WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume resmethrin applications

  1. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of resmethrin in corn, cornmeal, flour, and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonaitis, R A; Cail, R S

    1975-09-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method was developed for the determination of residues of resmethrin ((5-benzyl-3-furyl)methyl cis-trans-(+/-)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylate) in corn, cornmeal, flour, and wheat. The commodity, fortified with resmethrin, was extracted by tumbling with pentane and transferred to acetonitrile, the fat was partitioned off, and the sample was chromatographed with 3% ethyl acetate in pentane on Florisil containing 0.5% water. The resmethrin residue was determined by GLC with a flame ionization detector. The results were compared with known standards that had undergone the same cleanup procedures. The method was sensitive to concentrations of resmethrin to 0.2 ppm, recoveries averaged 83%, and reproducibility was good.

  2. 75 FR 28019 - Resmethrin; Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... registrants to voluntarily cancel their registrations of certain products containing the pesticide resmethrin... after the registration has been cancelled only if such sale, distribution, or use is consistent with the...

  3. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  4. Effects of truck-mounted, ultra low volume mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera) in a suburban field setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Nicholas A.; Danka, Robert G.; Walker, Todd W.; Ottea, James A.; Healy, Kristen B.

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of mosquito adulticides on honey bees under conditions that reflect actual field exposure. Whereas several studies have evaluated the toxicity of mosquito control products on honey bees, most have been laboratory based and have focused solely on acute mortality as a measure of impact. The goal of this study was to determine effects of routine applications of truck-based ultra-low volume (ULV) mosquito adulticides (i.e., Scourge, Duet, and Deltagard) on honey bees in a suburban setting. The mosquito adulticides used in this study were pyrethroids with active ingredients resmethrin (Scourge), prallethrin and sumithrin (Duet), and deltamethrin (Deltagard), in which resmethrin, prallethrin, and sumithrin were synergized with piperonyl butoxide. We measured and compared mortality and detoxification enzyme activities (esterase and glutathione S-transferase) from sentinel beehives within and outside of mosquito control areas. Concurrently, colony health (i.e., number of adult bees, brood quantity and brood quality) was compared throughout the study period. No significant differences were observed in honey bee mortality, colony health or detoxification enzyme activities between treated (five sprayed areas each received one to three insecticide treatment) and control sites (four unsprayed areas that did not receive insecticide treatment) over the seven week study period. However, our laboratory study showed that exposure to resmethrin, the active ingredient in Scourge, caused significant inhibition of esterase activity compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that proper application of truck based insecticides for mosquito control results in little or no exposure and therefore minimal effects on domestic honey bees. PMID:29494661

  5. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  6. A dietary risk assessment of the pyrethroid insecticide resmethrin associated with its use for West Nile Virus mosquito vector control in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Carr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of human illnesses associated with West Nile Virus (WNV occurred in New York City in 1999. Since then, it has gradually spread westwards, reaching northern California for the first time in 2005. WNV is transmitted by several mosquito species and birds serve as the main reservoir. Several control measures have been used, targeting both the aquatic larvae and the adult mosquitoes. In the latter case, roosting birds in trees are sprayed with pyrethroid insecticides because these are highly toxic to mosquitoes, but have low avian toxicity. A request was made to use a resmethrin-containing insecticide during the month of October 2005 in California. Because resmethrin was not registered for use on growing crops, concerns were raised about potential crop contamination. Therefore, an expedited dietary risk assessment was conducted on resmethrin. Developmental toxicity in the rat (NOELs of 25 or 40 mg/kg/day was used as the acute endpoint and dietary exposure was assessed using the DEEM-FCIDTM computer program. Only crops growing above ground during October were considered. Margins of Safety (MOS were found to be above 100, the level generally considered to be sufficient to protect public health when using an animal NOEL.

  7. Limited impacts of truck-based ultra-low-volume applications of mosquito adulticides on mortality in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, F D; Margotta, J W; Pokhrel, V; Walker, T W; Vaeth, R H; Hoffman, W C; Fritz, B K; Danka, R G; Rinderer, T E; Aldridge, R L; Linthicum, K J; Ottea, J A; Healy, K B

    2017-12-01

    Adulticides applied against mosquitoes can reduce vector populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impacts of these insecticides on pollinators and other non-target organisms are of concern to mosquito control professionals, beekeepers and others. We evaluated mortality of Culex quinquefasciatus and Apis mellifera when caged insects were exposed to low and high label rates of four common adulticides (Aqua-Pursuit™ [permethrin], Duet® [prallethrin + sumithrin], Fyfanon® [malathion] and Scourge® [resmethrin]) at six distances up to 91.4 m from a truck-mounted ultra-low-volume sprayer. Honey bee mortality was both absolutely low (61 m had limited impacts on honey bee mortality while providing effective mosquito control.

  8. Obstacles using amorphous materials for volume applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Albert [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany); Reininger, Thomas, E-mail: drn@de.festo.com [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    This contribution is especially focussed on the attempt to use amorphous or nanocrystalline metals in position sensor applications and to describe the difficulties and obstacles encountered in coherence with the development of appropriate industrial high volume series products in conjunction with the related quality requirements. The main motivation to do these investigations was to beat the generally known sensors especially silicon based Hall-sensors as well as AMR- and GMR-sensors - well known from mobile phones and electronic storage devices like hard discs and others - in terms of cost-effectiveness and functionality.

  9. Distribution and metabolism of cis- and trans-resmethrin (5-benzyl-3-furyl-methyl-2,2-dimethyl 3-(2-methyl-propenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate) in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The cis and trans isomers of the synthetic pyrethroid, resmethrin (5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl-(IRS)-chrysanthemate), labeled with radiocarbon in either the alcohol or acid moiety, were individually administered orally to White Leghorn laying hens at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. With each isomer and label position, greater than 90% of the radiocarbon was eliminated in the excreta within 24 hours posttreatment. Radiocarbon residues in the egg white and yolk fractions were low, with peak levels observed at 1-2 and 4-5 days post-treatment in white and yolk, respectively. Residues were considerably lower in egg whites than in yolks. In birds killed 12 hours post-treatment, radiocarbon residues in tissues were low with peak levels in liver and kidney. Unmetabolized cis- or trans-resmethrin was detected in all tissues analyzed from birds killed at 12 hours post-treatment and represented the major metabolite in fat. The majority of the tissues from hens 14 days post-treatment contained no detectable levels of radiocarbon and would appear not to be indicative of appreciable residue retention. Numerous metabolites were isolated and were present in both the free and conjugated form. The metabolic routes for both resmethrin isomers arise from ester hydrolysis and oxidation of the hydrolytic products. Certain of these metabolites are further conjugated with glucuronic acid, sulfate or other unidentified compounds before excretion

  10. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  11. 8th conference on Finite Volumes for Complex Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    This first volume of the proceedings of the 8th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Lille, June 2017) covers various topics including convergence and stability analysis, as well as investigations of these methods from the point of view of compatibility with physical principles. It collects together the focused invited papers comparing advanced numerical methods for Stokes and Navier–Stokes equations on a benchmark, as well as reviewed contributions from internationally leading researchers in the field of analysis of finite volume and related methods, offering a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation, and recent decades have brought significant advances in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including m...

  12. Volume 2. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Volume II, Probabilistic Analysis of HTGR Application Studies - Supporting Data, gives the detail data, both deterministic and probabilistic, employed in the calculation presented in Volume I. The HTGR plants and the fossil plants considered in the study are listed. GCRA provided the technical experts from which the data were obtained by MAC personnel. The names of the technical experts (interviewee) and the analysts (interviewer) are given for the probabilistic data

  13. Rectangular maximum-volume submatrices and their applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Oseledets, I.V.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the volume of a general rectangular matrix, which is equivalent to an absolute value of the determinant for square matrices. We generalize results of square maximum-volume submatrices to the rectangular case, show a connection of the rectangular volume with an optimal experimental design and provide estimates for a growth of coefficients and an approximation error in spectral and Chebyshev norms. Three promising applications of such submatrices are presented: recommender systems, finding maximal elements in low-rank matrices and preconditioning of overdetermined linear systems. The code is available online.

  14. Rectangular maximum-volume submatrices and their applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr

    2017-10-18

    We introduce a definition of the volume of a general rectangular matrix, which is equivalent to an absolute value of the determinant for square matrices. We generalize results of square maximum-volume submatrices to the rectangular case, show a connection of the rectangular volume with an optimal experimental design and provide estimates for a growth of coefficients and an approximation error in spectral and Chebyshev norms. Three promising applications of such submatrices are presented: recommender systems, finding maximal elements in low-rank matrices and preconditioning of overdetermined linear systems. The code is available online.

  15. 6th international symposium on finite volumes for complex applications

    CERN Document Server

    Halama, Jan; Herbin, Raphaèle; Hubert, Florence; Fort, Jaroslav; FVCA 6; Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VI : Problems and perspectives

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used for various applications in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis or nuclear physics. A closer look reveals many interesting phenomena and mathematical or numerical difficulties, such as true error analysis and adaptivity, modelling of multi-phase phenomena or fitting problems, stiff terms in convection/diffusion equations and sources. To overcome existing problems and to find solution methods for future applications requires many efforts and always new developments. The goal of The International Symposium on Finite Volumes for Complex Applica

  16. The application of volume-outcome contouring in data warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Berndt, Donald J; Luther, Stephen L; Fisher, John W

    2004-01-01

    Despite a compelling body of published research on the nature of provider volume and clinical outcomes, healthcare executives and policymakers have not managed to develop and implement systems that are useful in directing patients to higher volume providers via selective referral or avoidance. A specialized data warehouse application, utilizing hospital discharge data linked to physician biographical information, allows detailed analysis of physician and hospital volume and the resulting pattern (contour) of related outcomes such as mortality, complications, and medical errors. The approach utilizes a historical repository of hospital discharge data in which the outcomes of interest, important patient characteristics and risk factors used in severity-adjusting of the outcomes are derived from the coding structure of the data.

  17. An experimental result of estimating an application volume by machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhito; Koshino, Makoto; Kimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the usability of smartphones by automating a user's operations. We developed an intelligent system using machine learning techniques that periodically detects a user's context on a smartphone. We selected the Android operating system because it has the largest market share and highest flexibility of its development environment. In this paper, we describe an application that automatically adjusts application volume. Adjusting the volume can be easily forgotten because users need to push the volume buttons to alter the volume depending on the given situation. Therefore, we developed an application that automatically adjusts the volume based on learned user settings. Application volume can be set differently from ringtone volume on Android devices, and these volume settings are associated with each specific application including games. Our application records a user's location, the volume setting, the foreground application name and other such attributes as learning data, thereby estimating whether the volume should be adjusted using machine learning techniques via Weka.

  18. Sensors Applications, Volume 4, Sensors for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Trah, Hans-Peter; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Yokomori, Iwao

    2003-07-01

    An international team of experts from the leading companies in this field gives a detailed picture of existing as well as future applications. They discuss in detail current technologies, design and construction concepts, market considerations and commercial developments. Topics covered include vehicle safety, fuel consumption, air conditioning, emergency control, traffic control systems, and electronic guidance using radar and video. Meeting the growing need for comprehensive information on the capabilities, potentials and limitations of modern sensor systems, Sensors Applications is a book series covering the use of sophisticated technologies and materials for the creation of advanced sensors and their implementation in the key areas process monitoring, building control, health care, automobiles, aerospace, environmental technology and household appliances.

  19. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume III. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Volume III suppliees supporting information to assist Congress in making a decision on the optimum utilization of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Included are applicable fuel cycle policies; properties of reference fuels; description and evaluation of alternative operational (flue cycle) modes; description and evaluation of safeguards systems and techniques; description and evaluation of spiking technology; waste and waste solidification evaluation; and Department of Energy programs relating to nonproliferation

  20. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  1. Turbine design and application volumes 1, 2, and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA has an interest in turbines related primarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing turbine engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellant-driven turbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for spacecraft. Closed-cycle turbine engines using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied for providing long-duration electric power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, trucks, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. In view of the turbine-system interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled 'Turbine Design and Application' was presented during 1968-69 as part of the In-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat revised and again presented in 1972-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such a publication can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used consistent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the SI units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defining as unity those not required for the SI units. Three volumes are compiled into one.

  2. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 635. Anisotropic Nanoparticles - Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, L

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at Symposium C, "Anisotropic Nanoparticles Synthesis, Characterization and Applications," at the 2000 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts...

  3. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  4. IMAGE information monitoring and applied graphics software environment. Volume 4. Applications description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.W.; Ng, K.B.; Upham, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    The EPRI Information Monitoring and Applied Graphics Environment (IMAGE) system is designed for 'fast proto-typing' of advanced concepts for computer-aided plant operations tools. It is a flexible software system which can be used for rapidly creating, dynamically driving and evaluating advanced operator aid displays. The software is written to be both host computer and graphic device independent. This four volume report includes an Executive Overview of the IMAGE package (Volume 1), followed by Software Description (Volume II), User's Guide (Volume III), and Description of Example Applications (Volume IV)

  5. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  6. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D.; Cheze-Le-Rest, C.; Pradier, O.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ( 18 F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  7. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  8. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education Yearbook. Volume 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Readers of the online journal "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education" who prefer a printed copy of articles most relevant to their work will find them in the new 2005-2006 "Update Yearbook." Now available to everyone interested in the latest music education trends, the Yearbook contains in print the entire online issues for…

  9. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 1Practice and Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the book is on completed implementations of agent-based software systems. Here, agent technology is considered broadly, starting from development of agent platforms, all the way through systems actually implemented. The covered topics also include lessons learned during implementation of agent platforms and the reflection on the process of development and application of agent-based systems.   The book includes 10 chapters where interested reader can find discussion of important issues encountered during development of well-known agent platforms such as JADE and Jadex as well as some interesting experiences in developing a new platform that combines software agent and Web Services. Furthermore, the book shows readers several valuable examples of applications based on multi-agent systems including simulations, agents in autonomous negotiations and agents in public administration modelling. We believe that the book will prove useful to the researchers, professors and the practitioners in all discip...

  10. ESB application for effective synchronization of large volume measurements data

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszkowski, Przemysław Michał

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at CERN aims at measurement of total cross section, elastic scattering and diffractive processes of colliding protons in the Large Hadron Collider. In order for the research to be possible, it is necessary to process huge amounts of data coming from variety of sources: TOTEM detectors, CMS detectors, measurement devices around the Large Hadron Collider tunnel and many other external systems. Preparing final results involves also calculating plenty of intermediate figures, which also need to be stored. In order for the work of the scientist to be effective and convenient it is crucial to provide central point for the data storage, where all raw and intermediate figures will be stored. This thesis aims at presenting the usage of Enterprise Service Bus concept in building software infrastructure for transferring large volume of measurements data. Topics discussed here include technologies and mechanisms realizing the concept of integration bus, model of data transferring system based on ...

  11. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references

  12. Volume 1. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.; Perry, L.

    1980-01-01

    The HTGR Program encompasses a number of decisions facing both industry and government which are being evaluated under the HTGR application studies being conducted by the GCRA. This report is in support of these application studies, specifically by developing comparative probabilistic energy costs of the alternative HTGR plant types under study at this time and of competitive PWR and coal-fired plants. Management decision analytic methodology was used as the basis for the development of the comparative probabilistic data. This study covers the probabilistic comparison of various HTGR plant types at a commercial development stage with comparative PWR and coal-fired plants. Subsequent studies are needed to address the sequencing of HTGR plants from the lead plant to the commercial plants and to integrate the R and D program into the plant construction sequence. The probabilistic results cover the comparison of the 15-year levelized energy costs for commercial plants, all with 1995 startup dates. For comparison with the HTGR plants, PWR and fossil-fired plants have been included in the probabilistic analysis, both as steam electric plants and as combined steam electric and process heat plants

  13. MBE growth of VCSELs for high volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Roland; Riedl, Michael C.

    2011-05-01

    Mass market applications like laser computer mouse or optical data transmission based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) chips need a high over all yield including epitaxy, processing, dicing, mounting and testing. One yield limitation for VCSEL structures is the emission wavelength variation of the substrate surface area leading to the fraction on laser chips which are below or above the specification limits. For most 850 nm VCSEL products a resonator wavelength variation of ±2 nm is common. This represents an average resonator thickness variation of much less than 1% which is quite challenging to be fulfilled on the entire processed wafer surface area. A high over all yield is demonstrated on MBE grown VCSEL structures.

  14. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  15. A low-volume cavity ring-down spectrometer for sample-limited applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, C.; Farinas, A. D.; Ware, J.; Wistisen, D. W.; Rella, C.; Wahl, E.; Crosson, E.; Blunier, T.

    2014-08-01

    In atmospheric and environmental sciences, optical spectrometers are used for the measurements of greenhouse gas mole fractions and the isotopic composition of water vapor or greenhouse gases. The large sample cell volumes (tens of milliliters to several liters) in commercially available spectrometers constrain the usefulness of such instruments for applications that are limited in sample size and/or need to track fast variations in the sample stream. In an effort to make spectrometers more suitable for sample-limited applications, we developed a low-volume analyzer capable of measuring mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide based on a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer. The instrument has a small sample cell (9.6 ml) and can selectively be operated at a sample cell pressure of 140, 45, or 20 Torr (effective internal volume of 1.8, 0.57, and 0.25 ml). We present the new sample cell design and the flow path configuration, which are optimized for small sample sizes. To quantify the spectrometer's usefulness for sample-limited applications, we determine the renewal rate of sample molecules within the low-volume spectrometer. Furthermore, we show that the performance of the low-volume spectrometer matches the performance of the standard commercial analyzers by investigating linearity, precision, and instrumental drift.

  16. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  17. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Part II: applications and fundamentals. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumans, P.W.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second part of the two-volume treatise by this well-known and respected author. This volume reviews applications of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), summarizes fundamental studies, and compares ICP-AES methods with other methods of analysis. The first six chapters are devoted to specific fields of application, including the following: metals and other industrial materials, geology, the environment, agriculture and food, biology and clinical analysis, and organic materials. The chapter on the analysis of organic materials also covers the special instrumental considerations required when organic solvents are introduced into an inductively coupled plasma. A chapter on the direct analysis of solids completes the first part of this volume. Each of the applications chapters begins with a summary of the types of samples that are encountered in that field, and the kinds of problems that an elemental analysis can help to solve. This is followed by a tutorial approach covering applicability, advantages, and limitations of the methods. The coverage is thorough, including sample handling, storage, and preparation, acid, and fusion dissolution, avoiding contamination, methods of preconcentration, the types of interferences that can be expected and ways to reduce them, and the types of ICP plasmas that are used. The second half of the volume covers fundamental studies of ICP-AES: basic processes of aerosol generation, plasma modeling and computer simulation, spectroscopic diagnostics, excitation mechanisms, and discharge characteristics. This section introduces the experimental and modeling methods that have been used to obtain fundamental information about ICPs

  18. Composite materials. Volume 3 - Engineering applications of composites. Volume 4 - Metallic matrix composites. Volume 8 - Structural design and analysis, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  19. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research

  20. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  1. Continuous modelling study of numerical volumes - Applications to the visualization of anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goret, C.

    1990-12-01

    Several technics of imaging (IRM, image scanners, tomoscintigraphy, echography) give numerical informations presented by means of a stack of parallel cross-sectional images. Since many years, 3-D mathematical tools have been developed and allow the 3 D images synthesis of surfaces. In first part, we give the technics of numerical volume exploitation and their medical applications to diagnosis and therapy. The second part is about a continuous modelling of the volume with a tensor product of cubic splines. We study the characteristics of this representation and its clinical validation. Finally, we treat of the problem of surface visualization of objects contained in the volume. The results show the interest of this model and allow to propose specifications for 3-D workstation realization [fr

  2. A flexible and accurate digital volume correlation method applicable to high-resolution volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a powerful technique for quantifying interior deformation within solid opaque materials and biological tissues. In the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the DVC algorithm. However, there is still a lack of a flexible, robust and accurate version that can be efficiently implemented in personal computers with limited RAM. This paper proposes an advanced DVC method that can realize accurate full-field internal deformation measurement applicable to high-resolution volume images with up to billions of voxels. Specifically, a novel layer-wise reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy combined with dynamic data management is presented to guide the DVC computation from slice to slice. The displacements at specified calculation points in each layer are computed using the advanced 3D inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm with the complete initial guess of the deformation vector accurately predicted from the computed calculation points. Since only limited slices of interest in the reference and deformed volume images rather than the whole volume images are required, the DVC calculation can thus be efficiently implemented on personal computers. The flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the presented DVC approach are demonstrated by analyzing computer-simulated and experimentally obtained high-resolution volume images.

  3. Application of dual volume reconstruction technique in embolization of intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hai ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of dual volume reconstruction technique in Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Three-dimensional imaging data of 20 patients received GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms from Jun. 2012 to Apr. 2013 were analyzed for dual volume reconstruction. The value of application of dual volume reconstruction was evaluated by the detection rate of coils bolus, degree of aneurysm occlusion, the length of aneurysm sac and aneurysm neck before and after embolization, and the characteristics and clinical value of the reconstructed images. Results  A total of 20 coil boluses were detected by dual volume reconstruction images, and the detection rate was 100%. Among all of 20 patients, no visualization of contrast medium in the aneurysm was found in 13 patients, while contrast agent was found in the aneurysm sac in 3 patients and in the aneurysm neck in 4 patients. The length of aneurysm neck and sac was somewhat changed before and after embolization with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05. The dual volume reconstruction could reveal coil bolus, vessels, cranium and fusion images, and the aneurysms could be shown by different imaging modes according to the clinical requirement. Conclusion Dual volume reconstruction technique can display the location of coil bolus, degree of occlusion and aneurysm size, and evaluate the embolization effect by multifarious imaging modes, providing a great deal of information for the evaluation of GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.13

  4. Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 1 - General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Pichereau, F.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Loeffler, H.; Roesch, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Bassi, C.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Vincon, L.; Helstroem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance and application of Level 2 PSA with a view to achieve harmonisation at EU level and to allow a meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluation in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with communities in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for Level 2 PSA development and application. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The Level 2 PSA experts from ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience, open literature, and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop). There are a large number of technical issues addressed in the guideline which are not all covered with the same level of detail in the first version of the guideline. This version was submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident and PSA experts (especially from SARNET and OECD-NEA members). The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned for March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactors (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help Level 2 PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help Level 2 PSA reviewers by positioning one specific study in

  5. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Garcerá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density, pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones.

  6. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  7. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  8. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m 3 /year) to a cumulative value (m 3 )

  9. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The papers in this volume deal almost entirely with the Naesliden project in Sweden. Stress measurements were made on the rock mass before and during mining and complex computer codes using the finite element method developed to calculate the strains and their changes as mining developed. Major problems involved the effects of joints and the mechanical properties of the hydraulic backfill and in corporating these items in the calculations. Most papers were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  10. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Jared T; Nelson, Todd G; Zimmerman, Trent K; Fernelius, Janette D; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-09-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the 'flasher' and the 'inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.

  11. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  12. Development, Verification and Validation of Parallel, Scalable Volume of Fluid CFD Program for Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances involving liquid/gas interfaces and their dynamics in the design of liquid engine powered rockets such as the Space Launch System (SLS). Some examples of these applications are: Propellant tank draining and slosh, subcritical condition injector analysis for gas generators, preburners and thrust chambers, water deluge mitigation for launch induced environments and even solid rocket motor liquid slag dynamics. Commercially available CFD programs simulating gas/liquid interfaces using the Volume of Fluid approach are currently limited in their parallel scalability. In 2010 for instance, an internal NASA/MSFC review of three commercial tools revealed that parallel scalability was seriously compromised at 8 cpus and no additional speedup was possible after 32 cpus. Other non-interface CFD applications at the time were demonstrating useful parallel scalability up to 4,096 processors or more. Based on this review, NASA/MSFC initiated an effort to implement a Volume of Fluid implementation within the unstructured mesh, pressure-based algorithm CFD program, Loci-STREAM. After verification was achieved by comparing results to the commercial CFD program CFD-Ace+, and validation by direct comparison with data, Loci-STREAM-VoF is now the production CFD tool for propellant slosh force and slosh damping rate simulations at NASA/MSFC. On these applications, good parallel scalability has been demonstrated for problems sizes of tens of millions of cells and thousands of cpu cores. Ongoing efforts are focused on the application of Loci-STREAM-VoF to predict the transient flow patterns of water on the SLS Mobile Launch Platform in order to support the phasing of water for launch environment mitigation so that vehicle determinantal effects are not realized.

  13. The identification of potential applications for robotics and remote control systems in Canadian mining. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary overview of potential applications for robotics and remote control in the Canadian mining industry. The first of two volumes, summarizes the industry awareness and interest in using these technologies. Also included is a look at factors playing a major role in the development of the mining robotics industry, such as safety, productivity, labour and the economic climate. The role of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada (EMR)/CANMET is also discussed. Finally, recommendations are made as to how Canada, through EMR, can ensure Canada's participation in the development of robotics in the mining industry. Volume two is comprised of the contact records. These are abbreviated notes of conversations which took place between the interviewers and their contacts in a number of Canadian and US mines and associated government and private agencies. (The interviews represent the opinions of the respondents, not necessarily that of their companies). The survey indicated that the industry is essentially negative to the idea of robotics in mining, but they were able to suggest many potential areas of application, especially at the short term level.

  14. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  15. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  16. Prospects of application of artificial neural networks for forecasting of cargo transportation volume in transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yakupov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – to identify the prospects for the use of neural network approach in relation to the tasks of economic forecasting of logistics performance, in particular of volume freight traffic in the transport system promiscuous regional freight traffic, as well as to substantiate the effectiveness of the use of artificial neural networks (ANN, as compared with the efficiency of traditional extrapolative methods of forecasting. The authors consider the possibility of forecasting to use ANN for these economic indicators not as an alternative to the traditional methods of statistical forecasting, but as one of the available simple means for solving complex problems.Materials and methods. When predicting the ANN, three methods of learning were used: 1 the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm-network training stops when the generalization ceases to improve, which is shown by the increase in the mean square error of the output value; 2 Bayes regularization method - network training is stopped in accordance with the minimization of adaptive weights; 3 the method of scaled conjugate gradients, which is used to find the local extremum of a function on the basis of information about its values and gradient. The Neural Network Toolbox package is used for forecasting. The neural network model consists of a hidden layer of neurons with a sigmoidal activation function and an output neuron with a linear activation function, the input values of the dynamic time series, and the predicted value is removed from the output. For a more objective assessment of the prospects of the ANN application, the results of the forecast are presented in comparison with the results obtained in predicting the method of exponential smoothing.Results. When predicting the volumes of freight transportation by rail, satisfactory indicators of the verification of forecasting by both the method of exponential smoothing and ANN had been obtained, although the neural network

  17. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 4. Mission application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Results of initial efforts to investigate application of selenide thermoelectric RTG's to specific missions as well as an indication of development requirements to enable satisfaction of emerging RTG performance criteria are presented. Potential mission applications in DoD such as SURVSATCOM, Advance Defense Support Program, Laser Communication Satellite, Satellite Data System, Global Positioning Satellite, Deep Space Surveillance Satellite, and Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible illustrate power requirements in the range of 500 to 1000 W. In contrast, the NASA applications require lower power ranging from 50 W for outer planetary atmospheric probes to about 200 W for spacecraft flights to Jupiter and other outer planets. The launch dates for most of these prospective missions is circa 1980, a requirement roughly compatible with selenide thermoelectric and heat source technology development. A discussion of safety criteria is included to give emphasis to the requirements for heat source design. In addition, the observation is made that the potential accident environments of all launch vehicles are similar so that a reasonable composite set of design specifications may be derived to satisfy almost all applications. Details of the LCHPG application potential is afforded by three designs: an 80 W RTG using improved selenide thermoelectric material, a 55 to 65 W LCHPG using current and improved selenide materials, and the final 500 W LCHPG as reported in Volume 2. The final results of the LCHPG design study have shown that in general, all missions can expect an LCHPG design which yields 10 percent efficiency at 3 W/lb with the current standard selenide thermoelectric materials, with growth potential to 14 percent at greater than 4 W/lb in the mid 1980's time frame

  18. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  19. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo; Liberini, Simone; Faggiano, Elena; Rizzo, Giovanna; Dell'Oca, Italo; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% (±17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac 50% (Jac < 0.5). The best correlation between the DVH and the JVH was found between V10 and V15, and Jac < 0.4-0.6 (p < 0.01). The best constraint predicting a higher number of largely compressing voxels (Jac0.5<7.5%, median value) was V15 ≥ 75% (OR: 7.6, p = 0.002). Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  20. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  1. Molecular theory of partial molar volume and its applications to biomolecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Imai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paial molar volume (PMV is a thermodynamic quantity which contains important information about the solute-solvent interactions as well as the solute structure in solution.Additionally, the PMV is the most essential quantity in the analysis of the pressure effect on chemical reactions. This aicle reviews the recent developments in molecular theories of the PMV, especially the reference interaction site model (RISMtheory of molecular liquids and its three-dimensional generalization version (3D-RISM, which are combined with the Kirkwood-Buff solution theory to calculate the PMV. This aicle also introduces our recent applications of the theory to some interesting issues concerning the PMV of biomolecules. In addition, theoretical representations of the effects of intramolecular fluctuation on the PMV, which are significant for biomacromolecules, are briefly discussed.

  2. Control and dynamic systems: advances in theory and applications. Volume 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leondes, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    The theme for this volume, containing five contributions, is models for complex and/or large-scale engineering systems. The first contribution deals with techniques of modeling and model error compensation in linear regulator problems. The next contribution, on pressurized water reactors, deals with many important systems modeling and control issues in nuclear reactors. The next two contributions serve as a companion set on models for the aircraft jet engine. The first presents the modeling formulation problems for such systems from the point of view of physics and engineering technology; the second emphasizes the system state equation and effective control principles. The last contribution deals with complex many-element power systems, but the techniques presented are generally applicable to any complex engineering system in which there are many interacting elements

  3. Automatic delineation of functional volumes in emission tomography for oncology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.

    2008-12-01

    One of the main factors of error for semi-quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for diagnosis and patient follow up, as well as new flourishing applications like image guided radiotherapy, is the methodology used to define the volumes of interest in the functional images. This is explained by poor image quality in emission tomography resulting from noise and partial volume effects induced blurring, as well as the variability of acquisition protocols, scanner models and image reconstruction procedures. The large number of proposed methodologies for the definition of a PET volume of interest does not help either. The majority of such proposed approaches are based on deterministic binary thresholding that are not robust to contrast variation and noise. In addition, these methodologies are usually unable to correctly handle heterogeneous uptake inside tumours. The objective of this thesis is to develop an automatic, robust, accurate and reproducible 3D image segmentation approach for the functional volumes determination of tumours of all sizes and shapes, and whose activity distribution may be strongly heterogeneous. The approach we have developed is based on a statistical image segmentation framework, combined with a fuzzy measure, which allows to take into account both noisy and blurry properties of nuclear medicine images. It uses a stochastic iterative parameters estimation and a locally adaptive model of the voxel and its neighbours for the estimation and segmentation. The developed approaches have been evaluated using a large array of datasets, comprising both simulated and real acquisitions of phantoms and tumours. The results obtained on phantom acquisitions allowed to validate the accuracy of the segmentation with respect to the size of considered structures, down to 13 mm in diameter (about twice the spatial resolution of a typical PET scanner), as well as its robustness with respect to noise, contrast variation, acquisition

  4. Are urine flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian men optimally applicable for Indian men? Need for appraisal of flow-volume relations in local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank M Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Flow-volume nomograms and volume-corrected flow-rates (cQ are tools to correct uroflow rates (Q with varied voided volumes (VV of urine. We investigated the applicability of the available nomograms in our local population. Materials and Methods : Raw data of our previous study on variation in Q with voiding position (standing, sitting, and squatting in healthy adult men was reanalyzed. Additionally, the departmental urodynamic database of the last four years was searched for uroflow data of men with voiding symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS > 7 and global quality of life score >2. These results were projected on the Liverpool and Siroky nomograms for men. The Q-VV relations were statistically analyzed using curve-estimation regression method to examine the current definition of corrected maximum flow rate (Qmax. Results : We found a cubic relation between Q and VV; based on this we developed novel equation for cQ [cQ=Q/(VV 1/3 ] and novel confidence-limit flow-volume nomograms. The imaginary 16 th percentile line of Liverpool nomogram, -1 standard-deviation line of Siroky nomogram and lower 68% confidence-limit line of our nomogram had sensitivity of 96.2%, 100% and 89.3%, and specificity of 75.3% 69.3% and 86.0%, respectively for Qmax-VV relations. Corresponding values for average flow rate (Qave-volume relations were 96.2%, 100% and 94.6%, and 75.2%, 50.4% and 86.0%, respectively. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for cQmax and cQave was 0.954 and 0.965, respectively, suggesting significantly higher discriminatory power than chance (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian population may not be optimally applicable to the Indian population. We introduce flow-volume nomograms and cQ, which have high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  6. Study of liver volume measurement and its clinical application for liver transplantation using multiple-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhiyi; Yu Zhefeng; Kuang Pingding; Xiao Shengxiang; Huang Dongsheng; Zheng Shusen; Wu Jian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the accuracy of liver volume measurement using MSCT and its application in liver transplantation. Methods: (1) Experimental study. Ten pig livers were scanned using MSCT with two collimations (3.2 mm and 6.5 mm) and pitch 1.25. Semi-automatic method was used to reconstruct 3D liver models to measure the liver volume. (2) Clinical study. Twenty-three patients received MSCT scan with collimation of 6.5 mm before liver transplantation. Same method was used to calculate the liver volume and the measurement was repeated by the same observer after 1 month. Results: (1) Experimental study. Actual liver volumes were (1134.1 ± 288.0) ml. Liver volumes by MSCT with two collimations were (1125.0 ± 282.5) ml (3.2 mm) and (1101.6 ± 277.6) ml (6.5 mm). The accuracy was (99.5 ± 0.8)% and (97.4 ± 0.8)%, respectively. Both showed same good agreement with actual liver volume: r=0.999, P<0.01 (2) Clinical study. Actual liver volumes were (1455.7±730.0) ml. Liver volume by MSCT was (1462.7 ± 774.1) ml. The accuracy was (99.5±9.6)%, r=0.986, P<0.01. Liver volume measured again was (1449.4 ± 768.9) ml, r=0.991 (P<0.01). Conclusion: MSCT can assess the liver volume correctly, and could be used as a routine step for evaluations before liver transplantation

  7. Accurate Automatic Delineation of Heterogeneous Functional Volumes in Positron Emission Tomography for Oncology Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze le Rest, Catherine; Descourt, Patrice; Dekker, Andre; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oellers, Michel; Lambin, Philippe; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate contouring of positron emission tomography (PET) functional volumes is now considered crucial in image-guided radiotherapy and other oncology applications because the use of functional imaging allows for biological target definition. In addition, the definition of variable uptake regions within the tumor itself may facilitate dose painting for dosimetry optimization. Methods and Materials: Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional volume segmentation use adaptive thresholding. We developed an approach called fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB), validated on homogeneous objects, and then improved it by allowing the use of up to three tumor classes for the delineation of inhomogeneous tumors (3-FLAB). Simulated and real tumors with histology data containing homogeneous and heterogeneous activity distributions were used to assess the algorithm's accuracy. Results: The new 3-FLAB algorithm is able to extract the overall tumor from the background tissues and delineate variable uptake regions within the tumors, with higher accuracy and robustness compared with adaptive threshold (T bckg ) and fuzzy C-means (FCM). 3-FLAB performed with a mean classification error of less than 9% ± 8% on the simulated tumors, whereas binary-only implementation led to errors of 15% ± 11%. T bckg and FCM led to mean errors of 20% ± 12% and 17% ± 14%, respectively. 3-FLAB also led to more robust estimation of the maximum diameters of tumors with histology measurements, with bckg and FCM lead to 10%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results warrant further investigation in future studies that will investigate the impact of 3-FLAB in radiotherapy treatment planning, diagnosis, and therapy response evaluation.

  8. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a 3 He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose

  9. Relationship between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for in situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary sciences, in situ absolute geochronology is a scientific and engineering challenge. Currently, the age of the Martian surface can only be determined by crater density counting. However this method has significant uncertainties and needs to be calibrated with absolute ages. We are developing an instrument to acquire in situ absolute geochronology based on the K-Ar method. The protocol is based on the laser ablation of a rock by hundreds of laser pulses. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) gives the potassium content of the ablated material and a mass spectrometer (quadrupole or ion trap) measures the quantity of 40Ar released. In order to accurately measure the quantity of released 40Ar in cases where Ar is an atmospheric constituent (e.g., Mars), the sample is first put into a chamber under high vacuum. The 40Arquantity, the concentration of K and the estimation of the ablated mass are the parameters needed to give the age of the rocks. The main uncertainties with this method are directly linked to the measures of the mass (typically some µg) and of the concentration of K by LIBS (up to 10%). Because the ablated mass is small compared to the mass of the sample, and because material is redeposited onto the sample after ablation, it is not possible to directly measure the ablated mass. Our current protocol measures the ablated volume and estimates the sample density to calculate ablated mass. The precision and accuracy of this method may be improved by using knowledge of the sample's geologic properties to predict its response to laser ablation, i.e., understanding whether natural samples have a predictable relationship between laser energy deposited and resultant ablation volume. In contrast to most previous studies of laser ablation, theoretical equations are not highly applicable. The reasons are numerous, but the most important are: a) geologic rocks are complex, polymineralic materials; b) the conditions of ablation are unusual (for example

  10. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  12. Formation of hydrogen negative ions by surface and volume processes with application to negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the last few decades interest in negative-hydrogen ion sources has been directed mainly toward synchrotron and other particle accelerator applications, with emphasis on high current densities delivered for short pulses. But within the last several years there has been an awareness in the magnetic fusion program of the future need for negative ions as a means for generating high energy neutral beams, beams with energies above a few hundred keV. Negative ions seem to be the only effective intermediary for efficiently producing such beams. Although methods for generating negative ion beams have relied upon synchrotron concepts, the requirements for fusion are very different: here one is interested in more moderate current densities, up to 100 m A cm -2 , but with continuous operation. Proposed source modules would accelerate of the order of 10 A of beam current and deliver several megawatts of beam power. Both H - and D - beams are being considered for application in different reactor systems. The conceptualization of negative ion sources is now in a very volatile stage. But of the great variety of proposals that have been offered to date, three general areas appear ready for development. These are: first, the double charge exchange method for converting a positive ion beam into a negative ion beam; second, electron-volume processes wherein low energy electrons interacting with molecular species lead to negative ion products via dissociative attachment or recombination; and third, generation of negative ions in surface interactions, principally via desorption and backscattering. Both our qualitative and our quantitative understanding of these processes diminishes as one proceeds from the first through the third. The physics of these three methods is considered in detail

  13. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  14. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  15. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  16. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  17. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  18. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  19. Study of factors affecting thyroid volume determination by SPECT and preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan

    1992-01-01

    Volumes of 7 thyroid phantoms (12-113.4 ml) and 25 thyroids of hyperthyroid patients were determined using TOSHIBA GCA-901A SPECT scanner. Accuracy of calculated volumes was strongly affected by the spatial resolution, total counts of acquisition and the threshold of background subtraction which depended on the thyroid size and the type of collimator used

  20. Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K.D. Peterson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin® and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30 formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern.

  1. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 3: Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Lorin, Aurelie; ); Webster, Philip; Joyer, Philippe; Kawamura, Tomonori; Lankin, Mikhail; Kubanyi, Jozef; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Kang, Kyungmin; Kim, Walter

    2016-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This document, which is the third report on the results of the Design Phase Survey, focuses on the Reactor. The Reactor category includes the following technical topics: fuel system design, reactor internals and core support, nuclear design and core nuclear performance, thermal and hydraulic design, reactor materials, and functional design of reactivity control system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - Design review strategies most commonly used to confirm that the regulatory requirements have been met include document review and independent verification of calculations, computer codes, or models used to describe the design and performance of the core and the fuel. - It is common to consider operating experience and

  2. Sampling based motion planning with reachable volumes: Application to manipulators and closed chain systems

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2014-09-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.

  3. Sampling based motion planning with reachable volumes: Application to manipulators and closed chain systems

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.

  4. Price-volume multifractal analysis and its application in Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying

    2012-06-01

    An empirical research on Chinese stock markets is conducted using statistical tools. First, the multifractality of stock price return series, ri(ri=ln(Pt+1)-ln(Pt)) and trading volume variation series, vi(vi=ln(Vt+1)-ln(Vt)) is confirmed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Furthermore, a multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between stock price return and trading volume variation in Chinese stock markets is also conducted. It is shown that the cross relationship between them is also found to be multifractal. Second, the cross-correlation between stock price Pi and trading volume Vi is empirically studied using cross-correlation function and detrended cross-correlation analysis. It is found that both Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market show pronounced long-range cross-correlations between stock price and trading volume. Third, a composite index R based on price and trading volume is introduced. Compared with stock price return series ri and trading volume variation series vi, R variation series not only remain the characteristics of original series but also demonstrate the relative correlation between stock price and trading volume. Finally, we analyze the multifractal characteristics of R variation series before and after three financial events in China (namely, Price Limits, Reform of Non-tradable Shares and financial crisis in 2008) in the whole period of sample to study the changes of stock market fluctuation and financial risk. It is found that the empirical results verified the validity of R.

  5. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  6. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  7. The application of finite volume methods for modelling three-dimensional incompressible flow on an unstructured mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, R. D.; Webster, R.

    This paper demonstrates the application of a simple finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, combining the economy of the former with the geometrical flexibility of the latter. The procedure is used to model a three-dimensional flow on a mesh of linear eight-node brick (hexahedra). Simulations are performed for a wide range of flow problems, some in excess of 94,000 nodes. The resulting computer code ASTEC that incorporates these procedures is described.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B Permit application. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1-Appendix C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for the following: chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; data accumulated from headspace-gas analyses; totals analysis versus toxicity characteristic leaching procedure; waste characterization sampling methods; applicability of real-time radiography; quality assurance objectives for waste characterization sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance project plan requirements; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program

  9. Application Guide for Bioslurping Volume 2 Principles and Practices of Bioslurping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoeppel, Ron

    1998-01-01

    ...) can make preliminary decisions rather quickly. By reading Volume I, RPMs may determine whether this technology is feasible for remediation of a site contaminated with light, non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL...

  10. Blood volume determination with two radioisotopes: application to non-cardiogenic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, J.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the circulating blood volume may be of great assistance in the study of clinical shock. The isotope dilution principle is used to measure both plasma and red cell volume. Considering the increased capillary permeability in patients in shock, it may be of considerable value to quantify the diffusion of liquid through the capillary walls. A double determination of the volume of distribution of the tracer is to be envisaged. Two methods are described. The first one uses a non-diffusible tracer (sup(99m)Tc-labelled red cells) confined to the intravascular space, giving a measure of the intravascular blood volume. The latter uses 131 I-labelled serum albumin which remains, usually, in the vascular bed, but is able to diffuse through the pores of the capillary membrane, because of its low molecular weight. A resulting increase of the tracer volume distribution, with regard to this capillary diffusion is considered. A comparison of the two methods used simultaneously appear to provide information on the possible liquid diffusion in clinical shock. The results obtained in several pathological conditions are described. They enable conclusion to be drawn on the possibility of errors introduced by the use of 131 I-labelled serum albumin alone in determining the circulating blood volume in clinical shock [fr

  11. Gastropod shell size and architecture influence the applicability of methods used to estimate internal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagnin, Marilia Nagata; Gorman, Daniel; McCarthy, Ian Donald; Sant'Anna, Bruno Sampaio; de Castro, Cláudio Campi; Turra, Alexander

    2018-01-11

    Obtaining accurate and reproducible estimates of internal shell volume is a vital requirement for studies into the ecology of a range of shell-occupying organisms, including hermit crabs. Shell internal volume is usually estimated by filling the shell cavity with water or sand, however, there has been no systematic assessment of the reliability of these methods and moreover no comparison with modern alternatives, e.g., computed tomography (CT). This study undertakes the first assessment of the measurement reproducibility of three contrasting approaches across a spectrum of shell architectures and sizes. While our results suggested a certain level of variability inherent for all methods, we conclude that a single measure using sand/water is likely to be sufficient for the majority of studies. However, care must be taken as precision may decline with increasing shell size and structural complexity. CT provided less variation between repeat measures but volume estimates were consistently lower compared to sand/water and will need methodological improvements before it can be used as an alternative. CT indicated volume may be also underestimated using sand/water due to the presence of air spaces visible in filled shells scanned by CT. Lastly, we encourage authors to clearly describe how volume estimates were obtained.

  12. Sample volume and alignment analysis for an optical particle counter sizer, and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holve, D.J.; Davis, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments are approaching feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. A key requirement of single particle counting techniques is the need to know features of the sample volume intensity distribution which in general are a function of the particle scattering properties and optical system geometry. In addition, the sample volume intensity distribution is sensitive to system alignment and thus calculations of alignment sensitivity are required for assessment of practical alignment tolerances. To this end, an analysis of sample volume characteristics for single particle counters in general has been developed. Results from the theory are compared with experimental measurements and shown to be in good agreement. A parametric sensitivity analysis is performed and a criterion for allowable optical misalignment is derived for conditions where beam steering caused by fluctuating refractive-index gradients is significant

  13. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  14. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A. [Morgan, Lewis and Bockius, Washington, DC (United States); Baird, R.D. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  15. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application

  16. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  17. Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, Volume II: Applications. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Corchon, Luis; Marini, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here the second volume of the Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, by L. C. Corchón and M. A. Marini (ed.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenam, UK and Northampton, MA, describing its main aim and its basic structure.

  18. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 3. Sections 5 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  19. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 1. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  20. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 2. Sections 1 through 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  1. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 4. Sections 10, 11, and Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  2. Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities (Annex 63) Volume 3: Application of Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This report describes, for different scales (city, district and project level) and for 29 conceptualised case studies, how implementation champions can apply the strategic measues from Volume 2. Implementation champions are hereby understood as stakeholders in the city who take the initiative...... to lead and facilitate implementation processes....

  3. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Cardenas

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample.

  4. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Volume 3 comprises Chapter 5 which provides descriptive information on Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center buildings and other facilities, including their locations. The design features discussed include those used to withstand environmental and accidental forces and to insure radiological protection

  5. Fluid structure interaction due to fluid communications between fluid volumes. Application to seismic behaviour of F.B.R. vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandet, E.; Gibert, R.J.; Gantenbein, F.

    1988-01-01

    The internal structures of a pool-type breeder reactor are mainly axisymmetric shells separated by fluid volumes which are connected one to another by small communications. Unfortunately, the communications destroy the axisymmetry of the problem and a correct modelisation by finite element method generally need a lot of small elements compared to the size of the standard mesh of the fluid volumes. To overcome these difficulties, an equivalent axisymmetric element based on a local tridimensional solution in the vicinity of the fluid communication is defined and will be described in the paper. This special fluid element is characterized by an equivalent length and annular cross-section. The second part of the paper is devoted to the application to an horizontal seismic calculation of breeder reactor

  6. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 1. Application of assay technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.; Green, T.H.; Molesworth, T.V.; Staniforth, D.; Strachan, N.R.; Rogers, J.D.; Wise, M.O.; Forrest, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report, in three volumes, covers the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd., and two major sub-contractors: Harwell Laboratory (AEA Technology) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd., on the development of a radioactive waste package assay facility, for cemented 500 litre intermediate level waste drums. In volume 1, the reasons for assay are considered together with the various techniques that can be used, and the information that can be obtained. The practical problems associated with the use of the various techniques in an integrated assay facility are identified, and the key parameters defined. Engineering and operational features are examined and provisional designs proposed for facilities at three throughput levels: 15,000, 750 and 30 drums per year respectively. The capital and operating costs for such facilities have been estimated. A number of recommendations are made for further work. 16 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Clinical application of tumor volume in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma to predict outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Current staging systems have limited ability to adjust optimal therapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to delineate the correlation between tumor volume, treatment outcome and chemotherapy cycles in advanced NPC. A retrospective review of 110 patients with stage III-IV NPC was performed. All patients were treated first with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, then concurrent chemoradiation, and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as being the definitive therapy. Gross tumor volume of primary tumor plus retropharyngeal nodes (GTVprn) was calculated to be an index of treatment outcome. GTVprn had a close relationship with survival and recurrence in advanced NPC. Large GTVprn (≧13 ml) was associated with a significantly poorer local control, lower distant metastasis-free rate, and poorer survival. In patients with GTVprn ≧ 13 ml, overall survival was better after ≧4 cycles of chemotherapy than after less than 4 cycles. The incorporation of GTVprn can provide more information to adjust treatment strategy

  8. Fuzzy Regression Prediction and Application Based on Multi-Dimensional Factors of Freight Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengting; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the reality of the development of air cargo, the multi-dimensional fuzzy regression method is used to determine the influencing factors, and the three most important influencing factors of GDP, total fixed assets investment and regular flight route mileage are determined. The system’s viewpoints and analogy methods, the use of fuzzy numbers and multiple regression methods to predict the civil aviation cargo volume. In comparison with the 13th Five-Year Plan for China’s Civil Aviation Development (2016-2020), it is proved that this method can effectively improve the accuracy of forecasting and reduce the risk of forecasting. It is proved that this model predicts civil aviation freight volume of the feasibility, has a high practical significance and practical operation.

  9. Water volume quantitation using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: application to cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecouffe, P.; Huglo, D.; Dubois, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitation in proton NMR imaging is applied to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Total intracranial CSF volume was measured from Condon's method: CSF signal was compared with distilled water standard signal in a single sagittal thick slice. Brain signal was reduced to minimum using a 5000/360/400 sequence. Software constraints did not permit easy implementing on imager and uniformity correction was performed on a microcomputer. Accuracy was better than 4%. Total intracranial CSF was found between 91 and 164 ml in 5 healthy volunteers. Extraventricular CSF quantitation appears very improved by this method, but planimetric methods seem better in order to quantify ventricular CSF. This technique is compared to total lung water measurement from proton density according to Mac Lennan's method. Water volume quantitation confirms ability of NMR imaging to quantify biologic parameters but image defects have to be known by strict quality control [fr

  10. Radioactivity handbook. Volume 2: radioactive disintegrations, radiations-matter interactions, applications of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.; Bonfand, E.; Rimbert, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the second one of a group of three. The first one exposed nuclides, with neutrons and protons in a stable building: atomic nucleus. Here is the second one with unstable, radioactive nucleus. After the description of different kinds of disintegrations, it is justified to follow radiations in matter and modifications attached to them; different uses of radioactivity are developed in medicine, age determination, industrial utilization and biology

  11. Holographic Recording and Applications of Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    photo-film and was used by Gabor in his first hologram [23]. A photosensitive silver halide is suspended in an emulsion such as a gelatin . The grain...One of the earliest holographic materials to be utilized was the silver halide emulsion. This is essentially a volume manifestation of a traditional...recording full color visible holograms. The sensitivity is around 1-10 μJ/cm2 making silver halide emulsions extremely sensitive and allowing rapid exposure

  12. Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, M.A.; Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.

    1989-12-01

    This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author) [pt

  13. Volume Recovery of Polymeric Glasses: Application of a Capacitance-based Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Nazam; Simon, Sindee

    Glasses, including polymeric glasses, are inherently non-equilibrium materials. As a consequence, the volume and enthalpy of a glass evolve towards equilibrium in a process termed structural recovery. Several open questions and new controversies remain unanswered in the field. Specifically, the presence of intermediate plateaus during isothermal structural recovery has been reported in recent enthalpy work. In addition, the dependence of the relaxation time on state variables and thermal history is unclear. Dilatometry is particularly useful for structural recovery studies because volume is an absolute quantity and volumetric measurements can be done in-situ. A capillary dilatometer, fitted with a linear variable differential transducer, was used previously to measure volume recovery of polymeric glass formers in our laboratory. To improve on the limitations associated with that methodology, including competition between the range of measurements versus the sensitivity, a capacitance-based technique has been developed following the work of Richert, 2010. The modification is performed by converting the glass capillary dilatometer into a cylindrical capacitor. For precision in capacitance data acquisition, an Andeen-Hagerling ultra-precision capacitance bridge (2550A, 1 kHz) is used. The setup will be tested by performing the signatures of structural recovery as described by Kovacs, 1963. Experiments are also planned to address the open questions in the field.

  14. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.; Beyer, L.; Rookwood, M.; Pacenka, J.; Bergin, J.

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge. The management practices associated with land application are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through land application are discussed

  15. Westinghouse Reference Safety Analysis Report, RESAR-414. License application, preliminary safety analysis report (RESAR-414) volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Westinghouse's standardized four-loop, single unit NSSS for a pressurized water reactor is described including the core, coolant system, ECCS, emergency boration, chemical and volume control, RHR system, boron recycle, fuel handling, spent fuel pool and associated instrumentation and controls. This reactor is applicable to a plant with a core power level of 3800 MW(t) and 1295 MW(e). The reactor is controlled by temperature coefficients of reactivity; control rod motion, and by a soluble neutron absorber-boric acid

  16. Novel regenerative large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor: preparation, characterization and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guihua; Wei, Meiping; Chen, Zhengyi; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou; Zheng, Yanjie

    2014-09-15

    A novel large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) on small column was prepared with organic-inorganic hybrid silica particles and applied for fast (10 min) and oriented digestion of protein. At first, a thin enzyme support layer was formed in the bottom of the small column by polymerization with α-methacrylic acid and dimethacrylate. After that, amino SiO2 particles was prepared by the sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Subsequently, the amino SiO2 particles were activated by glutaraldehyde for covalent immobilization of trypsin. Digestive capability of large-volume IMER for proteins was investigated by using bovine serum albumin (BSA), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) as model proteins. Results showed that although the sequence coverage of the BSA (20%) and Cyt-c (19%) was low, the large-volume IMER could produce peptides with stable specific sequence at 101-105, 156-160, 205-209, 212-218, 229-232, 257-263 and 473-451 of the amino sequence of BSA when digesting 1mg/mL BSA. Eight of common peptides were observed during each of the ten runs of large-volume IMER. Besides, the IMER could be easily regenerated by reactivating with GA and cross-linking with trypsin after breaking the -C=N- bond by 0.01 M HCl. The sequence coverage of BSA from regenerated IMER increased to 25% comparing the non-regenerated IMER (17%). 14 common peptides. accounting for 87.5% of first use of IMER, were produced both with IMER and regenerated IMER. When the IMER was applied for ginkgo albumin digestion, the sequence coverage of two main proteins of ginkgo, ginnacin and legumin, was 56% and 55%, respectively. (Reviewer 2) Above all, the fast and selective digestion property of the large-volume IMER indicated that the regenerative IMER could be tentatively used for the production of potential bioactive peptides and the study of oriented protein digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  18. Volume of visual field assessed with kinetic perimetry and its application to static perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforidis JB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John B ChristoforidisCollege of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the volume of the kinetic visual field with a single unit that accounts for visual field area and differential luminance sensitivity.Methods: Kinetic visual field perimetry was performed with a Goldmann perimeter using I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e targets. The visual fields of 25 normal volunteers (17 women, eight men of mean age 33.9 ± 10.1 (range 17–64 years were obtained and digitized. Isopter areas were measured with a method devised to correct cartographic distortion due to polar projection inherent in perimetry and are expressed in steradians. The third dimension of each isopter represents sensitivity to target luminance and was calculated as log (target luminance-1. If luminance is expressed in cd/m2, the values for the third dimension are 0.5 for I4e, 1.0 for I3e, 1.5 for I2e, and 2.0 for I1e. The resulting unit is a steradian (log 103 (cd/m2-1 which is referred to as a Goldmann. In addition, the visual fields of four patients with representative visual defect patterns were examined and compared with normal subjects.Results: Mean isopter areas for normal subjects were 3.092 ± 0.242 steradians for I4e, 2.349 ± 0.280 steradians for I3e, 1.242 ± 0.263 steradians for I2e, and 0.251 ± 0.114 steradians for the I1e target. Isopter volumes were 1.546 ± 0.121 Goldmanns for the I4e target, 1.174 ± 0.140 Goldmanns for I3e, 0.621 ± 0.131 Goldmanns for I2e, and 0.126 ± 0.057 Goldmanns for I1e. The total mean visual field volume in our study for the I target was 3.467 ± 0.371 Goldmanns.Conclusion: The volume of the island of vision may be used to quantify a visual field with a single value which contains information about both visual field extension and differential luminance sensitivity. This technique may be used to assess the progression or stability of visual field defects over time. A similar method may

  19. Three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT: applications and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Choi, Sun Seob; Kang, Myung Jin; Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Myung Koo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to know the applications and limitations of three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT. This study examined 25 patients who underwent temporal bone CT using a 16-row detector CT as a result of hearing problems or trauma. The axial CT scan of the temporal bone was performed with a 0.6 mm collimation, and a reconstruction was carried out with a U70u sharp of kernel value, a 1 mm thickness and 0.5-1.0 mm increments. After observing the ossicles in the axial and coronal images, virtual endoscopy was performed using a three dimensional volume rendering technique with a threshold value of-500 HU. The intra-operative otoendoscopy was performed in 12 ears, and was compared with the virtual endoscopy findings. Virtual endoscopy of the 29 ears without hearing problems demonstrated hypoplastic or an incomplete depiction of the stapes superstructures in 25 ears and a normal depiction in 4 ears. Virtual endoscopy of 21 ears with hearing problems demonstrated no ossicles in 1 ears, no malleus in 3 ears, a malleoincudal subluxation in 6 ears, a dysplastic incus in 5 ears, an incudostapedial subluxation in 9 ears, dysplastic stapes in 2 ears, a hypoplastic or incomplete depiction of the stapes in 16 ears and no stapes in 1 ears. In contrast to the intra-operative otoendoscopy, 8 out of 12 ears showed a hypoplastic or deformed stapes in the virtual endoscopy. Volume rendering virtual endoscopy using a multi-row detector CT is an excellent method for evaluation the ossicles in three dimension, even thought the partial volume effect for the stapes superstructures needs to be considered

  20. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sup Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01. Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose.

  1. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehndiratta, Amit; Rabinov, James D.; Grasruck, Michael; Liao, Eric C.; Crandell, David; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm 3 . Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  2. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  3. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  4. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  5. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  6. Clinical application of three-dimensional spiral CT cerebral angiography with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaoyin; Huang Xi'en; Kang Jianghe; Zhang Dantong; Lin Qingchi; Cai Guoxiang; Xu Meixin; Pang Ruilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology and assess the clinical value of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with volume rendering (VR) in cerebral vessels. Methods: Sixty-two patients were examined by means of 3D-CTA with volume rendering. VR was used in the reconstruction of 3D images, and the demonstration of normal vessels and vascular lesions were particularly analyzed. At the same time, comparisons were made between the images of VR and SSD, MIP, and also between the diagnosis of VR-CTA and DSA or postoperative results. Results: In VR images, cerebral vessel routes and vessel cavities were showed clearly, while the relationship among vascular lesions, surrounding vessels, and neighboring structure was distinguished. 50 cases (80.6%) were found positive, 48 of which were correct and 2 were false-positive compared with DSA or postoperative results. The accurate rate of diagnosis was 96.0%. There was no obvious difference in showing the cerebral vessel among the images of VR, SSD and MIP (P > 0.25). Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT cerebral angiography with VR is a new noninvasive effective method. It can even partly replace the DSA. The 3D-images have the characteristics of showing the cerebral vascular cavity and overlapped vessels without cutting the skull

  7. Application of the Streamflow Prediction Tool to Estimate Sediment Dredging Volumes in Texas Coastal Waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, E.; Dreaper, G.; Afshari, S.; Tavakoly, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past six fiscal years, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has contracted an average of about a billion dollars per year for navigation channel dredging. To execute these funds effectively, USACE Districts must determine which navigation channels need to be dredged in a given year. Improving this prioritization process results in more efficient waterway maintenance. This study uses the Streamflow Prediction Tool, a runoff routing model based on global weather forecast ensembles, to estimate dredged volumes. This study establishes regional linear relationships between cumulative flow and dredged volumes over a long-term simulation covering 30 years (1985-2015), using drainage area and shoaling parameters. The study framework integrates the National Hydrography Dataset (NHDPlus Dataset) with parameters from the Corps Shoaling Analysis Tool (CSAT) and dredging record data from USACE District records. Results in the test cases of the Houston Ship Channel and the Sabine and Port Arthur Harbor waterways in Texas indicate positive correlation between the simulated streamflows and actual dredging records.

  8. Pin on flat wear volume prediction of UHMWPE against cp Ti for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, Suyitno, Dharmastiti, Rini; Magetsari, Rahadyan

    2018-04-01

    Tribological assessment of orthopedic biomaterials requires a lot of testing time. Researchers must test the biomaterials in millions of cycles at low frequency (1 Hz) to mimic the in vivo conditions. It is a problem because product designs and developments could not wait longer for wear data to predict the lifetime of their products. The problem can be solved with the use of computation techniques to model the wear phenomena and provide predicted data. The aim of this research is to predict the wear volume of the commonly used ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) in the unidirectional pin on flat tests. The 9 mm diameter UHMWPE pin and cp Ti plate contact mechanics were modeled using Abaqus. Contact pressure was set at 3 MPa. Outputs of the computations (contact pressure and contact area) were used to calculate the wear volume with Archard law. A custom Python script was made to automate the process. The results were then compared with experimental data for validations. The predicted data were in a good trend with numerical errors from 0.3% up to 26%.

  9. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  10. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  11. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  12. Volume-heated boiling pool behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criterial derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analysis are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density. (author)

  13. Volume-heated boiling pool flow behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criteria derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocities up to nearly five times the Kutateladze dispersal velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analyses are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density

  14. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  15. Application of volume of fluid method for simulation of a droplet impacting a fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, impact of a Newtonian drop on horizontal thin fibers with circular cross section is simulated in 2D views. The numerical simulations of the phenomena are carried out using volume of fluid (VOF method for tracking the free surface motion. Impacting of a Newtonian droplet on a circular thin fiber (350μm radius investigated numerically. The main focus of this simulation is to acquire threshold radius and velocity of a drop which is entirely captured by the fiber. The model agrees well with the experiments and demonstrates the threshold radius decreased generally with the increase of impact velocity. In other words, for velocity larger than threshold velocity of capture perhaps only a small portion of fluid is stuck on the solid and the rest of the drop is ejected for impact velocity smaller than critical velocity the drop is totally captured. This threshold velocity has been determined when the impact is centered.

  16. Industrial applications study. Volume V. Bibliography of relevant literature. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1976-12-01

    This five-volume report represents an initial Phase O evaluation of waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector. The scope of this initial phase was limited to the two-digit SIC level and addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, a successful methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment are established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. The first section of the bibliography lists extensive citations for all industries. The next section is composed of an extensive literature search with abstracts for industrial energy conservation. EPA publications on specific industries and general references conclude the publication. (MCW)

  17. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 2 Development Using the GORITE BDI Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Dennis; Ronnquist, Ralph; Jain, Lakhmi C

    2013-01-01

    Since its conception almost 30 years ago, the BDI (Belief Desire Intention) model of agency has become established, along with Soar, as the approach of choice for practitioners in the development of knowledge intensive agent applications. However, in developing BDI agent applications for over 15 years, the authors of this book have observed a disconnect between what the BDI model provides and what is actually required of an agent model in order to build practical systems. The GORITE BDI framework was  developed to address this gap and this book is written for students, researchers and practitioners who wish to gain a practical understanding of how GORITE is used to develop BDI agent applications. In this regard, a feature of the book is the use of complete, annotated examples. As GORITE is a Java framework,  a familiarity with Java (or a similar language) is assumed, but no prior knowledge of the BDI model is required.

  18. Microinvasion of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: predictive factors and application for determining clinical target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yang; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Ji, Yuan; Xiao, Yin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the microscopic characteristics of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (LMCRC) invasion and provides a reference for expansion from gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical targeting volume (CTV). Data from 129 LMCRC patients treated by surgical resection at our hospital between January 2008 and September 2009 were collected for study. Tissue sections used for pathology and clinical data were reviewed. Patient information used for the study included gender, age, original tumor site, number of tumors, tumor size, levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, and whether patients received chemotherapy. The distance of liver microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured microscopically by two senior pathologists. Of 129 patients evaluated, 81 (62.8 %) presented microinvasion distances from the tumor boundary ranging between 1.0 − 7.0 mm. A GTV-to-CTV expansion of 5, 6.7, or 7.0 mm was required to provide a 95, 99, or 100 % probability, respectively, of obtaining clear resection margins by microscopic observation. The extent of invasion was not related to gender, age, synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, tumor size, CA199 level, or chemotherapy. The extent of invasion was related to original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. A scoring system was established based on the latter three positive predictors. Using this system, an invasion distance less than 3 mm was measured in 93.4 % of patients with a score of ≤1 point, but in only 85.7 % of patients with a score of ≤2 points. The extent of tumor invasion in our LMCRC patient cohort correlated with original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. These positive predictors may potentially be used as a scoring system for determining GTV-to-CTV expansion

  19. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Luleaa, Sweden. Basic rock mechanics investigations of interest involving improving the support characteristics of backfilling by adding cement, compacting, and water removal have been entered individually into EDB. The papers also cover measurements of the support capability of such fills and the application of deformation measurements and calculations using finite element computer codes to the mining of particular ore bodies, including changes in the calculations as the mining progressed. (LTN)

  20. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  1. The Art and Science of Psychological Operations: Case Studies of Military Application. Volume One

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    and of the Royal Ballet against the background of the Pyramids of Giza during the city of Cairo’s millenary celebrations in 1969, accounted for only 8...Research Associate, Department of Psy- Mary chology, Swarthmore College. GESSNER, Free-lance film editor and camera as- Peter sistant. GIZA ...Army, by Richard H. Giza --------- 1100 East Asia ---------------------------------------------- 1105 Political Warfare-Qualified Application, by

  2. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 2. Probability and statistics for PRA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Prairie, R.R.; Cramond, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    This course is intended to provide the necessary probabilistic and statistical skills to perform a PRA. Fundamental background information is reviewed, but the principal purpose is to address specific techniques used in PRAs and to illustrate them with applications. Specific examples and problems are presented for most of the topics

  4. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals

  5. Iso-Surface Volume Rendering : speed and accuracy for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Marco

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the research on the accuracy and speed of different methods for the visualization of three-dimensional (3D)sets of (measured) data. In medical environments, these 3D datasets are generated by for instance CT and MRI scanners. The medical application makes special demands on the

  6. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The conference began with reviews of the application of rock mechanics to mining and back filling in Australia, Canada and the USA. More particular papers involved mines in Sweden, Italy, Australia (pre reinforcement of walls with steel cables cemented in) and at the Con Mine in Canada. Two papers involved backfill material and specifications. Eight papers involved the use of the mathematical models for calculating the stresses developed in the rock mass by computer calculations and therefore, the probable stability. Such calculations are particularly necessary in deep mines. Papers of general interest were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  7. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  8. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-04-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  9. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  10. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  11. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 18. Microprocessor Applications in Airborne Flight Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    flowcharting . 3. ProEram Codin in HLL. This stage consists of transcribing the previously designed program into R an t at can be translated into the machine...specified conditios 7. Documentation. Program documentation is necessary for user information, for maintenance, and for future applications. Flowcharts ...particular CP U. Asynchronous. Operating without reference to an overall timing source. BASIC. Beginners ’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; a widely

  12. Application of advanced diffraction based optical metrology overlay capabilities for high-volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Ni, Wei-Feng; Chuang, S. M.; Chuang, T. K.; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky; Rao, Shiuan-An; Cumurcu Gysen, Aysegul; d'Alfonso, Maxime; Yueh, Jenny; Izikson, Pavel; Soco, Aileen; Wu, Jon; Nooitgedagt, Tjitte; Ottens, Jeroen; Kim, Yong Ho; Ebert, Martin

    2017-03-01

    On-product overlay requirements are becoming more challenging with every next technology node due to the continued decrease of the device dimensions and process tolerances. Therefore, current and future technology nodes require demanding metrology capabilities such as target designs that are robust towards process variations and high overlay measurement density (e.g. for higher order process corrections) to enable advanced process control solutions. The impact of advanced control solutions based on YieldStar overlay data is being presented in this paper. Multi patterning techniques are applied for critical layers and leading to additional overlay measurement demands. The use of 1D process steps results in the need of overlay measurements relative to more than one layer. Dealing with the increased number of overlay measurements while keeping the high measurement density and metrology accuracy at the same time presents a challenge for high volume manufacturing (HVM). These challenges are addressed by the capability to measure multi-layer targets with the recently introduced YieldStar metrology tool, YS350. On-product overlay results of such multi-layers and standard targets are presented including measurement stability performance.

  13. Remote spectral measurements of the blood volume pulse with applications for imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; McDuff, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography uses camera image sensors to measure variations in light absorption related to the delivery of the blood volume pulse to peripheral tissues. The characteristics of the measured BVP waveform depends on the spectral absorption of various tissue components including melanin, hemoglobin, water, and yellow pigments. Signal quality and artifact rejection can be enhanced by taking into account the spectral properties of the BVP waveform and surrounding tissue. The current literature regarding the spectral relationships of remote PPG is limited. To supplement this fundamental data, we present an analysis of remotely-measured, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to better understand the spectral signature of remotely measured BVP signals. To do so, spectra were measured from the right cheek of 25, stationary participants whose heads were stabilized by a chinrest. A collimating lens was used to collect reflected light from a region of 3 cm in diameter. The spectrometer provided 3 nm resolution measurements from 500-1000 nm. Measurements were acquired at a rate of 50 complete spectra per second for a period of five minutes. Reference physiology, including electrocardiography was simultaneously and synchronously acquired. The spectral data were analyzed to determine the relationship between light wavelength and the resulting remote-BVP signal-to-noise ratio and to identify those bands best suited for pulse rate measurement. To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive dataset of remotely-measured spectral iPPG data. In due course, we plan to release this dataset for research purposes.

  14. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  15. Development and Application of a Low-Volume Flow System for Solution-State in Vivo NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Anaraki, Maryam; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Wagner, Nicole; Soong, Ronald; Kovacevic, Vera; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Ortiz Almirall, Xavier; Lane, Daniel; Simpson, Myrna J; Heumann, Hermann; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simpson, André J

    2018-06-18

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful technique, since it allows samples to be analyzed in their natural, unaltered state, criteria paramount for living organisms. In this study, a novel continuous low-volume flow system, suitable for in vivo NMR metabolomics studies, is demonstrated. The system allows improved locking, shimming, and water suppression, as well as allowing the use of trace amounts of expensive toxic contaminants or low volumes of precious natural environmental samples as stressors. The use of a double pump design with a sump slurry pump return allows algal food suspensions to be continually supplied without the need for filters, eliminating the possibility of clogging and leaks. Using the flow system, the living organism can be kept alive without stress indefinitely. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of the flow system, changes in the metabolite profile of 13 C enriched Daphnia magna over a 24-h period are compared when feeding laboratory food vs exposing them to a natural algal bloom sample. Clear metabolic changes are observed over a range of metabolites including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and a nucleotide demonstrating in vivo NMR as a powerful tool to monitor environmental stress. The particular bloom used here was low in microcystins, and the metabolic stress impacts are consistent with the bloom being a poor food source forcing the Daphnia to utilize their own energy reserves.

  16. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-15

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  17. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2017-01-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  18. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung-Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2018-03-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL -1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Application of an Open-Source 3D Volume Rendering Software to Neurosurgical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira Santos, Bruno; Silva da Costa, Marcos Devanir; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Antônio de Paiva Neto, Manoel; Lawton, Michael T; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative recognition of the anatomic individualities of each patient can help to achieve more precise and less invasive approaches. It also may help to anticipate potential complications and intraoperative difficulties. Here we describe the use, accuracy, and precision of a free tool for planning microsurgical approaches using 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the 3D volume rendering tool of a free open-source software program for 3D reconstruction of images of surgical sites obtained by MRI volumetric acquisition. We recorded anatomic reference points, such as the sulcus and gyrus, and vascularization patterns for intraoperative localization of lesions. Lesion locations were confirmed during surgery by intraoperative ultrasound and/or electrocorticography and later by postoperative MRI. Between August 2015 and September 2016, a total of 23 surgeries were performed using this technique for 9 low-grade gliomas, 7 high-grade gliomas, 4 cortical dysplasias, and 3 arteriovenous malformations. The technique helped delineate lesions with an overall accuracy of 2.6 ± 1.0 mm. 3D reconstructions were successfully performed in all patients, and images showed sulcus, gyrus, and venous patterns corresponding to the intraoperative images. All lesion areas were confirmed both intraoperatively and at the postoperative evaluation. With the technique described herein, it was possible to successfully perform 3D reconstruction of the cortical surface. This reconstruction tool may serve as an adjunct to neuronavigation systems or may be used alone when such a system is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  1. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  2. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  3. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  4. Phase 3 study of selected tether applications in space. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering designs were developed relative to a tethered launch assist from the Shuttle for payloads up to 10,000 kg mass and the tethering of a 15,000 kg science platform from the space station. These designs are used for a cost benefit analysis which assesses the feasibility of using such systems as a practical alternative to what would otherwise be accomplished by conventional means. The term conventional as related to both these applications is intended to apply to the use of some form(s) of chemical propulsion system.

  5. Optimal nutrient application strategy for bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Zhao, Q.; Boufadel, M.C.; Venosa, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore oil spills in coastal areas generally occur in the intertidal zone of beaches and affect the top 25 cm of soil, known as the bioremediation zone. Biostimulation by nutrient application such as nitrogen and phosphorus is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. The key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup is to ensure maximum nutrient residence time. This study proposed a strategy that consisted of injecting nutrients through a perforated pipe at the high tide line. Beach hydraulics were numerically simulated to estimate the optimal injection flow rate of nutrient solution. It was shown that the optimal application should begin following high tide just as it drops and should last for half a tidal cycle. The flow rate ensures that the saturated wet-front of the nutrient solution on the beach surface moves seaward with the same speed of the falling tide keeping a constant distance with the tide line. The numerical results were generalized to a broad range of hydraulic and tidal properties of beaches using an innovative dimensionless formulation for water flow and solute transport in porous media. Nomographs were presented to provide the flow rate based on 4 parameters, notably the beach slope, permeability, tidal amplitude and tidal period. 29 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  6. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  7. Selection methodology for LWR safety programs and proposals. Volume 2. Methodology application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzman, R.L.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    The results of work done to update and apply a methodology for selecting (prioritizing) LWR safety technology R and D programs are described. The methodology is based on multiattribute utility (MAU) theory. Application of the methodology to rank-order a group of specific R and D programs included development of a complete set of attribute utility functions, specification of individual attribute scaling constants, and refinement and use of an interactive computer program (MAUP) to process decision-maker inputs and generate overall (multiattribute) program utility values. The output results from several decision-makers are examined for consistency and conclusions and recommendations regarding general use of the methodology are presented. 3 figures, 18 tables

  8. Study of application of adaptive systems to the exploration of the solar system. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence to identify practical applications to unmanned spacecraft used to explore the solar system in the decade of the 80s is examined. If an unmanned spacecraft can be made to adjust or adapt to the environment, to make decisions about what it measures and how it uses and reports the data, it can become a much more powerful tool for the science community in unlocking the secrets of the solar system. Within this definition of an adaptive spacecraft or system, there is a broad range of variability. In terms of sophistication, an adaptive system can be extremely simple or as complex as a chess-playing machine that learns from its mistakes.

  9. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE), version 1.0. Volume 2: Program integration guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Stallcup, Scott S.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution, EASIE, provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational data base management system. In volume 2, the use of a SYSTEM LIBRARY PROCESSOR is used to construct a DATA DICTIONARY describing all relations defined in the data base, and a TEMPLATE LIBRARY. A TEMPLATE is a description of all subsets of relations (including conditional selection criteria and sorting specifications) to be accessed as input or output for a given application. Together, these form the SYSTEM LIBRARY which is used to automatically produce the data base schema, FORTRAN subroutines to retrieve/store data from/to the data base, and instructions to a generic REVIEWER program providing review/modification of data for a given template. Automation of these functions eliminates much of the tedious, error prone work required by the usual approach to data base integration.

  11. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to radionuclide determinations: Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W.; Crain, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Even from its early conception, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was thought to be well-suited to the unique measurement problems facing the nuclear industry. These thoughts were well-founded; indeed, one might consider it unusual if a modern nuclear research center did not have access to one or more ICP mass spectrometers (quadrupole or otherwise). However, as ICP-MS has matured, improvements in sensitivity and precision have made possible measurements that were inconceivable to the founding fathers of the technology. Therefore, there is a periodic need to gather information and obtain a snapshot in time of the technology and its applications in nuclear energy. This second symposium was an international event in which speakers from the US, Europe, and the Middle East described new developments in ICP-MS relevant to the nuclear energy community. The papers presented at the 1998 symposium are published herein. Several papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    Application of venture analysis would, at a minimum, need to address issues involving careful definition of the product/service being considered; market needs that the product will satisfy; investment/manufacturing costs; minimum selling price needed to achieve desired ROI or other financial measure; market potential at relevant prices; potential for competitors to obsolete the product before investment is recovered; assessment of companies' resources and capabilities to supply the product. There is clearly no single method for performing every venture analysis, because the economic and structural environment associated with each industry varies widely. These and other factors produce differences in cost structure, marketing organizations, and nature of products which dictate that an appropriate method of venture analysis must be tailored to each industry. The initial chapter of the report presents some brief remarks concerning the important concepts that all venture analyses must consider and then describes in detail the method used for the venture analyzed in this report. The case study addresses IEUS for commercialization. The type of IEUS investigated supplies electricity and thermal energy; the thermal energy distributed in the form of high-temperature water, i.e., water from at least 90/sup 0/C upwards to 200/sup 0/C. (MCW)

  13. Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Park, Young Joo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  15. Application of SLIM-MAUD: A test of an interactive computer-based method for organizing expert assessment of human performance and reliability: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spettell, C.M.; Rosa, E.A.; Humphreys, P.C.; Embrey, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been conducting a multiyear research program to investigate different methods for using expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plants. One of the methods investigated, derived from multi-attribute utility theory, is the Success Likelihood Index Methodolocy implemented through Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition (SLIM-MAUD). This report describes a systematic test application of the SLIM-MAUD methodology. The test application is evaluated on the basis of three criteria: practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Volume I of this report represents an overview of SLIM-MAUD, describes the procedures followed in the test application, and provides a summary of the results obtained. Volume II consists of technical appendices to support in detail the materials contained in Volume I, and the users' package of explicit procedures to be followed in implementing SLIM-MAUD. The results obtained in the test application provide support for the application of SLIM-MAUD to a wide variety of applications requiring estimates of human errors

  16. Report of the Survey on the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 1 - Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven

    2014-06-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the members agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report, which is the first volume, provides a discussion of the survey responses related to Instrumentation and Control (I and C). The Instrumentation and Control category includes the twelve following technical topics: Reactor trip system, actuation systems for Engineered Safety Features (ESF), safe shutdown system, safety-related display instrumentation, information and interlock systems important to safety, controls systems, main control room, supplementary control room, diverse I and C systems, data communication systems, software reliability and cyber-security. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the Level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Among the regulatory organisations that responded to the survey, there are similarities in the design information provided by an applicant. In most countries, the design information provided by an applicant includes, but is not limited to, a description of the I and C system design and functions, a description of the verification and validation programmes, and provisions for analysis, testing, and inspection of various I and C systems. - In addition to the regulations, it is a common practice for countries

  17. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 4: Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Joyer, Philippe; Koley, Jaharlal; Kawamura, Tomonori; Chung, Yeon-Ki; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Monninger, John; Choi, Young-Joon; )

    2017-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the licensing process survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report provides a discussion of the survey responses related to the Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category. The Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category includes the following technical topics: overpressure protection, reactor coolant pressure boundary, reactor vessel, and design of the reactor coolant system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - It is common to consider operating experience and lessons learnt from the current fleet during the review process. - The most commonly and consistently identified technical expertise needed to perform design reviews related to this category are mechanical engineering and materials engineering. The complete survey

  18. Role of computation fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering (4). Development and applications of implicit TVD finete volume code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, Eiji; Jounouchi, Tadamasa

    1986-12-01

    Potential analysis in aeronautic design has reached the stage of practical use although it involves problems concerning accuracy and restrictions on its application. On the other hand, numerical analysis using Euler and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations is based on a highly accurate theory, so is preferable, but has not reached the stage of practical use because it involves problems that shapes that can be analyzed are restricted on account of factors relating to computation lattice generation and because it involves difficulty relating to computation time. The essential factor in numerical analysis is stoutness (numeric stability). From this viewpoint, an Euler/N-S method was developed; the theory begins with TVD finite volume code, and incorporates various types of improvement to raise accuracy and shorten computation time; hence, it satisfies design requirements. The use of this method helps get solution under a wide range of flow condition without any fine adjustments, such as artificial viscosity. (6 figs, 1 tab, 10 refs)

  19. Separation of surface, subsurface and volume fatigue damage effects in AISI 348 steel for power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Martin; Nowak, David; Walther, Frank [Technical Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Materials Test Engineering (WPT); Starke, Peter [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Boller, Christian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Fraunhofer IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    A wide range of industries including energy, chemistry, pharmacy, textiles, food and drink, pulp and paper, etc. is using stainless steels. Metastable austenitic steels such as used in power plants and chemical industry are subjected to cyclic mechanical and thermal loading in air as well as under the influence of corrosive media. This paper provides an overview on different nondestructive and electrochemical measurement techniques, which allow differentiating fatigue damage effects in total strain controlled multiple and constant amplitude tests with respect to damage appearance on surface, in subsurface area as well as in volume of specimens or components microstructure. In addition to conventional mechanical stress-strain hysteresis curves, electrical resistance, magnetic and open circuit potential measurements have been applied to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of the metastable austenitic steel AISI 348 (X10CrNiNb18-9) in laboratory air and in distilled water. Based on these results obtained, the paper provides an outlook on the possibility for an efficient (remaining) fatigue life evaluation approach, which is adapted to the needs of the application areas.

  20. New methods to interpolate large volume of data from points or particles (Mesh-Free) methods application for its scientific visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lopez, Y.; Yervilla Herrera, H.; Viamontes Esquivel, A.; Recarey Morfa, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the following paper we developed a new method to interpolate large volumes of scattered data, focused mainly on the results of the Mesh free Methods, Points Methods and the Particles Methods application. Through this one, we use local radial basis function as interpolating functions. We also use over-tree as the data structure that allows to accelerate the localization of the data that influences to interpolate the values at a new point, speeding up the application of scientific visualization techniques to generate images from large data volumes from the application of Mesh-free Methods, Points and Particle Methods, in the resolution of diverse models of physics-mathematics. As an example, the results obtained after applying this method using the local interpolation functions of Shepard are shown. (Author) 22 refs

  1. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  2. The application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gross tumor volume delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Dongliang; Shi Gaofeng; Gao Xianshu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with esophageal SCC treated with radical surgery were analyzed. Routine CT scan, MRI T 2 -weighted and DWMRI were employed before surgery; diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken 400, 600 and 800 s/mm 2 . GTVs were delineated using CT, MRI T 2 -weighted images and DWMRI under different b-value images. The length of GTVs measured under different images was compared with the pathological length and confirm the most accurate imaging condition. Use radiotherapy planning system to fuse DWMRI images and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineate GTVs on fused images. Results: The difference of GTV length value between CT, T 2 WI images and specimen was 3.36 mm and 2.84 mm. When b =400,600 and 800 s/mm 2 , the difference between GTV length value on the DWMRI images and on specimen was 0.47 mm, -0.47 mm and - 1.53 mm; the correlation coefficient of the measuring esophageal lengths on DWMRI images and the pathological lengths was 0.928, 0.927 and 0.938. DWMRI images and CT images could fuse accurately on radiotherapy planning system. GTV margin could.show clearly on fused images. Conclusions: DWMRI images can display the esophageal carcinoma lengths and margin accurately. When DWMRI images fused with CT images, GTV margin could show clearly,it can be used to delineate GTV accurately. (authors)

  3. Rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement for a piezo drop-on-demand inkjet print head using a scanning mirror for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Minsung

    2017-02-01

    Despite the inherent fabrication simplicity of piezo drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the non-uniform deposition of colourants or electroluminescent organic materials leads to faulty display products, and hence, the importance of rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement increases from a process perspective. In this work, various jetting status inspections and droplet volume measurement methods are reviewed by discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and then, the opportunities for the developed prototype with a scanning mirror are explored. This work demonstrates that jetting status inspection of 384 fictitious droplets can be performed within 17 s with maximum and minimum measurement accuracies of 0.2 ± 0.5 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 50 μ m in diameter and -1.2 ± 0.3 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 30 μ m in diameter, respectively. In addition to the new design of an inkjet monitoring instrument with a scanning mirror, two novel methods to accurately measure the droplet volume by amplifying a minute droplet volume difference and then converting to other physical properties are suggested and the droplet volume difference of ±0.3% is demonstrated to be discernible using numerical simulations, even with the low measurement accuracy of 1 μ m . When the fact is considered that the conventional vision-based method with a CCD camera requires the optical measurement accuracy less than 25 nm to measure the volume of an in-flight droplet in the nominal diameter of 50 μ m at the same volume measurement accuracy, the suggested method with the developed prototype offers a whole new opportunity to inkjet printing for display applications.

  4. Estimation of mean tree stand volume using high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model, obtained from sUAV and Trestima mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rybakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a remote sensing technique for mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR aerial RGB imagery obtained using a small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV and a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM as well as an innovative technology for field measurements (Trestima. The study area covers approx. 220 ha of forestland in Finland. The work concerns the entire process from remote sensing and field data acquisition to statistical analysis and forest volume wall-to-wall mapping. The study showed that the VHR aerial imagery and the high-resolution DSM produced based on the application of the sUAV have good prospects for forest inventory. For the sUAV based estimation of forest variables such as Height, Basal Area and mean Volume, Root Mean Square Error constituted 6.6 %, 22.6 % and 26.7 %, respectively. Application of Trestima for estimation of the mean volume of the standing forest showed minor difference over the existing Forest Management Plan at all the selected forest compartments. Simultaneously, the results of the study confirmed that the technologies and the tools applied at this work could be a reliable and potentially cost-effective means of forest data acquisition with high potential of operational use.

  5. Relationship Between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for the In Situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara; Miller, J.-S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Lefevre, J.-C.; Boukari, C.

    2014-01-01

    These first results demonstrate that LIBS spectra can be an interesting tool to estimate the ablated volume. When the ablated volume is bigger than 9.10(exp 6) cubic micrometers, this method has less than 10% of uncertainties. Far enough to be directly implemented in the KArLE experiment protocol. Nevertheless, depending on the samples and their mean grain size, the difficulty to have homogeneous spectra will increase with the ablated volume. Several K-Ar dating studies based on this approach will be implemented. After that, the results will be shown and discussed.

  6. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge

  7. Excess molar volumes of (an alkanol plus a branched chain ether) at the temperature 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letcher, TM

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase Equilibria 140 (1997) 207-220 The excess molar the temperature volumes of (an alkanol + a branched chain ether) at 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model Trevor M. Letcher * , Penny U. Govender ? Drpartnwnt... V,,? results presented here, together with the previously reported data for the molar excess enthalpy Hi, has been used to test the Extended Real Associated Solution (ERAS) model. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. Ke...

  8. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  9. Experimental applications for the MARK-1 and MARK-1A pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y.; Lones, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This report is the third volume in a three volume set describing the MARK series of pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. This volume describes the MARK-1A detection system, compares it with the MARK-1 system, and describes the experimental testing of the detection systems. Volume 1 of this set presents the technical specifications for the MARK-1 detection system. Volume 2 is an operations manual specifically for the MARK-1 system, but it generally applies to the MARK-1A system as well. These detection systems operate remotely and detect photon radiation from a single or a multiple pulsed source. They contain multiple detector (eight in the MARK-1 and ten in the MARK-1A) for determination of does and incident photon effective energy. The multiple detector arrangement, having different detector sizes and shield thicknesses, provides the capability of determining the effective photon energy of the radiation spectrum. Dose measurements using these units are consistent with TLD measurements. The detection range is from 3 nanorads to 90 microrads per source burst; the response is linear over that range. Three units were built and are ready for field deployment

  10. Application of artificial neural networks for the prediction of volume fraction using spectra of gamma rays backscattered by three-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour Peyvandi, R.; Islami Rad, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the volume fraction percentage of the different phases flowing in vessels using transmission gamma rays is a conventional method in petroleum and oil industries. In some cases, with access only to the one side of the vessels, attention was drawn toward backscattered gamma rays as a desirable choice. In this research, the volume fraction percentage was measured precisely in water-gasoil-air three-phase flows by using the backscatter gamma ray technique andthe multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network. The volume fraction determination in three-phase flows requires two gamma radioactive sources or a dual-energy source (with different energies) while in this study, we used just a 137Cs source (with the single energy) and a NaI detector to analyze backscattered gamma rays. The experimental set-up provides the required data for training and testing the network. Using the presented method, the volume fraction was predicted with a mean relative error percentage less than 6.47%. Also, the root mean square error was calculated as 1.60. The presented set-up is applicable in some industries with limited access. Also, using this technique, the cost, radiation safety and shielding requirements are minimized toward the other proposed methods.

  11. Application of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volume of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Wang Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The densities of two binary mixtures formed by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF 4 ] and 1-butyl-3-methy limidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF 6 ] with compound N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone have been determined over the full range of composition and range of temperature from (298.15 to 313.15) K and at atmospheric pressure using a vibrating-tube densimeter (DMA4500). Excess molar volumes, V m E , have been obtained from these experimental results, and been fitted by the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation. From the experimental results, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volume and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution were calculated over the whole composition range. Our results show that V m E decreases slightly when temperature increases in the systems studied. The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. The results have been interpreted in terms of ion-dipole interactions and structural factors of the ionic liquid and these organic molecular liquids

  12. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  13. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  14. Field evaluation of indoor thermal fog and ultra-low volume applications for control of Aedes aegypti, in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacies of a hand-held thermal fogger (PatriotTM) and hand-held Ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer (TwisterTM) with combinations of two different adulticides and an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen) were field assessed and compared for their impact on reducing dengue vector populations in Thaila...

  15. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  16. Artificial neural network and neutron application in a volume fraction calculation in annular and stratified multiphase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da

    2009-01-01

    Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a 241 Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)

  17. Artificial neural network and neutron application in a volume fraction calculation in annular and stratified multiphase system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: robson@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a {sup 241}Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)

  18. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  19. Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Udrescu, Stefan; Albu, Florin; Tache, Florentin; David, Victor

    2011-09-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

  20. BEDVH--A method for evaluating biologically effective dose volume histograms: Application to eye plaque brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Huber, Kathryn E.; Mignano, John E.; Duker, Jay S.; Laver, Nora V.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy implant in a radiobiological context. Methods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with 103 Pd, 125 I, or 131 Cs sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume ( TUMOR D 90 ) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes ( OAR D 10 ) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published α/β and μ parameters were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., TUMOR 7 BED 10 and OAR 7 BED 10 ). By calculating BED throughout the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on TUMOR BEDVH and OAR BEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence. Results: TUMOR D 90 values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for 103 Pd, 125 I, and 131 Cs, respectively. Corresponding TUMOR 7 BED 10 values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, TUMOR 7 BEDVH did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution. Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused TUMOR 7 BED 10 to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of OAR α/β values, OAR 7 BED 10 varied by up to 41%, 3.1%, and 1.4% for the lens, optic nerve, and lacrimal gland, respectively. Conclusions: BEDVH permits evaluation of the

  1. Application of Nuclear Volume Measurements to Comprehend the Cell Cycle in Root-Knot Nematode-Induced Giant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dijair Antonino de Souza Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes induce galls that contain giant-feeding cells harboring multiple enlarged nuclei within the roots of host plants. It is recognized that the cell cycle plays an essential role in the set-up of a peculiar nuclear organization that seemingly steers nematode feeding site induction and development. Functional studies of a large set of cell cycle genes in transgenic lines of the model host Arabidopsis thaliana have contributed to better understand the role of the cell cycle components and their implication in the establishment of functional galls. Mitotic activity mainly occurs during the initial stages of gall development and is followed by an intense endoreduplication phase imperative to produce giant-feeding cells, essential to form vigorous galls. Transgenic lines overexpressing particular cell cycle genes can provoke severe nuclei phenotype changes mainly at later stages of feeding site development. This can result in chaotic nuclear phenotypes affecting their volume. These aberrant nuclear organizations are hampering gall development and nematode maturation. Herein we report on two nuclear volume assessment methods which provide information on the complex changes occurring in nuclei during giant cell development. Although we observed that the data obtained with AMIRA tend to be more detailed than Volumest (Image J, both approaches proved to be highly versatile, allowing to access 3D morphological changes in nuclei of complex tissues and organs. The protocol presented here is based on standard confocal optical sectioning and 3-D image analysis and can be applied to study any volume and shape of cellular organelles in various complex biological specimens. Our results suggest that an increase in giant cell nuclear volume is not solely linked to increasing ploidy levels, but might result from the accumulation of mitotic defects.

  2. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  3. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  4. A discriminative structural similarity measure and its application to video-volume registration for endoscope three-dimensional motion tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-06-01

    Endoscope 3-D motion tracking, which seeks to synchronize pre- and intra-operative images in endoscopic interventions, is usually performed as video-volume registration that optimizes the similarity between endoscopic video and pre-operative images. The tracking performance, in turn, depends significantly on whether a similarity measure can successfully characterize the difference between video sequences and volume rendering images driven by pre-operative images. The paper proposes a discriminative structural similarity measure, which uses the degradation of structural information and takes image correlation or structure, luminance, and contrast into consideration, to boost video-volume registration. By applying the proposed similarity measure to endoscope tracking, it was demonstrated to be more accurate and robust than several available similarity measures, e.g., local normalized cross correlation, normalized mutual information, modified mean square error, or normalized sum squared difference. Based on clinical data evaluation, the tracking error was reduced significantly from at least 14.6 mm to 4.5 mm. The processing time was accelerated more than 30 frames per second using graphics processing unit.

  5. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  6. Gibbs and Hill Standard Safety Analysis Report, GIBBSSAR. License application, volume 1: chapters 1--3 (section 7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    License application for the GIBBSSAR Standard Plant is presented. The reactor used with the GIBBSSAR balance-of-plant system is the Westinghouse 3800 MW(t) PWR. This portion of the application includes a general plant description; site characteristics; and design of structures, components, equipment and systems

  7. Application of ERAS-model and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volumes for ternary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanlarzadeh, K.; Iloukhani, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Density of ternary and three binary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) determined. → Excess molar volume, partial molar volume and apparent molar volume were calculated. → Excess molar volume was correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and Cibulka equation for all mixtures. → The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the ERAS-model and PFP theory. - Abstract: Densities of the ternary mixture consisting of {2-chlorobutane (1) + butylacetate (2) + isobutanol (3)} and related binary mixtures were measured over the whole range of composition at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure. Excess molar volumes V m E for the mixtures were derived and correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and the Cibulka equations for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. From the experimental data, partial molar volumes, V-bar m,i excess partial molar volumes, V-bar i E partial molar volumes at infinite dilution V-bar m,i 0 and apparent molar volumes V-bar φ,i were also calculated. For all binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fractions V m E data are positive. The experimental results of the constituted binary mixtures have been used to test the applicability of the extended real associated solution (ERAS-model) and Prigogine-Flory-Paterson (PFP) theory.

  8. Application of Compressible Volume of Fluid Model in Simulating the Impact and Solidification of Hollow Spherical ZrO2 Droplet on a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah; Jazi, Hamidreza Salimi; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-12-01

    Applications of hollow spherical particles in thermal spraying process have been developed in recent years, accompanied by attempts in the form of experimental and numerical studies to better understand the process of impact of a hollow droplet on a surface. During such process, volume and density of the trapped gas inside droplet change. The numerical models should be able to simulate such changes and their consequent effects. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the impact of a hollow ZrO2 droplet on a flat surface using the volume of fluid technique for compressible flows. An open-source, finite-volume-based CFD code was used to perform the simulations, where appropriate subprograms were added to handle the studied cases. Simulation results were compared with the available experimental data. Results showed that at high impact velocities ( U 0 > 100 m/s), the compression of trapped gas inside droplet played a significant role in the impact dynamics. In such velocities, the droplet splashed explosively. Compressibility effects result in a more porous splat, compared to the corresponding incompressible model. Moreover, the compressible model predicted a higher spread factor than the incompressible model, due to planetary structure of the splat.

  9. Investigations on the properties of gas telescopes with three-piece measuring volume concerning their application for the spectrometry of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borst, H.

    1976-07-01

    In this paper, the properties of gas telescopes with three-piece measuring volume are analyzed. First, the principle of measurement on which gas telescopes are based is explained and ranges of application resulting from it as well as principles of possible realizations are discussed. Then a new theory of proportional gas amplification is derived in its application on methane gas, whose results are used in further descriptions. The following section deals with energy-dependent properties of gas telescopes. Here, it is shown that neutron energies above 100 keV can be measured with gas telescopes. In a further section, the prototype is described and its theoretical properties are shown. Finally, alternative possibilties of design are given from which good properties may be expected, even with accompanying gamma rays. (orig./GSC) [de

  10. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M.T.; Blakeley, M.P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A.A.; Podjarny, A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 (angstrom) resolution from a small (0.15 mm 3 ) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR(D)), subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm 3 are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 (angstrom) resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 (angstrom). This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  11. Application of some geometrical and empirical models to excess molar volume for the multi-component mixtures at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloukhani, H.; Khanlarzadeh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess molar volume of quartenary mixtures of 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, butylamine, and butylacetate was determined. ► The experimental data were correlated by some empirical and semi empirical models. ► A comparison with PFP theory has been successfully applied from binary data. - Abstract: Densities of the quaternary mixture consisting of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3) + butylacetate (4)} and related ternary mixtures of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3)}, {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylacetate (4)}, {2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3) + butylacetate (4)}, and binary systems of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2)}, {2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3)}, were measured over the whole range of composition at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure. Excess molar volumes, V m E , for the mixtures were derived and correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich–Kister and the Cibulka equations for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. From the experimental data, partial molar volumes, V m,i and excess partial molar volumes, V m,i E were also calculated for binary systems. The experimental results of the constituted binary mixtures have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine–Flory–Paterson (PFP) theory. A number of geometrical and empirical equations were also used to verify their ability to predict ternary and quaternary properties from their lower order mixtures. The experimental data were used to evaluate the nature and type of intermolecular interactions in multi-component mixtures.

  12. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  13. Bridge between control science and technology. Volume 5 Manufacturing man-machine systems, computers, components, traffic control, space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembold, U; Kempf, K G; Towill, D R; Johannsen, G; Paul, M

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: robotics; CAD/CAM applications; and man-machine systems. Consideration is also given to: tools and software for system design and integration; communication systems for real-time computer control; fail-safe design of real-time computer systems; and microcomputer-based control systems. Additional topics discussed include: programmable and intelligent components and instruments in automatic control; transportation systems; and space applications of automatic control systems.

  14. Gliomas: Application of Cumulative Histogram Analysis of Normalized Cerebral Blood Volume on 3 T MRI to Tumor Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Ryoo, Inseon; Kim, Soo Chin; Yeom, Jeong A.; Shin, Hwaseon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, A. Leum; Yun, Tae Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma grading assumes significant importance in that low- and high-grade gliomas display different prognoses and are treated with dissimilar therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to retrospectively assess the usefulness of a cumulative normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histogram for glioma grading based on 3 T MRI. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 63 patients with astrocytic tumors underwent 3 T MRI with dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging. Regions of interest containing the entire tumor volume were drawn on every section of the co-registered relative CBV (rCBV) maps and T2-weighted images. The percentile values from the cumulative nCBV histograms and the other histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grades. Cochran’s Q test and the McNemar test were used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the histogram parameters after the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Using the parameter offering the highest diagnostic accuracy, a validation process was performed with an independent test set of nine patients. Results The 99th percentile of the cumulative nCBV histogram (nCBV C99), mean and peak height differed significantly between low- and high-grade gliomas (P = histogram analysis of nCBV using 3 T MRI can be a useful method for preoperative glioma grading. The nCBV C99 value is helpful in distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas and grade IV from III gliomas. PMID:23704910

  15. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav; Duras, Petr; Třeška, Vladislav; Matoušková, Táňa; Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub; Lysák, Daniel; Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  16. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav, E-mail: ludvikj@fnplzen.cz; Duras, Petr [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Třeška, Vladislav [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Matoušková, Táňa [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Lysák, Daniel [Charles University, Department of Haemato-Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  17. RETRAN-02: a program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of complex fluid-flow systems. Volume 4. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Gose, G.C.; McFadden, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    RETRAN-02 represents a significant achievement in the development of a versatile and reliable computer program for use in best estimate transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor systems. The RETRAN-02 computer program is an extension of the RETRAN-01 program designed to provide analysis capabilities for 1) BWR and PWR transients, 2) small break loss of coolant accidents, 3) balance of plant modeling, and 4) anticipated transients without scram, while maintaining the analysis capabilities of the predecessor code. The RETRAN-02 computer code is constructed in a semimodular and dynamic dimensioned form where additions to the code can be easily carried out as new and improved models are developed. This report (the fourth of a five volume computer code manual) describes the verification and validation of RETRAN-02

  18. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Luccichenti, Giacomo; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics [it

  19. Assembly Discontinuity Factors for the Neutron Diffusion Equation discretized with the Finite Volume Method. Application to BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, A.; Roman, J.E.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method is proposed to solve the eigenvalue problem of the Neutron Diffusion Equation in BWR. • The Neutron Diffusion Equation is discretized with the Finite Volume Method. • The currents are calculated by using a polynomial expansion of the neutron flux. • The current continuity and boundary conditions are defined implicitly to reduce the size of the matrices. • Different structured and unstructured meshes were used to discretize the BWR. - Abstract: The neutron flux spatial distribution in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) can be calculated by means of the Neutron Diffusion Equation (NDE), which is a space- and time-dependent differential equation. In steady state conditions, the time derivative terms are zero and this equation is rewritten as an eigenvalue problem. In addition, the spatial partial derivatives terms are transformed into algebraic terms by discretizing the geometry and using numerical methods. As regards the geometrical discretization, BWRs are complex systems containing different components of different geometries and materials, but they are usually modelled as parallelepiped nodes each one containing only one homogenized material to simplify the solution of the NDE. There are several techniques to correct the homogenization in the node, but the most commonly used in BWRs is that based on Assembly Discontinuity Factors (ADFs). As regards numerical methods, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is feasible and suitable to be applied to the NDE. In this paper, a FVM based on a polynomial expansion method has been used to obtain the matrices of the eigenvalue problem, assuring the accomplishment of the ADFs for a BWR. This eigenvalue problem has been solved by means of the SLEPc library.

  20. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  1. Institutional origins of the Department of Energy: the Office of Military Application. Energy History Series Volume 1, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 brought together for the first time in one department most of the government's energy programs. With these programs came a score of organizational entities, each with its own history and traditions, from a dozen departments and independent agencies. This report traces the history of the Office of Military Application, from its inception as the Division of Military Application in the Atomic Energy Commission, through the Energy Research and Development Administration to its present status as an office in the Department of Energy

  2. Assessing the impacts of truck based ultra-low volume applications of mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito control reduces populations of mosquitoes to minimize the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. As part of an integrated approach to mosquito control, application of adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impact...

  3. Worldwide Intelligent Systems: Approaches to Telecommunications and Network Management. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, Jay, Ed.; Prerau, David S., Ed.

    This is an international collection of 12 papers addressing artificial intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology applications in telecommunications and network management. It covers the latest and emerging AI technologies as applied to the telecommunications field. The papers are: "The Potential for Knowledge Technology in…

  4. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  5. Low volume, large force (>1mN) and nanometer resolution, electrostatic microactuator for low displacement applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic microactuator suitable for low displacement applications is proposed. The actuator employs a large number of basic units working in parallel together with a built-in mechanical transformation to generate large force. Influence of distinct design parameters on actuator

  6. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  7. Interim report on the development and application of environmental mapped data digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software for the ALICE system. Volume II. [MAP, CHAIN, FIX, and DOUT, in FORTRAN IV for PDP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiot, L.W.; Lima, R.J.; Scholbrock, S.D.; Shelman, C.B.; Wehman, R.H.

    1979-06-01

    Volume I of An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System provided an overall description of the software developed for the ALICE System and presented an example of its application. The scope of the information presented in Volume I was directed both to the users and developers of digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software. Volume II presents information which is directly related to the actual computer code and operational characteristics (keys and subroutines) of the software. Volume II will be of more interest to developers of software than to users of the software. However, developers of software should be aware that the code developed for the ALICE System operates in an environment where much of the peripheral hardware to the PDP-10 is ANL/AMD built. For this reason, portions of the code may have to be modified for implementation on other computer system configurations. 11 tables.

  8. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 1: Guidelines for evaluating the management and operations planning of photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).

  9. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    time of application. Such designs were probably influenced by the ready availabilit " 51 of fire-fighting hoses on ships and tugs; the water stream not...8217 I I1 ---- i . . .. . IIII . . . I I PREFACE The use of chemicals for the dispersal of oil spilled on water has been the subject of discussion (and of...20 Oil Type, Weathering and Emulsification.. 20 Slick Thickness .......................... 28 Water Temperature

  10. Nanostructural Free-Volume Effects in Humidity-Sensitive MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Hotra, O.; Kostiv, Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Technologically modified spinel MgO-Al2O3 ceramics were prepared from Al2O3 and 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O powders at sintering temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 °C. Free-volume structural effects in MgO-Al2O3 ceramics and their electrophysical properties were studied using combined x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Hg-porosimetry, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that increasing of sintering temperature from 1200 to 1400 °C results in the transformation of pore size distribution in ceramics from tri- to bi-modal including open macro- and meso(micro)pores with sizes from ten to hundreds nm and nanopores with sizes up to a few nm. Microstructure of these ceramics is improved with the increase of sintering temperature, which results in decreased amount of additional phases located near grain boundaries. These phase extractions serve as specific trapping centers for positrons penetrating the ceramics. The positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying components are considered in the mathematical treatment of the measured spectra. Classic Tao-Eldrup model is used to draw the correlation between the ortho-positronium lifetime and the size of nanopores, which is complementary to porosimetry data. The studied ceramics with optimal nanoporous structure are highly sensitive to humidity changes in the region of 31-96% with minimal hysteresis in adsorption-desorption cycles.

  11. Spine segmentation from C-arm CT data sets: application to region-of-interest volumes for spinal interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, C.; Lorenz, C.; Babic, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.; Homan, R.; Nachabe, R.; Racadio, J. M.; Grass, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spinal fusion is a common procedure to stabilize the spinal column by fixating parts of the spine. In such procedures, metal screws are inserted through the patients back into a vertebra, and the screws of adjacent vertebrae are connected by metal rods to generate a fixed bridge. In these procedures, 3D image guidance for intervention planning and outcome control is required. Here, for anatomical guidance, an automated approach for vertebra segmentation from C-arm CT images of the spine is introduced and evaluated. As a prerequisite, 3D C-arm CT images are acquired covering the vertebrae of interest. An automatic model-based segmentation approach is applied to delineate the outline of the vertebrae of interest. The segmentation approach is based on 24 partial models of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae which aggregate information about (i) the basic shape itself, (ii) trained features for image based adaptation, and (iii) potential shape variations. Since the volume data sets generated by the C-arm system are limited to a certain region of the spine the target vertebra and hence initial model position is assigned interactively. The approach was trained and tested on 21 human cadaver scans. A 3-fold cross validation to ground truth annotations yields overall mean segmentation errors of 0.5 mm for T1 to 1.1 mm for C6. The results are promising and show potential to support the clinician in pedicle screw path and rod planning to allow accurate and reproducible insertions.

  12. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  13. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  14. The Application of Le Chatelier – Brown Principle for Interpretation of the Results of the LongLasting Fluctuations of the Electric Strength in Minor Volumes of Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Glagolev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a Le Chatelier – Brown principle to describe a balanced state in various physical problems. The Le Chatelier – Brown principle applications are demonstrated in problems of chemical thermodynamics, mechanics, electrodynamics as well as in descriptions of biosphere processes. The paper defines an inverse correlation for the Kullback's measure values of fluctuations of the electric strength in minor volumes of electrolytes on the density of entropy production in the environment. It shows that influence of dissipative processes on isolated electrolytic cell can be described using the Le Chatelier – Brown principle. The correlation coefficient of Kullback's measure values and density of entropy production in transformation of the Sun radiation into the Earth surface thermal radiation is calculated.

  15. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. II. Entomologic and operational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R T; Solis, M; Weathers, D B; Taylor, J W

    1975-03-01

    In a large-scale study in the Miragoane Valley of Haiti, designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria, spray operations resulted in an immediate and sharp decline in numbers of the vector, Anopheles albimanus. The adult population of this mosquito remained at less than 1% of previous levels until several weeks after a 50-day spray period (27 October-16 December 1972) during which six cycles were completed. The study area offered ideal conditions of wind, temperature, humidity, and mountain barriers. Mosquitoes in the area were highly susceptible to malathion. Results indicated that aerial ULV treatment with malathion can reduce A. albimanus populations rapidly and effectively when applications are made over an area as large as 20,000 acres. Preliminary results showed that effective control was not achieved in areas one-quarter that size; these areas were not sufficiently large, and infiltration of mosquitoes from adjacent untreated areas was possible.

  16. 1993 RCRA Part B permit renewal application, Savannah River Site: Volume 10, Consolidated Incineration Facility, Section C, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, G.

    1993-08-01

    This section describes the chemical and physical nature of the RCRA regulated hazardous wastes to be handled, stored, and incinerated at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site. It is in accordance with requirements of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.13(a) and(b), and 270.14(b)(2). This application is for permit to store and teat these hazardous wastes as required for the operation of CIF. The permit is to cover the storage of hazardous waste in containers and of waste in six hazardous waste storage tanks. Treatment processes include incineration, solidification of ash, and neutralization of scrubber blowdown

  17. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 1: Model development and applications, part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The development, fabrication and evaluation of a prototype electromechanical actuator (EMA) is discussed. Application of the EMA as a motor for control surfaces in aerospace flight is examined. A mathematical model of the EMA is developed for design optimization. Nonlinearities which complicate the mathematical model are discussed. The dynamics of the EMA from the underlying physical principles are determined and a discussion of similating the control logic by means of equivalent boolean expressions is presented.

  18. A distribution benefits model for improved information on worldwide crop production. Volume 1: Model structure and application to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.

    1976-01-01

    The improved model is suitable for the study of benefits of worldwide information on a variety of crops. Application to the previously studied case of worldwide wheat production shows that about $108 million per year of distribution benefits to the United States would be achieved by a satellite-based wheat information system meeting the goals of LACIE. The model also indicates that improved information alone will not change world stock levels unless production itself is stabilized. The United States benefits mentioned above are associated with the reduction of price fluctuations within the year and the more effective use of international trade to balance supply and demand. Price fluctuations from year to year would be reduced only if production variability were itself reduced.

  19. Evaluation of synthetic rainfall application with respect to the flow volume at upstream Brantas watershed, East Java Province of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limantara Lily Montarcih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Technical Implementation Unit (UPT of Synthetic Rainfall has modified climate by generating synthetic rainfall from 9th May until 4th June 2013. This unit has cooperated with the Department of Technological Study and Application (BPPT of Indonesia and Perum Jasa Tirta I and TNI AU Lanud Abdulrachman Saleh. This study intended to increase reservoirs water level in upstream Brantas watershed, one of them is Sutami reservoir. Successive grade evaluation of synthetic rainfall used the method of Double Ratio and Flow Discharge. The target area is upstream Brantas watershed that is represented by 12 rainfall stations and the control area is in the distance of ±30 km from the boundary of upstream Brantas watershed and is represented by 5 rainfall stations. Results show rainfall increasing by 152.05% according to the Double Ratio method and the increase of flow discharge from Sutami reservoir by 74.19% according to the Flow Discharge method.

  20. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  1. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  2. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  3. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  4. Assessment of United States industry structural codes and standards for application to advanced nuclear power reactors: Appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    Throughout its history, the USNRC has remained committed to the use of industry consensus standards for the design, construction, and licensing of commercial nuclear power facilities. The existing industry standards are based on the current class of light water reactors and as such may not adequately address design and construction features of the next generation of Advanced Light Water Reactors and other types of Advanced Reactors. As part of their on-going commitment to industry standards, the USNRC commissioned this study to evaluate US industry structural standards for application to Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. The initial review effort included (1) the review and study of the relevant reactor design basis documentation for eight Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactor Designs, (2) the review of the USNRCs design requirements for advanced reactors, (3) the review of the latest revisions of the relevant industry consensus structural standards, and (4) the identification of the need for changes to these standards. The results of these studies were used to develop recommended changes to industry consensus structural standards which will be used in the construction of Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. Over seventy sets of proposed standard changes were recommended and the need for the development of four new structural standards was identified. In addition to the recommended standard changes, several other sets of information and data were extracted for use by USNRC in other on-going programs. This information included (1) detailed observations on the response of structures and distribution system supports to the recent Northridge, California (1994) and Kobe, Japan (1995) earthquakes, (2) comparison of versions of certain standards cited in the standard review plan to the most current versions, and (3) comparison of the seismic and wind design basis for all the subject reactor designs

  5. Demonstration project as a procedure for accelerating the application of new technology (Charpie Task Force report). Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the ''commercialization'' of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The ''commercial demonstration'' is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focused on R and D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R, D, and D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue of ''prices versus gaps'' is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misalignment of social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political, legal, and institutional problems. Finally, methods for evaluation and planning of commercial demonstration programs are analyzed. The critical areas of ignorance are highlighted and comprise a research agenda for improved analytical techniques to support decisions in this area.

  6. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

  8. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 12 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application sub-volume

  9. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Winslow, S.L.; Moeller, M.P.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms

  10. A method to combine target volume data from 3D and 4D planned thoracic radiotherapy patient cohorts for machine learning applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Corinne; Price, Gareth; Khalifa, Jonathan; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Dekker, Andre; Moore, Christopher; van Herk, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    The gross tumour volume (GTV) is predictive of clinical outcome and consequently features in many machine-learned models. 4D-planning, however, has prompted substitution of the GTV with the internal gross target volume (iGTV). We present and validate a method to synthesise GTV data from the iGTV,

  11. Aplicação da análise custo/volume/lucro em pequena indústria de laticínios = Application of a cost/volume/profit analysis in a small industry of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Relata estudo de caso em que foi aplicada a Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro como instrumento de avaliação do desempenho de uma pequena indústria. Inicialmente foi efetuada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os conceitos utilizados, especialmente margem de contribuição, ponto de equilíbrio e margem de segurança. Em seguida, descreveu-se o contexto da empresa pesquisada, mostrando suas principais características. Posteriormente foram apresentadas as etapas seguidas para aplicação da Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro. Foram demonstrados os cálculos efetuados e comentados os resultados oriundos mais relevantes para a administração da organização enfocada pelo estudo. Por último, foram elencadas as informações gerenciais obtidas, ressaltadas as limitações inerentes à ferramenta utilizada e sugerido tema para trabalhos futuros.This article reports a study case in which a Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied asa tool to evaluate the performance of a small industry of dairy products. At first, abibliographic revision of the concepts was made, especially contribution margin, balancedpoint and security margin. After, the context of the industry was described, showing itsmain characteristics. After that, the steps which were followed so that the Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied were presented, the calculi made were demonstrated andthe most relevant results from this study were commented for the industry management.Finally, the managerial information obtained was listed; emphasizing the limitations ofthe tool which was used and a theme for further research was suggested.

  12. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient; Aplicativo DosedPet para uso em Medicina Nuclear: calculo do volume de medicamento necessario para paciente de PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck, E-mail: pedroan88@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias em Saude

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  13. Application of the PFV EoS correlation to excess molar volumes of (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate + alkanols) at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deenadayalu, N.; Sen, S.; Sibiya, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental densities for the binary systems of an ionic liquid and an alkanol {1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate [EMIM] + [EtSO 4 ] - + methanol or 1-propanol or 2-propanol} were determined at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The excess molar volumes for the above systems were then calculated from the experimental density values for each temperature. The Redlich-Kister smoothing polynomial was used to fit the experimental results and the partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. For all the systems studied, the excess molar volume results were negative over the entire composition range for all the temperatures. The excess molar volumes were correlated with the pentic four parameter virial (PFV) equation of state (EoS) model

  14. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  15. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy; Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν ¯ fat ) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν ¯ fat in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ s of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν fat for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν ¯ fat were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10 −5 sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ s was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ s of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ s of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν ¯ fat =0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ s for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ s of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby

  16. Transport properties of mixtures by the soft-SAFT + free-volume theory: application to mixtures of n-alkanes and hydrofluorocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovell, F; Marcos, R M; Vega, L F

    2013-05-02

    In a previous paper (Llovell et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, submitted for publication), the free-volume theory (FVT) was coupled with the soft-SAFT equation of state for the first time to extend the capabilities of the equation to the calculation of transport properties. The equation was tested with molecular simulations and applied to the family of n-alkanes. The capability of the soft-SAFT + FVT treatment is extended here to other chemical families and mixtures. The compositional rules of Wilke (Wilke, C. R. J. Chem. Phys. 1950, 18, 517-519) are used for the diluted term of the viscosity, while the dense term is evaluated using very simple mixing rules to calculate the viscosity parameters. The theory is then used to predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium and the viscosity of mixtures of nonassociating and associating compounds. The approach is applied to determine the viscosity of a selected group of hydrofluorocarbons, in a similar manner as previously done for n-alkanes. The soft-SAFT molecular parameters are taken from a previous work, fitted to vapor-liquid equilibria experimental data. The application of FVT requires three additional parameters related to the viscosity of the pure fluid. Using a transferable approach, the α parameter is taken from the equivalent n-alkane, while the remaining two parameters B and Lv are fitted to viscosity data of the pure fluid at several isobars. The effect of these parameters is then investigated and compared to those obtained for n-alkanes, in order to better understand their effect on the calculations. Once the pure fluids are well characterized, the vapor-liquid equilibrium and the viscosity of nonassociating and associating mixtures, including n-alkane + n-alkane, hydrofluorocarbon + hydrofluorocarbon, and n-alkane + hydrofluorocarbon mixtures, are calculated. One or two binary parameters are used to account for deviations in the vapor-liquid equilibrium diagram for nonideal mixtures; these parameters are used in a

  17. The application of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in radiation treatment planning: effect on gross target volume definition and treatment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iğdem, S; Alço, G; Ercan, T; Unalan, B; Kara, B; Geceer, G; Akman, C; Zengin, F O; Atilla, S; Okkan, S

    2010-04-01

    To analyse the effect of the use of molecular imaging on gross target volume (GTV) definition and treatment management. Fifty patients with various solid tumours who underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation for radiotherapy planning from 2006 to 2008 were enrolled in this study. First, F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and CT scans of the treatment site in the treatment position and then a whole body scan were carried out with a dedicated PET/CT scanner and fused thereafter. FDG-avid primary tumour and lymph nodes were included into the GTV. A multidisciplinary team defined the target volume, and contouring was carried out by a radiation oncologist using visual methods. To compare the PET/CT-based volumes with CT-based volumes, contours were drawn on CT-only data with the help of site-specific radiologists who were blind to the PET/CT results after a median time of 7 months. In general, our PET/CT volumes were larger than our CT-based volumes. This difference was significant in patients with head and neck cancers. Major changes (> or =25%) in GTV delineation were observed in 44% of patients. In 16% of cases, PET/CT detected incidental second primaries and metastatic disease, changing the treatment strategy from curative to palliative. Integrating functional imaging with FDG-PET/CT into the radiotherapy planning process resulted in major changes in a significant proportion of our patients. An interdisciplinary approach between imaging and radiation oncology departments is essential in defining the target volumes. Copyright 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  19. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model; Analisi tecnica degli algoritmi di volume rendering: applicazione alle strutture a basso contrsto usando come modello la vascolarizzazione epatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luccichenti, Giacomo [Fondazione Biomedica Europea ONLUS, Roma (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). UO di prevenzione e riabilitazione vascolare, Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi ONLUS; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare l'influenza delle curve di opacit� (CO) preimpostate del volume-rendering sulla qualit� delle immagini, ed identificare quali parametri assoluti (attenzione dell'aorta, del parenchima epatico e della vena porta) influenzano la

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B permit application. Volume 9. Chapter E, Appendix E1-Chapter H, Appendix H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume nine contains the following appendices: RCRA groundwater protection information; Examples of inspection sheets, logs and instructions for systems/equipment requiring inspection under 20 NMAC 4.1, Subpart V; Material safety data sheets; List of hazardous waste management job titles; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA hazardous waste management job description

  2. Potentiometric titration in a low volume of solution for rapid assay of uranium. Application to quantitative electro-reduction of uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Murali, N.; Mallika, C.; Falix Lawrence; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive PC based potentiometric titration technique for the assay of uranium using low volumes of sample aliquot (25-100 μL) along with all reagents (total volume of solution being less than 2.5 mL) is presented. The technique involves modification of the well known Davies and Gray Method recommended for assay of uranium(VI) in nuclear materials by introducing an innovative potentiometric titration device with a mini cell developed in-house. After appropriate chemical conditioning the titration is completed within a couple of minutes with display of online titration plot showing the progress of titration. The first derivative plot generated immediately after titration provides information of end point. The main advantage of using this technique is to carry out titration with minimum volumes of sample and reagents generating minimum volume of wastes after titration. The validity of the technique was evaluated using standard certified samples. This technique was applied for assay of uranium in a typical sample collected from fuel reprocessing laboratory. Further, the present technique was deployed in investigating the optimum conditions for efficient in situ production of U(IV). The precision in the estimation of uranium is highly satisfactory (RSD less than 1.0%). (author)

  3. The application of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound to measure volume of affected tissue after HIFU treatment for localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J. P.; Aarnink, R. G.; van Leenders, G. J.; Beerlage, H. P.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adequate monitoring of volume and location of affected tissue might provide helpful information when performing localized ablative therapy for prostate cancer. We hypothesize that the change in blood flow patterns after therapy in comparison to the blood flow pattern prior to therapy

  4. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Robert Y., E-mail: rx-tang@laurentian.ca [Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); McDonald, Nancy, E-mail: mcdnancye@gmail.com; Laamanen, Curtis, E-mail: cx-laamanen@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); LeClair, Robert J., E-mail: rleclair@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6, Canada and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  5. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary sessions; Pressure vessel research; BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; Environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; Update on severe accident code improvements and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following information: (1) plenary sessions; (2) pressure vessel research; (3) BWR strainer blockage and other generic safety issues; (4) environmentally assisted degradation of LWR components; and (5) update on severe accident code improvements and applications. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Ajuste do modelo de Schumacher e Hall e aplicação de redes neurais artificiais para estimar volume de árvores de eucalipto Adjustment of the Schumacher and Hall model and application of artificial neural networks to estimate volume of eucalypt trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Luiza Marques da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o ajuste do modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall por diferentes algoritmos, bem como a aplicação de redes neurais artificiais para estimação do volume de madeira de eucalipto em função do diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP, da altura total (Ht e do clone. Foram utilizadas 21 cubagens de povoamentos de clones de eucalipto com DAP variando de 4,5 a 28,3 cm e altura total de 6,6 a 33,8 m, num total de 862 árvores. O modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall foi ajustado nas formas linear e não linear, com os seguintes algoritmos: Gauss-Newton, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, Simplex, Hooke-Jeeves Pattern, Rosenbrock Pattern, Simplex, Hooke-Jeeves e Rosenbrock, utilizado simultaneamente com o método Quasi-Newton e com o princípio da Máxima Verossimilhança. Diferentes arquiteturas e modelos (Multilayer Perceptron MLP e Radial Basis Function RBF de redes neurais artificiais foram testados, sendo selecionadas as redes que melhor representaram os dados. As estimativas dos volumes foram avaliadas por gráficos de volume estimado em função do volume observado e pelo teste estatístico L&O. Assim, conclui-se que o ajuste do modelo de Schumacher e Hall pode ser usado na sua forma linear, com boa representatividade e sem apresentar tendenciosidade; os algoritmos Gauss-Newton, Quasi-Newton e Levenberg-Marquardt mostraram-se eficientes para o ajuste do modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall, e as redes neurais artificiais apresentaram boa adequação ao problema, sendo elas altamente recomendadas para realizar prognose da produção de florestas plantadas.This research aimed at evaluating the adjustment of Schumacher and Hall volumetric model by different algorithms and the application of artificial neural networks to estimate the volume of wood of eucalyptus according to the diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (Ht of the clone. For such, 21 scalings of stands of eucalyptus clones were used with

  8. Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 2 - Best practices for the Gen II PWR, Gen II BWR L2PSAs. Extension to Gen III reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Meignen, R.; Cranga, M.; Pichereau, F.; Bentaib, A.; Guigueno, Y.; Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Helstroem, P.; Bassi, C.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Vincon, L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance of Level 2 PSA methodologies with a view of harmonisation at EU level and to allow meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluations in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with community in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for level 2 PSA development and applications. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The level 2 PSA experts from the ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop) or open literature. The number of technical issues addressed in the guideline is very large and all are not covered with the same relevancy in the first version of the guideline. This version is submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident experts and PSA, especially, from SARNET and OECD-NEA members. The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned in March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactor (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help the L2PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help the L2PSA reviewers by positioning one specific study in comparison with some

  9. Volume 1

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telecommunication service rates in South Africa (in ZAR per minute) .... learning and applicable knowledge could contribute significantly to a better development, .... training and information on ICTs and on the opportunities that ICTs could offer. ..... competition and to meet the needs of an increasingly demanding customer.

  10. Fuzziness and medicine philosophical reflections and application systems in health care a companion volume to Sadegh-Zadeh’s handbook of analytical philosophy of medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Tabacchi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions written by philosophers and scientists active in different fields, such as mathematics, logics, social sciences, computer sciences and linguistics. They comment on and discuss various parts of and subjects and propositions introduced in the Handbook of Analytical Philosophy of Medicine from Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh, published by Springer in 2012. This volume reports on the fruitful exchange and debate that arose in the fuzzy community upon the publication of the Handbook. This was not only very much appreciated by the community but also seen as a critical starting point for beginning a new discussion. The results of this discussion, which involved many different perspectives from science and the humanities and was warmly encouraged by Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh himself, are accurately reported in this volume, which is intended to be a critical companion to Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh´s handbook.   Rudolf Seising is currently an adjoint researcher at the European Centre for Soft Computing...

  11. Application of volume-weighted skew-upwind differencing to thermal and fluid mixing in the cold leg and downcomer of a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.; Miao, C.C.; Chen, B.C.J.; Domanus, H.M.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Sha, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Upwind differencing has been the most common numerical scheme used in computational fluid flow and heat transfer in past years. However, the numerical diffusion induced by the use of upwind differencing can be significant in problems involving thermal mixing. Thermal and fluid mixing in a pressurized water reactor during high pressurized coolant injection is a typical example where numerical diffusion is significant. An improved volume-weighted skew-upwind differencing is used here to reduce numerical diffusion without overshooting or undershooting which is the major defect of original skew-upwind differencing proposed by Raithby. The basic concept of volume-weighted skew-upwind differencing is shown. Computations were performed using COMMIX-1B, an extended version of the COMMIX-1A. The experiment analyzed here is test No. 1 of the SAI experiment

  12. Clinical application of a right ventricular pressure-volume loop determined by gated blood-pool imaging and simultaneously measured right ventricular pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Takao; Watanabe, Sachiro; Sugishita, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Yokoyama, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    The data obtained by ECG-gated radionuclide angiography were collected simultaneously with right ventricular pressure and thermal cardiac output (CO) obtained by a Swan-Ganz catheter in Scintipac 1200 (Shimazu Co) in order to create a right ventricular pressure-volume (RV P-V) loop. Subjects consisted of 15 patients with old myocardial infarction (MI group), seven with angina pectoris (AP group), six with congestive cardiomyopathy (CCM group) and five with neurocirculatory asthenia (NCA group). Right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) was calculated as RVEDV = CO/(EF x HR) (CO = cardiac output; HR = heart rate). Systolic work (W sub(S)), diastolic work (W sub(D)) and net work (W sub(N)) were calculated from a RV P-V loop by Simpson's method. The measurements were performed before and 5 min after sublingual administration of nitroglycerin (NG) (0.3 mg). The results were as follows: 1. RV P-V loops shifted towards the left lower part of the P-V plane after sublingual administration of nitroglycerin, indicating the reduction of pressure and volume of the right ventricle. 2. Right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) in the MI, AP and CCM groups showed smaller values than that of the NCA group. 3. Right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) showed a converse relation with RVEF. 4. Cardiac index in all groups decreased after NG and a statistical significance was seen in the MI, AP and NCA groups (p<0.05). 5. RV W sub(S), RV W sub(D) and RV W sub(N) showed no difference among each groups in the control state, and significantly decreased after NG. We conclude that the present method using RV P-V loop might be useful as a noninvasive bedside monitoring and permits the evaluation of RV function in a clinical setting

  13. Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis Held in Sheraton World Resort Orlando, Orlando, Florida on March 9-11, 1998; Volume 3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fantone, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    .... In this 1998 meeting, the technical focused on surface spectroscopies, advances in single frequency diode laser for gas sensing, environmental monitoring and remediation, applications to micro...

  14. An evaluation of state-of-the-art two-velocity two-phase flow models and their applicability to nuclear reactor transient analysis. Volume 3. Data comparisons. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.H.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Niederauer, G.F.

    1976-02-01

    A state-of-the-art review is conducted in order to provide the nuclear industry with a publicly available assessment of two-velocity thermal-hydraulic models and their applicability to nuclear reactor technology. The two major objectives of this state-of-the-art evaluation were: (1) document the basic theory in a consistent self-contained report; and (2) apply a prototype 'two-velocity' code (UVUT) to a limited number of separate effect tests. Volume 3 presents the data comparisons

  15. Volume of emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, P; Whimster, W F

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the volume of emphysema in excised lungs is presented, with its validation. This method is based on macroscopic point counting using a perforated grid but only the holes (points) overlying emphysema need be counted to produce results within a percentage standard error of 5%. Application of the method shows that an adequate assessment of emphysema cannot be made from one lung slice alone, and that the amount of emphysema found in one lung cannot be used to predict the a...

  16. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 4: Applications. [agriculture, soils land use, geology, hydrology, wetlands, water quality, biomass identification, and snow mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The excellent quality of TM data allows researchers to proceed directly with applications analyses, without spending a significant amount of time applying various corrections to the data. The early results derived of TM data are discussed for the following applications: agriculture, land cover/land use, soils, geology, hydrology, wetlands biomass, water quality, and snow.

  17. Physical foundations and experience of application of method of determination of volumes of all group of pore channels in powders and porous bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabelkov, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Physical foundations of the method of determination of the relative volumes of each group of pore channels that are available in a porous body on removal of work liquid from them at its evaporation were developed. Advantages and disadvantages are given, experience using of this method is extended at creating of ceramic matrix (cubic zirconia and magnesium-aluminium spinel) for isolation of high active waste. This method in combination with method of electronic microscopy has given an ability to investigate destruction of agglomerates and aggregates of xerogels and powders at milling and pressing, agglomeration of powders at its production and evolution of each component of pore spaces at sintering of porous bodies.

  18. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 3B: Descriptions of data sets from low- and medium-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John E. (Editor); Horowitz, Richard (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from low and medium altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  19. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1B: Descriptions of data sets from planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Richard (Compiler); Jackson, John E. (Compiler); Cameron, Winifred S. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  20. Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from Geostationary and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from geostationary and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 7: Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion): Volume 3, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This report, Part B (Vol. 3) of the permit application for the WIPP facility, contains information related to the site characterization of the facility, including geology, design, rock salt evaluations, maps, drawings, and shaft excavations. (CBS)

  3. AAAIC '88 - Aerospace Applications of Artificial Intelligence; Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference, Dayton, OH, Oct. 25-27, 1988. Volumes 1 ampersand 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Topics presented include integrating neural networks and expert systems, neural networks and signal processing, machine learning, cognition and avionics applications, artificial intelligence and man-machine interface issues, real time expert systems, artificial intelligence, and engineering applications. Also considered are advanced problem solving techniques, combinational optimization for scheduling and resource control, data fusion/sensor fusion, back propagation with momentum, shared weights and recurrency, automatic target recognition, cybernetics, optical neural networks

  4. Mapping directionality specific volume changes using tensor based morphometry: an application to the study of gyrogenesis and lateralization of the human fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Tensor based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful approach to analyze local structural changes in brain anatomy. However, conventional scalar TBM methods do not completely capture all direction specific volume changes required to model complex changes such as those during brain growth. In this paper, we describe novel TBM descriptors for studying direction-specific changes in a subject population which can be used in conjunction with scalar TBM to analyze local patterns in directionality of volume change during brain development. We also extend the methodology to provide a new approach to mapping directional asymmetry in deformation tensors associated with the emergence of structural asymmetry in the developing brain. We illustrate the use of these methods by studying developmental patterns in the human fetal brain, in vivo. Results show that fetal brain development exhibits a distinct spatial pattern of anisotropic growth. The most significant changes in the directionality of growth occur in the cortical plate at major sulci. Our analysis also detected directional growth asymmetry in the peri-Sylvian region and the medial frontal lobe of the fetal brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of method of volume averaging coupled with time resolved PIV to determine transport characteristics of turbulent flows in porous bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vishal; Liburdy, James

    2012-11-01

    Turbulent porous media flows are encountered in catalytic bed reactors and heat exchangers. Dispersion and mixing properties of these flows play an essential role in efficiency and performance. In an effort to understand these flows, pore scale time resolved PIV measurements in a refractive index matched porous bed were made. Pore Reynolds numbers, based on hydraulic diameter and pore average velocity, were varied from 400-4000. Jet-like flows and recirculation regions associated with large scale structures were found to exist. Coherent vortical structures which convect at approximately 0.8 times the pore average velocity were identified. These different flow regions exhibited different turbulent characteristics and hence contributed unequally to global transport properties of the bed. The heterogeneity present within a pore and also from pore to pore can be accounted for in estimating transport properties using the method of volume averaging. Eddy viscosity maps and mean velocity field maps, both obtained from PIV measurements, along with the method of volume averaging were used to predict the dispersion tensor versus Reynolds number. Asymptotic values of dispersion compare well to existing correlations. The role of molecular diffusion was explored by varying the Schmidt number and molecular diffusion was found to play an important role in tracer transport, especially in recirculation regions. Funding by NSF grant 0933857, Particulate and Multiphase Processing.

  6. Should the bladder be full or empty during gynecologic brachytherapy applications? A bladder dose volume histogram analysis and implications for treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Lewandowski, Loretta A.; Higgins, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic radiation cystitis is an uncommon but debilitating late complication of definitive external beam (EB) and brachytherapy (BT) for cervix cancer. During BT an indwelling catheter is usually placed in the bladder, collapsing it closer to the BT sources. We have devised a method to deliver BT with a full bladder. The difference in bladder dose in the full and empty state were analyzed during definitive EBT and BT for cervix cancer. Methods: The technique of Lyman and Wolbarst (1) were used to evaluate the bladder complication probability for a representative cervix cancer patient undergoing EBT and BT. DVHs were generated from CT scans obtained with a full and empty bladder. Three possible dose prescriptions were analyzed. Results: The DVH for the full and empty situations are shown. With the bladder full, the volume of bladder predicted to receive ≥ 80 Gy was approximately 10% for all dose schemes evaluated, whereas with the bladder empty, up to 50% of the bladder volume received ≥ 80 Gy. Conclusions: A distended bladder improves the DVH. A technique for performing full bladder LDR brachytherapy will be discussed

  7. 75 FR 52330 - Resmethrin; Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e- mail... information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your... Physical State 830.6304 Odor 830.6313 Stability to Sunlight, Normal & Elevated Temperatures, Metals & Metal...

  8. Accuracy of Prader orchidometer in measuring testicular volume

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-21

    Oct 21, 2012 ... testicular volumes were then determined by water displacement of the testis. ... tubules and germ cells. ... in a warm room after application of a heating pad (we used ... This mean difference in testicular volume between Prader.

  9. An effective rate equation approach to reaction kinetics in small volumes: theory and application to biochemical reactions in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, R

    2010-07-21

    Chemical master equations provide a mathematical description of stochastic reaction kinetics in well-mixed conditions. They are a valid description over length scales that are larger than the reactive mean free path and thus describe kinetics in compartments of mesoscopic and macroscopic dimensions. The trajectories of the stochastic chemical processes described by the master equation can be ensemble-averaged to obtain the average number density of chemical species, i.e., the true concentration, at any spatial scale of interest. For macroscopic volumes, the true concentration is very well approximated by the solution of the corresponding deterministic and macroscopic rate equations, i.e., the macroscopic concentration. However, this equivalence breaks down for mesoscopic volumes. These deviations are particularly significant for open systems and cannot be calculated via the Fokker-Planck or linear-noise approximations of the master equation. We utilize the system-size expansion including terms of the order of Omega(-1/2) to derive a set of differential equations whose solution approximates the true concentration as given by the master equation. These equations are valid in any open or closed chemical reaction network and at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. In the limit of large volumes, the effective mesoscopic rate equations become precisely equal to the conventional macroscopic rate equations. We compare the three formalisms of effective mesoscopic rate equations, conventional rate equations, and chemical master equations by applying them to several biochemical reaction systems (homodimeric and heterodimeric protein-protein interactions, series of sequential enzyme reactions, and positive feedback loops) in nonequilibrium steady-state conditions. In all cases, we find that the effective mesoscopic rate equations can predict very well the true concentration of a chemical species. This provides a useful method by which one can quickly determine the

  10. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 3: Primary systems integrity; Structural and seismic engineering; Aging research, products and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. The influence of local volume forces on surface relaxation of pure metals and alloys: Applications to Ni, Al, Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, E.J.; Farkas, D.

    1987-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative influence of the interatomic potential, lattice structure and defect symmetry on the calculated and measured distortion for the free surfaces of alloys and pure metals. In particular, the effect of using local ''volume'' dependent interactions is studied, as opposed to simple pair interatomic forces. The dependence of the relaxation on the lattice structure is examined by comparing pure metals with ordered alloys. A Green function method for surface relaxation is presented and used for the above analysis as well as for studying the influence of different surface symmetries. Examples based on computer simulation of Ni, Al and Ni 3 Al for some surface orientations are presented. (author). 33 refs, 4 figs

  12. Rapid determination of the equivalence volume in potentiometric acid-base titrations to a preset pH-I Theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaska, A

    1974-06-01

    A new approach to shorten the time needed for an acid-base titration has been made. The method developed is based on the equation for acid-base titrations derived by Ingman and Still. The equation is transformed into such a form that only one titration point is needed to calculate the equivalence volume when the titration is carried out to a preset pH which can be chosen according to the experimental conditions. The method is used for titration of acetic acid, log K(H)(HA) = 4.65, hydroxylammonium ion, log K(H)(HA) approximately 6.2, and boric acid, log K(H)(HA) approximately 9.1, with an error of 0.1-0.5%. In titration of hydrogen ascorbate ion, log K(H)(HA) approximately 11.3, the error obtained was about 0.3-2%.

  13. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 3: Primary systems integrity; Structural and seismic engineering; Aging research, products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  14. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  16. Necessary conditions for the homogeneous formation of a volume avalanche discharge with specific applications to rare gas-halide excimer laser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levatter, J.I.

    1979-01-01

    Self-sustained/avalanche discharges are an efficient method of rare gas-halide excimer laser excitation in small systems. However, with the exceptions of the work reported here, experiments attempting to increase the laser energy output by scaling up the discharge volume and/or pulse duration have not been successful. The major problem encountered in scaling experiments has been the formation of arc channels in the discharge volume. The presence of arcing can totally disrupt proper laser operation. This problem stems from a general lack of understanding of high pressure avalanche discharge phenomena. Therefore, clarifying the basic discharge formation process and establishing a set of criteria under which a homogeneous avalanche discharge can be obtained is of central importance in defining the scaling limits of avalanche discharge lasers. The work presented here reviews the phenomena involved in high E/n (electric field to gas number density ratio) breakdown and its relationship to the formation of spatially homogeneous discharges. This relationship was first explored by A.J. Palmer in 1974. The basic requirement of his model was that the preionization density be large enough to cause an appreciable overlap of the primary electron avalanches and hence smooth out the ensuing space-charge fields to the extent that individual streamer formation would be prevented. This is the same basic model used in the more detailed discharge formation analysis developed here except that the effects of a time varying electric field caused by a finite voltage rise time and the effects due to the various electrochemical properties of the gas mixture are property taken into consideration

  17. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 2: User's guide to computer EMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A description and user's guide of the computer program developed to simulate the dynamics of an electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications are presented. The effects of the stator phase currents on the permanent magnets of the rotor are examined. The voltage and current waveforms present in the power conditioner network during the motoring, regenerative braking, and plugging modes of operation are presented and discussed.

  19. Characterization of in-swath spray deposition for CP-11TT flat-fan nozzles used in low volume aerial application of crop production and protection materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    For aerial application of crop production and protection materials, a complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved. It is difficult to completely characterize spray drift and deposition, but estimates can be made with appropriate sampling protocol and analysis. With c...

  20. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  1. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D.

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program

  2. Laser program annual report, 1977. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Jarman, B.D. (eds.)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains detailed information on each of the following sections: (1) fusion target design, (2) target fabrication, (3) laser fusion experiments and analysis, (4) advanced lasers, (5) systems and applications studies, and (6) laser isotope separation program. (MOW)

  3. Volcanic sulfur dioxide index and volcanic explosivity index inferred from eruptive volume of volcanoes in Jeju Island, Korea: application to volcanic hazard mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bokyun; Yun, Sung-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    Jeju Island located in the southwestern part of Korea Peninsula is a volcanic island composed of lavaflows, pyroclasts, and around 450 monogenetic volcanoes. The volcanic activity of the island commenced with phreatomagmatic eruptions under subaqueous condition ca. 1.8-2.0 Ma and lasted until ca. 1,000 year BP. For evaluating volcanic activity of the most recently erupted volcanoes with reported age, volcanic explosivity index (VEI) and volcanic sulfur dioxide index (VSI) of three volcanoes (Ilchulbong tuff cone, Songaksan tuff ring, and Biyangdo scoria cone) are inferred from their eruptive volumes. The quantity of eruptive materials such as tuff, lavaflow, scoria, and so on, is calculated using a model developed in Auckland Volcanic Field which has similar volcanic setting to the island. The eruptive volumes of them are 11,911,534 m3, 24,987,557 m3, and 9,652,025 m3, which correspond to VEI of 3, 3, and 2, respectively. According to the correlation between VEI and VSI, the average quantity of SO2 emission during an eruption with VEI of 3 is 2-8 × 103 kiloton considering that the island was formed under intraplate tectonic setting. Jeju Island was regarded as an extinct volcano, however, several studies have recently reported some volcanic eruption ages within 10,000 year BP owing to the development in age dating technique. Thus, the island is a dormant volcano potentially implying high probability to erupt again in the future. The volcanoes might have explosive eruptions (vulcanian to plinian) with the possibility that SO2 emitted by the eruption reaches stratosphere causing climate change due to backscattering incoming solar radiation, increase in cloud reflectivity, etc. Consequently, recommencement of volcanic eruption in the island is able to result in serious volcanic hazard and this study provides fundamental and important data for volcanic hazard mitigation of East Asia as well as the island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This research was supported by a grant [MPSS

  4. International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics (7th) Held in Lisbon, Portugal on July 11-14, 1994. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-14

    Gnie Energetique, Umversite de Franche -Comte Parc Technologique, 90000 Belfort, France ABSTRACT condensate film is produced artificially. The high...interest due to bluff-body. The reverse-flow is instrumental to flame widespread commercial applications. Industrial and food stabilization. processors...wake interaction and mutual collisions. combustion and food processing. However, it is a complex Thus by mutually "sheltering" each other, the rope

  5. Validation of normalized pulse volume in the outer ear as a simple measure of sympathetic activity using warm and cold pressor tests: towards applications in ambulatory monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jihyoung; Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Rolfe, Peter; Kim, Kyungho

    2013-01-01

    Normalized pulse volume (NPV) derived from the ear has the potential to be a practical index for monitoring daily life stress. However, ear NPV has not yet been validated. Therefore, we compared NPV derived from an index finger using transmission photoplethysmography as a reference, with NPV derived from a middle finger and four sites of the ear using reflection photoplethysmography during baseline and while performing cold and warm water immersion in ten young and six middle-aged subjects. The results showed that logarithmically-transformed NPV (lnNPV) during cold water immersion as compared with baseline values was significantly lower, only at the index finger, the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal. Furthermore, lnNPV reactivities (ΔlnNPV; the difference between baseline and test values) from an index finger were significantly related to ΔlnNPV from the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal (young: r = 0.90 and 0.62, middle-aged: r = 0.80 and 0.58, respectively). In conclusion, these findings show that reflection and transmission photoplethysmography are comparable methods to derive NPV in accordance with our theoretical prediction. NPV derived from the bottom of the ear-canal is a valid approach, which could be useful for evaluating daily life stress. (paper)

  6. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  7. Water pollution screening by large-volume injection of aqueous samples and application to GC/MS analysis of a river Elbe sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.; Efer, J.; Engewald, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1997-03-01

    The large-volume sampling of aqueous samples in a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector was used successfully for the target and non-target analysis of real samples. In this still rarely applied method, e.g., 1 mL of the water sample to be analyzed is slowly injected direct into the PTV. The vaporized water is eliminated through the split vent. The analytes are concentrated onto an adsorbent inside the insert and subsequently thermally desorbed. The capability of the method is demonstrated using a sample from the river Elbe. By means of coupling this method with a mass selective detector in SIM mode (target analysis) the method allows the determination of pollutants in the concentration range up to 0.01 {mu}g/L. Furthermore, PTV enrichment is an effective and time-saving method for non-target analysis in SCAN mode. In a sample from the river Elbe over 20 compounds were identified. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 2: environmental impact assessment: Part 1: biophysical and resource use assessment. Part 2: impact model descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Eccles, R.; Hegmann, G.; Morrison, L.; Salter, R.; van Egmond, T.; Vonk, P.; Ash, G.; Crowther, R.; Dance, T.; Edwards, W.; Veldman, W.

    1997-02-01

    An environmental assessment of the Cold Lake Expansion Project has been conducted to identify major issues of concern by public and government agencies, to determine means to eliminate or reduce those impacts, and to recommend any further efforts required to obtain missing information or monitor impacts. Volume 2 of the environmental impact assessment is divided into two parts. Part 1 (biophysical and resource use assessment) constitutes the primary environmental impact assessment document for the Cold Lake expansion project. It includes technical support documentation in regard to: (1) an assessment of noise impacts, (2) an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, (3) a conceptual conservation and reclamation plan, (4) a historical resource impact assessment, and (5) a description of effects of oil spills on fish. Part 2 (impact model description) serves a reference document for part 1. It describes the approach taken in developing and assessing the impact models, discusses proposed methods for mitigation and management of residual impacts, and the recommended monitoring requirements for each of the major resource disciplines. The impact models describe the specific pathways through which impacts will occur as a result of interactions between project-related activities and important environmental components. 476 refs., 58 tabs., 23 figs

  9. Analytical solutions of electric potential and impedance for a multilayered spherical volume conductor excited by time-harmonic electric current source: application in brain EIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chunyan; Lei Yinzhao

    2005-01-01

    A model of a multilayered spherical volume conductor with four electrodes is built. In this model, a time-harmonic electric current is injected into the sphere through a pair of drive electrodes, and electric potential is measured by the other pair of measurement electrodes. By solving the boundary value problem of the electromagnetic field, the analytical solutions of electric potential and impedance in the whole conduction region are derived. The theoretical values of electric potential on the surface of the sphere are in good accordance with the experimental results. The analytical solutions are then applied to the simulation of the forward problem of brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The results show that, for a real human head, the imaginary part of the electric potential is not small enough to be ignored at above 20 kHz, and there exists an approximate linear relationship between the real and imaginary parts of the electric potential when the electromagnetic parameters of the innermost layer keep unchanged. Increase in the conductivity of the innermost layer leads to a decrease of the magnitude of both real and imaginary parts of the electric potential on the scalp. However, the increase of permittivity makes the magnitude of the imaginary part of the electric potential increase while that of the real part decreases, and vice versa

  10. Direct Use Applications of Geothermal Resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final Report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume I. Summary of Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The geothermal resources underlying the City of Desert Hot Springs were described in terms of anticipated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological characteristics, based upon existing well log data, geologic surveys, and limited wellflow tests. The needs of the City were determined on the basis of its general plan, the City's 1976 census, load survey and a public acceptance survey. Then a broad range of potential nonelectric applications was surveyed in individual as well as energy cascading systems to identify the matchup of the resource and needs of the city. Applications investigated included space conditioning, space/water heating, car wash, agriculture/horticulture, and aquaculture operations. The list of applications so derived was assessed in light of technological, socio-economic, environmental, institutional, and market considerations to determine target opportunities for DHS as well as on a broad regional basis. Those systems which survived the initial screening were subjected to detailed parametric studies focused on determining tradeoffs among performance, cost, size, compatibility with off-the-shelf hardware, etc. A detailed analysis of the engineering and economic aspects of the most promising systems was then performed. Factors considered included technological problems and risks, status of supporting technologies, net energy ratios, costs, market, displacement of fossil fuels, and economic benefit to the community.

  11. An evaluation of state-of-the-art two-velocity two-phase flow models and their applicability to nuclear reactor transient analysis. Volume 2. Theoretical bases. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.D.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; McFadden, J.H.

    1976-02-01

    A state-of-the-art review was conducted in order to provide the nuclear industry with a publicly available assessment of two velocity thermal-hydraulic models and their applicability to nuclear reactor technology. The two major objectives of this state-of-the-art evaluation were: (1) document the basic theory in a consistent self-contained report; and (2) apply a prototype 'two-velocity' code (UVUT) to a limited number of separate effect tests. The theoretical basis of the two-velocity models given in Volume 2 is divided into three parts; Part I is the derivation of the basic differential equations; Part II describes in detail, the constitutive models required for closure of the system of equations; and Part III presents the numerical solution schemes

  12. Application of an unstructured 3D finite volume numerical model to flows and salinity dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr-Koller, R.C.; Kernkamp, H.W.J.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Mick van der Wegen,; Lucas, Lisa; Knowles, N.; Jaffe, B.; Fregoso, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    A linked modeling approach has been undertaken to understand the impacts of climate and infrastructure on aquatic ecology and water quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. The Delft3D Flexible Mesh modeling suite is used in this effort for its 3D hydrodynamics, salinity, temperature and sediment dynamics, phytoplankton and water-quality coupling infrastructure, and linkage to a habitat suitability model. The hydrodynamic model component of the suite is D-Flow FM, a new 3D unstructured finite-volume model based on the Delft3D model. In this paper, D-Flow FM is applied to the San Francisco Bay-Delta to investigate tidal, seasonal and annual dynamics of water levels, river flows and salinity under historical environmental and infrastructural conditions. The model is driven by historical winds, tides, ocean salinity, and river flows, and includes federal, state, and local freshwater withdrawals, and regional gate and barrier operations. The model is calibrated over a 9-month period, and subsequently validated for water levels, flows, and 3D salinity dynamics over a 2 year period.Model performance was quantified using several model assessment metrics and visualized through target diagrams. These metrics indicate that the model accurately estimated water levels, flows, and salinity over wide-ranging tidal and fluvial conditions, and the model can be used to investigate detailed circulation and salinity patterns throughout the Bay-Delta. The hydrodynamics produced through this effort will be used to drive affiliated sediment, phytoplankton, and contaminant hindcast efforts and habitat suitability assessments for fish and bivalves. The modeling framework applied here will serve as a baseline to ultimately shed light on potential ecosystem change over the current century.

  13. Extension of a dynamic headspace multi-volatile method to milliliter injection volumes with full sample evaporation: Application to green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori; MacNamara, Kevin

    2015-11-20

    An extension of multi-volatile method (MVM) technology using the combination of a standard dynamic headspace (DHS) configuration, and a modified DHS configuration incorporating an additional vacuum module, was developed for milliliter injection volume of aqueous sample with full sample evaporation. A prior step involved investigation of water management by weighing of the water residue in the adsorbent trap. The extended MVM for 1 mL aqueous sample consists of five different DHS method parameter sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. An initial two DHS sampling sets at 25°C with the standard DHS configuration using a carbon-based adsorbent trap target very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>10 kPa) and volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-10 kPa). Subsequent three DHS sampling sets at 80°C with the modified DHS configuration using a Tenax TA trap target solutes with low vapor pressure (88%) for 17 test aroma compounds and moderate recoveries (44-71%) for 4 test compounds. The method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9913) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.1-0.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The improved sensitivity of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed green tea. Compared to the original 100 μL MVM procedure, this extension to 1 mL MVM allowed detection of nearly twice the number of aroma compounds, including 18 potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (e.g. 2,3-butanedione, coumarin, furaneol, guaiacol, cis-3-hexenol, linalool, maltol, methional, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, and vanillin). Sensitivity for 23 compounds improved by a factor of 3.4-15 under 1 mL MVM conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of an unstructured 3D finite volume numerical model to flows and salinity dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr-Koller, R. C.; Kernkamp, H. W. J.; van Dam, A.; van der Wegen, M.; Lucas, L. V.; Knowles, N.; Jaffe, B.; Fregoso, T. A.

    2017-06-01

    A linked modeling approach has been undertaken to understand the impacts of climate and infrastructure on aquatic ecology and water quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. The Delft3D Flexible Mesh modeling suite is used in this effort for its 3D hydrodynamics, salinity, temperature and sediment dynamics, phytoplankton and water-quality coupling infrastructure, and linkage to a habitat suitability model. The hydrodynamic model component of the suite is D-Flow FM, a new 3D unstructured finite-volume model based on the Delft3D model. In this paper, D-Flow FM is applied to the San Francisco Bay-Delta to investigate tidal, seasonal and annual dynamics of water levels, river flows and salinity under historical environmental and infrastructural conditions. The model is driven by historical winds, tides, ocean salinity, and river flows, and includes federal, state, and local freshwater withdrawals, and regional gate and barrier operations. The model is calibrated over a 9-month period, and subsequently validated for water levels, flows, and 3D salinity dynamics over a 2 year period. Model performance was quantified using several model assessment metrics and visualized through target diagrams. These metrics indicate that the model accurately estimated water levels, flows, and salinity over wide-ranging tidal and fluvial conditions, and the model can be used to investigate detailed circulation and salinity patterns throughout the Bay-Delta. The hydrodynamics produced through this effort will be used to drive affiliated sediment, phytoplankton, and contaminant hindcast efforts and habitat suitability assessments for fish and bivalves. The modeling framework applied here will serve as a baseline to ultimately shed light on potential ecosystem change over the current century.

  15. Successful well test application of portable multi-phase flow meter for high gas-volume and high water-cut wells in east Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaura, Jiten D.; Finley, D.B. [PT Halliburton Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia); Sudradjat, Wangsa; Riyanto, Latief [Tota E and P Indonesie, Jakarta (Indonesia); Halverson, Martin [FlowSys AS, Bergen (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Recently, testing was needed on production wells in East Kalimantan. The wells were in a mature field, and productivity from the wells field featured high water cut (WC) and extremely high gas-volume fractions (GVF). The WC and GVF ranged from 80 to 100% and 90 to 100%, respectively. Moreover, most of the wells are low productivity so they are very sensitive to back-pressure. The high WC, high GVF and low-productivity from these wells in this area present an extreme challenge for accurate production measurement. Barges are commonly used to perform well services in the swamp area of this marginal field, and production allocations from wells in this difficult area were previously monitored and measured with conventional well-test equipment on-board a well testing barge. The well test equipment traditionally used requires a large footprint, and the associated flaring presents an environmental situation in this sensitive swamp area. Hence, the MPFM solution was chosen. To better meet the challenges presented by the testing conditions, a portable multiphase flow meter (MPFM) was chosen to perform the testing from the well-testing barge. For comparative purposes, the MPFM was installed on the barge immediately upstream of the well testing equipment. Initial measurements with the MPFM yielded results that were {+-} 30% of the test separator reading. A slight modification was introduced to the MPFM system in the form of a gas knock-out (GKO) vessel. Subsequent measurements with the modified MPFM system yielded readings that were {+-}10% of the test separator reading. (author)

  16. Direct use applications of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California. Final report, May 23, 1977--July 31, 1978. Volume II: appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, C.C.

    1978-07-01

    The following appendixes are included: Desert Hot Springs (DHS) Geothermal Project Advisory Board, Geothermal Citizens Advisory Committee, community needs assessment, geothermal resource characterization, a detailed discussion of the geothermal applications considered for DHS, space/water heating, agricultural operations, detailed analysis of a geothermal aquaculture facility, detailed discussion of proposed energy cascading systems for DHS, regulatory requirements, environmental impact assessment, resource management plan, and geothermal resources property rights and powers of cities to regulate indigenous geothermal resources and to finance construction of facilities for utilization of such resources. (MHR)

  17. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 9: Appendices RM, SCR, SER, SUM, WRAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Rock Mechanics Program is important to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in salt because rock mechanics deals with the prediction of creep closure and eventual encapsulation of the waste. The intent of this paper is to give the current status of the program. This program consists of three major modeling efforts: continuum creep, fracture, and the disturbed rock zone. These models, together with laboratory material parameters, plastic flow potentials, initial and boundary input data, and other peripheral information forms the predictive technology. The extent to which the predictive technology is validated against in situ test data adds certainty to the method. Application of the technology is through simulations of the test results, design, or performance using numerical codes. In summary, the predictive capabilities are technically sound and reasonable. The current status of the program is that which would be advanced for compliance.

  18. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 9: Appendices RM, SCR, SER, SUM, WRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Rock Mechanics Program is important to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in salt because rock mechanics deals with the prediction of creep closure and eventual encapsulation of the waste. The intent of this paper is to give the current status of the program. This program consists of three major modeling efforts: continuum creep, fracture, and the disturbed rock zone. These models, together with laboratory material parameters, plastic flow potentials, initial and boundary input data, and other peripheral information forms the predictive technology. The extent to which the predictive technology is validated against in situ test data adds certainty to the method. Application of the technology is through simulations of the test results, design, or performance using numerical codes. In summary, the predictive capabilities are technically sound and reasonable. The current status of the program is that which would be advanced for compliance

  19. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  20. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  1. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  2. Laboratory Instrumentation Design Research for Scalable Next Generation Epitaxy: Non-Equilibrium Wide Application Epitaxial Patterning by Intelligent Control (NEW-EPIC). Volume 1. 3D Composition/Doping Control via Micromiror Patterned Deep UV Photodesorption: Revolutionary in situ Characterization/Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    34 (to be submitted to APL) " Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Annealed and As-grown Be-doped GaN" (to be submitted to APL - delayed by the...WIDE APPLICATION EPITAXIAL PATTERNING BY INTELLIGENT CONTROL (NEW-EPIC) 6. AUTHOR(S) DRS DOOLITTILE, FRAZIER, BURNHAM, PRITCHETT, BILLINGSLEY...NEXT GENERATION EPITAXY: NON-EQUILIBRIUM WIDE APPLICATION EPITAXIAL PATTERNING BY INTELLIGENT CONTROL (NEW-EPIC) VOLUME I 3D COMPOSITION/DOPING

  3. Colorado Conference on iterative methods. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference provided a forum on many aspects of iterative methods. Volume I topics were:Session: domain decomposition, nonlinear problems, integral equations and inverse problems, eigenvalue problems, iterative software kernels. Volume II presents nonsymmetric solvers, parallel computation, theory of iterative methods, software and programming environment, ODE solvers, multigrid and multilevel methods, applications, robust iterative methods, preconditioners, Toeplitz and circulation solvers, and saddle point problems. Individual papers are indexed separately on the EDB.

  4. Innovation in gynaecological brachytherapy: new technologies, pulse dose-rate brachytherapy, image, definition of new volumes of interest and their impact on dosimetry: application in a clinical research programme 'S.T.I.C.'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haie-Meder, C.; Peiffert, D.

    2006-01-01

    Brachytherapy plays a fundamental role in the therapeutic approach of patients with stage I-IV cervical carcinoma. Technical modalities have evolved during the last decades: stepping source technology, imaging modalities development, specially IMN, treatment planning system integrating 3D images. Images from CT-Scan and MRI have contributed to a better knowledge of tumoral extension and critical organs. CT and/or MRI compatible applicators allow a sectional image based approach with a better definition of tumour volume compared to traditional approaches. The introduction of 3D image based approach for GTV and CTV requires new definitions and a common language. In 2000, a working group within GEC-ESTRO was created to support 3D image based 3D treatment planning approach in cervix cancer BT. The task was to determine a common terminology enabling various groups to use a common language. Recommendations were described and proposed based on clinical experience and dosimetric concepts of different institutions. Two CTVs were described en relation to the risk for recurrence: high-risk CTV and intermediate risk CTV. In order to better define the role of such definitions and their potential impact on the complication incidence in patients with cervical cancer, a special French programme was developed. The aim of this programme is to study the incidence of the severe 2-year complication rate in two comparable patient populations: one population is treated using PDR brachytherapy with CT-Scan or MRI with the applicators in place allowing a 3D dosimetry with optimization, the second population is treated using standard X-rays radiographs, without any delineation of the target nor optimisation. Each population arm includes 425 patients. A medico-economic assessment is performed, allowing a real cost of the most sophisticated approach compared to a historical dosimetric system. (author)

  5. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  6. Utilization of long duration high-volume sampling coupled to SPME-GC-MS/MS for the assessment of airborne pesticides variability in an urban area (Strasbourg, France) during agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Céline; Brucher, Michel; Schummer, Claude; Coscollà, Clara; Wolff, Hélène; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice

    2016-10-02

    Atmospheric samples have been collected between 14 March and 12 September 2012 on a 2-week basis (15 days of sampling and exchange of traps each 7 days) in Strasbourg (east of France) for the analysis of 43 pesticides. Samples (particle and gas phases) were separately extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and pre-concentrated by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) before analysis by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Four SPME consecutive injections at distinct temperatures were made in order to increase the sensitivity of detection for the all monitored pesticides. Currently used detected pesticides can be grouped in four classes; those used in maize crops (acetochlor, benoxacor, dicamba, s-metolachlor, pendimethalin, and bromoxynil), in cereal crops (benoxacor, chlorothalonil, fenpropimorph, and propiconazole), in vineyards (tebuconazole), and as herbicides for orchards, meadows of green spaces (2,4-MCPA, trichlopyr). This is in accordance with the diversity of crops found in the Alsace region and trends observed are in accordance with the period of application of these pesticides. Variations observed permit also to demonstrate that the long time sampling duration used in this study is efficient to visualize temporal variations of airborne pesticides concentrations. Then, long time high-volume sampling could be a simple method permitting atmospheric survey of atmospheric contamination without any long analysis time and consequently low cost.

  7. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  8. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  9. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  10. Aplicaciones terrestres de bajo volumen con abamectin y spinosad para el control químico del minador de los cítricos en limoneros Abamectin and spinosad low volume applications to control citrus leafminer on lemon trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El minador de los cítricos, Phyllocnistis citrella, produce daños directos al afectar los brotes nuevos de las plantas jóvenes, e indirectos al permitir la entrada de la bacteria responsable de la cancrosis de los cítricos, a través de las heridas que producen las larvas en las hojas. Este daño indirecto motivó a los productores citrícolas a controlar las poblaciones del minador también en plantas adultas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el control de P. citrella mediante aplicaciones con bajo volumen de abamectin y spinosad, combinados con aceite mineral emulsionable. Las aplicaciones de bajo volumen se hicieron durante tres campañas consecutivas sobre plantas de limonero de siete años de edad al momento de iniciar las experiencias, usando 2 l de caldo formulado por planta. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: abamectin (1,8 g i.a./ha, spinosad (24 g i.a./ha, ambos combinados con aceite mineral, y un testigo sin tratar. Se hicieron dos aplicaciones por campaña cada 15 días. Se extrajeron muestras semanalmente para evaluar el porcentaje de hojas con larvas vivas. Al final de la experiencia se estimó el daño foliar en brotes previamente marcados. Tanto abamectin como spinosad controlaron la plaga durante 14 días y el porcentaje de área foliar dañada fue menor a 3,5%. El control obtenido con ambos tratamientos, nos permite disponer de dos opciones de activos para el control del minador con el fin de rotar los productos y evitar posibles problemas de resistencia.The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, produces direct damages affecting new flushes of young trees, and indirect ones, since the wounds produced on the leaves by the leafminer represent an entry way for the bacterium responsible for citrus canker. This indirect damage has motivated citrus farmers to control leafminer on adult trees. The aim of this work was to evaluate leafminer control using low volume applications of abamectin and spinosad with mineral

  11. Active Optical Devices and Applications. Volume 228

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Research Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413 Abstract In this paper a control engineer’s point of view of the Large Space Structure (LSS) problem is...CASSIOPEIA SUPERNOVA REMNANT GALAXIES IN VIRGO CLUSTER QUASAR 3C273 CRAB PULSAR Figure 2. A collage of images of X-ray sources obtained with the HEAO...Telescope. Yet ST will not be able to study vari- able stars (primary distance indicators) to the Virgo cluster of galaxies and beyond. This cluster is

  12. Volume II: Ecosystem management: principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Jensen; P.S. Bourgeron

    1994-01-01

    This document provides land managers with practical suggestions for implementing ecosystem management. It contains 28 papers organized into five sections: historical perspectives, ecological principles, sampling design, case studies, and implementation strategies.

  13. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  14. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  15. Drishti: a volume exploration and presentation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay

    2012-10-01

    Among several rendering techniques for volumetric data, direct volume rendering is a powerful visualization tool for a wide variety of applications. This paper describes the major features of hardware based volume exploration and presentation tool - Drishti. The word, Drishti, stands for vision or insight in Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language. Drishti is a cross-platform open-source volume rendering system that delivers high quality, state of the art renderings. The features in Drishti include, though not limited to, production quality rendering, volume sculpting, multi-resolution zooming, transfer function blending, profile generation, measurement tools, mesh generation, stereo/anaglyph/crosseye renderings. Ultimately, Drishti provides an intuitive and powerful interface for choreographing animations.

  16. Gravimetric gas determinations for volume calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    Gravimetric measurements of gases is one of the methods available for calibrating gas volumes. By inputting a known quantity of gas and measuring the resulting pressure and temperature, the system volume can be calculated using gas law principles. Historically, this method has been less accurate due to the difficulty in the mass determination. This difficulty comes from several sources. Two examples are the large tare weight of the gas container relative to the weight of gas and the external volume of the gas container relative to the standards. The application of a gravimetric gas determination to tank volume calibrations at the savannah River Site is discussed. Mass determinations on a 25,00 gram gas container were such that a 1500 gram quantity of gas was routinely determined to within ±0.2 gram at the 99% confidence level. In this paper the weighting design and the methods used to address the difficulties of the mass determination are detailed

  17. Estimating traffic volume on Wyoming low volume roads using linear and logistic regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Apronti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic volume is an important parameter in most transportation planning applications. Low volume roads make up about 69% of road miles in the United States. Estimating traffic on the low volume roads is a cost-effective alternative to taking traffic counts. This is because traditional traffic counts are expensive and impractical for low priority roads. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of two alternative means of cost-effectively estimating traffic volumes for low volume roads in Wyoming and to make recommendations for their implementation. The study methodology involves reviewing existing studies, identifying data sources, and carrying out the model development. The utility of the models developed were then verified by comparing actual traffic volumes to those predicted by the model. The study resulted in two regression models that are inexpensive and easy to implement. The first regression model was a linear regression model that utilized pavement type, access to highways, predominant land use types, and population to estimate traffic volume. In verifying the model, an R2 value of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 73.4% were obtained. The second model was a logistic regression model that identified the level of traffic on roads using five thresholds or levels. The logistic regression model was verified by estimating traffic volume thresholds and determining the percentage of roads that were accurately classified as belonging to the given thresholds. For the five thresholds, the percentage of roads classified correctly ranged from 79% to 88%. In conclusion, the verification of the models indicated both model types to be useful for accurate and cost-effective estimation of traffic volumes for low volume Wyoming roads. The models developed were recommended for use in traffic volume estimations for low volume roads in pavement management and environmental impact assessment studies.

  18. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  19. Femtosecond laser pulse written Volume Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser pulses can be applied for structuring a wide range of ransparent materials. Here we want to show how to use this ability to realize Volume-Bragg-Gratings in various- mainly non-photosensitive - glasses. We will further present the characteristics of the realized gratings and a few elected applications that have been realized.

  20. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  1. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  2. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  3. Electroanalytical chemistry. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is part of a series aimed at authoritative reviews of electroanalytical techniques and related areas of investigation. Volume 14 clearly maintains the high standards and proven usefulness of the series. Topics covered include conformation change and isomerization associated with electrode reactions, infrared vibrational spectroscopy of the electrode-solution interface, and precision in linear sweep and cyclic voltametry. A short history of electrochemical techniques which include the term square wave is provided

  4. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  5. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  6. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  7. Frequency Domain Computer Programs for Prediction and Analysis of Rail Vehicle Dynamics : Volume 1. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Frequency domain computer programs developed or acquired by TSC for the analysis of rail vehicle dynamics are described in two volumes. Volume I defines the general analytical capabilities required for computer programs applicable to single rail vehi...

  8. Assistência de ar e volumes de aplicação na deposição de calda e no controle do arroz vermelho (Oryza sativa L. Air assistance and volume of application in spray deposition and in red rice control (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo L. S. Vigano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora e de três volumes de pulverização na dessecação e deposição da calda em arroz vermelho, sob cultivo de nabo forrageiro, em áreas de recuperação de várzeas, utilizando o herbicida paraquat e o corante Azul Brilhante, respectivamente. Os volumes de pulverização foram 100; 200 e 300 L ha-1 da solução aquosa, contendo corante alimentício (1.500 mg L-1. Com ou sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, foram utilizadas pontas de pulverização de jato plano tipo AXI 110015 à pressão de 117,3 kPa, AXI 11002 e AXI 11003 a 276 kPa. A avaliação da deposição da pulverização deu-se em folhas de plantas de arroz vermelho. Os maiores volumes (200 e 300 L ha-1 pulverizados com a assistência de ar junto à barra pulverizadora proporcionaram maiores depósitos do corante em relação ao volume de 100 L ha-1. Não foram constatadas diferenças na deposição do corante para os volumes pulverizados, sem a assistência de ar junto à barra, tampouco entre os volumes de 200 e 300 L ha-1 com a assistência de ar junto à barra. As maiores percentagens de controle do arroz vermelho foram obtidas com a assistência de ar junto à barra, independentemente do volume pulverizado, equivalendo-se ao controle obtido com 300 L ha-1, sem o uso dessa tecnologia.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of air-assistance on spraying at three volumes in spray deposition and control of red rice under fodder radish cultivation. To evaluate the control of this weed and spray deposition were used paraquat herbicide and a Brilliant Blue dye, respectively. The three spraying volumes were 100, 200 and 300 L ha-1, using a tracer dye at 1,500 mg L-1. Both solutions and volumes were sprayed with flat fan nozzles AXI 110015 at 117.3 kPa, AXI 11002 and AXI 11003 at 276 kPa, respectively, with and without air-assistance on the boom. The evaluation of deposition

  9. Variable volume combustor with a conical liner support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Keener, Chrisophter Paul; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-06-27

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a conical liner support supporting the liner.

  10. Determination of gas volume trapped in a closed fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W. F.; Jolley, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique involves extracting known volume of fluid and measuring system before and after extraction, volume of entrapped gas is then computed. Formula derived from ideal gas laws is basis of this method. Technique is applicable to thermodynamic cycles and hydraulic systems.

  11. Using stereo satellite imagery to account for ablation, entrainment, and compaction in volume calculations for rock avalanches on Glaciers: Application to the 2016 Lamplugh Rock Avalanche in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette-Kirton, Erin; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Zhou, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    The use of preevent and postevent digital elevation models (DEMs) to estimate the volume of rock avalanches on glaciers is complicated by ablation of ice before and after the rock avalanche, scour of material during rock avalanche emplacement, and postevent ablation and compaction of the rock avalanche deposit. We present a model to account for these processes in volume estimates of rock avalanches on glaciers. We applied our model by calculating the volume of the 28 June 2016 Lamplugh rock avalanche in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. We derived preevent and postevent 2‐m resolution DEMs from WorldView satellite stereo imagery. Using data from DEM differencing, we reconstructed the rock avalanche and adjacent surfaces at the time of occurrence by accounting for elevation changes due to ablation and scour of the ice surface, and postevent deposit changes. We accounted for uncertainties in our DEMs through precise coregistration and an assessment of relative elevation accuracy in bedrock control areas. The rock avalanche initially displaced 51.7 ± 1.5 Mm3 of intact rock and then scoured and entrained 13.2 ± 2.2 Mm3 of snow and ice during emplacement. We calculated the total deposit volume to be 69.9 ± 7.9 Mm3. Volume estimates that did not account for topographic changes due to ablation, scour, and compaction underestimated the deposit volume by 31.0–46.8 Mm3. Our model provides an improved framework for estimating uncertainties affecting rock avalanche volume measurements in glacial environments. These improvements can contribute to advances in the understanding of rock avalanche hazards and dynamics.

  12. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  13. Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  15. Excess molar volume, viscosity, and refractive index study for the ternary mixture {2-methyl-2-butanol (1) + tetrahydrofuran (2) + propylamine (3)} at different temperatures. Application of the ERAS-model and Peng-Robinson-Stryjek-Vera equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattahi, M.; Iloukhani, H.

    2010-01-01

    Densities, viscosities, and refractive indices of the ternary mixture consist of {2-methyl-2-butanol (1) + tetrahydrofuran (THF) (2) + propylamine (3)} at a temperature of 298.15 K and related binary mixtures were measured at temperatures of (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K at ambient pressure. Data were used to calculate the excess molar volumes and the deviations of the viscosity and refractive index. The Redlich-Kister and the Cibulka equations were used for correlating binary and ternary properties, respectively. The ERAS-model has been applied for describing the binary and ternary excess molar volumes and also Peng-Robinson-Stryjek-Vera (PRSV) equation of state (EOS) has been used to predict the binary and ternary excess molar volumes and viscosities.

  16. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  17. The volume of a soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-01-01

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  18. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  19. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  20. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  1. Free Volume Considerations in Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landel, R. F.; Gupta, A.; Moacanin, J.; Hong, D.; Tsay, F. D.; Chen, S.; Chung, S.; Fedors, R. F.; Cigmecioglu, M.

    1984-01-01

    The direct measurement of physical aging and of the volume changes which go on during the course of this aging is discussed. Data on PMMA showing its physical aging as measured by its stress relaxation response and the accompanying volume changes are presented. An indication of how one can measure the free volume both directly from the volume change itself and relatively directly via a new technique is given. The application of this new technique (electron spin resonance spectroscopy) to other polymer systems is demonstrated.

  2. Automatic, accurate, and reproducible segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid in T1-weighted volume MRI scans and its application to serial cerebral and intracranial volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Louis

    2001-07-01

    A new fully automatic algorithm for the segmentation of the brain and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) from T1-weighted volume MRI scans of the head was specifically developed in the context of serial intra-cranial volumetry. The method is an extension of a previously published brain extraction algorithm. The brain mask is used as a basis for CSF segmentation based on morphological operations, automatic histogram analysis and thresholding. Brain segmentation is then obtained by iterative tracking of the brain-CSF interface. Grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and CSF volumes are calculated based on a model of intensity probability distribution that includes partial volume effects. Accuracy was assessed using a digital phantom scan. Reproducibility was assessed by segmenting pairs of scans from 20 normal subjects scanned 8 months apart and 11 patients with epilepsy scanned 3.5 years apart. Segmentation accuracy as measured by overlap was 98% for the brain and 96% for the intra-cranial tissues. The volume errors were: total brain (TBV): -1.0%, intra-cranial (ICV):0.1%, CSF: +4.8%. For repeated scans, matching resulted in improved reproducibility. In the controls, the coefficient of reliability (CR) was 1.5% for the TVB and 1.0% for the ICV. In the patients, the Cr for the ICV was 1.2%.

  3. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  4. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  5. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E; Silveira, Paulo E X; Wach, Hans B

    2005-02-10

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  6. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  7. Residual Efficacy of Field-Applied Permethrin, d-Phenothrin, and Resmethrin on Plant Foliage Against Adult Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    the American Mosquito Control Association, 24(4):543–549, 2008 Copyright E 2008 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. 543 Report...southern red cedar (Juniperus silicicola J. Silba), beauty berry (Callicarpa americana L.), and bay trees ( Persea spp.). Insecticides Permethrin...plant foliage to adult 544 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MOSQUITO CONTROL ASSOCIATION VOL. 24, NO. 4 Cx. quinquefasciatus. A single leaf was exposed to 10–15

  8. Some aspects of the relation between the volume of prostate carcinoma and its interstitial BT volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivanovic, A; Babic, J; Erak, M.; Dabic, K.; Donat, D.; Kuzmanovic, Z.; Savic, D.

    1996-01-01

    It is a fact that the volume achieved by the interstitial procedure during the brachy treatment of prostate carcinoma is several times smaller than the one we get in, so called, external beam therapy. Furthermore, interstitial brachytherapy offers the possibility to apply large dose into the small volume. However, both dose and volume are at the same time the factors that limit the therapy and the main technical offenders in case of therapy failure. We tried, through a strong individual approach, to compare the volume obtained mathematically and the volume obtained by planning (TPS). By means of clinical examinations and CT scans we conceived a prostate as half of the volume of ellipsoid under one condition only: the magnification of the prostate has to be a symmetrical one. Finally, we applied the following formula: V prostate=(1(2)) ellipsoid=2.09·a/2·e/2·b where a=(1(2)) of sagittal diameter b=prostate height (from apex to base) c=(1(2)) of transversal diameter Each volume obtained in the this way has been taken into account during the application of interstitial needles which in their own way and in accordance to a routine planning, form an active therapeutic interstitial volume. The obtained data showed differences between these two types of volumes. From the statistical point of view, mathematically obtained volume of CV was 16.6% while interstitial volume was 14.9%. T-test was 3.9. On average, mathematical volume is lower and this balance is a desirable one because it means a smaller possibility for potential positive biopsy as a result of a 'rest' tumour. If on the other hand, positive biopsy is a result of the 'rest' tumour and our interpretation has been a contradictory one, precious time with disappointing results will be lost. At the end we achieved: a) double checked control of the embraced volumes, b) stronger fulcrum for the next step: dose-fraction balance

  9. Volume of a laser-induced microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Hayasaka, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yuto; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Needle-free injection systems are of great importance for medical treatments. In spite of their great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the common problems is strong pain caused by diffusion shape of the jet. To solve this problem, the usage of a high-speed highly-focused microjet as needle-free injection system is expected. It is thus crucial to control important indicators such as ejected volume of the jet for its safe application. We conduct experiments to reveal which parameter influences mostly the ejected volume. In the experiments, we use a glass tube of an inner diameter of 500 micro-meter, which is filled with the liquid. One end is connected to a syringe and the other end is opened. Radiating the pulse laser instantaneously vapors the liquid, followed by the generation of a shockwave. We find that the maximum volume of a laser-induced bubble is approximately proportional to the ejected volume. It is also found that the occurrence of cavitation does not affect the ejected volume while it changes the jet velocity.

  10. Stereological estimation of the mean and variance of nuclear volume from vertical sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    The application of assumption-free, unbiased stereological techniques for estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, from vertical sections of benign and malignant nuclear aggregates in melanocytic skin tumours is described. Combining sampling of nuclei with uniform...... probability in a physical disector and Cavalieri's direct estimator of volume, the unbiased, number-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vN, of the same benign and malignant nuclear populations is also estimated. Having obtained estimates of nuclear volume in both the volume- and number distribution...... to the larger malignant nuclei. Finally, the variance in the volume distribution of nuclear volume is estimated by shape-independent estimates of the volume-weighted second moment of the nuclear volume, vv2, using both a manual and a computer-assisted approach. The working procedure for the description of 3-D...

  11. Solving hyperbolic equations with finite volume methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez-Cendón, M Elena

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used in numerous applications and by a broad multidisciplinary scientific community. The book communicates this important tool to students, researchers in training and academics involved in the training of students in different science and technology fields. The selection of content is based on the author’s experience giving PhD and master courses in different universities. In the book the introduction of new concepts and numerical methods go together with simple exercises, examples and applications that contribute to reinforce them. In addition, some of them involve the execution of MATLAB codes. The author promotes an understanding of common terminology with a balance between mathematical rigor and physical intuition that characterizes the origin of the methods. This book aims to be a first contact with finite volume methods. Once readers have studied it, they will be able to follow more specific bibliographical references and use commercial programs or open source software withi...

  12. Quantum volume hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light. The scheme is based on a counterpropagating quantum signal wave and a strong classical reference wave as in a classical volume hologram and therefore can be called a quantum volume hologram. The medium for the hologram consists of a spatially extended ensemble of atoms placed in a magnetic field. The write-in and readout of this quantum hologram is as simple as that of its classical counterpart and consists of a single-pass illumination. In addition, we show that the present scheme for a quantum hologram is less sensitive to diffraction and therefore is capable of achieving a higher density of storage of spatial modes as compared to previous proposals. We present a feasibility study and show that experimental implementation is possible with available cold atomic samples. A quantum hologram capable of storing entangled images can become an important ingredient in quantum information processing and quantum imaging.

  13. EARTHWORK VOLUME CALCULATION FROM DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIĆ Milorad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate calculation of cut and fill volume has an essential importance in many fields. This article shows a new method, which has no approximation, based on Digital Terrain Models. A relatively new mathematical model is developed for that purpose, which is implemented in the software solution. Both of them has been tested and verified in the praxis on several large opencast mines. This application is developed in AutoLISP programming language and works in AutoCAD environment.

  14. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E.

    1995-01-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1--Chapter C, Appendix C3 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Rocky Flats Plant and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste process information; TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms; chemical compatibility analysis for waste forms across all sites; TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky Flats Transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; TRU waste sampling program; and waste analysis data.

  16. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  17. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  18. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. It is presented in two volumes. This second volume provides more detailed information regarding the methods discussed in Volume 1.

  19. Models for estimation of tree volume in the miombo woodlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volume of trees is an important parameter in forest management, but only volume models with limited geographical and tree size coverage have previously been developed for Tanzanian miombo woodlands. This study developed models for estimating total, merchantable stem and branches volume applicable for the entire ...

  20. INTRA/Mod3.2. Manual and Code Description. Volume I - Physical Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jenny; Edlund, O.; Hermann, J.; Johansson, Lise-Lotte

    1999-01-01

    The INTRA Manual consists of two volumes. Volume I of the manual is a thorough description of the code INTRA, the Physical modelling of INTRA and the ruling numerical methods and volume II, the User's Manual is an input description. This document, the Physical modelling of INTRA, contains code characteristics, integration methods and applications

  1. INTRA/Mod3.2. Manual and Code Description. Volume I - Physical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jenny; Edlund, O; Hermann, J; Johansson, Lise-Lotte

    1999-01-01

    The INTRA Manual consists of two volumes. Volume I of the manual is a thorough description of the code INTRA, the Physical modelling of INTRA and the ruling numerical methods and volume II, the User`s Manual is an input description. This document, the Physical modelling of INTRA, contains code characteristics, integration methods and applications

  2. Disc volume reduction with percutaneous nucleoplasty in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kasch

    Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. PURPOSE: To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty. METHODS: We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared. RESULTS: The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml. In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21 volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21 volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs.

  3. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  5. Long-term, low-level radwaste volume-reduction strategies. Volume 4. Waste disposal costs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Adam, J.A.; Rogers, V.C.; Merrell, G.B.

    1984-11-01

    Volume 4 establishes pricing levels at new shallow land burial grounds. The following conclusions can be drawn from the analyses described in the preceding chapters: Application of volume reduction techniques by utilities can have a significant impact on the volumes of wastes going to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Using the relative waste stream volumes in NRC81 and the maximum volume reduction ratios provided by Burns and Roe, Inc., it was calculated that if all utilities use maximum volume reduction the rate of waste receipt at disposal sites will be reduced by 40 percent. When a disposal site receives a lower volume of waste its total cost of operation does not decrease by the same proportion. Therefore the average cost for a unit volume of waste received goes up. Whether the disposal site operator knows in advance that he will receive a smaller amount of waste has little influence on the average unit cost ($/ft) of the waste disposed. For the pricing algorithm postulated, the average disposal cost to utilities that volume reduce is relatively independent of whether all utilities practice volume reduction or only a few volume reduce. The general effect of volume reduction by utilities is to reduce their average disposal site costs by a factor of between 1.5 to 2.5. This factor is generally independent of the size of the disposal site. The largest absolute savings in disposal site costs when utilities volume reduce occurs when small disposal sites are involved. This results from the fact that unit costs are higher at small sites. Including in the pricing algorithm a factor that penalizes waste generators who contribute larger amounts of the mobile nuclides 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 129 I, which may be the subject of site inventory limits, lowers unit disposal costs for utility wastes that contain only small amounts of the nuclides and raises unit costs for other utility wastes

  6. Sampling-based motion planning with reachable volumes: Theoretical foundations

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We introduce a new concept, reachable volumes, that denotes the set of points that the end effector of a chain or linkage can reach. We show that the reachable volume of a chain is equivalent to the Minkowski sum of the reachable volumes of its links, and give an efficient method for computing reachable volumes. We present a method for generating configurations using reachable volumes that is applicable to various types of robots including open and closed chain robots, tree-like robots, and complex robots including both loops and branches. We also describe how to apply constraints (both on end effectors and internal joints) using reachable volumes. Unlike previous methods, reachable volumes work for spherical and prismatic joints as well as planar joints. Visualizations of reachable volumes can allow an operator to see what positions the robot can reach and can guide robot design. We present visualizations of reachable volumes for representative robots including closed chains and graspers as well as for examples with joint and end effector constraints.

  7. Sampling-based motion planning with reachable volumes: Theoretical foundations

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We introduce a new concept, reachable volumes, that denotes the set of points that the end effector of a chain or linkage can reach. We show that the reachable volume of a chain is equivalent to the Minkowski sum of the reachable volumes of its links, and give an efficient method for computing reachable volumes. We present a method for generating configurations using reachable volumes that is applicable to various types of robots including open and closed chain robots, tree-like robots, and complex robots including both loops and branches. We also describe how to apply constraints (both on end effectors and internal joints) using reachable volumes. Unlike previous methods, reachable volumes work for spherical and prismatic joints as well as planar joints. Visualizations of reachable volumes can allow an operator to see what positions the robot can reach and can guide robot design. We present visualizations of reachable volumes for representative robots including closed chains and graspers as well as for examples with joint and end effector constraints.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 11, Chapter D, Appendix D4--Chapter D, Appendix D17: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices D4 through D17 which cover the following: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report; ecological monitoring program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; site characterization; regional and site geology and hydrology; general geology; dissolution features; ground water hydrology; typical carbon sorption bed efficiency; VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests; chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; probable maximum precipitation; WHIP supplementary roof support system room 1, panel 1; and corrosion risk assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant ``humid`` test bins.

  9. Strong volume, stable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This article is the September-October 1993 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. Activity was brisk, with 15 deals concluded. Six were in the spot concentrates market, with four of the six deals involving U.S. utilities and approximately 1.8M pounds of U3O8 equivalent. There were five conversion deals announced, with four of the five deals involving U.S. utilities. Four deals were concluded in the enrichment market, and the deals involving U.S. utilities were approximately 327k SWUs. On the horizon, there are deals for approximately 4.1M SWU

  10. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  11. Waste-aware fluid volume assignment for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    complex Fluidic Units (FUs) such as switches, micropumps, mixers and separators can be constructed. When running a biochemical application on a FBMB, fluid volumes are dispensed from input reservoirs and used by the FUs. Given a biochemical application and a biochip, we are interested in determining...... the fluid volume assignment for each operation of the application, such that the FUs volume requirements are satisfied, while over- and underflow are avoided and the total volume of fluid used is minimized. We propose an algorithm for this fluid assignment problem. Compared to previous work, our method...

  12. Radiobioassays. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers on radioimmunoassay. Topics considered include principles and application, instrumentation, radioimmunoassay data management, radiobioassay economics, laboratory management, thyroid evaluation, clinical and laboratory evaluation of adrenal dysfunction, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and human reproduction functions

  13. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  14. Radwaste '86: proceedings volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, L.C.

    1986-12-01

    The volume contains all the papers presented at the above Conference, which was held in Cape Town, South Africa from 7 to 12 September 1986. A total of 55 contributions cover the full spectrum of the theme of the Conference, which was subdivided into four sessions. Conditioning, treatment and management of radioactive waste: 12 papers reporting on experiences in various countries, as well as specialist topics such as the extraction of radioactive contaminants from reactor pool water. Containment, safe handling and long-term integrity of ILLW packages: 2 papers dealing with cask design. Transport and storage of radwaste and spent fuel: 7 papers ranging from broad overviews to specific operations in different parts of the world. Radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact: 32 papers covering topics from site selection, design and operation, to modelling and monitoring studies. South Africa's Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility is comprehensively described. The volume is a useful reference for anyone interested in the disposal of radioactive waste, especially in arid environments, as well as its treatment and management prior to disposal, and will appeal to a wide range of disciplines including engineers, geologists, geophysicists, life scientists and environmentalists. Of particular interest would be the intensive studies undertaken in South Africa prior to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in that country

  15. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  16. Right ventricular volume estimation with cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawachika, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    To quantitate right ventricular (RV) volumes easily using cine MRI, we developed a new method called 'modified area-length method (MOAL method)'. To validate this method, we compared it to the conventional Simpson's rule. Magnetom H15 (Siemens) was used and 6 normal volunteers and 21 patients with various RV sizes were imaged with ECG triggered gradient echo method (FISP, TR 50 ms, TE 12 ms, slice thickness 9 mm). For Simpson's rule transverse images of 12 sequential views which cover whole heart were acquired. For the MOAL method, two orthogonal views were imaged. One was the sagittal view which includes RV outflow tract and the other was the coronal view defined from the sagittal image to cover the whole RV. From these images the area (As, Ac) of RV and the longest distance between RV apex and pulmonary valve (Lmax) were determined. By correlating RV volumes measured by Simpson's rule to As*Ac/Lmax the RV volume could be estimated as follows: V=0.85*As*Ac/Lmax+4.55. Thus the MOAL method demonstrated excellent accuracy to quantitate RV volume and the acquisition time abbreviated to one fifth compared with Simpson's rule. This should be a highly promising method for routine clinical application. (author)

  17. Limiting volume with modern ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Thomas J; Haan, Lutana; Ashworth, Lonny J; Anderson, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) network low tidal-volume study comparing tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg was published in 2000. The study was stopped early as data revealed a 22% relative reduction in mortality rate when using 6 ml/kg tidal volume. The current generation of critical care ventilators allows the tidal volume to be set during volume-targeted, assist/control (volume A/C); however, some ventilators include options that may prevent the tidal volume from being controlled. The purpose of this bench study was to evaluate the delivered tidal volume, when these options are active, in a spontaneously breathing lung model using an electronic breathing simulator. Four ventilators were evaluated: CareFusion AVEA (AVEA), Dräger Evita® XL (Evita XL), Covidien Puritan Bennett® 840(TM) (PB 840), and Maquet SERVO-i (SERVO-i). Each ventilator was connected to the Hans Rudolph Electronic Breathing Simulator at an amplitude of 0 cm H2O and then 10 cm H2O. All four ventilators were set to deliver volume A/C, tidal volume 400 ml, respiratory rate 20 bpm, positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O, peak flowrate 60 L/min. The displayed tidal volume was recorded for each ventilator at the above settings with additional options OFF and then ON. The AVEA has two options in volume A/C: demand breaths and V-sync. When activated, these options allow the patient to exceed the set tidal volume. When using the Evita XL, the option AutoFlow can be turned ON or OFF, and when this option is ON, the tidal volume may vary. The PB 840 does not have any additional options that affect volume delivery, and it maintains the set tidal volume regardless of patient effort. The SERVO-i's demand valve allows additional flow if the patient's inspiratory flowrate exceeds the set flowrate, increasing the delivered tidal volume; this option can be turned OFF with the latest software upgrade. Modern ventilators have an increasing number of optional settings. These settings may

  18. An Example Emphasizing Mass-Volume Relationships for Problem Solving in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…

  19. Geometry of lengths, areas, and volumes two-dimensional spaces, volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, James W

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of a three volume collection devoted to the geometry, topology, and curvature of 2-dimensional spaces. The collection provides a guided tour through a wide range of topics by one of the twentieth century's masters of geometric topology. The books are accessible to college and graduate students and provide perspective and insight to mathematicians at all levels who are interested in geometry and topology. The first volume begins with length measurement as dominated by the Pythagorean Theorem (three proofs) with application to number theory; areas measured by slicing and scaling, where Archimedes uses the physical weights and balances to calculate spherical volume and is led to the invention of calculus; areas by cut and paste, leading to the Bolyai-Gerwien theorem on squaring polygons; areas by counting, leading to the theory of continued fractions, the efficient rational approximation of real numbers, and Minkowski's theorem on convex bodies; straight-edge and compass constructions, giving c...

  20. Optimized waste management: Less volume and less radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Ph.; Nigon, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to optimize fuel cycle back end solid wastes, in order to reduce both volume and radioactivity of final residues. An integrated strategy of standardized conditioning of all residues from reprocessing, called the Universal Canister Strategy, has been adopted. The application of feedback from over 30 years of operating experience and research and development to minimization of waste volume and radioactivity is presented. (author)

  1. Candlestick Charting and Trading Volume: Evidence from Bursa Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Chee-Ling; Jais, Mohamad; Balia, Sophee Sulong; Ahmad, Ayoib Che; Abidin, Azlan Zainol

    2016-01-01

    Technical analysis is deemed to be a futile practice among academicians who propose efficient market hypothesis, typically the weak form market efficiency which strongly protests the application of past prices and trading volume data for prediction of future market movement. As candlestick charting is one of the oldest technical indicators for short term investment, therefore this study examines the predictability of candlestick charting with combination to trading volume for Malaysian stock ...

  2. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  3. Volume dependence of N-body bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sebastian; Lee, Dean

    2018-04-01

    We derive the finite-volume correction to the binding energy of an N-particle quantum bound state in a cubic periodic volume. Our results are applicable to bound states with arbitrary composition and total angular momentum, and in any number of spatial dimensions. The only assumptions are that the interactions have finite range. The finite-volume correction is a sum of contributions from all possible breakup channels. In the case where the separation is into two bound clusters, our result gives the leading volume dependence up to exponentially small corrections. If the separation is into three or more clusters, there is a power-law factor that is beyond the scope of this work, however our result again determines the leading exponential dependence. We also present two independent methods that use finite-volume data to determine asymptotic normalization coefficients. The coefficients are useful to determine low-energy capture reactions into weakly bound states relevant for nuclear astrophysics. Using the techniques introduced here, one can even extract the infinite-volume energy limit using data from a single-volume calculation. The derived relations are tested using several exactly solvable systems and numerical examples. We anticipate immediate applications to lattice calculations of hadronic, nuclear, and cold atomic systems.

  4. Information architecture. Volume 4: Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Vision document marks the transition from definition to implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture Program. A description of the possibilities for the future, supported by actual experience with a process model and tool set, points toward implementation options. The directions for future information technology investments are discussed. Practical examples of how technology answers the business and information needs of the organization through coordinated and meshed data, applications, and technology architectures are related. This document is the fourth and final volume in the planned series for defining and exhibiting the DOE information architecture. The targeted scope of this document includes DOE Program Offices, field sites, contractor-operated facilities, and laboratories. This document paints a picture of how, over the next 7 years, technology may be implemented, dramatically improving the ways business is conducted at DOE. While technology is mentioned throughout this document, the vision is not about technology. The vision concerns the transition afforded by technology and the process steps to be completed to ensure alignment with business needs. This goal can be met if those directing the changing business and mission-support processes understand the capabilities afforded by architectural processes.

  5. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltze, Andrew J; Wong, Terrence S; Harland, Karisa K; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n = 235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (SD, 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (P tidal volume (P = .840). Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation but was not associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fiscal year 1985 Department of Energy authorization. Volume I. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production and the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, March 13, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Volume I of the hearing record covers the March 13, 1984 testimony of Martha Hesse, Assistant DOE Secretary for Management and Administration, on the fiscal year 1985 budget request for DOE administration. Ms. Hesse discussed specific budget justifications, including funding for the Technical Information Services, in-house energy management, and policy initiatives, such as the realignment of some functions within the department, the introduction of an integrated accouting and personnel and payroll systems, and other efforts to reduce overhead costs. She reported a three percent drop in staffing level. Following a prepared statement by Ms. Hesse and introductory remarks by committee members, the bulk of the hearing record contains responses to committee questions.

  7. Application of concentration-volume fractal method in induced polarization and resistivity data interpretation for Cu-Mo porphyry deposits exploration, case study: Nowchun Cu-Mo deposit, SE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Daneshvar Saein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the utilization of the concentration-volume (C-V fractal method based on geoelectrical data including induced polarization (IP and resistivity (RS in targeting areas hosting different sulfidic mineralization zones in Nowchun Cu-Mo porphyry deposit, SE Iran. The C-V fractal model employed in this research in order to separate high and moderate sulfidic zones from low sulfidic zone and barren wall rocks in the deposit is corresponding to chargeability and resistivity. Results obtained from the C-V method indicate that there is a positive correlation between subsurface mineralization and sulfide mineralized zones; additionally, use of the C-V method based on geophysical data is recognized as an accurate approach for delineation of various mineralization zones in the depth for optimization of mineral exploration operation, particularly in porphyry deposits.

  8. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  9. BNL volume H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.; Alessi, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The volume H minus ion source under development at Brookhaven is unique in that it has a toroidal plasma region, which feeds ions into the central extraction region through a conically shaped filter field. In pulsed operation, it produced 25 mA of H minus in a 1 cm 2 aperture, with an electron-to-H minus ratio of ∼ 3. At 19 mA, a normalized, 90% emittance of 0.44 π mm-mrad has been measured. Up to 50 mA has been extracted through a 1.87 cm 2 aperture. Although not designed for steady state operation, up to 6 mA has been extracted d.c. The addition of xenon to the discharge was found to improve the source output by 20--70%. The circular magnetic cusp field geometry was found to be more favorable than radial cusp fields. 4 refs., 5 figs

  10. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  11. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume II. PV-T state-of-the-art survey and site/application pair selection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    As part of a project to develop feasibility assessments, design procedures, and reference designs for total energy systems that could use actively cooled concentrating photovoltaic collectors, a survey was conducted to provide an overview of available photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) technology. General issues associated with the design and installation of a PV-T system are identified. Electrical and thermal efficiencies for the line-focus Fresnel, the linear parabolic trough, and the point-focus Fresnel collectors are specified as a function of operating temperature, ambient temperature, and insolation. For current PV-T technologies, the line-focus Fresnel collector proved to have the highest thermal and electrical efficiencies, lowest array cost, and lowest land area requirement. But a separate feasibility analysis involving 11 site/application pairs showed that for most applications, the cost of the photovoltaic portion of a PV-T system is not recovered through the displacement of an electrical load, and use of a thermal-only system to displace the thermal load would be a more economical alternative. PV-T systems are not feasible for applications that have a small thermal load, a large steam requirement, or a high load return temperature. SAND82-7157/3 identifies the technical issues involved in designing a photovoltaic-thermal system and provides guidance for resolving such issues. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  12. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological 'multiverse' scenarios involving eternal inflation. The 'reheating-volume (RV) cutoff' calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the 'youngness paradox', and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to 'landscape' scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  13. Computing the partial volume of pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiencke, Bent [Nestle USA, Corporate Engineering, 800 N. Brand Blvd, Glendale, CA 91203 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The computation of the partial and total volume of pressure vessels with various type of head profiles requires detailed knowledge of the head profile geometry. Depending on the type of head profile the derivation of the equations can become very complex and the calculation process cumbersome. Certain head profiles require numerical methods to obtain the partial volume, which for most application is beyond the scope of practicability. This paper suggests a unique method that simplifies the calculation procedure for the various types of head profiles by using one common set of equations without the need for numerical or complex computation methods. For ease of use, all equations presented in this paper are summarized in a single table format for horizontal and vertical vessels. (author)

  14. Geometrical considerations in dose volume analysis in intracavitary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, D.D.; Shrivastava, S.K.; Pradhan, A.S.; Viswanathan, P.S.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present work was aimed at to study the relationship between the volume enclosed by reference iodose surface and various geometrical parameters of the intracavitary applicator in treatment of carcinoma of cervix. Pearshape volume of the reference isodose derived from the Total Reference Air Kerma (TRAK) and the product of its dimensions, height H, width W and thickness T which is dependent on the applicator geometry, were estimated for 100 intracavitary applications treated by Selectron LDR machine. Orthogonal radiographs taken for each patient were used for measurement of actual geometric dimensions of the applicator and carrying out the dosimetry on TP-11 treatment planning system. The dimensions H, W and T of reference isodose surface (60 Gy) were also noted. Ratio of the product HWT and the pearshape volume was found mainly to be a function of colpostat separation and not of other geometrical parameters like maximum vertical and anterio-posterior dimension of the applicator. The ratio remained almost constant for a particular combination of uterine tandem and colpostat. Variation in the ratios were attributed to the non-standard geometry. The ratio of the volume of reference isodose surface to the product of its dimensions in the applicator depends upon the colpostat separation. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Proceedings of the Ship Control Systems Symposium (9th) Held in Bethesda, Maryland on 10-14 September 1990. Theme: Automation in Surface Ship Control Systems, Today’s Applications and Future Trends. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-14

    and can be fused separately. The RTU’s low-power consumption makes them ideally suited for battery and solar powered applications. 3.5 Redundant...dei movimenti e delle sollecitazioni di una nave in mare tempestoso per mezzo del metodo dello spettro di energia e della teoria della

  16. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 11: Electrical characteristics of 2 ohm-cm, 228 micron wraparound solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation. [for solar electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric characterization data on Spectrolab 2 by 4 cm, 2 ohm/cm, 228 micron thick wraparound cell, a candidate for the Solar Electric Propulsion Mission, are presented. These data consist of the electrical characteristics of the solar cell under a wide range of temperature and illumination intensity combinations of the type encountered in space applications.

  17. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and pulse power technology and its application

  18. Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, January 10-12, 1977. Volumes 1 [and] 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G. C., Ed.

    This document is a special National Bureau of Standards publication on a Workshop on Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics. The purposes of the Workshop were: (1) to assess the current national and international status of phase diagram determinations and evaluations for alloys, ceramics and semiconductors; (2) to determine the…

  19. Indexes to Volume 70

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamics of delayed-coupled chaotic logistic maps: Influence of network topology, connectivity .... VII: Application of statistical detection test. V C Vani and S ... La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 sample synthesized by a simple low-cost novel route. S Keshri ...

  20. Indexes to Volume 55

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two problems in thermal field theory. François Gelis ... Non-static local string in Brans–Dicke theory ... Sun–Earth connection: Boundary layer waves and auroras ... Dromion solutions for an electron acoustic wave and its application to space.

  1. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    In a study to determine the effects of soil type and fertilizer application on maize performance and yiel d stability ... reducing luxury input and luxury consumption. In an earlier ..... analytical data would give good yield response and stability of ...

  2. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  3. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-04

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  4. Natural Computing in Computational Finance Volume 4

    CERN Document Server

    O’Neill, Michael; Maringer, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    This book follows on from Natural Computing in Computational Finance  Volumes I, II and III.   As in the previous volumes of this series, the  book consists of a series of  chapters each of  which was selected following a rigorous, peer-reviewed, selection process.  The chapters illustrate the application of a range of cutting-edge natural  computing and agent-based methodologies in computational finance and economics.  The applications explored include  option model calibration, financial trend reversal detection, enhanced indexation, algorithmic trading,  corporate payout determination and agent-based modeling of liquidity costs, and trade strategy adaptation.  While describing cutting edge applications, the chapters are  written so that they are accessible to a wide audience. Hence, they should be of interest  to academics, students and practitioners in the fields of computational finance and  economics.  

  5. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H - volume sources and, especially, caesiated H - volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H - ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H - volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H - sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H - beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H - sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H - output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source. (author)

  6. Singularity Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian; Mond, David; Montaldi, James

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Singularities, Bifuraction and Dynamics was held at Warwick in July 1989, as part of a year-long symposium on Singularity Theory and its applications. The proceedings fall into two halves: Volume I mainly on connections with algebraic geometry and volume II on connections with dynamical systems theory, bifurcation theory and applications in the sciences. The papers are original research, stimulated by the symposium and workshop: All have been refereed and none will appear elsewhere. The main topic of volume II is new methods for the study of bifurcations in nonlinear dynamical systems, and applications of these.

  7. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in plates and cylinders. Volume 2. ORVIRT: a finite element program for energy release rate calculations for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional crack models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. The formulation has been implemented in the virtual-crack-extension program ORVIRT (Oak Ridge VIRTual-Crack-Extension). Program ORVIRT performs energy release rate calculations for both 2- and 3-dimensional nonlinear models of crack configurations in engineering structures. Two applications of the ORVIRT program are described. In the first, semielliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loading

  8. Volume I: Select Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Abstract A domain-specific term base may be useful not only as a resource for written and oral translation, but also for Natural Language Processing ( NLP ...Processing ( NLP ) applications, text retrieval (1), document indexing, and other knowledge management tasks. The National Virtual Translation Center (NVTC...8953 terms with their translations was published by M. Green for the NVTC, under the title Iraqi Military English- Arabic Arabic -English Dictionary

  9. Application of histogram analysis for the evaluation of vascular permeability in glioma by the K2 parameter obtained with the dynamic susceptibility contrast method: Comparisons with Ktrans obtained with the dynamic contrast enhance method and cerebral blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Hori, Saeka; Ochi, Tomoko; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Naganawa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    The "K2" value is a factor that represents the vascular permeability of tumors and can be calculated from datasets obtained with the dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) method. The purpose of the current study was to correlate K2 with Ktrans, which is a well-established permeability parameter obtained with the dynamic contrast enhance (DCE) method, and determine the usefulness of K2 for glioma grading with histogram analysis. The subjects were 22 glioma patients (Grade II: 5, III: 6, IV: 11) who underwent DSC studies, including eight patients in which both DSC and DCE studies were performed on separate days within 10days. We performed histogram analysis of regions of interest of the tumors and acquired 20th percentile values for leakage-corrected cerebral blood volume (rCBV20%ile), K2 (K220%ile), and for patients who underwent a DCE study, Ktrans (Ktrans20%ile). We evaluated the correlation between K220%ile and Ktrans20%ile and the statistical difference between rCBV20%ile and K220%ile. We found a statistically significant correlation between K220%ile and Ktrans20%ile (r=0.717, pK220%ile showed a statistically significant (pK2 value calculated from the DSC dataset, which can be obtained with a short acquisition time, showed a correlation with Ktrans obtained with the DCE method and may be useful for glioma grading when analyzed with histogram analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stereological estimation of the mean and variance of nuclear volume from vertical sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1991-01-01

    The application of assumption-free, unbiased stereological techniques for estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vv, from vertical sections of benign and malignant nuclear aggregates in melanocytic skin tumours is described. Combining sampling of nuclei with uniform...... probability in a physical disector and Cavalieri's direct estimator of volume, the unbiased, number-weighted mean nuclear volume, nuclear vN, of the same benign and malignant nuclear populations is also estimated. Having obtained estimates of nuclear volume in both the volume- and number distribution...... of volume, a detailed investigation of nuclear size variability is possible. Benign and malignant nuclear populations show approximately the same relative variability with regard to nuclear volume, and the presented data are compatible with a simple size transformation from the smaller benign nuclei...

  11. Volume de madeira e concentração foliar de nutrientes em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizadas com lodos de esgoto úmido e seco Wood volume and foliar concentration of nutrients in Eucalyptus grandis after wet and dry sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Muller da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, diversos municípios estão construindo estações de tratamento de esgoto (ETEs, e futuramente serão produzidas anualmente milhares de toneladas de lodo para as quais deverá ser dada destinação adequada. O lodo de esgoto tratado (biossólido é o resíduo resultante do tratamento do esgoto urbano, e sua disposição final precisa ser bem planejada devido às implicações sanitárias, ambientais, econômicas e sociais. Apresenta elevado teor de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e poderia ser utilizado como fertilizante em plantios florestais. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na Estação de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (Universidade de São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de três doses (10, 20 e 30 t ha-1 dos lodos de esgoto úmido (torta e seco (granulado, complementados com K e B e aplicados ao solo nas linhas de plantio em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis. Dezoito meses após a implantação das mudas no campo, o volume dos troncos demonstrou aumento significativo (ao redor de 130% no tocante ao crescimento dos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos úmido e seco em relação à testemunha sem aplicação de fertilizante, bem como teve resultado semelhante ao do tratamento com adubo mineral. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com a aplicação dos biossólidos úmido e seco. Com relação à nutrição mineral, foi observado aumento da concentração dos elementos P, Ca e Zn nas folhas com as maiores doses dos biossólidos, e verificou-se efeito inverso de Mn. As concentrações foliares de todos os nutrientes nos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos mantiveram-se dentro dos limites observados usualmente nas plantações comerciais, não havendo sinais de desequilíbrio nutricional.In Brazil, several municipalities are building waste treatment plants and in the future thousands of tons of sewage sludge will be generated. Sewage sludge is the waste left

  12. Applications of combinatorial optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Paschos, Vangelis Th

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial optimization is a multidisciplinary scientific area, lying in the interface of three major scientific domains: mathematics, theoretical computer science and management. The three volumes of the Combinatorial Optimization series aims to cover a wide range of topics in this area. These topics also deal with fundamental notions and approaches as with several classical applications of combinatorial optimization. "Applications of Combinatorial Optimization" is presenting a certain number among the most common and well-known applications of Combinatorial Optimization.

  13. Irradiation of target volumes with concave outlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Neve, W.; Fortan, L.; Derycke, S.; Van Duyse, B.; DE Wagter, C.

    1995-01-01

    A heuristic planning procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution for target volumes with concavities has been investigated. The procedure divides the planning problem into a number of sub-problems each solvable by known methods. By patching together the solutions to the sub-problems, a solution with a predictable dosimetric outcome can be obtained. The procedure can be applied to most 3-dimensional systems. The procedure is described and its applications to the irradiation of neoplasms are discussed. (A.S.)

  14. Solar engineering 1995: Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, W.B.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Claridge, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of the papers presented at the 1995 ASME/JSME/JSES International Solar Energy Conference. The topics of the papers include wind energy, heat pump performance, ground source and solar chemical heat pumps, analysis of measured building energy data, thermal storage, system modeling of buildings, evaluation of the Federal Building energy Efficiency program, sustainable projects, bioconversion, solar chemistry, solar detoxification innovative concepts and industrial applications, solar thermal power systems, DISH/engine power systems, power towers, solar thermal power advanced development, and solar thermal process heating and cooling

  15. Irradiation of target volumes with concave outlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Neve, W; Fortan, L; Derycke, S; Van Duyse, B; DE Wagter, C [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde

    1995-12-01

    A heuristic planning procedure allowing to obtain a 3-dimensional conformal dose distribution for target volumes with concavities has been investigated. The procedure divides the planning problem into a number of sub-problems each solvable by known methods. By patching together the solutions to the sub-problems, a solution with a predictable dosimetric outcome can be obtained. The procedure can be applied to most 3-dimensional systems. The procedure is described and its applications to the irradiation of neoplasms are discussed. (A.S.).

  16. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  17. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…

  18. Determination of clothing microclimate volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein; Hatcher, Kent; Havenith, George

    2005-01-01

    The average air layer thickness between human skin and clothing is an important factor in heat transfer. The trapped volume between skin and clothing is an estimator for everage air layer thickness. Several techniques are available to determine trapped volume. This study investigates the reliability

  19. Technical summary of Groundwater Quality Protection Program at Savannah River Plant. Volume II. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Christensen, E.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report (Volume II) presents representative monitoring data for radioactivity in groundwater at SRP. Four major groups of radioactive waste disposal sites and three minor sites are described. Much of the geohydrological and and other background information given in Volume I is applicable to these sites and is incorporated by reference. Several of the sites that contain mixed chemical and radioactive wastes are discussed in both Volumes I and II. Bulk unirradiated uranium is considered primarily a chemical waste which is addressed in Volume I, but generally not in Volume II

  20. Brain Volume Estimation Enhancement by Morphological Image Processing Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinali R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume estimation of brain is important for many neurological applications. It is necessary in measuring brain growth and changes in brain in normal/ abnormal patients. Thus, accurate brain volume measurement is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for volume quantification due to excellent levels of image resolution and between-tissue contrast. Stereology method is a good method for estimating volume but it requires to segment enough MRI slices and have a good resolution. In this study, it is desired to enhance stereology method for volume estimation of brain using less MRI slices with less resolution. Methods: In this study, a program for calculating volume using stereology method has been introduced. After morphologic method, dilation was applied and the stereology method enhanced. For the evaluation of this method, we used T1-wighted MR images from digital phantom in BrainWeb which had ground truth. Results: The volume of 20 normal brain extracted from BrainWeb, was calculated. The volumes of white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid with given dimension were estimated correctly. Volume calculation from Stereology method in different cases was made. In three cases, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was measured. Case I with T=5, d=5, Case II with T=10, D=10 and Case III with T=20, d=20 (T=slice thickness, d=resolution as stereology parameters. By comparing these results of two methods, it is obvious that RMSE values for our proposed method are smaller than Stereology method. Conclusion: Using morphological operation, dilation allows to enhance the estimation volume method, Stereology. In the case with less MRI slices and less test points, this method works much better compared to Stereology method.

  1. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  2. Evaluation of the Theoretical Geothermal Potential of Inferred Geothermal Reservoirs within the Vicano–Cimino and the Sabatini Volcanic Districts (Central Italy by the Application of the Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cinti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the theoretical geothermal potential of identified unexploited hydrothermal reservoirs within the Vicano–Cimino and Sabatini volcanic districts (Latium region, Italy has been made on the basis of a revised version of the classical volume method. This method is based on the distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 in shallow and deep aquifers to delimit areas of geothermal interest, according to the hypothesis that zones of high CO2 flux, either from soil degassing and dissolved into aquifers, are spatially related to deep hydrothermal reservoirs. On the whole, 664 fluid discharges (cold waters, thermal waters, and bubbling pools have been collected from shallow and deep aquifers in the Vicano–Cimino Volcanic District and the Sabatini Volcanic District for chemical and isotopic composition, in an area of approximately 2800 km2. From this large hydro-geochemical dataset the pCO2 values have been computed and then processed to obtain a contour map of its spatial distribution by using geostatistical techniques (kriging. The map of pCO2 has been used to draw up the boundaries of potentially exploitable geothermal systems within the two volcanic districts, corresponding to the areas where endogenous CO2 raise up to the surface from the deep hydrothermal reservoirs. The overall estimated potential productivities and theoretical minimum and maximum thermal power of the two volcanic districts are of about 45 × 103 t/h and 3681–5594 MWt, respectively. This makes the Vicano–Cimino Volcanic District and the Sabatini Volcanic District very suitable for both direct and indirect exploitation of the geothermal resources, in view of the target to reduce electricity generation from conventional and poorly sustainable energy sources.

  3. Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Bendamustine and its Active Metabolite, γ-Hydroxybendamustine in Small Volume Mice and Dog Plasma and its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study in Mice and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Devaraj V; Suresh, Ponnayyan S; Kumar, Rajnish; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Mullangi, Ramesh; Richter, Wolfgang; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-09-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of bendamustine (BM) and γ-hydroxybendamustine (HBM) in small volume (20 µL) mice and dog plasma using phenacetin as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Both the analytes and IS were extracted from mice and dog plasma using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Chromatography was achieved on Atlantis dC 18 column using an isocratic mobile phase (0.2% formic acid:acetonitrile, 25:75) at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 3.0 min and the elution of BM, HBM and IS occurred at ~1.2, 1.2 and 2.0 min, respectively. A linear response function was established 0.11-518 ng/mL for both the analytes in mice and dog plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the range of 3.46-12.9 and 3.63-8.23%; 1.15-9.00 and 7.86-9.49% for BM and HBM, respectively in mice plasma and 2.15-6.49 and 1.73-13.1%; 4.35-13.9 and 4.33-10.5% for BM and HBM, respectively in dog plasma. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice and dogs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Matsumura

    Full Text Available Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR and normalized pulse volume (NPV, which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG, by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03, but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue.

  6. A short note on the paper of Liu et al. (2012). A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences. Chemical Physics Letters, volume 530, 19 March 2012, pages 107-112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arit, Turkan; Keskin, Burak; Firuzan, Esin; Cavas, Cagin Kandemir; Liu, Liwei; Cavas, Levent

    2018-04-01

    The report entitled "L. Liu, D. Li, F. Bai, A relative Lempel-Ziv complexity: Application to comparing biological sequences, Chem. Phys. Lett. 530 (2012) 107-112" mentions on the powerful construction of phylogenetic trees based on Lempel-Ziv algorithm. On the other hand, the method explained in the paper does not give promising result on the data set on invasive Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean Sea. The phylogenetic trees are obtained by the proposed method of the aforementioned paper in this short note.

  7. Radiobioassays. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents papers on radioimmunoassay. Topics considered include the clinical application of the radioimmunoassay of insulin, the renin-angiotensin system, growth hormone radioimmunoassay, estrogen and progesterone receptor techniques for breast cancer, radioassay in hematology, serum bile acids, the role of gastrin in normal physiology and disease states, tumor markers in the immunodiagnosis of cancer, assays of drugs by immunological methods, radioassay in allergy and immunology, radioimmunoassay in cardiovascular disease, and radioimmunoassay in cardiovascular disease, and radioimmunoassays for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

  8. Volume arc therapy of gynaecological tumours: target volume coverage improvement without dose increase for critical organs; Arctherapie volumique des tumeurs gynecologiques: amelioration de la couverture du volume cible sans augmentation de la dose aux organes critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducteil, A.; Kerr, C.; Idri, K.; Fenoglietto, P.; Vieillot, S.; Ailleres, N.; Dubois, J.B.; Azria, D. [CRLC Val-d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the application of conventional intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and volume arc-therapy (RapidArc) for the treatment of cervical cancers, with respect to conventional radiotherapy. Dosimetric plans associated with each of these techniques have been compared. Dose-volume histograms of these three plans have also been compared for the previsional target volume (PTV), organs at risk, and sane tissue. IMCT techniques are equivalent in terms of sparing of organs at risk, and improve target volume coverage with respect to conventional radiotherapy. Arc-therapy reduces significantly treatment duration. Short communication

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter E, Appendix E1, Chapter L, Appendix L1: Volume 12, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility.

  10. Connection between encounter volume and diffusivity in geophysical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypina, Irina I.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Pratt, Larry J.

    2018-04-01

    Trajectory encounter volume - the volume of fluid that passes close to a reference fluid parcel over some time interval - has been recently introduced as a measure of mixing potential of a flow. Diffusivity is the most commonly used characteristic of turbulent diffusion. We derive the analytical relationship between the encounter volume and diffusivity under the assumption of an isotropic random walk, i.e., diffusive motion, in one and two dimensions. We apply the derived formulas to produce maps of encounter volume and the corresponding diffusivity in the Gulf Stream region of the North Atlantic based on satellite altimetry, and discuss the mixing properties of Gulf Stream rings. Advantages offered by the derived formula for estimating diffusivity from oceanographic data are discussed, as well as applications to other disciplines.

  11. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2 Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Günter, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2: Materials is the second of three volumes within the Springer Series in Optical Sciences. The book gives a comprehensive review of the most important photorefractive materials and discusses the physical properties of organic and inorganic crystals as well as poled polymers. In this volume, photorefractive effects have been investigated at wavelengths covering the UV, visible and near infrared. Researchers in the field and graduate students of solid-state physics and engineering will gain a thorough understanding of the properties of materials in photorefractive applications. The other two volumes are: Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1: Basic Effects. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3: Applications.

  12. Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Jue, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume I: Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Editor Thomas Jue, PhD In Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics, prominent professors have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Mathematical Methods in Biophysics Quantum Mechanics Basic to Biophysical Methods Computational Modeling of Receptor–Ligand Binding and Cellular Signaling Processes Fluorescence Spectroscopy Elec...

  13. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 2. Final report and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is comprised of five volumes. The volume presents the study conclusions, summarizes the methodology used (more detail is found in Volume 3), discusses four case study applications of the model, and contains profiles of coastal communities in an Appendix.

  14. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  15. Testicular Volume: Size Does Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lobo, Alexander; Segovia Fuentes, Javier; Cerpa Reyes, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Testicular volume is critical for semen production and, consequently, for fertility. Hence the importance of knowing the normal size ranges and the different methods for calculating size, in order to classify patients at risk and refer them for appropriate management. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic method for the evaluation of testicular pathology, and it is also the best tool for estimating the volume of both testicles, bearing in mind that a testicular volume below 15 cc results in fertility problems. Although there are many causes of infertility, varicocele is undoubtedly the most important of all, because of its frequency and because it is amenable to curative surgical treatment.

  16. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  17. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  18. Wavelets a tutorial in theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    Wavelets: A Tutorial in Theory and Applications is the second volume in the new series WAVELET ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATIONS. As a companion to the first volume in this series, this volume covers several of the most important areas in wavelets, ranging from the development of the basic theory such as construction and analysis of wavelet bases to an introduction of some of the key applications, including Mallat's local wavelet maxima technique in second generation image coding. A fairly extensive bibliography is also included in this volume.Key Features* Covers several of the

  19. Power sources - Volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J [ed.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers from the major battery research and development centers of the world constitute the proceedings. The largest group of these papers is dedicated to the lithium systems which are becoming increasingly important in contemporary battery technology. Notable ones deal with rechargeable lithium systems and the propulsion of miniature aircraft for covert operational use using high energy density lithium systems. The lead acid battery industry has also contributed nine papers which again reflect the advancing front of technology. Fully-sealed units of high specific energy are now readily achievable. However, it is interesting to note that the classical tubular positive electrode is still considered sufficiently important to warrant the first paper of the Conference Proceedings. There are a few papers concerned with the zinc electrode in alkali. However, one paper from this group is devoted to the silver oxide electrode and one deals with separators for this cell. This underlines the search for new methods to operate with the zinc electrode commercially, that is, in addition to the primary applications. Only one paper contains the words fuel cell in the title and this reflects the disenchantment of the industry with the fuel cell concept. The amount of research in this area has been severely restricted although it is clear that spin-off applications such as a paper devoted to the storage of hydrogen using the silver-hydrogen system still continue to benefit from the technique established during what might be called the fuel-cell dream period. A final paper describes the only thermal battery contribution.

  20. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  1. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  2. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  3. The volume of fluid method in spherical coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.M.C.; Janse, A.M.C.; Dijk, P.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The volume of fluid (VOF) method is a numerical technique to track the developing free surfaces of liquids in motion. This method can, for example, be applied to compute the liquid flow patterns in a rotating cone reactor. For this application a spherical coordinate system is most suited. The novel

  4. Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    different service models—infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service ( SaaS )—that target system... SaaS Full-fledged applications Low Google Gmail, Microsoft Office 365, Facebook 126 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL n VOLUME 22, NUMBER 1, 2016 SECURE AND

  5. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  6. Correlation determination for the free air chamber volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, R.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2017-01-01

    Ionization chambers are, in principle, the simplest gaseous detectors. Its normal operation is based on the all charges collection created by gas volume direct ionization, through the application of an electric field. In order to guarantee the measurements’ traceability obtained during the comparison with the BIPM, new tests were performed. (author)

  7. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, Volume 5, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.

    This volume of the annual review includes introductory remarks by G. Richard Tucker and these papers: "Current Issues in Bilingualism: An Update of Directions in Research" (Braj B. Kachru); "Psycholinguistics: Application. The Writing System as a Native Language for the Deaf" (Danny D. Steinberg); "Sociolinguistics: Theory" (Monica Heller);…

  8. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  9. Human gallbladder pressure and volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Højgaard, L; Grønvall, S

    1996-01-01

    volume with only slight changes in intraluminal pressure (n = 4). Except for the zero drift, this piece of equipment seemed to fulfil the requirements of being able to measure pressure in the GB. In vivo measurements showed a good clinical reproducibility of the method, and also that respiration...... influenced by respiration (n = 8) and the pressure seems to be higher in the sitting position than in the supine position (n = 5). Cystic duct opening pressure was 10.4, 11.2 and 16.8 mmHg (n = 3). Pressure-volume responses showed that the GB up to a certain volume could accommodate increases in intraluminal...... and patient posture influenced the pressure measurements. Further, a GB pressure-volume relationship was demonstrated, and the possibility of a cystic duct opening pressure was described....

  10. Energy and Environment : volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, Michel; SAMARAS, Zissis; JACOB, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This book is part of a set of six books called the 'Research for Innovative Transports' set. This collection presents an update of the latest academic and applied research, case studies, best practices and user perspectives on transport carried out in Europe and worldwide. The volumes are made up of a selection of the best papers presented at TRA2014. In this volume 1, recent research works are reported around the triptych : 'transport, energy and environment', which demonstrates that vehicl...

  11. Development and application of a parallel finite volume method for flow simulation on unstructured grids with local refinement; Entwicklung und Anwendung eines parallelen Finite-Volumen-Verfahrens zur Stroemungssimulation auf unstrukturierten Gittern mit lokaler Verfeinerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, V.

    1997-11-01

    A finite vomume method for calculation of steady and unsteady flow on unstructured grids is parallelized by local spatial and time decomposition. In the first case, a parallel variant of the conjugated gradient method with multiple local preconditioning is formulated and analyzed. The method is tested for simple applications (e.g. flow around a cylinder). The second part of the publication describes a direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow around a sphere at a Reynolds number of 5000 (based on flow velocity and sphere diameter). Current and Reynolds-averaged flow fields are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on coordinate-independent representation of the anisotropy ratios of the Reynolds tensor and dissipation tensor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein Finite-Volumen-Verfahren fuer die Berechnung stationaerer und instationaerer Stroemungen auf unstrukturierten Netzen wird durch Gebietszerlegung im Raum und Zeit parallelisiert. Fuer die raeumliche Zerlegung wird eine parallele Variante der konjugierten Gradienten Methode mit mehrfacher, lokaler Vorkonditionierung formuliert und analysiert. Anhand einfacher Anwendungsbeispiele (Zylinderumstroemung, deckelgetriebene Nischenstroemung) wird das entwickelte Gesamtverfahren getestet und seine Effizienz bestimmt. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit beschreibt eine direkte numerische Simulation der turbulenten Kugelumstroemung bei einer Reynolds-Zahl von 5 000 (basierend auf Anstroemgeschwindigkeit und Kugeldurchmesser). In der Ergebnisauswertung werden augenblickliche und Reynolds-gemittelte Stroemungsfelder diskutiert und besonderer Wert auf eine koordinatenunabhaengige Darstellung der Anisotropieverhaeltnisse des Reynolds-Tensors und des Dissipationstensors gelegt. (orig.)

  12. Natural look in volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  13. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  14. Refresher Course on Geomatic Applications for Sustainable Water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 6. Refresher Course on Geomatic Applications for Sustainable Water Resources and Environment. Information and Announcements Volume 14 Issue 6 June 2009 pp 630-630 ...

  15. Handbook of polymer nanocomposites processing, performance and application

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri; Kar, Kamal K; Pandey, Jitendra; Rana, Sravendra; Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakagaito, Antonio; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    Volume A forms one volume of a Handbook about Polymer Nanocomposites. In some 20 chapters the preparation, architecture, characterisation, properties and application of polymer nanocomposites are discussed by experts in their respective fields.

  16. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  17. Impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and target volumes in Intracavitary Brachytherapy (ICBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourya, Ankur; Singh, Gaganpreet; Kumar, Vivek; Oinam, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to analyze the impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and Target volumes in intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). To quantify the changes in dose-volume histogram parameters due to systematic errors in applicator reconstruction of brachytherapy planning, known errors in catheter reconstructions have to be introduced in applicator coordinate system

  18. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products-- Part 2: Volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Cowie; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Theodore H. Wegner; Jo Anne Shatkin

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose has enormous potential to provide an important materials platform in numerous product sectors. This study builds on previous work by the same authors in which likely high-volume, low-volume, and novel applications for cellulosic nanomaterials were identified. In particular, this study creates a transparent methodology and estimates the potential annual...

  19. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  20. Some aspects of free volume studies in molecular substances using positron annihilation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Gustov, V.W.; Kevdina, I.B.; Suzuki, T.; Djourelov, N.; Shimazu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is accepted now as a method for the studies of elementary free volumes (free volume holes) in solids, in polymers in particular. The aim of this paper is to discuss some problems, the difficulties on the way of this application and to illustrate them by several examples obtained by the authors. (author)

  1. Volume dose of organs at risk in the irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Yoshio; Tanaka, Shinichi; Miura, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Absorbed dose of organs at risk in the 50% irradiated volume needs to be carefully monitored because there is high risk of radiation injury. This paper reports on the histogram of threedimensional volume dose of organs at risk, which is obtained by computer calculation of CT scans. In order to obtain this histogram, CT is first performed in the irradiation field. The dose in each pixel is then examined by the computer as to each slice. After the pixels of all slices in the organ at risk of the irradiated field are classified according to the doses, the number of pixels in the same dose class is counted. The result is expressed in a histogram. The histogram can show the differences of influence to organs at risk given by various radiation treatment techniques. Total volume dose of organs at risk after radiotherapy can also be obtained by integration of each dose of different treatment techniques. (author)

  2. Efficient transmission of compressed data for remote volume visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2006-09-01

    One of the goals of telemedicine is to enable remote visualization and browsing of medical volumes. There is a need to employ scalable compression schemes and efficient client-server models to obtain interactivity and an enhanced viewing experience. First, we present a scheme that uses JPEG2000 and JPIP (JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol) to transmit data in a multi-resolution and progressive fashion. The server exploits the spatial locality offered by the wavelet transform and packet indexing information to transmit, in so far as possible, compressed volume data relevant to the clients query. Once the client identifies its volume of interest (VOI), the volume is refined progressively within the VOI from an initial lossy to a final lossless representation. Contextual background information can also be made available having quality fading away from the VOI. Second, we present a prioritization that enables the client to progressively visualize scene content from a compressed file. In our specific example, the client is able to make requests to progressively receive data corresponding to any tissue type. The server is now capable of reordering the same compressed data file on the fly to serve data packets prioritized as per the client's request. Lastly, we describe the effect of compression parameters on compression ratio, decoding times and interactivity. We also present suggestions for optimizing JPEG2000 for remote volume visualization and volume browsing applications. The resulting system is ideally suited for client-server applications with the server maintaining the compressed volume data, to be browsed by a client with a low bandwidth constraint.

  3. Brookhaven National Laboratory 2008 Site Environment Report Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2009-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in this volume in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the full report.

  4. Stereolithographic volume evaluation of healing and shaping after rhinoplasty operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlidede, Soner; Turgut, Gürsel; Gönen, Emre; Kayali, Mahmut Ulvi; Baş, Lütfü

    2009-07-01

    Nasal edema and volume changes are unavoidable processes during the healing period after rhinoplasty. Various applications were reported regarding the prevention of early edema; however, the literature shows no study focused on the course of the nasal edema and volume changes up-to-date. We aimed to study the nasal volume changes during the first year of postoperative healing period and to form a recovery and volume change diagram with the obtained data. We prepared standard frames and nasal molds of 7 rhinoplasty patients at regular time intervals (preoperative period and at the postoperative 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, and 52nd weeks). Plaster nasal models were created by using these molds. Volumes of models were measured by computed tomographic scanning and three-dimensional image processing programs. According to our results, the nasal edema reaches its maximum level at the postoperative fourth week and then rapidly decreases until its minimum level at the eighth week. In contrast with the general opinion, the nasal volume begins to increase smoothly reaching to a level minimally below the preoperative value by the end of the first year.

  5. Liquid volume monitoring based on ultrasonic sensor and Arduino microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husni, M.; Siahaan, D. O.; Ciptaningtyas, H. T.; Studiawan, H.; Aliarham, Y. P.

    2016-04-01

    Incident of oil leakage and theft in oil tank often happens. To prevent it, the liquid volume insides the tank needs to be monitored continuously. Aim of the study is to calculate the liquid volume inside oil tank on any road condition and send the volume data and location data to the user. This research use some ultrasonic sensors (to monitor the fluid height), Bluetooth modules (to sent data from the sensors to the Arduino microcontroller), Arduino Microcontroller (to calculate the liquid volume), and also GPS/GPRS/GSM Shield module (to get location of vehicle and sent the data to the Server). The experimental results show that the accuracy rate of monitoring liquid volume inside tanker while the vehicle is in the flat road is 99.33% and the one while the vehicle is in the road with elevation angle is 84%. Thus, this system can be used to monitor the tanker position and the liquid volume in any road position continuously via web application to prevent illegal theft.

  6. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  7. Morphological pyramids in multiresolution MIP rendering of large volume data : Survey and new results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    We survey and extend nonlinear signal decompositions based on morphological pyramids, and their application to multiresolution maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering with progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The structure of the resulting multiresolution rendering

  8. Right-Turn Traffic Volume Adjustments in Traffic Signal Warrant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To accomplish this research, a comprehensive literature review of existing guidelines and findings based on national and local studies was conducted. Ultimately, guidelines for consistent application for adjusting right-turn traffic volumes were deve...

  9. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sergi; Neipp, Cristian; Estepa, Luis A.; Ortuño, Manuel; Márquez, Andrés; Francés, Jorge; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW) or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW). The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  10. Volume Holograms in Photopolymers: Comparison between Analytical and Rigorous Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Beléndez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the concept of volume holography has led to an incredibly great amount of scientific research and technological applications. One of these applications is the use of volume holograms as optical memories, and in particular, the use of a photosensitive medium like a photopolymeric material to record information in all its volume. In this work we analyze the applicability of Kogelnik’s Coupled Wave theory to the study of volume holograms recorded in photopolymers. Some of the theoretical models in the literature describing the mechanism of hologram formation in photopolymer materials use Kogelnik’s theory to analyze the gratings recorded in photopolymeric materials. If Kogelnik’s theory cannot be applied is necessary to use a more general Coupled Wave theory (CW or the Rigorous Coupled Wave theory (RCW. The RCW does not incorporate any approximation and thus, since it is rigorous, permits judging the accurateness of the approximations included in Kogelnik’s and CW theories. In this article, a comparison between the predictions of the three theories for phase transmission diffraction gratings is carried out. We have demonstrated the agreement in the prediction of CW and RCW and the validity of Kogelnik’s theory only for gratings with spatial frequencies higher than 500 lines/mm for the usual values of the refractive index modulations obtained in photopolymers.

  11. Effect of water volume based on water absorption and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prameswari, I. K.; Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-05-01

    Tapioca starch application in bread processing change water absorption level by the dough, while sufficient mixing time makes the optimal water absorption. This research aims to determine the effect of variations in water volume and mixing time on physical properties of tapioca starch – wheat composite bread and the best method for the composite bread processing. This research used Complete Randomized Factorial Design (CRFD) with two factors: variations of water volume (111,8 ml, 117,4 ml, 123 ml) and mixing time (16 minutes, 17 minutes 36 seconds, 19 minutes 12 seconds). The result showed that water volume significantly affected on dough volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, and crust thickness. Mixing time significantly affected on dough volume and specific volume, bread volume and specific volume, baking expansion, bread height, and crust thickness. While the combination of water volume and mixing time significantly affected for all physical properties parameters except crust thickness.

  12. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  13. Activity report 1990-1992 and proceedings. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Rosa, D.; Waniek, L.; Suhadolc, P.

    1993-01-01

    A report of the European Seismological Commission (ESC) on 1990-1992 activities and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the ESC are presented in two volumes. Volume II covers the following topics: study of seismic sound, seismotectonic analysis, deep seismic sounding, the three-dimensional structure of the European lithosphere-asthenosphere system, complexity in earthquake occurrence, earthquake hazard, strong and weak earthquake ground motions, macroseismology, microzonation, and applications in earthquake engineering. One paper dealing with the connection between seismicity and the CO 2 - 222 Rn content in spring water has been inputted to INIS. (Z.S.)

  14. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Volume 2, Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in Vol. 1 of this Standard. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While Vol. 1 is generally applicable in that requirements there apply to a wide range of fusion facilities, this volume is concerned mainly with large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This volume is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment

  15. Recurring events - Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    revealed, in spite of long histories of gathering and disseminating reports about these events. Conclusion 2: Recurring events have a wide range of risk significance, from low (or negligible) up to high. Conclusion 3: There appears to be deficiencies in the evaluation and application of lessons learned from reports on operating experience. Conclusion 4: Corrective actions to minimize recurring events are straightforward and there is no reason not to implement them at NPPs. Conclusion 5: CSNI WGOE needs to consider additional efforts to communicate results from its review and analysis of operating events. Generally, it can be concluded that recurrence will never be totally avoidable. But efforts can be taken to minimize recurrence, especially if safety significant consequences are likely to result. These efforts should be made by all participants by using the national, international, utility, vendors, and regulatory body experience feedback processes

  16. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  17. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  18. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  19. Radiographic determination of urinary bladder volume and residual urine volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumair, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of a long study the author has tested most of the methods for determination of urinary bladder volume. A radiographic method which can state bladder volume exactly in cc's is attainable only with great time and effort. In the author's experience, however, it is possible, by means of a pattern in connection with a IVP, to estimate residual urine volume from a post-void picture of the bladder with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. An account is given of the production of this pattern and of two relatively simple calculations for residual volume based on AP and lateral views of circular- and ellipsoid-shaped bladders. Also discussed is the radiation exposure which varies with the radiographic methods used. In male patients, the radiation exposure appears to be negligible, especially when the testicles are protected by a radiation shield. In female patients - which make up only a small fraction of all patients -, radiation exposure is higher but must be accepted. (orig./MG) [de

  20. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling... the contract or permit provides for the determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has...