced by a statistical factor connecting its content with another alpha radionuclide using a mathematical model. Determination of the activity of a radionuclide in contaminated soil may be determined by indirect methods such as an use of the scaling model, which relate the inferred activity concentration of one radionuclide to another that is measured. 241 Am and 239 , 240 Pu were selected as a suitable key nuclide for the determination of parameter linear scaling model for monitoring of radionuclides in the contaminated lysimer soil. The mechanism 239 , 240 Pu is similar as that of 241 Am and 238 Pu which also have similar chemical and physical properties. The scaling model was calculated with 239 , 240 Pu as the indicator variable for estimated radionuclides 238 Pu, 241 Am or with 241 Am as the indicator variable for estimated radionuclides 2 39 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu. The 239 , 240 Pu fraction is the most prominent

  17. Considering the spatial-scale factor when modelling sustainable land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Considering the spatial-scale factor when modelling sustainable land management. J.Bouma Em.prof. soil science, Wageningen University, Netherlands. Modelling soil-plant processes is a necessity when exploring future effects of climate change and innovative soil management on agricultural productivity. Soil data are needed to run models and traditional soil maps and the associated databases (based on various soil Taxonomies ), have widely been applied to provide such data obtained at "representative" points in the field. Pedotransferfunctions (PTF)are used to feed simulation models, statistically relating soil survey data ( obtained at a given point in the landscape) to physical parameters for simulation, thus providing a link with soil functionality. Soil science has a basic problem: their object of study is invisible. Only point data are obtained by augering or in pits. Only occasionally roadcuts provide a better view. Extrapolating point to area data is essential for all applications and presents a basic problem for soil science, because mapping units on soil maps, named for a given soil type,may also contain other soil types and quantitative information about the composition of soil map units is usually not available. For detailed work at farm level ( 1:5000-1:10000), an alternative procedure is proposed. Based on a geostatistical analysis, onsite soil observations are made in a grid pattern with spacings based on a geostatistical analysis. Multi-year simulations are made for each point of the functional properties that are relevant for the case being studied, such as the moisture supply capacity, nitrate leaching etc. under standardized boundary conditions to allow comparisons. Functional spatial units are derived next by aggregating functional point data. These units, which have successfully functioned as the basis for precision agriculture, do not necessarily correspond with Taxonomic units but when they do the Taxonomic names should be noted . At lower

  18. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 2; CFD RSRM Full-Scale Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full-scale analyses of the CFD RSRM. The RSRM model was developed with a 20 second burn time. The following are presented as part of the full-scale analyses: (1) RSRM embedded inclusion analysis; (2) RSRM igniter nozzle design analysis; (3) Nozzle Joint 4 erosion anomaly; (4) RSRM full motor port slag accumulation analysis; (5) RSRM motor analysis of two-phase flow in the aft segment/submerged nozzle region; (6) Completion of 3-D Analysis of the hot air nozzle manifold; (7) Bates Motor distributed combustion test case; and (8) Three Dimensional Polysulfide Bump Analysis.

  19. Competitiveness of small-medium reactors. A probabilistic study on the economy of scale factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, A.; Locatelli, G.; Trucco, P.

    2009-01-01

    Smaller size reactors are able to play an important role in the worldwide nuclear renaissance. The major disadvantage of those new reactors - the unit size - would label the small-medium size reactors as not economically competitive with larger plants. But, the economy of scale law applies only if the designs are similar, which is not the case here, since the SMRs are designed with original and innovative solutions not accessible to large size reactors: the IRIS reactor is used as an example of small medium reactors (SMR), but the analyses and conclusions are applicable to the whole spectrum of SMRs. The aim of this paper is to present latest advances in the differential economical assessment of Generation Cost of SMRs compared to LRs. The international literature has started to present studies focused on the two major differential accounts of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost - Captial Costs ($/kWe) and Operation and Maintenance Costs ($/kWh) - providing deterministic values for the main cost drivers (i.e. economy of scale, multiple units, learning during construction, design characteristics and modular build, shorter construction time for CC, economy of scale location of the plant, number of units, capacity factor, learning by doing, plant obsolescence for O and M costs). Since the modern SMR market is in the early stages of development, it is necessary to consider also the uncertainties associated to current estimates of those cost drivers. When available, the uncertainty has been integrated in the Open Model assigning a probabilistic distribution to the input value of each cost driver. As Far as other cost drivers are concerned, parametric analyses are still under development and uncertainty analyses are not available: thus, conservative but realistic values for both of them have been assumed. Some reasonable future scenarios have been assumed, considering the private operator perspective for a single plant investment and postulating, among the others

  20. Large-scale production and properties of human plasma-derived activated Factor VII concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomokiyo, K; Yano, H; Imamura, M; Nakano, Y; Nakagaki, T; Ogata, Y; Terano, T; Miyamoto, S; Funatsu, A

    2003-01-01

    An activated Factor VII (FVIIa) concentrate, prepared from human plasma on a large scale, has to date not been available for clinical use for haemophiliacs with antibodies against FVIII and FIX. In the present study, we attempted to establish a large-scale manufacturing process to obtain plasma-derived FVIIa concentrate with high recovery and safety, and to characterize its biochemical and biological properties. FVII was purified from human cryoprecipitate-poor plasma, by a combination of anion exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography, using Ca2+-dependent anti-FVII monoclonal antibody. To activate FVII, a FVII preparation that was nanofiltered using a Bemberg Microporous Membrane-15 nm was partially converted to FVIIa by autoactivation on an anion-exchange resin. The residual FVII in the FVII and FVIIa mixture was completely activated by further incubating the mixture in the presence of Ca2+ for 18 h at 10 degrees C, without any additional activators. For preparation of the FVIIa concentrate, after dialysis of FVIIa against 20 mm citrate, pH 6.9, containing 13 mm glycine and 240 mm NaCl, the FVIIa preparation was supplemented with 2.5% human albumin (which was first pasteurized at 60 degrees C for 10 h) and lyophilized in vials. To inactivate viruses contaminating the FVIIa concentrate, the lyophilized product was further heated at 65 degrees C for 96 h in a water bath. Total recovery of FVII from 15 000 l of plasma was approximately 40%, and the FVII preparation was fully converted to FVIIa with trace amounts of degraded products (FVIIabeta and FVIIagamma). The specific activity of the FVIIa was approximately 40 U/ micro g. Furthermore, virus-spiking tests demonstrated that immunoaffinity chromatography, nanofiltration and dry-heating effectively removed and inactivated the spiked viruses in the FVIIa. These results indicated that the FVIIa concentrate had both high specific activity and safety. We established a large-scale manufacturing process of human plasma

  1. The leaf-level emission factor of volatile isoprenoids: caveats, model algorithms, response shapes and scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ü. Niinemets

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In models of plant volatile isoprenoid emissions, the instantaneous compound emission rate typically scales with the plant's emission potential under specified environmental conditions, also called as the emission factor, ES. In the most widely employed plant isoprenoid emission models, the algorithms developed by Guenther and colleagues (1991, 1993, instantaneous variation of the steady-state emission rate is described as the product of ES and light and temperature response functions. When these models are employed in the atmospheric chemistry modeling community, species-specific ES values and parameter values defining the instantaneous response curves are often taken as initially defined. In the current review, we argue that ES as a characteristic used in the models importantly depends on our understanding of which environmental factors affect isoprenoid emissions, and consequently need standardization during experimental ES determinations. In particular, there is now increasing consensus that in addition to variations in light and temperature, alterations in atmospheric and/or within-leaf CO2 concentrations may need to be included in the emission models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for less volatile isoprenoids, mono- and sesquiterpenes, the emissions are often jointly controlled by the compound synthesis and volatility. Because of these combined biochemical and physico-chemical drivers, specification of ES as a constant value is incapable of describing instantaneous emissions within the sole assumptions of fluctuating light and temperature as used in the standard algorithms. The definition of ES also varies depending on the degree of aggregation of ES values in different parameterization schemes (leaf- vs. canopy- or region-scale, species vs. plant functional type levels and various

  2. Exploratory study of the major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, S.J.; Borcherding, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The data for this study were collected at six nuclear power plant construction sites spread throughout the United States. The geographical distribution included two projects from the Midwest and one site from each the Deep South, North Central, Southwest, and Northeast regions of the nation. The range for stage of completion varied from between approximately four and seventy-seven percent. Two of the projects were utilizing boiling water reactors (BWR) while the balance of the sites made use of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems. All of the installations had generating capacities approximately equal to 1200 megawatts per unit. The primary objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive investigation of the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity by means of a sampling comprised of five hundred seventy-six union and open shop carpenters, electricians, and pipefitters. The overall average amount of time lost due to delays obtaining materials and tools, overcrowded working conditions, interferences between crews, postponements relating to quality control inspections, and waiting for and/or receiving instructions was estimated by the tradesmen to be 24.12 manhours per individual on a weekly basis. Thus, a minimum of 60.3% of each tradesman's time is lost due to one of the aforementioned predicaments. Conversely, this figure accounts for a maximum possible level of direct work activity equal to 39.7% and is not inclusive of any personal breaks or late starts/early quits. The combined mean duration that was speculated for rework activities at all six sites totaled 5.77 manhours per craftsman per week. The summation of these two estimates yields a value of 29.89 manhours showing that only slightly more than twenty-five percent of each worker's time is allocated to productive endeavors for activities being engaged in for the first time

  3. The counterintuitive role of extra-column volume in the determination of column efficiency and scaling of chromatographic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze-Jena, A.; Boon, M.A.; Bussmann, P.J.Th.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Padt, van der A.

    2017-01-01

    In industrial liquid separation processes chromatography often has a key function in the optimization of yield and purity. For the design of an industrial system, chromatographic processes are generally simulated using mathematical models, tested and optimized at laboratory level, and then scaled

  4. The counterintuitive role of extra-column volume in the determination of column efficiency and scaling of chromatographic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze-Jena, A.; Boon, M.A.; Bussmann, P.J.T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Padt, A. van der

    2017-01-01

    In industrial liquid separation processes chromatography often has a key function in the optimization of yield and purity. For the design of an industrial system, chromatographic processes are generally simulated using mathematical models, tested and optimized at laboratory level, and then scaled up

  5. The Limits and Possibilities of International Large-Scale Assessments. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 2, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David J.; Prusinski, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the Center for Evaluation & Education Policy (CEEP) at Indiana University is often asked about how international large-scale assessments influence U.S. educational policy. This policy brief is designed to provide answers to some of the most frequently asked questions encountered by CEEP researchers concerning the three most popular…

  6. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parsons, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    The full scale ground test, ground vibration test, and flight tests conducted to demonstrate a composite structure stabilizer for the Boeing 737 aircraft and obtain FAA certification are described. Detail tools, assembly tools, and overall production are discussed. Cost analyses aspects covered include production costs, composite material usage factors, and cost comparisons.

  7. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Injury Risk Factors in a Small-Scale Gold Mining Community in Ghana's Upper East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rachel N; Sun, Kan; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-07-24

    Occupational injury is one of many health concerns related to small-scale gold mining (ASGM), but few data exist on the subject, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011 and 2013, we examined accidents, injuries, and potential risk factors in a Ghanaian ASGM community. In 2011, 173 participants were surveyed on occupational history and health, and 22 of these were surveyed again in 2013. Injury rates were estimated at 45.5 and 38.5 injuries per 100 person-years in 2011 and in 2013, respectively; these rates far surpass those of industrialized mines in the U.S. and South Africa. Demographic and job characteristics generally were not predictive of injury risk, though there was a significant positive association with injury risk for males and smokers. Legs and knees were the most common body parts injured, and falling was the most common cause of injury. The most common type of injuries were cuts or lacerations, burns and scalds, and contusions and abrasions. Only two miners had ever received any occupational safety training, and PPE use was low. Our results suggest that injuries should be a priority area for occupational health research in ASGM.

  9. Importance of spatial factors and temporal scales in environmental risk assessment in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, A.; Linkov, I.; Andrizhievski, A.; Lukashevich, A.; Trifonov, A.

    2004-01-01

    second model, the velocity of receptor's migration in each cell is inversely proportional to the forage volume and habitat quality presented. The model allows depicting the receptor migration traces within habitat area. The model also gives possibility to implement two principal algorithms. The basic or deterministic algorithm is when the receptor migration within habitat area is equiprobable and the concentration fields of contaminants in forage resources are averaged all over the migration area. The semi-probabilistic algorithm reflects the probability of the receptor's presence and duration of presence in the given zones taking into account habitat quality and attractiveness of various forage resources in these zones. The spatial distribution of concentration of the contaminants in forage resources of habitat area is also taken into account. The later algorithm allows revealing many interesting effects that may specify exposure assessment, e.g., some data on incorporated activity and their deviation depends on configuration of migration zone. It was shown in model calibration study that exposure estimates for fish, anthozoa and other aquatic populations in areas containing spatially localized contaminants are functions of spatial factors, such as the receptor's average foraging area, the size of the habitat, and the specific distribution of contamination. We present a software prototype that calculates accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls by fishes and their higher order predators, including humans. This study was partially supported by GEF/UNDP and NATO. (author)

  10. Understanding Antipsychotic Drug Treatment Effects: A Novel Method to Reduce Pseudospecificity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Seth C; Ogirala, Ajay; Loebel, Antony; Koblan, Kenneth S

    2017-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is the most widely used efficacy measure in acute treatment studies of schizophrenia. However, interpretation of the efficacy of antipsychotics in improving specific symptom domains is confounded by moderate-to-high correlations among standard (Marder) PANSS factors. The authors review the results of an uncorrelated PANSS score matrix (UPSM) transform designed to reduce pseudospecificity in assessment of symptom change in patients with schizophrenia. Based on a factor analysis of five pooled, placebo-controlled lurasidone clinical trials (N=1,710 patients), a UPSM transform was identified that generated PANSS factors with high face validity (good correlation with standard Marder PANSS factors), and high specificity/orthogonality (low levels of between-factor correlation measuring change during treatment). Between-factor correlations were low at baseline for both standard (Marder) PANSS factors and transformed PANSS factors. However, when measured change in symptom severity was measured during treatment (in a pooled 5-study analysis), there was a notable difference for standard PANSS factors, where changes across factors were found to be highly correlated (factors exhibited pseudospecificity), compared to transformed PANSS factors, where factor change scores exhibited the same low levels of between-factor correlation observed at baseline. At Week 6-endpoint, correlations among PANSS factor severity scores were moderate-to-high for standard factors (0.34-0.68), but continued to be low for the transformed factors (-0.22-0.20). As an additional validity check, we analyzed data from one of the original five pooled clinical trials that included other well-validated assessment scales (MADRS, Negative Symptom Assessment scale [NSA]). In this baseline analysis, UPSM-transformed PANSS factor severity scores (negative and depression factors) were found to correlate well with the MADRS and NSA. The availability of transformed

  11. Family socialization practices: factor confirmation of the portuguese versión of a scale for their measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo; Martinez Sanchez, Clara Maria Isabel; Yubero, Santiago; GarcÍa Pérez, Jose Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The ESPA29 parental socialization scale allows for the measuring of four parental styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and negligent), considering the parents? use of different socialization practices considered in this instrument, which are grouped into two factors or two independent dimensions of paternal conduct (acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition). The objective of this study was to analyze the factorial structure of the Brazilian version of the Scale...

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing between Blacks and Whites of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaNoue, Marianna; Harvey, Abby; Mautner, Dawn; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    The factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale remains in question. Additionally, research on health belief differences between Black and White respondents suggests that the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale may not be invariant. We reviewed the literature regarding the latent variable structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the three-factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and analyzed between-group differences in the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control structure and means across Black and White respondents. Our results indicate differences in means and structure, indicating more research is needed to inform decisions regarding whether and how to deploy the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control appropriately.

  13. Scale-Free Nonparametric Factor Analysis: A User-Friendly Introduction with Concrete Heuristic Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    Most researchers using factor analysis extract factors from a matrix of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. A method is presented for extracting factors in a non-parametric way, by extracting factors from a matrix of Spearman rho (rank correlation) coefficients. It is possible to factor analyze a matrix of association such that…

  14. Assembly Discontinuity Factors for the Neutron Diffusion Equation discretized with the Finite Volume Method. Application to BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, A.; Roman, J.E.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method is proposed to solve the eigenvalue problem of the Neutron Diffusion Equation in BWR. • The Neutron Diffusion Equation is discretized with the Finite Volume Method. • The currents are calculated by using a polynomial expansion of the neutron flux. • The current continuity and boundary conditions are defined implicitly to reduce the size of the matrices. • Different structured and unstructured meshes were used to discretize the BWR. - Abstract: The neutron flux spatial distribution in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) can be calculated by means of the Neutron Diffusion Equation (NDE), which is a space- and time-dependent differential equation. In steady state conditions, the time derivative terms are zero and this equation is rewritten as an eigenvalue problem. In addition, the spatial partial derivatives terms are transformed into algebraic terms by discretizing the geometry and using numerical methods. As regards the geometrical discretization, BWRs are complex systems containing different components of different geometries and materials, but they are usually modelled as parallelepiped nodes each one containing only one homogenized material to simplify the solution of the NDE. There are several techniques to correct the homogenization in the node, but the most commonly used in BWRs is that based on Assembly Discontinuity Factors (ADFs). As regards numerical methods, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is feasible and suitable to be applied to the NDE. In this paper, a FVM based on a polynomial expansion method has been used to obtain the matrices of the eigenvalue problem, assuring the accomplishment of the ADFs for a BWR. This eigenvalue problem has been solved by means of the SLEPc library.

  15. The factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents: development of a brief version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Iris; Aderka, Idan M; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-06-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA-SR) is a validated instrument for the assessment of social anxiety in youth. The three main objectives of the present study were to (a) examine the factor structure of the LSAS-CA-SR; (b) to validate the factors against relevant personality measures, and (c) to create a brief and reliable version of the questionnaire. A total of 1,362 adolescents completed self-report measures of social anxiety, temperament, character and personality traits. The factor structure was examined using a combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The analysis was conducted on both the anxiety and avoidance sub-scales, and identical items for both sub-scales were maintained. Two factors emerged: social interaction and school performance. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and a significant correlation with relevant self-report measures. A brief version comprised of 14 items was highly correlated (0.96) with the full version. The new factor structure represents advancement over the previous efforts, and holds promise for efficient utilization of the LSAS-CA.

  16. Factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Exploratory factor analyses with the 16 primary and secondary subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W; Dombrowski, Stefan C

    2016-08-01

    The factor structure of the 16 Primary and Secondary subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample was examined with exploratory factor analytic methods (EFA) not included in the WISC-V Technical and Interpretive Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Factor extraction criteria suggested 1 to 4 factors and results favored 4 first-order factors. When this structure was transformed with the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization procedure, the hierarchical g-factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance while the 4 first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance; rendering interpretation at the factor index level less appropriate. Although the publisher favored a 5-factor model where the Perceptual Reasoning factor was split into separate Visual Spatial and Fluid Reasoning dimensions, no evidence for 5 factors was found. It was concluded that the WISC-V provides strong measurement of general intelligence and clinical interpretation should be primarily, if not exclusively, at that level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Factor Structure and Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale: Results from the 1972 Psychology Today Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Frederick

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, the first major national study on body image was conducted under the auspices of Psychology Today. Body image was assessed with the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, which examined the dissatisfaction people experienced with 24 aspects of their bodies. Despite the continued reliance on this scale and reference to the study, data on the factor structure of this measure in a sample of adults have never been published, and citations of the original scale have relied on an unpublished manuscript (Bohrnstedt, 1977. An exploratory factor analysis conducted on 2,013 adults revealed factors for men (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Body, Mid Torso, Upper Torso, Height and women (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Torso, Mid Torso, Extremities, Breast. The factors were weakly to moderately intercorrelated, suggesting the scale can be analyzed by items, by subscales, or by total score. People who reported more dissatisfaction with their body also tended to report lower self-esteem and less comfort interacting with members of the other sex. The analyses provide a useful comparison point for researchers looking to examine gender differences in dissatisfaction with specific aspects of the body, as well as the factor structures linking these items.

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  19. Analysis and test for space shuttle propellant dynamics (1/10th scale model test results). Volume 1: Technical discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R. L.; Tegart, J. R.; Demchak, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Space shuttle propellant dynamics during ET/Orbiter separation in the RTLS (return to launch site) mission abort sequence were investigated in a test program conducted in the NASA KC-135 "Zero G" aircraft using a 1/10th-scale model of the ET LOX Tank. Low-g parabolas were flown from which thirty tests were selected for evaluation. Data on the nature of low-g propellant reorientation in the ET LOX tank, and measurements of the forces exerted on the tank by the moving propellent will provide a basis for correlation with an analytical model of the slosh phenomenon.

  20. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Erik P; Mazziotti, David A

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.

  1. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A., E-mail: damazz@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.

  2. SCALE FACTOR DETERMINATION METHOD OF ELECTRO-OPTICAL MODULATOR IN FIBER-OPTIC GYROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Aleynik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We propose a method for dynamic measurement of half-wave voltage of electro-optic modulator as part of a fiber optic gyroscope. Excluding the impact of the angular acceleration o​n measurement of the electro-optical coefficient is achieved through the use of homodyne demodulation method that allows a division of the Sagnac phase shift signal and an auxiliary signal for measuring the electro-optical coefficient in the frequency domain. Method. The method essence reduces to decomposition of step of digital serrodyne modulation in two parts with equal duration. The first part is used for quadrature modulation signals. The second part comprises samples of the auxiliary signal used to determine the value of the scale factor of the modulator. Modeling is done in standalone model, and as part of a general model of the gyroscope. The applicability of the proposed method is investigated as well as its qualitative and quantitative characteristics: absolute and relative accuracy of the electro-optic coefficient, the stability of the method to the effects of angular velocities and accelerations, method resistance to noise in actual devices. Main Results. The simulation has showed the ability to measure angular velocity changing under the influence of angular acceleration, acting on the device, and simultaneous measurement of electro-optical coefficient of the phase modulator without interference between these processes. Practical Relevance. Featured in the paper the ability to eliminate the influence of the angular acceleration on the measurement accuracy of the electro-optical coefficient of the phase modulator will allow implementing accurate measurement algorithms for fiber optic gyroscopes resistant to a significant acceleration in real devices.

  3. Analysis of supply chain, scale factor, and optimum plant capacity for the production of ethanol from corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboreiro, Jose; Hilaly, Ahmad K.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed model is used to perform a thorough analysis on ethanol production from corn stover via the dilute acid process. The biomass supply chain cost model accounts for all steps needed to source corn stover including collection, transportation, and storage. The manufacturing cost model is based on work done at NREL; attainable conversions of key process parameters are used to calculate production cost. The choice of capital investment scaling function and scaling parameter has a significant impact on the optimum plant capacity. For the widely used exponential function, the scaling factors are functions of plant capacity. The pre-exponential factor decreases with increasing plant capacity while the exponential factor increases as the plant capacity increases. The use of scaling parameters calculated for small plant capacities leads to falsely large optimum plants; data from a wide range of plant capacities is required to produce accurate results. A mathematical expression to scale capital investment for fermentation-based biorefineries is proposed which accounts for the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) as well as the exponential nature of all other plant equipment. Ignoring the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors leads to artificially large optimum plant capacities. The minimum production cost is found to be in the range of 789–830 $ m −3 which is significantly higher than previously reported. Optimum plant capacities are in the range of 5750–9850 Mg d −1 . The optimum plant capacity and production cost are highly sensitive to farmer participation in biomass harvest for low participation rates. -- Highlights: •A detailed model is used to perform a technoeconomic analysis for the production of ethanol from corn stover. •The capital investment scaling factors were found to be a function of plant capacity. •Bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) in large size

  4. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knybel, Lukas [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Cvek, Jakub, E-mail: Jakub.cvek@fno.cz [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P<.001). Motion amplitudes >15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P<.001). Interfraction variations and baseline changes >3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe

  5. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knybel, Lukas; Cvek, Jakub; Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P 15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P 3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe tumors; higher interfraction amplitude variability indicated tumors in contact

  6. Elevated post-void residual volume in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in women-associated factors and risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Maria S; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo

    2018-04-09

    Multiple factors contribute to elevated post-void residual urine volumes (PVR), but they may indicate detrusor underactivity (DU), especially in older women. The aim here was to examine factors associated with and prognostic significance of elevated PVR in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in a female population. Consecutive female hip fracture patients (n = 409) aged 65 years and older were included. PVR was measured by bladder scanner. PVR of 160 ml or more was deemed elevated. Age-adjusted univariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the domains of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) with elevated PVR. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the age-adjusted association of an elevated PVR with 1-year mortality. Of the patients, 64 (15.6%) had elevated PVR. Having urinary or fecal incontinence, difficulties in physical activities of daily living, malnutrition, poor performance on Timed Up and Go and Elderly Mobility Scale were significantly associated with elevated PVR. Difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living, renal dysfunction, constipation, polypharmacy, nocturia, cognitive impairment and depressive mood were not associated with elevated PVR. Elevated PVR significantly increased the risk of mortality 1 year post hip fracture. Elevated PVR is relatively common in older female hip fracture patients and associated with physical functioning, malnutrition and risk of mortality. Even though a causal relationship cannot be confirmed, the findings may suggest a relationship between DU and physical frailty. PVR deserves to be included in the CGA of frail older patients including women.

  7. Measuring chronic condition self-management in an Australian community: factor structure of the revised Partners in Health (PIH) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Harvey, Peter; Lawn, Sharon; Harris, Melanie; Battersby, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the factor structure of the revised Partners in Health (PIH) scale for measuring chronic condition self-management in a representative sample from the Australian community. A series of consultations between clinical groups underpinned the revision of the PIH. The factors in the revised instrument were proposed to be: knowledge of illness and treatment, patient-health professional partnership, recognition and management of symptoms and coping with chronic illness. Participants (N = 904) reporting having a chronic illness completed the revised 12-item scale. Two a priori models, the 4-factor and bi-factor models were then evaluated using Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis (BCFA). Final model selection was established on model complexity, posterior predictive p values and deviance information criterion. Both 4-factor and bi-factor BCFA models with small informative priors for cross-loadings provided an acceptable fit with the data. The 4-factor model was shown to provide a better and more parsimonious fit with the observed data in terms of substantive theory. McDonald's omega coefficients indicated that the reliability of subscale raw scores was mostly in the acceptable range. The findings showed that the PIH scale is a relevant and structurally valid instrument for measuring chronic condition self-management in an Australian community. The PIH scale may help health professionals to introduce the concept of self-management to their patients and provide assessment of areas of self-management. A limitation is the narrow range of validated PIH measurement properties to date. Further research is needed to evaluate other important properties such as test-retest reliability, responsiveness over time and content validity.

  8. Development and analysis of the factor structure of parents' internalized stigma of neurodevelopmental disorder in child scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, frequently face public stigma which is often internalized and leads to psychological burden. However, there is a lack of data on the perceptions of internalized stigma among parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially from lower-middle-income countries like India. Aims: This study aims to develop an adapted version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale for use in parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders and to explore the factor structure of this instrument through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient setting in a tertiary care hospital in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition were recruited for the study after screening for psychiatric disorder using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 6.0. A modified 16-item scale was constructed Parents' Internalized Stigma of Neurodevelopmental Disorder in Child (PISNC scale and applied on 105 parents of children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, after translation to Hindi and back-translation, in keeping with the World Health Organization's translation-back-translation methodology. Statistical Analysis: EFA was carried out using principal component analysis with orthogonal (varimax rotation. Internal consistency of the Hindi version of the scale was estimated in the form of Cronbach's alpha. Spearman–Brown coefficient and Guttman split-half coefficient were calculated to evaluate the split-half reliability. Results: The initial factor analysis yielded three-factor models with an eigenvalue of >1 and the total variance explained by these factors was 62.017%. The internal consistency of the 16-item scale was 0

  9. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenming; Zhou, Yunchao; Wang, Shijie

    2018-01-01

    Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m) were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km2, 4.50 km2, and 1.87 km2, respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content. PMID:29652811

  10. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km2, 4.50 km2, and 1.87 km2, respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenming; Zhou, Yunchao; Wang, Shijie; Huang, Xianfei

    2018-04-13

    Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m) were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km², 4.50 km², and 1.87 km², respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content.

  12. Evaluation of stratification factors and score-scales in clinical trials of treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektoen, L; Ødegaard, S A; Løken, T; Larsen, S

    2004-05-01

    There is often a need to reduce sample size in clinical trials due to practical limitations and ethical considerations. Better comparability between treatment groups by use of stratification in the design, and use of continuous outcome variables in the evaluation of treatment results, are two methods that can be used in order to achieve this. In this paper the choice of stratification factors in trials of clinical mastitis in dairy cows is investigated, and two score-scales for evaluation of clinical mastitis are introduced. The outcome in 57 dairy cows suffering from clinical mastitis and included in a clinical trial comparing homeopathic treatment, placebo and a standard antibiotic treatment is investigated. The strata of various stratification factors are compared across treatments to determine which other factors influence outcome. The two score scales, measuring acute and chronic mastitis symptoms, respectively, are evaluated on their ability to differentiate between patients classified from clinical criteria as responders or non-responders to treatment. Differences were found between the strata of the factors severity of mastitis, lactation number, previous mastitis this lactation and bacteriological findings. These factors influence outcome of treatment and appear relevant as stratification factors in mastitis trials. Both score scales differentiated between responders and non-responders to treatment and were found useful for evaluation of mastitis and mastitis treatment.

  13. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Mark A [The Dow Chemical Company

    2014-08-27

    The project started in September, 2012 with the goal of scaling up from the existing laboratory scale process for producing carbon fiber (CF) from polyolefin (PO) based precursor fiber using a Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization process. The award was used to develop a process that was capable of producing market development quantities of CF from PO precursor fiber at a rate of 4 kg/h of CF. The CF would target properties that met or exceeded the Department of Energy (DOE) Vehicles Technology [1] standard; i.e., 172 GPa modulus and 1.72 GPa strength at greater than or equal to 1% strain. The Dow proprietary process was capable of meeting and exceeding these targets properties. Project DE-EE0005760 resulted from a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Dow and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with support from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and DOE. In the first budget period, the main goal was to design a sulfonation-desulfonation market development plant capable of stabilizing PO precursor fiber at a rate of 5 kg/h using a sulfonation solution. The detailed design, location, and cost estimate were determined as scheduled in the Project Management Plan (PMP). In parallel with this DOE award project was a fundamentals and economic evaluation funded by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow). The goal of the Dow sponsored project was to finalize the mass balances, energy balances, and levelized cost to produce CF using the Dow process. A Go-No-Go decision was scheduled in June, 2013 based on the findings of the DOE sponsored scale up project and the Dow sponsored project. In June, 2013, Dow made the No-Go decision to halt and abandon the Dow proprietary sulfonation-desulfonation process for stabilizing PO precursor fibers for the manufacturing of CF. This No-Go decision was identified in the original proposal and at the start of this project, and the decision was made as scheduled. The decision was based

  14. Acoustic measurements of a full-scale rotor with four tip shapes. Volume 1: Text, appendices A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, M.

    1984-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter with four different blade-tip geometries was tested in the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. Performance, loads, and noise were measured. The four tip shapes tested were rectangular, tapered, swept, and swept-tapered. Noise measurements from that test are presented in the form of tables and plots. The noise data include measurements of the sound pressure level in dB, dBA, and tone-corrected PNdB, for all of the conditions tested. Detailed measurements, 1/3-octave spectra and time-histories for some selected data are included as well as plots of dBA as function of test condition. Some performance measurements are given to aid interpretation of the noise data.

  15. Environmental factors at different spatial scales governing soil fauna community patterns in fragmented forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Silva, P.; Berg, M.P.; Serrano, A.R.M.; Dubs, F.; Sousa, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in community structure of soil organisms may result from a myriad of processes operating at a hierarchy of spatial scales, from small-scale habitat conditions to species movements among patches and large-sale landscape features. To disentangle the relative importance of

  16. Importance of proper scaling of aerobic power when relating to cardiometabolic risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, Robert; Hosick ‎, Peter; Bugge, Anna

    2011-01-01

    . VO(2max) was estimated in mL/min from cycle ergometry and scaled to body mass (kg), fat free mass (kg(FFM)), body surface area (m(2)), height (cm) and allometric (mL/kg(0.67)/min). RESULTS: Unadjusted correlations between CMRF and many of the scaled VO(2max) units were significant (p

  17. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wenxin He, Qiming Zheng, Yutian Ji, Chanchan Shen, Qisha Zhu, Wei Wang Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods: We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion: The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, body image, factor analysis, questionnaire development

  18. Distribution Patterns of the Freshwater Oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Influenced by Environmental Factors in Streams on a Korean Nationwide Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejin Kang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic oligochaetes are very common in streams, and are used as biological assessment indicators as well as in the biological management of organic-enriched systems. In this study, we analyzed the effects of environmental factors influencing the distribution of aquatic oligochaetes Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri in streams. We used 13 environmental factors in three categories (i.e., geography, hydrology, and physicochemistry. Data on the distribution of oligochaetes and environmental factors were obtained from 1159 sampling sites throughout Korea on a nationwide scale. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were performed to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of aquatic oligochaetes and environmental factors. A random forest model was used to evaluate the relative importance of the environmental factors affecting the distribution of oligochaetes. HCA classified sampling sites into four groups according to differences in environmental factors, and NMDS ordination reflected the differences of environmental factors, in particular, water depth, velocity, and altitude, among the four groups defined in the HCA. Furthermore, using a random forest model, turbidity and water velocity were evaluated as highly important factors influencing the distribution of L. hoffmeisteri.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale: A Rasch rating scale analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar M; Cyders, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale in a sample of college students. Participants were 318 college students (36.2% men; mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 6.4 years). The psychometric properties of this Spanish version were analyzed using the Rasch model, and the factor structure was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The verification of the global fit of the data showed adequate indexes for persons and items. The reliability estimates were high for both items and persons. Differential item functioning across gender was found for 23 items, which likely reflects known differences in impulsivity levels between men and women. The factor structure of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P replicates previous work with the original UPPS-P Scale. Overall, results suggest that test scores from the Spanish version of the UPPS-P show adequate psychometric properties to accurately assess the multidimensional model of impulsivity, which represents the most exhaustive measure of this construct. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  1. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  2. Validation of the Factor Structure of the Positive Life Assets Scale for High School Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Suriyadeo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factor structure of the Positive Life Assets Scale (PLAS), a new measure to identify both internal and external life assets among high school students in Thailand, and to further examine the usefulness of the PLAS for a comprehensive, developmental, and strengths-based school and community…

  3. The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale: Factor Analytic Evidence and Associations with Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Burks, Alixandra C.; Golom, Frank D.; Stroud, Caroline H.; Graham, James L.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the psychometric properties of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. Findings included (1) a three-factor structure (i.e., Negative Identity, Identity Uncertainty, Identity Superiority); (2) less positive identities among HIV-positive persons, African Americans, males, and bisexuals; and (3) convergent patterns with subjective…

  4. Quantifying the impact of environmental factors on arthropod communities in agricultural landscapes across organizational levels and spatial scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, O.; Maelfait, J.P.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Hendrickx, F.; Billeter, R.; Speelmans, M.; Augenstein, I.; Aukema, B.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Diekötter, T.; Dirksen, J.; Frenzel, M.; Herzog, F.; Liira, J.; Roubalova, M.; Bugter, R.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. In landscapes influenced by anthropogenic activities, such as intensive agriculture, knowledge of the relative importance and interaction of environmental factors on the composition and function of local communities across a range of spatial scales is important for maintaining biodiversity. 2. We

  5. A Practical Guide to Assessing Adult Firesetters' Fire-Specific Treatment Needs Using the Four Factor Fire Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Tyler, Nichola; Gannon, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners working with offenders who have set fires have access to very few measures examining fire-specific treatment needs (e.g., fire interest, fire attitudes). In this article we examine the new Four Factor Fire Scales (Ó Ciardha et al., 2015), which may be used by practitioners to examine fire-specific treatment needs for offenders who have set deliberate fires. We present a standardized scoring procedure when using these scales, as well as an associated scoring template for practitioner use. Norm data are based on male and female firesetters (n = 378) and nonfiresetters (n = 187) recruited from 19 prison establishments (including six female establishments, one young offender institution) and 12 secure mixed-gender mental health settings. We present a full overview of all data we have collected to date relating to the Four Factor Fire Scales across prison, mental health, and young offending participants. For each population, we present mean scores as well as associated cutoff scores and reliable change indices to aid practitioners in their interpretation of scores. The Four Factor Fire Scales provide professionals working in the area with a robust template for administering, scoring, and interpreting the fire-specific factors currently identified as playing a role in deliberate firesetting behavior. Strengths and limitations of the measure are discussed.

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition in an Australian Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshott, Felicity C.; Marsh, Nigel V.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; D. Wechsler, 1991) with a sample of 579 Australian children referred for assessment because of academic difficulties in the classroom. The children were administered the WISC-III as part of the initial eligibility determination…

  7. Longitudinal Tests of Competing Factor Structures for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Traits, Ephemeral Artifacts, and Stable Response Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Scalas, L. Francesca; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Self-esteem, typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), is one of the most widely studied constructs in psychology. Nevertheless, there is broad agreement that a simple unidimensional factor model, consistent with the original design and typical application in applied research, does not provide an adequate explanation of RSE…

  8. Factor structure and sex differences on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in China, Japan and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Lynn, Richard

    2011-08-01

    This study presents data on the factor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) and sex and cultural differences in WPPSI test scores among 5- and 6-year-olds from China, Japan, and the United States. Results show the presence of a verbal and nonverbal factor structure across all three countries. Sex differences on the 10 subtests were generally consistent, with a male advantage on a subtest of spatial abilities (Mazes). Males in the Chinese sample obtained significantly higher Full Scale IQ scores than females and had lower variability in their test scores. These observations were not present in the Japan and United States samples. Mean Full Scale IQ score in the Chinese sample was 104.1, representing a 4-point increase from 1988 to 2004.

  9. Analysis of postoperative morbidity and mortality following surgery for gastric cancer. Surgeon volume as the most significant prognostic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Ciesielski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Surgical resection is the only potentially curative modality for gastric cancer and it is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Aim: To determine risk factors for postoperative morbidity and mortality following major surgery for gastric cancer. Material and methods : Between 1.08.2006 and 30.11.2014 in the Department of Oncological Surgery of Gdynia Oncology Centre 162 patients underwent gastric resection for adenocarcinoma. All procedures were performed by 13 surgeons. Five of them performed at least two gastrectomies per year (n = 106. The remaining 56 resections were done by eight surgeons with annual volume lower than two. Perioperative mortality was defined as every in-hospital death and death within 30 days after surgery. Causes of perioperative deaths were the matter of in-depth analysis. Results: Overall morbidity was 23.5%, including 4.3% rate of proximal anastomosis leak. Mortality rate was 4.3%. Morbidity and mortality were not dependent on: age, gender, body mass index, tumour location, extent of surgery, splenectomy performance, or pTNM stage. The rates of morbidity (50% vs. 21.3% and mortality (16.7% vs. 3.3% were significantly higher in cases of tumour infiltration to adjacent organs (pT4b. Perioperative morbidity and mortality were 37.5% and 8.9% for surgeons performing less than two gastrectomies per year and 16% and 0.9% for surgeons performing more than two resections annually. The differences were statistically significant (p = 0.002, p = 0.003. Conclusions : Annual surgeon case load and adjacent organ infiltration (pT4b were significant risk factors for morbidity and mortality following major surgery for gastric cancer. The most common complications leading to perioperative death were cardiac failure and proximal anastomosis leak.

  10. BASIC program to compute uranium density and void volume fraction in laboratory-scale uranium silicide aluminum dispersion plate-type fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, Mitsuhiro

    1991-05-01

    BASIC program simple and easy to operate has been developed to compute uranium density and void volume fraction for laboratory-scale uranium silicide aluminum dispersion plate-type fuel, so called miniplate. An example of the result of calculation is given in order to demonstrate how the calculated void fraction correlates with the microstructural distribution of the void in a miniplate prepared in our laboratory. The program is also able to constitute data base on important parameters for miniplates from experimentally-determined values of density, weight of each constituent and dimensions of miniplates. Utility programs pertinent to the development of the BASIC program are also given which run in the popular MS-DOS environment. All the source lists are attached and brief description for each program is made. (author)

  11. Large volume recycling of oceanic lithosphere over short time scales: geochemical constraints from the Caribbean Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, F.; Hoernle, K.; Tilton, G.; Graham, D. W.; Kerr, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    isochron diagrams suggests that the age of separation of enriched and depleted components from the depleted MORB source mantle could have been ≤500 Ma before CLIP formation and interpreted to reflect the recycling time of the CLIP source. Mantle plume heads may provide a mechanism for transporting large volumes of possibly young recycled oceanic lithosphere residing in the lower mantle back into the shallow MORB source mantle.

  12. Use of new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the first application of our simple and inexpensive post-elution tandem cation/anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical-scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine-type (QMA SepPak TM ) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume ( 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. (author)

  13. Small-scale, joule-heated melting of Savannah River Plant waste glass. I. Factors affecting large-scale vitrification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Chismar, P.H.

    1979-10-01

    A promising method of immobilizing SRP radioactive waste solids is incorporation in borosilicate glass. In the reference vitrification process, called joule-heated melting, a mixture of glass frit and calcined waste is heated by passage of an electric current. Two problems observed in large-scale tests are foaming and formation of an insoluble slag. A small joule-heated melter was designed and built to study problems such as these. This report describes the melter, identifies factors involved in foaming and slag formation, and proposes ways to overcome these problems

  14. Improvements in scaling of counter-current imbibition recovery curves using a shape factor including permeability anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Jassem; Sarafrazi, Shiva; Riazi, Masoud; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous imbibition is the main oil production mechanism in the water invaded zone of a naturally fractured reservoir (NFR). Different scaling equations have been presented in the literature for upscaling of core scale imbibition recovery curves to field scale matrix blocks. Various scale dependent parameters such as gravity effects and boundary influences are required to be considered in the upscaling process. Fluid flow from matrix blocks to the fracture system is highly dependent on the permeability value in the horizontal and vertical directions. The purpose of this study is to include permeability anisotropy in the available scaling equations to improve the prediction of imbibition assisted oil production in NFRs. In this paper, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to obtain imbibition recovery curves for different scenarios. Then, the effect of permeability anisotropy on imbibition recovery curves was investigated, and the weakness of the existing scaling equations for anisotropic rocks was demonstrated. Consequently, an analytical shape factor was introduced that can better scale all the curves related to anisotropic matrix blocks.

  15. Factor structure and psychometric properties of a Romanian translation of the drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) in university men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Vintila, Mona; Tudorel, Otilia; Goian, Cosmin; Barron, David

    2018-02-20

    We examined the psychometric properties of a Romanian translation of the 15-item Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS). Male university students from Romania (N = 343) completed the DMS, as well as measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that DMS scores reduced to two factors that related to muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviours, with both first-order factors loading onto a higher-order factor. However, confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a model with two first-order factors and a higher-order factor had poor fit. A two-factor model without a higher-order construct achieved acceptable but mediocre fit. Scores on the two-factor DMS model had adequate internal consistency and demonstrated acceptable convergent validity (significant correlations with self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy). These results provide support for a two-factor model of DMS scores in a Romanian-speaking sample and extends the availability of the DMS to a rarely-examined linguistic group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO 2 -neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream

  17. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  18. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  19. Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and Normalization of the Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Scale in Iranian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Tabatabaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Researches on attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder indicated that this common disorder would not be resolved with age and continues into adulthood. This study was carried out with the objective of validation and normalization of diagnostic scale of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale in Iranian sample. Methods: This study was performed as a psychometric study on the patients (1400 to 1600 cases referred to two psychiatry and neurology clinics in Tehran in the autumn and winter of 2014. Among these patients, 301 persons were selected by purposeful non-random sampling according to the sample size formula based on ratio or two-value variable (patient and non-patient and related questionnaire was administered to them. Cronbach's alpha, Spearman- Brown, and Guttmann’s coefficients was used to evaluate concurrent validity and reliability and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in order to assess the construct validity. Results: In this study, Cronbach's alpha of the total scale was 0.88 and for the subscales of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity were 0.82, 0.72, 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the mentioned scale and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity questionnaire (Wender Utah was obtained 0.59, and between the subscales and the Wender Utah questionnaire, were 0.56, 0.49, and 0.40, respectively, which all three were significant (p<0/01. Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that this scale has three factors and two goodness-of-fit indices. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that specialists can diagnose and treat the patients using this diagnostic scale.

  20. Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale among Asian American college students: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Justin C; Vance, Kristen S; Helms, Janet E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of hospital anxiety and depression scale in Iranian infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS is a common screening tool designed to measure the level of anxiety and depression in different factor structures and has been extensively used in non-psychiatric populations and individuals experiencing fertility problems. Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of HADS in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 651 infertile patients (248 men and 403 women referred to a referral infertility Center in Tehran, Iran between January 2014 and January 2015. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure of the HADS among one, two, and threefactor models. Several goodness of fit indices were utilized such as comparative, normed and goodness of fit indices, Akaike information criterion, and the root mean squared error of approximation. In addition to HADS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaires as well as demographic and clinical information were administered to all patients. Results: The goodness of fit indices through CFAs exposed that three and onefactor model provided the best and worst fit to the total, male and female datasets compared to the other factor structure models for the infertile patients. The Cronbach’s alpha for anxiety and depression subscales were 0.866 and 0.753 respectively. The HADS subscales significantly correlated with SWLS, indicating an acceptable convergent validity. Conclusion: The HADS was found to be a three-factor structure screening instrument in the field of infertility.

  2. Examination of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factor structure and longitudinal relationships with functioning in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Grossman, Michael; Oyewumi, L Kola; Bowie, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in early-episode psychosis and its relationships with functioning at baseline and follow-up. A total of 240 consecutive admissions to an early intervention in psychosis clinic were assessed at intake to the program with the PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Seventy individuals were reassessed at follow-up. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on baselin